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designing heat exchangers

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You are on page 1of 107

Type service

Double pipe exchanger Heating and cooling

Shell and tube exchanger All applications

Plate heat exchanger

Plate-fin exchanger Heating and cooling

Spiral heat exchanger

Air cooled Cooler and condensers

Direct contact Cooling and quenching

Agitated vessel Heating and cooling

2 Fired heaters Heating 2/1/2016

Some more terminology

Exchanger: heat exchanged between two process streams

3 2/1/2016

BASIC THEORY

General equation for heat transfer across a surface is

A = heat-transfer area, m2

Q UATm

4 2/1/2016

Geometry

Resistances to outside

heat transfer

inside

5 2/1/2016

TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS

Uo=overall coefficient on outside area of tube, W/m2 oC

6 2/1/2016

OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT

The overall coefficient is reciprocal of the overall resistance

resistances. Individual resistance is the reciprocal of

individual HTC.

do

do ln

1 1 1 di d o 1 d o 1

Uo ho hod 2k w di hid di hi

7 2/1/2016

COMMENTS

Magnitude of hs depends on:

condensation, etc.)

Physical properties (density, heat capacity, viscosity, thermal

conductivity)

Fluid flow rates

8 2/1/2016

Typical design procedure

1-Define the duty: 2- Physical properties required: density,

Q, Fs, Ts viscosity, thermal conductivity

6-Calculate area OHTC (U) exchanger

required Q UATm

7-Exchanger

layout

9-Calculate the OHTC 8-hi and ho

Uc U 1 1 1 d ln dd d o

o

i o 1 do 1

Uo ho hod 2k w d i hid d i hi

11-Optimise: repeat steps 4-10

10-Calculate p

9 2/1/2016

To select a trial value of U

Select a trial Value of U for given fluids.

10 2/1/2016

Fouling or dirt factor

What?

Deposit of nonmetallic material on heat

transfer surface is fouling

Consequences

Heat transfer resistance is increased which

require over design of exchanger

11 2/1/2016

Shell & Tube Exchangers

Advantages

Large surface area per unit volume

Easy cleaning

12 2/1/2016

Selecting TEMA Type Heat Exchangers

Tubular Exchange Manufacturers Association

TEMA C - General Service

TEMA B - Chemical Service

TEMA R - Refinery Service

TEMA R is the most restrictive and TEMA C is the least stringent.

TEMA B and TEMA R are very similar in scope.

TEMA R requires a greater minimum thickness for some components.

13 2/1/2016

Straight Tube, Fixed Tube-sheet, Type BEM, AEM,

NEN, Etc.

packed or gasketed joints on the shell side.

The tube-sheet is welded to the shell and the heads are bolted to the

tube-sheet.

On the NEN heat exchanger, the shell and the head is welded to the

tube-sheet.

Typically, a cover plate design is provided to facilitate tube cleaning.

This TEMA category, especially the NEN, it is the lowest cost TEMA

design per square foot of heat transfer surface.

14 2/1/2016

Advantages

Less costly than removable bundle designs

Provides maximum amount of surface for a given shell and tube diameter

Provides for single and multiple tube passes to assure proper velocity

May be interchangeable with other manufacturers of the same TEMA type

Limitations

Shell side can be cleaned only by chemical methods

No provision to allow for differential thermal expansion, must use an

expansion joint

Applications

Oil Coolers, Liquid to Liquid, Vapor condensers, reboilers, gas coolers

Generally, more viscous and warmer fluids flow through the shell

Corrosive or high fouling fluids should flow inside the tubes

15 2/1/2016

Removable Bundle, Externally Sealed Floating Tube-sheet,

Type OP, AEW, BEW

This design allows for the removal, inspection and cleaning of the shell circuit

and shell interior. Special floating tube-sheet prevents intermixing of

fluids. In most cases, straight tube design is more economical than U-tube

designs.

Advantages

Floating tube-sheet allows for differential thermal expansion between the

Shell and the tube bundle.

Shell circuit can be inspected and steam or mechanically cleaned

The tube bundle can be repaired or replaced without disturbing shell pipe

Less costly than TEMA type BEP or BES which has internal floating head

Maximum surface for a given shell diameter for removable bundle design

Tubes can be cleaned in AEW models without removing

16 2/1/2016

Limitations

Fluids in both the shell and tube circuits must be nonvolatile, non-toxic

Tube side passes limited to single or two pass design

All tubes are attached to two tube-sheets. Tubes cannot expand

independently so that large thermal shock applications should be

avoided

Packing materials produce limits on design pressure and temperature

Applications

Intercoolers and after-coolers, air inside the tubes

Coolers with water inside the tubes

Jacket water coolers or other high differential temperature duty

Place hot side fluid through the shell with entry nearest the front end

17 2/1/2016

Removable Bundle, Outside Packed Head, Type

BEP, AEP, Etc

This design allows for the easy removal, inspection and cleaning

of the shell circuit and shell interior without removing the

floating head cover. Special floating tube-sheet prevents

intermixing of fluids. In most cases, straight tube removable

design is more costly than U-tube designs.

18 2/1/2016

Advantages

Floating tube-sheet allows for differential thermal expansion between

the shell and the tube bundle.

Shell circuit can be inspected and steam cleaned. If the tube bundle has a

square tube pitch, tubes can be mechanically cleaned by passing a brush

between rows of tubes.

The tube bundle can be repaired or replaced without disturbing shell

piping

On AEP design, tubes can be serviced without disturbing tubeside piping

Less costly than TEMA type BES or BET designs

Only shell fluids are exposed to packing. Toxic or volatile fluids can be

cooled in the tubeside circuit

Provides large bundle entrance area, reducing the need for entrance

domes for proper fluid distribution

19 2/1/2016

Limitations

Shell fluids limited to non volatile, non toxic materials

Packing limits shell side design temperature and pressure

All tubes are attached to two tube-sheets. Tubes cannot expand

independently so that large thermal shock applications should be

avoided

Less surface per given shell and tube diameter than AEW or BEW

Applications

Flammable or toxic liquids in the tube circuit

Good for high fouling liquids in the tube circuit

20 2/1/2016

Removable Bundle, Internal Split Ring

Floating Head, Type AES, BES, Etc. -

Ideal for applications requiring frequent tube bundle removal for

inspection and cleaning. Uses straight-tube design suitable for

large differential temperatures between the shell and tube fluids.

More forgiving to thermal shock than AEW or BEW designs.

Suitable for cooling volatile or toxic fluids.

21 2/1/2016

Advantages

Floating head design allows for differential thermal expansion between the shell

and the tube bundle.

Shell circuit can be inspected and steam cleaned. If it has a square tube layout,

tubes can be mechanically cleaned

Higher surface per given shell and tube diameter than pull-through designs such

as AET, BET, etc.

Provides multi-pass tube circuit arrangement.

Limitations

Shell cover, split ring and floating head cover must be removed to remove the tube

bundle, results in higher maintenance cost than pull-through

More costly per square foot of surface than fixed tube sheet or U-tube designs

Applications

Chemical processing applications for toxic fluids

Special intercoolers and after-coolers

Removable Bundle, Pull-Through Floating Head, Type AET,

BET, etc.

Ideal for applications requiring frequent tube bundle removal for

inspection and cleaning as the floating head is bolted directly to the

floating tube-sheet. This prevents having to remove the floating head

in order to pull the tube bundle.

Advantages

Floating head design allows for differential thermal expansion

between the shell and the tube bundle.

Shell circuit can be inspected and steam or mechanically cleaned

Provides large bundle entrance area for proper fluid distribution

Provides multi-pass tube circuit arrangement.

Suitable for toxic or volatile fluid cooling

23 2/1/2016

Limitations

For a given set of conditions, this TEMA style is the most expensive

design

Less surface per given shell and tube diameter than other

removable designs

Applications

Chemical processing applications for toxic fluids

Hydrocarbon fluid condensers

General industrial applications requiring frequent cleaning

24 2/1/2016

Removable Bundle, U-Tube, Type BEU,

AEU, Etc.

maximum thermal expansion capability. Because each tube can

expand and contract independently, this design is suitable for

larger thermal shock applications. While the AEM and AEW are

the least expensive, U-tube bundles are an economical TEMA

design.

25 2/1/2016

Advantages

U-tube design allows for differential thermal expansion between the shell and the tube

bundle as well as for individual tubes.

Shell circuit can be inspected and steam or mechanically cleaned

Less costly than floating head or packed floating head designs

Provides multi-pass tube circuit arrangement.

Capable of withstanding thermal shock applications.

Bundle can be removed from one end for cleaning or replacement

Limitations

Because of u-bend, tubes can be cleaned only by chemical means

Because of U-tube nesting, individual tubes are difficult to replace

No single tube pass or true countercurrent flow is possible

Tube wall thickness at the U-bend is thinner than at straight portion of tubes

Draining of tube circuit is difficult when mounted with the vertical position

With the head side up.

Applications

Oil, chemical and water heating applications

Excellent in steam to liquid applications

26 2/1/2016

TUBES DIMENSIONS

Range: 16 mm to 50 mm

27 2/1/2016

TUBE ARRANGEMENTS

A. Equilateral triangular P1

B. Square

C. Rotated square P1

A & C give higher P.D.

C is for fouling liquids(Easy mechanical cleaning)

Tube pitch=1.25OD

28 2/1/2016

TUBE SIDE PASSES

One tube pass

29 2/1/2016

TUBE SHEET LAYOUT

Tube bundle diameter depends on:

Number of tubes

Nt=number of tubes

Db=bundle diameter, mm

30 2/1/2016

1 / n1

Nt

Db d o

K1

31 2/1/2016

Baffles

Purpose:

32 2/1/2016

Mean Temperature Difference

T1 T1

Temperature

t2 shell

T2 t2 T2

t1 t1

tubes

Heat transferred

Heat transferred T2

t2

T2

t2 t1

t1 T1 T1

Tlm

T1 t2 T2 t1 Tlm

T1 t1 T2 t2

T t T t

ln 1 2 ln 1 1

T2 t1 T2 t 2

Counter-current Co-current

33 2/1/2016

LMTD

tm Ft tlm

Ft f ( R, S )

T1 T2 t2 t1

R ,S

t2 t1 T1 t1

34 2/1/2016

R = (ms X CP,f ,s / mt X CP,f,t)

35 2/1/2016

The following assumptions are made in the derivation of the

temperature correction factor Ft, in addition to those made for the

calculation of the log mean temperature difference:

2. A constant overall heat-transfer coefficient in each pass.

3. The temperature of the shell-side fluid in any pass is constant

across any cross-section.

4. There is no leakage of fluid between shell passes

36 2/1/2016

Design Considerations: STE Fluid

Allocation: Shell Or Tubes

Where no phase change occurs,

Corrosion

Fouling

Fluid Temperatures

Operating pressure

Pressure drop

Viscosity

Stream flow rates

37 2/1/2016

Corrosion

to the tube-side. This will reduce the cost of

expensive alloy or clad components.

38 2/1/2016

Fouling

The fluid that has the greatest tendency to foul the heat-

transfer surfaces should be placed in the tubes.

velocity,

fouling.

Also, the tubes will be easier to clean.

39 2/1/2016

Fluid Temperatures

If the temperatures are high enough to require the use of

special alloys placing the higher temperature fluid in the

tubes will reduce the overall cost.

At moderate temperatures, placing the hotter fluid in the

tubes will reduce the shell surface temperatures, and

hence the need for lagging to reduce heat loss, or for

safety reasons,

40 2/1/2016

Operating Pressure

tube-side. High-pressure tubes will be cheaper than a

high-pressure shell.

41 2/1/2016

Pressure Drop

coefficients will be obtained on the tube-side than the

shell-side, and fluid with the lowest allowable pressure

drop should be allocated to the tube-side.

42 2/1/2016

Viscosity

Generally, a higher heat-transfer coefficient will be obtained by

allocating the more viscous material to the shell-side, providing the

flow is turbulent. The critical Reynolds number for turbulent flow

in the shell is in the region of 200. If turbulent flow cannot be

achieved in the shell it is better to place the fluid in the tubes, as the

tube-side heat-transfer coefficient can be predicted with more

certainty.

43 2/1/2016

Stream Flow Rates

shell-side will normally give the most economical

design.

44 2/1/2016

Design Considerations: STE Fluid Velocities

Liquids Vapors

Tube side Vacuum

Process fluids 50-70 m/s

1-2 m/s Atmospheric pressure

4 m/s maximum 10-30 m/s

Water

1.5-2.5 m/s

Shell side

0.3-1 m/s

45 2/1/2016

PRESSURE DROP

Liquids Gas and vapours

High vacuum

Viscosity <1 mN s/m2

p = 0.4-0.8 kN/m2

p = 35 kN/m2

Medium vacuum

Viscosity is 1 to 10

p = 0.1 x absolute pressure

mN s/m2 1 to 2 bar

p = 50-70 kN/m2 p = 0.5 x system gauge

pressure

Above 10 bar

p = 0.1 x system gauge pressure

46 2/1/2016

Tube-side Heat-transfer Coefficient And

Pressure Drop (Single Phase)

Heat transfer

Turbulent flow

Heat-transfer data for turbulent flow inside conduits of uniform

cross-section are correlated by an equation of the form:

47 2/1/2016

where

perimeter )

48

= di for tubes, 2/1/2016

ut = fluid velocity, m/s,

49 2/1/2016

Now,

a = 0.8.

b = 0.3 for cooling

= 0.4 for heating.

c = 0.14 for flow in tubes.

50 2/1/2016

A general equation that can be used for exchanger

design is:

= 0.023 for non-viscous liquids,

= 0.027 for viscous liquids.

51 2/1/2016

Butterworth (1977) gives the following equation,

(hi/tCP)

And E = 0.0225exp(-0.0225(ln Pr)2)

This equation is applicable at Reynolds numbers

greater than 10,000

52 2/1/2016

Hydraulic Mean Diameter

For turbulent flow in a duct of non-circular cross-section,

the hydraulic mean diameter may be used in place of the pipe diameter

and the formulae for circular pipes can then be applied without

introducing a large error. This method of approach is entirely

empirical.

the hydraulic mean radius rH. Hydraulic mean radius is defined as the

flow cross-sectional area divided by the wetted perimeter:

53 2/1/2016

Some examples are given.

For circular pipe:

DH = 4(/4)D2 / ( D) = D

For an annulus of outer diameter Do and inner diameter Di :

DH = 4 ( ( Do2 /4) - ( Di2 /4) ) / ( (Do + Di) ) = (Do2 - Di2)

/ (Do + Di) = Do - Di

For a duct of rectangular cross-section Da by Db :

DH = 4 DaDb / ( 2(Da + Db) = 2DaDb / (Da + Db)

For a duct of square cross-section of size Da :

DH = 4 Da2 / (4Da) = Da

For laminar flow this method is not applicable, and exact expressions

relating the pressure drop to the velocity can be obtained for ducts

of certain shapes only.

54 2/1/2016

Laminar flow

Below a Reynolds number of about 2000 the flow in pipes will be

laminar.

Providing the natural convection effects are small, which will

normally be so in forced convection, to estimate the film heat-

transfer coefficient given equation will be used:

If the Nusselt number given by above equation is less than 3.5, it

should be taken as 3.5.

55 2/1/2016

Heat-transfer factor, jh:

It is often convenient to correlate heat-transfer data in terms

of a heat transfer jh factor.

The heat-transfer factor is defined by:

The use of the jh factor enables data for laminar and turbulent flow

to be represented on the same graph.

56 2/1/2016

57 2/1/2016

Equation can be rearranged to a more convenient form:

59 2/1/2016

Tube-side pressure drop

There are two major sources of pressure loss on the tube-side of a

shell and tube exchanger:

The friction loss in the tubes and

The losses due to the sudden contraction and expansion

flow reversals that the fluid experiences in flow through the tube

arrangement.

The tube friction loss can be calculated using the familiar equations

for pressure-drop loss in pipes. (see fluid mechanics).

60 2/1/2016

The basic equation for isothermal flow in pipes

(constant temperature) is:

effective pipe length.

61 2/1/2016

The flow in a heat exchanger will clearly not be

isothermal, and this is allowed for by including

an empirical correction factor to account for

the change in physical properties with

temperature.

Normally only the change in viscosity is considered:

62 2/1/2016

63 2/1/2016

The pressure losses due to contraction at the tube inlets, expansion at

the exits, and flow reversal in the headers, can be a significant part of

the total tube-side pressure drop.

There is no entirely satisfactory method for estimating these losses.

Kern (1950) suggests adding four velocity heads per pass.

Frank (1978) considers this to be too high, and recommends 2.5

velocity heads.

Butterworth (1978) suggests 1.8.

Lord et al. (1970) take the loss per pass as equivalent to a length of

tube equal to 300 tube diameters for straight tubes, and 200 for U-

tubes; whereas

Evans (1980) appears to add only 67 tube diameters per pass.

64 2/1/2016

The loss in terms of velocity heads can be estimated by counting

the number of flow contractions, expansions and reversals, and

using the factors for pipe fittings to estimate the number of

velocity heads lost.

For two tube passes, there will be two contractions, two

expansions and one flow reversal.

The head loss for each of these effects is: contraction 0.5,

expansion 1.0, 180 bend 1.5; so for two passes the maximum

loss will be

65 2/1/2016

From this, it appears that Frank's recommended value of 2.5 velocity

heads per pass is the most realistic value to use.

2/1/2016

66

Viscosity Correction Factor

The viscosity correction factor will normally only be significant

for viscous liquids.

67 2/1/2016

Coefficients For Water

The equation below has been adapted from data given by

Eagle and Ferguson (1930):

t = water temperature, C,

ut = water velocity, m/s,

di = tube inside diameter, mm.

68 2/1/2016

Shell-Side Heat-Transfer And Pressure

Drop (Single Phase)

69 2/1/2016

70 2/1/2016

DESIGN METHODS

Kern Method

71 2/1/2016

KERN'S METHOD

The shell equivalent diameter is calculated using the flow area

between the tubes taken in the axial direction (parallel to the tubes)

and the wetted perimeter of the tubes;

72 2/1/2016

Procedure

tubes at the shell equator, given by:

73 2/1/2016

2. Calculate the shell-side mass velocity Gs and the linear velocity us:

= shell-side fluid density, kg/m3.

74 2/1/2016

3. Calculate the shell-side equivalent diameter (hydraulic diameter),

De

wetted perimeter

De

4 PT2 do2 / 4 square

do

De

4 PT2 3 / 4 do2 / 8 triangular

do / 2

Where De = equivalent diameter in m

75 2/1/2016

4. Calculate the shell-side Reynolds number, given by:

76 2/1/2016

5. For the calculated Reynolds number, read the value of jh, from

graph for the selected baffle cut and tube arrangement, and

calculate the shell-side heat transfer coefficient hs from:

77 2/1/2016

6. For the calculated shell-side Reynolds number, read the friction

factor from graph and calculate the shell-side pressure drop

from:

IB = baffle spacing.

The term (L/lB) is the number of times the flow crosses the tube

bundle = (Nb + 1),

where Nb, is the number of baffles.

78 2/1/2016

79 2/1/2016

80 2/1/2016

Heat Exchanger Shell Side Design

Bell Method

SHELL-SIDE HEAT-TRANSFER AND

PRESSURE DROP (SINGLE PHASE)

Flow pattern

Bells method

In Bells method the heat-transfer coefficient and pressure

drop are estimated from correlations for flow over ideal tube-

Heat-transfer coefficient

The total correction will vary from 0.6 for a poorly designed

exchanger with large clearances to 0.9 for a well-designed

exchanger.

hoc, ideal cross-flow coefficient

Fn, tube row correction factor

Fw, window correction factor

Fb, bypass correction factor

With sealing strips

Where no sealing strips are used, Fb can be obtained from

Figure

FL, Leakage correction factor

Shell and bundle geometry

Pressure drop

Cross-flow zones

The pressure drop in the cross-flow zones between the baffle

tips is calculated from correlations for ideal tube banks, and

corrected for leakage and bypassing.

Pressure Drop ideal tube bank

pressure drop

The number of tube rows has little effect on the friction

factor and is ignored.

Fb , bypass correction factor for

pressure drop

Bypassing will affect the pressure drop only in the cross-flow

zones.

calculate the bypass correction factor for heat transfer,

FL, leakage factor for pressure

drop

Window-zone pressure drop

End zone pressure drop

Total shell-side pressure drop

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