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NPTEL Online - IIT Bombay

Course Name

STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF


COMPOSITES

Course Teachers

Dr. Bishakh Bhattacharya


Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
IIT Kanpur

Dr. Anand Kumar


Associate Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
HBTI Kanpur

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List of symbols
Symbols

List of Symbols

Displacements in , and -direction


Length of the plate
Width of the plate
Thickness of the plate
Youngs modulus
Poissons ratio
Density of the material
Stress
Strain
Mid plane strain
Mid plane shear strain
Mid plane curvature
Area coordinates
Area of a triangle
Global force vector
Nodal displacement in and -direction
Structural nodal displacement and acceleration vectors
Global stiffness and mass matrices
Modified stiffness and mass matrices
Reduced stiffness and mass matrices
Nodal displacement
Transformation matrices between natural and global coordinates
Strain energy in thin laminated plate
Kinetic energy
Thickness of the layer
Density of the layer
Eigen values and eigen vectors
Stiffness matrix for actuator
Structural electromechanical matrix
Equivalent force due to actuator voltage

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Actuator voltage vector


Number of piezoelectric layers
Work done by actuator
Elastic modulus for piezoelectric layer
Electrical field vector
Electric displacement vector
Elastic stiffness matrix
Piezoelectric stress charge tensor
Piezoelectric permittivity matrix
Strain in piezoelectric layer
Shape function matrix
Piezoelectric coupling constants in 31 and 32 modes
Number of piezoelectric sensors
Constant gain matrix
Actuator input voltage vector and sensor output voltage vector
Charge output
Constant gain of the charge amplifier of the electroplated sensor
State vector
Excitation vector
Mechanical impedance of the system
Distances from neutral axis
B Magnetic flux density vector
Electric field displacement
Electric field strength
Elastic modulus of fiber
Elastic modulus of the matrix
Elastic modulus in the longitudinal direction
Elastic modulus in the transverse direction
Shear modulus of the fiber
Shear modulus for the matrix
Shear modulus of the composite
Strain energy release rate
Thickness of the kth ply

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Thickness of the magnetostrictive layer


Magnetic field
Moment vector in the composite laminate in Newton-meter/width
Moment vector in the composite laminate, Newton/width
Force vector for lamina above magnetostrictive layer
Force vector for lamina below magnetostrictive layer
Load applied
Elastic compliance matrix measured at constant magnetic field, H
Transformation matrix
Dielectric constant at constant stress
Elasticity matrix at constant elastic field
Permeability at constant stress
Amplitude of the current
Bias current vector
Frequency of the alternating current
, Extensional, bending and coupling stiffness matrices
Volume fraction of ribbon
Elastic modulus of ribbon and matrix material
Width and thickness of the ribbon
Spacing between two layers of the ribbons
Spacing between two ribbons in a given layer
Distances of lower and upper interfaces of the lamina
Distance from mid plane in thickness direction
Number of turns of magnetizing coil per unit length
Total length of conducting coil
Area of the cross section of the coil
Strain at top and bottom of the layer
Stress at top and bottom of the layer
Stiffness matrix of the laminate
Modified stiffness matrix of the laminate
, Strain, stress and voltage in MS layer considering the bending effect
Strain, stress and voltage in MS layer considering the mechanical input
Fracture toughness
Form factor

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Critical stress intensity factor


Allowable stress in a layer
Crack length
Frequency shift in the reflected beam
Velocity of the moving object
Wavelength
Light intensities of two interfering Laser beams
Resultant intensity of the Laser
Damping ratio

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 1: Introduction

The Lecture Contains:

Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)

Concept of Smart Structure

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 1: Introduction

Materials are evolving today at a rate faster than any other time in the history of civilization. The emergence of new and improved
materials, their processing and the development of a newer area of specialization known as Materials Design are stimulating
innovation in all the walks of life making new designs for efficient systems and structures.

Development and exploitation of new materials like high performance composites, new engineering ceramics, high strength
polymers and super alloys are providing better alternatives in terms of enhanced functionality and energy efficient systems with
improved safety and reliability at a competitive price. Advent of smart and intelligent materials together with advances in
processing technologies such as tape casting and screen printing, improvement in sensing and actuation technologies and their
successful miniaturization and integration to composite structures along with developments in the field of real time data
acquisition and information processing are likely to change the scenario in the most dramatic fashion in days to come.

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 1: Introduction

Composites are fast gaining attention as structural materials due to overriding advantages over conventional metallic structures.
Owing to their high specific strength and stiffness and very good corrosion and fatigue properties, they are increasingly being
used in the design of light weight aerospace, automobile and civil structures. Further, there is an increasing application of
advanced composites in varied fields such as marine structures, turbine blades, automobile bodies etc. This increase in usage of
composites has raised the necessity for evaluating the in-service performance of such structures.

Due to greater complexity of design, high operational loads and longer lifetime, composite structures are prone to unpredicted
failures. Present day non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, such as ultrasonic testing, acoustic emission, eddy current
method, radiography and thermography etc., primarily meant for metallic materials are not always very effective for composites
because of inherent micro-mechanical complexities. Further, these methods require specialized equipments and skilled
manpower. Many times, in-situ evaluation or evaluation on real time basis is not possible. Anisotropy of composites, conducting
properties of the fibers, insulative nature of the matrices and unintentional impact damages beneath the surface which are barely
visible (BVID) make the damage prediction still more difficult and challenging in composites. These damages may cause a
change in strain / stress state of the structure. and hence, its characteristics. By continuously monitoring one or more response
quantities causing these changes, it is possible to assess the condition of the structure for its structural integrity. Such a
monitoring of the structure is generally known as Structural Health Monitoring. Health monitoring applications have received great
deal of attention all over the world due to its significant impact on safety and longevity of the structures.

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 1: Introduction

Damages like matrix cracking, delamination, debonding or fiber breakage in composite structures are unavoidable during service
life time due to impact or continual load, chemical corrosion and aging, change of ambient conditions, etc. Many times, it is not
feasible to take the structure out of use (such as buildings, bridges and other big structures). Further, the lack of global integration
capability of the present day non-destructive evaluation methods result in longer downtime, inconvenience and enhanced cost of
maintenance. Real time damage detection and health monitoring in such cases have become one of the main areas of focus
today. In recent years efforts have been made at developing structures that can sense and control their own damage by using a
network of distributed sensors and actuators. With the improvement in sensing and actuation technologies and their availability in
the form of sensor patches e.g. PZT patches, PVDF films, magnetostrictive materials like Terfenol-D in the form of thick films or in
particulate form and the feasibility of embedding them into or bonding those to composite structures is leading to growth of a new
concept known as smart / intelligent structure. This concept is emerging to be attractive for potential high performance structural
applications and other critical and advanced applications.

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 1: Introduction

In this course, three different techniques for health monitoring and damage detection of composite structures have been
considered. Initially, piezoelectric sensors and actuators like PVDF films bonded to composite laminate are considered for active
vibration control and damage detection. Later, magnetostrictive (MS) material like Terfenol-D in particulate form embedded in one
of the layers of composite laminate is considered for damage detection. Lastly, experimental modal analysis of composite
laminate is carried out on Laser Doppler Scanning Vibrometer to record vibration signatures of the structure which is used in non-
contact sensing of structural damages.

Piezoelectric materials develop electric charge on application of mechanical stress (the direct effect) and get strained due to
the application of an electric potential (the converse effect).

Magnetostrictive materials display similar direct and converse effect between mechanical and magnetic field. Shape memory
alloys deform during a phase charge from matersite to austenite states. This phase transition may be caused due to stress or
temperature leading to volumetric changes in the material. The electro-rheological fluids are a class of specially formulated
suspensions which undergo a charge in viscosity in the presence of applied electric field and modify the rheological behavior of
carrier fluid. The shape memory alloys and electro-rheological fluids are mainly used for actuation purposes such as vibration and
noise control while the piezoelectric and magnetostrictive materials are used for both sensors and actuation.

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 1: Introduction

Piezoelectric materials are widely used as sensors in different environments. Lead zirconate Titanate (commonly known as PZT)
is the most prominent piezoelectric material as it could operate at a much higher temperature and posses stronger piezoelectric
effect relative to ferroelectric ceramics of other compositions.

Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is the most popular piezoelectric polymer material for impact sensors. The present day
development in smart structural technology is mainly centered around these two materials.

Magnetostrictive materials (MS) are a new class of materials which offer lifelong non contact sensing capability with fairly sturdy
performance. With the commercial availability of the MS materials such as Terfenol-D in particulate form, it is now feasible to
develop embedded particulate sensors to detect damage with minimum effect on structural integrity. In this course, the response
of the MS layer at the onset of delamination is analyzed with the aim to formulate a model to sense delamination in the composite
laminate and to bring out the effect of material properties, lamination schemes and placement of MS layer on it. Numerical
analysis shows that the MS material embedded to the composite structures in particulate form present viable non-contact
damage detection and sensing alternative on lifelong basis.

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 1: Introduction

Damage in a structure is also characterized by changes in eigen parameters, i.e., natural frequency, damping factor and the
mode shapes associated with each natural frequency. Experimental modal analysis of composite laminates is performed using
Laser Doppler Scanning Vibrometer to record vibration signatures of healthy and delaminated specimen to predict delamination.
The experimental modal analysis is conducted on composite plates with different ply orientations in fixed-free boundary condition
using dynamic excitation at the center of the plate by an electro-dynamic shaker. All the delaminated specimen show distinct
decrease in the natural frequencies in comparison to the healthy ones except in case of cross ply laminate where only a marginal
change is observed. Damping losses for different modes are also determined. A standard FEM Package ABAQUS' is used for
modal analysis of healthy composite plates to verify the results of experimental modal analysis. A good agreement in natural
frequencies for different modes is seen for various ply orientations. Applicability of experimental modal analysis for active health
monitoring is discussed in this context.

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 1: Introduction

It is important to detect the incipient damage at the first available signal to take necessary steps for the well being of the structure.
This needs to keep track of the changes in the stiffness and other significant mechanical properties of the critical members in a
structure in real time. Damage beyond a certain level will be a safety hazard and may invite downgrading of its use or even
abandoning of the structure.

To summarize, an overview of structural health monitoring of laminated composites using different sensing techniques has been
presented here. The suitability of PVDF and MS sensors for detecting damages in structures using time domain response of the
system is demonstrated via numerical modeling. A complete non-contact sensing of structural damage in frequency domain by
using Laser Doppler Scanning Vibrometer is demonstrated via experimental modal analysis. It is envisaged that by integrating all
these in-contact and non-contact techniques, a complete on-line and off-line health investigation process could be developed
which will lead to the use of high performance composites in advanced systems.

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 2: Introduction to Structural Health Monitoring using Smart Materials

The Lecture Contains:

Structural Health Monitoring

Advantages of Structural Health Monitoring

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 2: Introduction to Structural Health Monitoring using Smart Materials

The smart materials possess the ability to change their physical properties in a specific manner in response to specific stimulus
input on real time basis. They are light in weight, consume less power and have better reliability. In addition, they can be
embedded in the structures without affecting the structural properties. With such features incorporated in a structure by
embedding functional materials, it is feasible to achieve technological advances such as vibration and noise reduction, shape
control with high pointing accuracy, damage detection, damage mitigation etc.

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 2: Introduction to Structural Health Monitoring using Smart Materials

Rytter [1993] has broadly categorized damage identification into four levels"

determination of presence of damage in the structure


determination of geometric location of the damage
quantification of the severity of the damage; and
prediction of remaining service life of the structure.

It is important to detect the incipient damage at the first available signal to take necessary steps for the well being of the structure.
It is necessary to keep track of the changes in the stiffness and other significant mechanical properties of the critical members in
a structure in real time as damage beyond a certain level becomes a safety hazard and may invite downgrading of its use or even
abandoning of the structure.

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 2: Introduction to Structural Health Monitoring using Smart Materials

Structural Health Monitoring

Structural Health Monitoring has been defined in a number of ways by different groups of researchers such as"

SHM denotes a system with the ability to detect and interpret adverse changes in a structure in order to improve reliability and
reduce life-cycle costs. The greatest challenge in designing a SHM system is knowing what changes to look for and how to
identify them. [Kessler, 2001]

The process of implementing a damage identification strategy for aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering infrastructure is
referred to as SHM. Damage is defined as changes to the material and/or geometric properties of these systems including
changes to the boundary conditions and system connectivity which adversely affect the performance of the system. [Farrar, 2006]

SHM has also been described as the acquisition, validation and analysis of technical data to facilitate life-cycle management
decisions. [Hall, 1999]

SHM aims to give a diagnosis of the state of the constituent material at every moment during the life of a structure, of the different
parts and of the full assembly of these parts constituting the structure as a whole. The state of the structure must remain in the
domain specified in the design although this can be altered by normal ageing, due to usage, by the action of the environment and
by accidental events. [Balageas, 2001]

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Module 1: Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 2: Introduction to Structural Health Monitoring using Smart Materials

SHM is a new and improved way of making a non-destructive evaluation. It involves the integration of sensors-probably made of
smart materials, data transmission, computational power and processing ability inside the structure. It makes it possible to
reconsider the design of the structure and the full management of the structure as a single unit and of the structure considered as
a part of wider systems.
The safety and performance of all commercial, civil and military structural systems deteriorate with time. It is very important to
know the state of the structure immediately by non-destructive inspection or by other methods when the structure receives any
foreign object impact. Structural damage detection at the earliest possible stage is very important in critical areas such as in the
aerospace industry to prevent major failures. With the advances in sensor systems, data acquisition, data communication and
computational methodologies, instrumentation based monitoring has been a widely accepted technology to monitor and diagnose
structural health and conditions for civil, aerospace and mechanical structural systems. A schematic arrangement of sub-systems
in a health management system is shown in Figure 2.1.

Figure 2.1: Organization of a SHM system [Balagaes, 2001]

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Module 1: Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 2: Introduction to Structural Health Monitoring using Smart Materials

Some of the general attributes of SHM as noted from literature are listed below"

SHM is the whole process of the design, development and implementation of techniques for the detection, localization
and estimation of damages for monitoring the integrity of structures and machines.
Since the manual inspection and maintenance scheduling procedures are time consuming, costly, prone to error and
insensitive to small variations in structural health, there is an urgent economic and technological need to deploy SHM
systems for seamless evaluation of structural integrity and reliability.
SHM offers a shift from schedule driven maintenance to condition based maintenance / predictive maintenance of
structures.
The concept of SHM is a technology that automatically monitors structural conditions from sensor information in real time
by equipping sensor network and diagnosis algorithms into structures.
The key requirements of a health monitoring system are that it should be able to detect damaging events, characterize
the nature, extent and seriousness of the damage and respond intelligently within a reasonable time period to mitigate
the ill effect of the damage or to repair the damage.

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Module 1: Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 2: Introduction to Structural Health Monitoring using Smart Materials

Advantages of Structural Health Monitoring

SHM is emerging as an increasingly important component of overall Structural Health Management System (SHMS). Non-
destructive Evaluation (NDE) programs are giving way to a network of sensors and actuators embedded or attached to the
structure at the time of fabrication itself. This aims at continuous evaluation of the state of the structure with the help of acquisition
and management of data received through the transducers on real time basis. The information received is useful in taking
decisions regarding future management of the structure related to maintenance requirement, steps needed to prolonging the life
of the structure, to downgrade the use or if needed to discard the use of the structure under consideration. With SHM in place the
structure may be made light weight and cost effective leading to various obvious advantages, apart from getting rid of frequent
unscheduled non destructive evaluations at a great cost and downtime. For SHM system to work effectively, it is important that
the sensors must provide accurate measurements of:

Reliable detection of defect with low false alarms


Measurement of defect size and its location
Magnitude of damage
Detection of damage even in remote and inaccessible locations of the structure

The above information must be available with knowledge of suitable failure mechanism models for reliable interpretation and
effective prognosis. An estimated saving of more than 40 percent on inspection time of modern fighter aircraft featuring both
metal and composite structure has been reported through the use of smart monitoring system [Figure 2.2].

Figure 2.2: Inspection time saving with implementation of SHM on modern fighter aircrafts

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[Bartelds, 1997]

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 3: Structural Health Monitoring versus Non Destructive Evaluation

The Lecture Contains:

Limitations of present day NDE technologies

Benefits of Implementation of SHM

Envisaged benefits of SHM system

Advantages of Structural Health Monitoring

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 3: Structural Health Monitoring versus Non Destructive Evaluation

The Lecture Contains:

Due to greater complexity of design, high operational loads and longer designed life time, composite structures are prone to
unpredicted failures. Present day non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technologies such as ultrasonic testing, acoustic emission,
eddy current method, radiography and thermography etc; primarily developed for metallic materials are not always very effective
for composites due to their micro-mechanical complexities such as:

Anisotropy of composites
Conducting properties of the fibers
isolative nature of the matrices
impact damages beneath the surface, BVID

Limitations of present day NDE techniques

Require specialized equipment and skilled man power


In-situ evaluation and evaluation on real time basis is not always possible
Longer downtime
Bigger structures may not be kept out of are for longer period.

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 3: Structural Health Monitoring versus Non Destructive Evaluation

Structural Health Monitoring versus Non Destructive Evaluation

Many of the existing NDE techniques have been customized for specific SHM uses by integrating sensors and actuators inside
the structure to be monitored. Following are the perceptible advantages of SHM over NDE:

Reduced inspection down time.

Elimination of component tear down and human involvement.

Potential prevention of failure during operation.

Enabling new possibilities for maintenance concepts influencing design and assembly technologies leading to both
maintenance and weight saving benefits.

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 3: Structural Health Monitoring versus Non Destructive Evaluation

Benefits of Implementation of SHM

Traditional systems are designed for a set of service parameters such as load, speed or life span and are unable to modify its
response mechanism in changed circumstances leading to loss of reliability, utility and increase in cost of maintenance. The
structures with SHM are capable of accommodating to unpredictable environments and accrue a stable level of reliability over its
service life at a constant maintenance cost [Figure 3.1].

Figure 3.1: Advantages of implementation of SHM [Chang, 2002]

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 3: Structural Health Monitoring versus Non Destructive Evaluation

Following are the envisaged benefits of SHM system"

Replacing schedule based inspection / maintenance of the structure to condition based maintenance brings great cost
reduction.
Extends the life of over aging structures.
Attempts to identify damage in structures on a more global basis.
Opens avenues for possible integration of the design of the structure with its full management as a part of still bigger
system.

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 4: Overview of Smart Materials

The Lecture Contains:

SHM and smart materials

Active and passive smart materials

Smart materials: Future application scenario

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 4: Overview of Smart Materials

SHM and Smart Materials

One of the foremost drives for the implementation of SHM is due to the feasibility of augmenting smart and functional materials in
host structures which can act as sensors / actuators to present the state of the affairs of a structure on continuous basis.

Smart material

Materials which possess the ability to change their physical properties in a specific manner in response to specific stimulus input
are called smart materials.

Figure 4.1: Concept of working of smart materials

Smart system / structure


A system or a material which has built in or intrinsic sensor(s), actuator(s) and control mechanism whereby it is capable of
sensing a stimulus, responding to it in a predetermined manner and extent in a short / appropriate time and reverting to its original
state as soon as the stimulus is removed.

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 4: Overview of Smart Materials

Active and passive smart materials

Smart materials can be termed as active or passive. Active materials posses the capacity to modify their material and geometric
properties under application of electrical, thermal or magnetic field and thereby acquiring an inherent capacity to transduce
energy. Piezoelectric materials, shape memory alloys, electro-rheological fluids and magnetostrictive materials are important
active smart materials and they may be used as sensors and actuators [Figure 4.2]. Passive smart materials do not have the
inherent capability to transduce energy. Fiber optic materials are good examples of passive smart material. They are mainly used
for sensing purposes.

Figure 4.2 Some applications of smart materials: (clockwise) (a) Terfenol-D products
(b) SMA Catheter (c) PVDF film and (d) PZT actuator [ETREMA Products Inc.
and Sumitomo Metals (SMI) Electronic Devices Inc.]

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 4: Overview of Smart Materials

The concept of smart materials/structures (SMS) can be considered as a landmark in the evolution of tailored materials. There is
a continuous trend from simple to complex, starting from the use of homogeneous materials supplied by nature and accepted with
their natural properties followed by multi-materials (in particular, composite materials ) allowing us to create structures with
properties adapted to specific users. Composite materials are replacing homogeneous and isotropic materials in more and more
structures [Figure 4.3]. This is particularly true in the aerospace applications. For instance, composite parts are now currently
used or envisaged for modern aircrafts. Boeings 7E7 Dream liner project has 50 per cent of its structures made of composites. It
is worth noting that this aircraft is one of the first passenger aircraft to introduce embedded SHM systems, especially systems for
impact detection .

Figure 4.3: General evolutions of materials/structures

The next step consists of making the properties of the materials and structures adapt to changing environmental conditions. This
requires making them sensitive, controllable and active. The various levels of such intelligence correspond to the existence of
one, two or all the three qualities.

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 4: Overview of Smart Materials

Smart Materials: Future Application Scenario

According to Rogers [1990], following advancements could be possible in the field of smart materials and structures"

Materials which can restrain the propagation of cracks by automatically producing compressive stresses around them to
arrest the damage (damage arrest).
Materials which can discriminate whether the loading is static or impact type and can generate a large force against
shock stresses (shock absorbers).
Materials possessing self repairing capabilities which can heal the damages in due course of time (self healing materials).
Materials which are useable up to ultra high temperatures such as those encountered by space shuttles when they re-
enter the atmosphere of earth from outer space by suitably changing composition through transformation (thermal
mitigation).

Takagi [1990] similarly projected the development of more functional and higher grade materials with recognition, discrimination,
adjustability, self-diagnostics and self learning capabilities.

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 5: Emerging SHM Technologies

The Lecture Contains:

Introduction

Piezoelectric sensors

Acoustic emission (AE) method

Acousto-ultrasonics (AU)

Electrical-mechanical impedance (EMI) method

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 5: Emerging SHM Technologies

Emerging SHM Technologies

The very basis of SHM is its ability to monitor structures using embedded / attached sensors and to utilize the data to assess the
state of the structure. Non-destructive evaluation sensors for SHM purposes have attained a modest degree of maturity and are
able to monitor significantly large areas of structures. Following are the important SHM technologies:

Piezoelectric sensors
Magnetostrictive sensors
Optical fiber sensors
Dynamic response analysis using Laser Doppler Vibrometer

Piezoelectric sensors

Piezoelectric sensors convert mechanical energy into electrical energy and vice versa. This phenomenon enables them to detect
impacts and deformations in a structure

Figure 5.1: Piezoelectric materials (a) in original state with poling direction (b) voltage generation
under compression (c) under tension

Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) is the most commonly used piezoelectric material. It is used in the form of patches. Since it is a
hard ceramic which is weak in tension it is not always possible to embed it into a structure. The most common piezo-polymer for
sensing dynamic strain is PVDF. PVDF sensors are not likely to modify the stiffness of the host structure due to their own low
stiffness. Being a polymer PVDF film can be shaped as desired according to intended application and can be formed into very
thin films making it attractive for sensing purposes.

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 5: Emerging SHM Technologies

Acoustic emission (AE) method

Acoustic emission (AE) is elastic radiation generated by the rapid release of energy from inside the material. These elastic waves
are detected and converted to electrical signals by piezoelectric transducers bonded to the material surface. Fracture, impact,
corrosive film rupture and other similar deformation processes may cause acoustic emission. Acoustic emission is fairly sensitive
to detect newly formed crack surfaces of micron level. AE is a proven and reliable structural health monitoring tool for predictive
maintenance and detects the cracks and damages well before they may endanger the well being of the structure.

Acousto-ultrasonics (AU)

Acousto-ultrasonics uses pulser and receivers with resonant frequencies in low ultrasonic range to detect damages. Ultrasonic
waves are reflected by surfaces and interfaces, attenuated by dispersion and absorption and undergo mode changes during
reflection and transmission. The technique is able to detect and characterize differences in the structure of single and multilayer
metallic and composite structures. When damage has occurred to a structure, changes in the signal indicate the type of damage.

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 5: Emerging SHM Technologies

Electrical-mechanical impedance (EMI) method

In EMI technique, a PZT actuator/sensor patch is bonded to the surface of the structure whose health is monitored using high
strength epoxy adhesive. The conductance signature of the patch is obtained over a high frequency range. This signature is the
benchmark for assessing the health of a structure.

Figure 5.2: Interaction model of PZT patch and host structure

The signature of the bonded PZT patch is acquired using impedance analyzer. Electro-mechanical coupling between mechanical
impedance Z of the host structure and electro-mechanical admittance Y is utilized in damage detection. Z is a function of the
structural parameters such as stiffness, damping and the mass distribution. Any damage to the structure will lead to change in
these structural parameters, hence, the mechanical impedance [Figure 5.2]. Cracks, debonding and damage in connections are
the common causes that alter the structural impedance.

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 6: Magnetostrictive sensors

The Lecture Contains:

Magnetostrictive sensors

Magnetostrictive force sensors

Hybrid magnetostrictive / piezoelectric field sensors

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 6: Magnetostrictive sensors

Introduction

There has been a of interest in MS materials during the last decade primarily due to the commercial availability of the

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 6: Magnetostrictive sensors

Magnetostrictive sensors

Amorphous wires and ribbons of cobalt and iron rich alloys are being used for their suitability for use as magnetic field and strain
sensors. Figure 6.1shows a magnetostrictive force sensor based on Villari effect i.e. application of external applied force
generates voltage in pick up coil giving a measure of applied force.

Figure 6.1: Magnetostrictive force sensor based on Villaris effect [Calkins, 2007]

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 6: Magnetostrictive sensors

The availability of Terfenol-D in particulate form has given a new impetus to the use of magnetostrictive materials. Their magnetic
permeability changes with the applied stress. The change in magnetic permeability may be detected in a number of ways. One
method uses the amorphous ribbon as the core of an induction coil while another method monitors high frequency electrical
impedance of the material. The change in impedance with applied stress can be very high (<100 per cent) which can result in a
very sensitive strain sensor. Conventional metal foil resistance strain gauges and semiconductor strain gauges have gauge
factors of 2 and 100 respectively while a magnetic strain sensor can have a gauge factor value of 1500. In addition to monitoring
strain, magnetic sensors have successfully been used for cure cycle monitoring when embedded into an epoxy / polyester
composite.

A combination of smart materials may be utilized to device sensors and actuators where actuation and sensing actions are
performed by two different types of smart materials [Figure 6.2].

Figure 6.2 Hybrid magnetostrictive/ piezoelectric field sensors [Dapino et al, 1999]

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 7: SHM using Optical Fibre

The Lecture Contains:

Optical fiber sensors

Dynamic response analysis using Laser Doppler Vibrometer

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 7: SHM using Optical Fibre

Optical fiber sensors

Optical fiber sensors can be incorporated into a structure at the time of fabrication for structural health monitoring and they can be
utilized for knowing the state of the structure on continuous basis and indicating the adverse changes in the structure such as
initiation of crack and growth of defects. Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors are the most popular optical fiber sensor. FBGs are
diffraction gratings which are written into the core of a single mode fiber using interfering lasers. The grating reflects light at a
particular wavelength which can be measured by analyzing the spectral response [Figure 7.1].

Figure 7.1: Working basis of fiber optic sensors

A change in spacing of grating and shift in its characteristic wavelength is observed in the presence of longitudinal strain or
temperature variations.

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 7: SHM using Optical Fibre

Optical fiber sensors

FBG and Fabry-Perot sensors are the most common optical fibers used for SHM purposes and can measure strain as a direct
translation of phase shift or wavelength shift. The introduction of wavelength division multiplexer (WDM) has allowed multiple
FBGs on a single fiber. Embedded optical fiber sensors are desirable as they present a possibility to obtain localized information
related to the damages such as delamination, debonding or matrix cracking.

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 7: SHM using Optical Fibre

Dynamic response analysis using Laser Doppler Vibrometer

Resonant vibration is often a contributory factor of many of the vibration related problems that occur in structures and operating
machinery. The resonance of a structure should be identified and quantified to avoid vibration induced cracks and damages to the
structure. Further, changes in the physical properties of the structures due to damage alter the dynamic responses such as
natural frequencies, modal damping and mode shapes. Laser Doppler Vibrometer can extract vibration signatures for the purpose
of damage detection without mass loading of the specimen. It is a non-contact vibration measurement system which works on the
principle of Doppler Effect and interferometry. Laser scan heads are capable of measuring movements in all the three orthogonal
directions yielding full information of three dimensional movements of the structure. Guided waves such as Lamb waves
generated with the help of bonded PZT patches on composite structures can be analyzed for damage detection using Laser
Doppler Vibrometer .

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 8: Overview of Application Potential of SHM

The Lecture Contains:

Application of SHM

Challenges in Implementation of SHM

Effective SHM Methodology

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 8: Overview of Application Potential of SHM

Application of SHM

With the advancement in materials technology, SHM is becoming a desirable feature to monitor structural integrity with the aim to
reduce overall life cost of the structures. Many types of structures can be potential users of SHM. Bridges, underground pipelines,
civil buildings, wind turbine blades, aircraft structures, marine structures and vessels, automobile applications are the important
areas to take lead in the implementation of SHM systems. SHM implementation is at various stages of development and maturity.

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 8: Overview of Application Potential of SHM

Challenges in Implementation of SHM

SHM is being implemented in more and more practical situations and the gains are fairly visible. Users are learning form the
experiences of the existing SHM systems. The technology will mature with time and increased use.

Following are the major challenges in its implementation:

Improved and cost effective SHM sensors for stable and reliable performance during the useful life of the host structure.
Proven capability of the SHM systems in detecting undesired changes in the structures in percentage terms with minimal
false alarms.
Effective integration of the SHM system elements for improved structural maintenance strategies such as integration of
sensors along with data transmission, computational power and processing ability in the structures.
Effective filtering of data acquired from sensors and adequate computational models of the structure.
Optimally define the number and location of the sensors; identification of the features sensitive to small damage levels;
the ability to discriminate changes in these features caused by damage from those caused by changing environmental
and / or test conditions.
Development of statistical methods to discriminate features from undamaged and damaged structures and comparative
studies of different damage identification methods applied to common data sets.
Conceiving systems for data reduction and diagnostic formulations.
In many situations feature selection and damage identification must be performed in an unsupervised learning mode
where data from the damaged systems are not available.

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 8: Overview of Application Potential of SHM

Effective SHM Methodology

The implementation of SHM is at various stages of development and maturity and the reliability of a particular system needs to be
checked beforehand its installation on a structure. With the advancement in material technology, SHM is becoming a desirable
feature to monitor structural integrity with the aim to reduce overall life cost of the structures. It should always be kept in mind that
a fully operational SHM system not only depends on suitable selection of sensors but also the processing system that is able to
measure the sensor output, analyze the data and provide fruitful information for unambiguous interpretation of the state of the
structure. Hence, data processing, sampling frequency, simultaneous sampling, data reduction and storage, real time
interpretation of data are the crucial factors that need proper attention for successful implementation of SHM system. The choice
of SHM system is structure specific and depends upon its monitoring requirements. Installation of right kind of sensors on the
structure, their lifetime protection (against environment and accidental damage), issue of system redundancy and scope for repair
in case of damages are of prime interest for embedded systems in a structure which has been designed to serve for longer
period. Practical issues of installation time taken to install sensors, additional mass of sensors and required mass and volume
of wiring and their maintenance are the additional concerns in successful implementation of SHM systems.

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 9: Notable Industrial Applications of SHM

The Lecture Contains:

Aerospace applications

Bridge structures

Concrete structures

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 9: Notable Industrial Applications of SHM

Introduction

With the advancement in materials technology, SHM is becoming a desirable feature to monitor structural integrity with the aim to
improve the reliability and to reduce overall life cost of the structures. Following are the some important areas who have taken
lead in the implementation of SHM:

Aircraft structures
bridges
civil buildings
marine structures
wind turbine blades
underground pipelines and automobile applications

. A few such applications will be discussed in this lecture.

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Lecture 9: Notable Industrial Applications of SHM

Aerospace applications

The aircraft industry is among the first ones to implement SHM methods primarily due to the problem of undetected damages and
their uncontrolled growth leading to catastrophic failures causing loss of life and properties. Aircraft industry is also the most
visible beneficiary of this new trend as it spends approximately twenty seven per cent of total life cycle cost on inspection
[Kessler, 2005]. A substantial saving of approximately forty four percent of time in inspection of modern day fighter aircraft is
obtained by implementation of SHM [Bartelds, 1997].

Followings are the representative works reported in the literature by various research groups. The studies presented below have
been developed to a level of readiness and are at different stages of implementation.

Roy and Ganguli [2005] have used a finite element model of a helicopter rotor blade to analyze the effect of damage growth on
the modal frequencies in a qualitative manner. Structural damage in materials evolves over time due to growth of fatigue cracks in
homogenous materials and a complicated process of matrix cracking, delamination, fiber breakage and fiber-matrix debonding in
composite materials. Using phenomenological models of material degradation for homogenous and composite materials it is
shown that the damages can be detected by monitoring changes in lower as well as higher modes like flap (out of plane bending),
lag (in plane bending) and torsional rotating frequencies. It is more pertinent for composite materials where the onset of the last
stage of damage of fiber breakage is most critical. However, this study remains limited to numerical analysis only assuming the
availability of dynamic response from any non destructive technique [NDT].

SHM for aerospace structures using smart materials are studied by many other researchers. Qing et al [2005] have developed a
hybrid piezoelectric / ber optic diagnostic system for quick non-destructive evaluation and long term health monitoring of
aerospace vehicles and structures. The SHM system for the Euroghter Typhoon has been reported by Hunt and Hebden [2001].
Tessler and Spangler [2005] have formulated a variational principle for reconstruction of three-dimensional shell deformations
from experimentally measured surface strains, which could be used for real time SHM systems of aerospace vehicles. Balageas
[2002] has presented a review of research and development in SHM at the European Research Establishments in Aeronautics.

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Lecture 9: Notable Industrial Applications of SHM

Bridge structures

Bridges and other large civil structures are the biggest candidate for SHM as safety, reliability and operational availability with
lowest possible maintenance cost are very important for such structures. Since these structures are designed for a greater life
span and are subjected to the vagaries of nature, the implementation and successful operation of appropriate SHM system is
more challenging. In this case, not only the structures but the sensors required to extract data should be robust enough to survive
for the planned life of the civil structure. This becomes very crucial in cases where the sensors are to be embedded in the
structure at the time of construction of the structure itself. Some of the important works available in literature are being presented
here.

Brownjohn et al [2002] have reviewed ongoing project in Singapore in which an expressway viaduct is instrumented using
conventional static sensors as well as Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) arrays and data are managed by wireless and internet. The two
technologies of wireless internet access and fiber optic sensors are believed to be central to future developments in sensing and
data management for structural health monitoring of civil structures. DeWolf et al [2002] have reported their experience in non-
destructive eld monitoring to evaluate the health of a variety of existing bridges and shown the need and benets in using non-
destructive evaluation to determine the state of structural health. Moyo and Brownjohn [2005] have analyzed in-service civil
infrastructure based on strain data recorded by a SHM system installed in the bridge at construction stage. Bridge instrumentation
and monitoring for structural diagnostics has also been done by Farhey [2005]. The strain-time histories at critical locations of
long-span bridges during a typhoon passing the bridge area are investigated by Li et al [2002] using on-line strain data acquired
from the SHM system permanently installed on the bridge. Ko and Ni [2005] have explored the technology developments in the
eld of long term SHM and their application to large-scale bridge projects in order to secure structural and operational safety and
issue early warnings on damage or deterioration prior to costly repair or even catastrophic collapse. Tennyson et al [2001] have
described the design, development and application of ber optic sensors for monitoring of bridge structures. It has been observed
that in most of these applications, the sensory network is considered to be of fiber-optic systems. The penetration of other smart
materials like piezoelectric and magnetostrictive materials is still quite low in this field.

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Lecture 9: Notable Industrial Applications of SHM

Concrete structures

Tseng and Wang [2004] in their paper on Structural health monitoring using smart piezoelectric materials have used electro-
mechanical impedance method to detect the presence of damage and monitor its progression in concrete structures using finite
element analysis. Piezoelectric materials like Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) patch bonded to concrete structure serves both as
actuator and sensor at high frequency level. Various health states of the structure are assessed using a root mean square
deviation (RMSD) index. The numerical investigations present a strong prospect of employing smart piezoelectric materials in
estimating the location and extent of a damage. For a given PZT patch bonded to a structure, the structural impedance could
uniquely determine the electric admittance of the system.

Yan and Chen [2010] have presented an overview of recent advances in electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) based structural
health monitoring. The basic principle of the EMI method is to use high frequency excitation to sense the localized damages of a
structure. This is carried out by applying voltage signal to the PZT patches and sensing the current developed in the patch by
using an impedance analyzer. Changes in impedance indicate changes in the mechanical properties of the structure, which in
turn indicate the presence of damages. An accurate EMI model based on the method of reverberation-ray matrix is introduced to
correlate changes in the signatures to physical parameters of structures for damage detection. A brief remark on the feasibility of
implementing the EMI method is considered and the effects of some physical parameters on EMI technique are also discussed.
SHM of concrete structures is performed by many other researchers.

Corrosion of the reinforcing bars in concrete beams was monitored by Maalej et al [2004] using ber optic sensors. Both semi-
empirical and experimental results for one way reinforced concrete slabs were studied by Koh et al [2004] using Fast Fourier
Transform and Hilbert Huang Transform. Chen et al [2004] have used co-axial cables as distributed sensors to detect cracks in
reinforced concrete structures from the change in topology of the outer conductor under strain conditions.

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 10: Underground and Other Structures

The Lecture Contains:

Underground structures

Wind turbine blade applications

Railriad wheels

Composite structures

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Lecture 10: Underground and Other Structures

Underground structures

Many oil and gas pipelines are nearing the end of their design life but have many more years of production left. Despite the best
designed and well maintained pipelines, the unavoidable defects such as metal loss due to corrosion, erosion, cracks and other
means, structural integrity can be compromised.

Bhalla and Soh [2004] have discussed the feasibility of employing mechatronic conductance signatures of surface bonded PZT
patches in monitoring the conditions of reinforced concrete structures subjected to base vibrations such as those caused by
earthquakes and underground blasts. Mahadi [2008] reviews the development of SHM procedures, in particular, introducing
optical fiber sensors (FBG) and electrical sensors (electrical gauges) embedded between composite wrapping and parent
material (i.e. steel pipelines) that contain identified defects. A methodology for structural integrity and pipeline maintenance and
repair is presented. A low cost fracture monitoring system for underground sewer pipelines has been reported by Todoroki et al
[2004] using sensors made of fiber glass and carbon - epoxy composites. An experimental study is carried out by Mooney et al
[2005] to explore the efficacy of vibration based SHM of earth structures, e.g., foundations, dams, embankments and tunnels to
improve design, construction and performance.

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Lecture 10: Underground and Other Structures

Wind turbine blade application

Ghoshal [2000] has performed structural health monitoring testing on a full wind turbine blade during loading using the stress
wave propagation technique. The health monitoring experiments are performed while the wind turbine blade is being quasi-
statically loaded to failure. Bonded piezo-ceramic patches are used for generating and receiving the stress waves. The raw
signals received from sensors in the vicinity of the final failure (rifer to Figure 10.1) have shown recognizable changes in stress
wave parameters. These changes have occurred well ahead of the final failure. The stress wave data are processed using three
different damage detection and signal processing algorithms based on wavelet transformation. All algorithms have indicated a
change in the structure with loading. These results could be used for early detection of damage and to possibly provide guidelines
for design of the blade.

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Figure 10.1 Comparisons of waveforms from sensors at (a) No load condition and
(b) At a load of 4000-4500 lb [Ghoshal, 2000].

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Lecture 10: Underground and Other Structures

Railroad wheels

Straman et al [2003] have developed quantitative criteria for removing railroad wheels from service, based on real-time structural
health monitoring trends using data collected from trains while in-service. The data are collected using Wheel Impact Load
Detectors (WILDs). These impact load trends are able to distinguish wheels with a high probability of failure from high impact
wheels with a low probability of failure. Traditionally, wheels are removed based on drive-by visual inspection and the high impact
condemning limit. Unfortunately many damaged wheels are not found with the drive-by inspection method, while many useable
wheels are removed when they could remain in service. The structural health monitoring trends developed in the paper provide a
quantitative decision method based on the wheel impact data which indicate the actual condition of the wheels.

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Lecture 10: Underground and Other Structures

Composite structures

Fiber reinforced laminated composites are widely used nowadays in load bearing structures due to their light weight, high specic
strength and stiness, good corrosion resistance and superb fatigue properties. While composites enjoy a number of
advantages, they are also prone to wide range of defects and damages which may signicantly reduce their structural integrity.
Internal damages such as delamination, ber breakage and matrix cracks are caused easily in the composite laminates under
external force such as foreign object collision. Such damages induced by transverse impact can cause reduction in the strength
and stiffness of the materials even if the damages are small in size. Hence, there is a need to detect and locate damage as and
when it occurs. Figure 10.2 represents the concern of the users for the type of damages in metallic and composite structures
which are of their interest.

Figure 10.2 Users concern for the type of damages in metallic and composite structures

The technology for evaluation of metallic structure is fairly mature and most of the present day NDT methods are primarily meant
for metallic structures. Damage detection and its evaluation in composites are far more challenging in comparison to the metallic
structures due to their micro structural complexities. The anisotropy of composites, conductive nature of some fibers, and brittle
nature of matrices make interpretation of data obtained using conventional NDT technique more difficult and sometimes
misleading. With more emphasis being given for SHM, these methods are in the process of getting customized to suit the
composite structures.

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Lecture 10: Underground and Other Structures

Several research groups have contributed to SHM related work on composite structures using different methods for effective
evaluation of damages to the structures and their well being. Kessler et al [2002], in their review paper on Structural health
monitoring in composite materials using frequency response methods have presented part of an experimental and analytical
survey of candidate methods for the detection of damage in composite materials. The experimental results are presented for the
application of modal analysis techniques applied to rectangular laminated graphite / epoxy specimens containing representative
damage modes, including delamination, transverse ply cracks and through-holes (Figure 10.3). Changes in natural frequencies
and modes are found using a Scanning Laser Vibrometer and 2-D finite element models are created for comparison with the
experimental results.

Figure 10.3 : Frequency response plot using Laser Doppler Vibrometer for damaged
specimens

The models have accurately predicted the response of the specimens at low frequencies, but the local excitation and
coalescence of higher frequency modes make mode-dependant damage detection difficult and most likely impractical for
structural applications. The frequency response method is found to be reliable for detecting even small amounts of damage in a
simple composite structure, however, the potentially important information about damage type, size, location and orientation are
lost using this method since several combinations of these variables can yield identical response signature.

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Lecture 10: Underground and Other Structures

Prasad et al [2004] have looked into the possibility of constructing tomograms from a network of sensors generating and sensing
Lamb waves in thin, multi-layered, anisotropic composite plates. Lamb wave tomography offers a new dimension to the
challenging field of in situ health monitoring of structures. The improved tomogram results when the anisotropic and attenuative
characteristics of composite plates are accounted for by using the newly identified energy of the earliest Lamb wave signals as
the reconstruction parameter. Normalizing the Lamb wave energy data of the defective sample with respect to that of the defect-
free sample, they have concluded that the energy of the early part of the Lamb waveform is an effective parameter for
tomographic reconstruction and narrow bandwidth transducers such as PZT crystals excited by tone burst signals are found to be
more suitable than commercial transducers which have larger bandwidths.

Wang et al [2005] have investigated the interaction between a crack of a cantilevered composite panel and aerodynamic
characteristics by employing Galerkins method in coupled bending and torsion modes. Iwasaki et al [2004] have implemented
unsupervised statistical damage detection method for delaminated composite beams. Takeda [2001] has presented an overview
of structural health monitoring project for smart composite structure systems as a university-industry collaboration program. The
range of studies has indicated that there is a strong correlation between the extent of damage and reduction in natural
frequencies, particularly in the low frequency range for laminated composites. It has also revealed that frequency response
method is more suitable for such analysis and recommended a combined analysis based on finite element upgradation and
experimental modal analysis. Studies related to the use of different sensors and information fusion based on the reliability of each
sensor is still a gray area of research.

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Lecture 11: Smart Sensor and Actuator Technologies for SHM

The Lecture Contains:

Smart Sensor and Actuator Technologies for SHM

Piezoelectric materials

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Lecture 11: Smart Sensor and Actuator Technologies for SHM

Smart Sensor and Actuator Technologies for SHM

The design of smart structures depends on the appropriate use of smart materials. The commonly used smart materials can be
classified into four major groups

piezoeletric
magnetostrictive
phase-transition dependent
electro-rheological fluids

Piezoeletric materials develop electric charge on application of mechanical stress (the direct effect) and get strained due to the
application of an electric potential (the converse effect).

Magnetostrictive materials display similar direct and converse effect between mechanical and magnetic field. Shape memory
alloys deform during a phase change from martensite to austenite state. This phase transition may be caused due to stress or
temperature leading to volumetric changes in the material. The electro-rheological fluids are a class of specially formulated
suspensions which undergo a change in viscosity in the presence of applied electric field and modify the rheological behavior of
carrier fluid . The shape memory alloys and electro-rheological fluids are mainly used for actuation purposes such as vibration
and noise control while the piezoelectric and magnetostrictive materials are used for both sensing and actuation.

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Lecture 11: Smart Sensor and Actuator Technologies for SHM

Smart Sensor and Actuator Technologies for SHM

Each class of smart material possesses certain unique properties which makes them attractive for specific application. Shape
Memory Alloys (SMA) like Nitinol can generate considerable amount of free strain but the operational bandwidth is too low to be
used directly for most of the structural dynamic applications. Hence, they are suitable for static shape control and low frequency
dynamic applications. The possibilities of high free-strain availability often tempted the scientists to use SMA for controlling the
dynamic response. Baz et al [1995] have tried to use it as a spatially distributed stress generator which can make the host beam
stiffer and less susceptible to buckling. Materials like optical fiber and magneto-rheological fluids are also clustered in the group of
smart materials. Optical fiber is notable for its sensing applications. A comparison of electro-mechanical properties of smart
materials is listed in Table 11.1.

Table 11.1 Comparison of electro-mechanical properties of different smart materials


[Crawley, 1994]

Material property PZT PVDF Terfenol-D Nitinol


Max. free strain, microns 1000 700 1600 20,000
Elastic modulus, GPa 63 2.0 25-35 30 M1, 90 A2
Bandwidth 0.1 Hz- GHz 0.1 Hz- GHz 0.1Hz-MHz 0-10Hz

Magnetostrictive and piezoelectric materials are particularly useful in dynamic applications. Hence, they are being discussed in
some details in view of their usefulness both as actuator and sensor.

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Piezoelectric materials

Piezoelectricity i.e. electricity from pressure was discovered by Pierre and Jacque Curie more than 100 years ago. Piezoelectric
materials are materials that physically deform in the presence of an electric field, or conversely, produce an electrical charge
when mechanically deformed. This effect is due to the spontaneous separation of charge within certain crystals structures
producing an electrical dipole. Generation of charge on mechanical stress was first observed in the crystals of zinc blende,
sodium chlorate, borocite, tourmaline, quartz calamine, topaz, tartaric acid, cane sugar and Rochelle salt etc.. At present,
polycrystalline ceramics are the most common class of piezoelectric materials. Polycrystalline ceramics are composed of
randomly oriented minute crystallites. Each crystallite is further divided into tiny domains or regions having similar dipole
arrangements. Initially the polar domains are oriented randomly showing little macroscopic piezoelectric behavior. During
manufacturing, the material is subjected to a large electrical field [of the order of 2kV/mm] at a temperature above the Curie
temperature which orients the polar domains in the direction of the external electrical field. It results in material exhibiting
macroscopic piezoelectric behavior [Figure 11.1].

Figure 11.1: Polarization (poling) of a piezoelectric ceramic

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Lecture 11: Smart Sensor and Actuator Technologies for SHM

Piezoelectric materials

Figure 11.2 shows the tetragonal pervoskite structure below the Curie temperature which is a characteristic of piezoelectric
material. Only 11 groups out of possible 32 crystal groups based on simple lattice geometry and symmetry operation on crystal
faces show piezoelectric properties [Cady, 1946]. They are all non-centro-symmetric and a subgroup of such crystals known as
ferroelectrics always show spontaneous polarization.

Figure 11.2: Tetragonal pervoskite structure of barium titanate below Curie temperature

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Constitutive Relationship

If a voltage is applied in the direction of poling electric field, the material elongates in that direction. The opposite effect is also
present. On applying mechanical strain in the direction of poling electric field, a charge separation across the material (which is a
dielectric) produces a voltage.

The constitutive equations for a piezoelectric material are

Actuation equation

(11.1)

Sensing equation

(11.2)

Where is mechanical strain, is mechanical stress, S is the compliance at constant electric field, d is the electro-mechanical
coupling constant, E is electric field, D is the electrical displacement (charge density), is the dielectric constant of the
piezoelectric material at constant stress. Without the piezoelectric coupling term, Equation 11.1 is simply Hookes law. Likewise,
without the coupling term,, Equation 11.2 is simply the dielectric equation or a form of Gauss law for electricity. The piezoelectric
coupling provides the medium for energy conservation. The electric field across the material affects its mechanics and the stress
in the material affects its dielectric properties.

Piezoelectric materials are widely used as sensors in different environments. Lead Zirconate Titanate (commonly known as PZT)
is the most prominent piezoelectric material as it could operate at a much higher temperature and possesses stronger
piezoelectric effect relative to ferroelectric ceramics of other compositions.

Polystrene, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), vinyl acetate and polyproplyene etc. are some polymers which show piezoelectric
effect. Among them, PVDF shows strongest piezoelectricity. It refers to a class of materials based on the vinylidene fluoride
monomer [-CF2=CH2-]. PVDF is the most popular piezoelectric polymer material for impact sensors. The present day
development in smart structural technology is mainly centered around these two materials.

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Mode of Operation of Piezoelectric Materials

Figure 11.3: Illustration of 33 and 31 mode of operations of piezoelectric material

Figure 11.3 illustrate two different modes in which piezoelectric material is generally used. Typically, piezoelectric material is used
in 33 mode i.e. both the voltage and stress act in thickness direction. However, the material can also be operated in 31 mode,
meaning that the voltage acts in the 3 direction (i.e. the material is poled in the thickness direction) and the mechanical stress /
strain acts in direction 1. The most common type of 31 elements is bimorph in which two separate sheets are bonded together.
As the element is subjected to bending, the top layer of the element is in tension and bottom layer is in compression or vice
versa. If both the layers are poled in the same direction and electrodes are wired properly, the current produced by each layer will
add. Bending elements with multiple layers can also be made with proper wiring for internal electrodes to improve the voltage to
current ratio.

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Lecture 11: Smart Sensor and Actuator Technologies for SHM

A list of material properties of PZT and PVDF is presented with Aluminum for the sake of comparison in the Table 11.2.

Table 11.2: Material properties of different piezoelectrics and aluminum

Material property PVDF PZT Aluminum


Elastic modulus, GPa 2.0 63.0 73.0
Shear modulus, GPa 0.77 2.33 45.6
Density, (Kg / m3) 1800 7600 2700
Poissons ratio, 0.29 0.35 0.3
Piezoelectric coupling
2.2 37.0 0.0
constant,
Maximum free strain available, ppm 10 2000 -

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Lecture 12: Understanding Magnetostrictive materials

The Lecture Contains:

Understanding magnetostrictive materials

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Lecture 12: Understanding Magnetostrictive materials

Understanding Magnetostrictive Materials

Magnetostriction is mostly found in

magnetic transition materials like iron, cobalt, nickel and


the rare earth materials like lanthanum and terbium.

The grains of these materials consist of numerous small randomly oriented domains which can rotate and align under the
influence of an external magnetic field. The magnetic orientation or alignment causes internal strain in the material which is
known as magnetostriction [Figure 12.1].

Figure 12.1: Magnetostriction in a ferromagnetic material (a) paramagnetic state above Tc;
(b) after it has cooled through Tc; and (c) after it has been brought to saturation by
a field H. [Dapino et al, 1999]

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Lecture 12: Understanding Magnetostrictive materials

Similar effects are also found in the dielectrics under high electric field which is known as electrostriction.

Electro-Mechanical Phenomenon

Electro-mechanical phenomenon is quite different from the piezoelectricity as it is essentially non-linear in nature and the
response is always unidirectional under unbiased field i.e. the material can only expand irrespective of the direction of voltage or
magnetic field applied to it.

The phenomenon of magnetostriction was discovered in nickel by James Joule in 1840. Later, it has also been observed in other
ferromagnets and their alloys. The growth of magnetostriction is presented in Figure 12.2

Figure 12.2: Growth in magnetostriction

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Lecture 12: Understanding Magnetostrictive materials

The discovery of low-temperature magneto-elasticity in rare-earth elements like Tb (Terbium), Dy (Dysprosium) and Sm
(Samarium) has given a fresh impetus to the scientists to search of magnetostricitive (MS) materials suitable for developing
transducers. Clark et al [1983] have obtained room temperature magnetostriction in the alloy of Tb and Fe which has higher
Curie temperature (around 7000 K). Subsequently, it was found that by adding another rare-earth material called Dysprosium with
Tb-Fe alloy the magnetic anisotropy in the alloys can be reduced, thus generating even larger strains. Terfenol compound made
using the composition Dy0.73Tb0.27Fe1.95 produces less sharp but more linear variation of strain than the same compound made
of Dy0.7Tb0.3Fe1.95 composition [Greenough et al, 1991]. Substituting Dysprosium from Tb-Fe alloy by other rare earth materials
like Holonium or Samarium, magnetostriction characteristics can be significantly changed.

Material properties of two important Magnetostrictors with Aluminum are listed in Table 12.1.

Table 12.1: Material properties of two different magnetostrictors and Aluminum [Butler, 1988]

Material Properties Terfenol-D Metglas Aluminum


Elastic modulus, GPa 25-35 59.30 73.0
Density Kg / m3(103) 9.25 7.47 2.63
Permeability, 9.2 - -
Coupling factor, k 0.75 0.95 0
Magneto-mechanical constant, d Nm/A 15.0 - 0
Curie temperature, TC (0C) 380 - -
Maximum free strain, , ppm 1500 52 0

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Lecture 12: Understanding Magnetostrictive materials

Main advantage of magnetostrictive sensing

The fundamental technology is non-contact in nature so that the sensors can last indenitely and can be inserted/embedded
inside the composite layers.

Disadvantage of MS materials

Need for delivery of a controlled magnetic eld to an embedded actuator.

A typical magnetostrictive transducer is shown in Figure 12.3.

Figure 12.3: A typical magnetostrictive transducer

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Lecture 13: Optical Fibres and Lamb Wave Method

The Lecture Contains:

Optical fibers

Lamb wave methods

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Lecture 13: Optical Fibres and Lamb Wave Method

Optical fibers

Fiber optic sensors are probably the most used sensors in practical situations. They are further gaining rapid attention in the eld
of SHM. They are most prominently being used in civil structures. The recent advances in the development of fibre optic
technology are likely to replace some present day electrical sensors. It is important that the sensors and actuators embedded to
the parent structure should not affect the integrity of the structure.

Figure 13.1: Effect of embedding of optical fiber sensors in CFRP composite

Figure 13.1 shows how the embedding of fiber optic sensors actually adds to impact strength of the host structure. Fiber optic
sensors are competing with piezo-ceramic patches as sensors / receivers in acoustic emission and Lamb wave sensing.

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Lecture 13: Optical Fibres and Lamb Wave Method

Tsuda et al [2006] have studied damage detection of CFRP using Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors. Murayama et al [2000]
have studied SHM of a full-scale composite structure using ber optic sensors. Xu et al [2003] have introduced an approach for
delamination detection using ber optic interferometric technique. Tennyson et al [2001] have described the development and
application of ber optic sensors for monitoring bridge structures. Chan et al [2002] have investigated the feasibility of SHM
using FBG sensors via monitoring of the strain of different parts of a suspension bridge. FBG strain sensors are developed by
Moyo et al [2005] for SHM of large scale civil infrastructure. Ling et al [2004] have studied the dynamic strain measurement and
delamination detection of composite structures using embedded multiplexed FBG sensors through experimental and theoretical
approaches and revealed that the embedded FBG sensors are able to actually measure the dynamic strain and identify the
existence of delamination of the structures. Li et al [2004] have presented an overview of research and development in the eld
of ber optical sensor based SHM for civil engineering applications including buildings, piles, bridges, pipelines, tunnels and
dams. Cusano et al [2004] have described the design of a FBG sensing system for static and dynamic strain measurements
leading to the possibility to perform high frequency detection for on-line SHM in civil, aeronautic and aerospace applications.

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Lecture 13: Optical Fibres and Lamb Wave Method

Lamb wave methods

Kessler et al [2001] in their paper on Structural health monitoring in composite materials using Lamb Wave methods have dealt
with Lamb wave method for in-situ damage detection of composite materials. Experimental results are presented for the
application of Lamb wave techniques to quasi-isotropic graphite /epoxy thin coupons and sandwich beams containing
representative damage modes, including delamination, transverse ply cracks and through-holes. Optimization experiments
provided a procedure capable of easily and accurately determining the presence of damage by monitoring the transmitted waves
with PZT sensors. Lamb wave techniques have been proven to provide more information about damage type, severity and
location than previously tested methods, and may prove suitable for structural health monitoring applications since they travel
long distances and can be applied with conformable piezoelectric actuators and sensors that require little power.

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Lecture 14: Solution Domain for SHM

The Lecture Contains:

Static domain

Modal domain

Mode shape curvatures / modal strain energy

Modal damping

Limitations of modal domain techniques in SHM

Frequency domain

Impedance domain

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Lecture 14: Solution Domain for SHM

Literature for SHM can be divided according to their solution domains.

Static Domain
Modal Domain
Frequency Domain
Impedance domain

Static domain

In the presence of damage, stiffness matrix of a structure changes causing changed displacement of the structure due to static
load. This change is one of the criteria used for the detection of damage. Jenkins et al [1997] have introduced a static deflection
based damage detection method. Zhao and Shenton [2005] have presented a novel damage detection method based on best
approximation of dead load stress redistribution due to damage. For self-equilibrating static load (usually generated by smart
actuator) the effect of load on the static response becomes negligible far away from the actuator even in the presence of damage.
Hence, the change of structural properties distant from the actuator cannot be sensed through static self-equilibrating load and
the use of smart actuator for SHM in static domain is limited.

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Modal domain

Since modal parameters depend on the material property and geometry, the change in natural frequencies, mode shapes and
modal curvature etc. can be used to locate the damage in structures without the knowledge of excitation force. The extent of the
literature pertaining to the various methods for SHM based on modal domain is quite large. Lakshminarayana and Jebaraj [1999]
have used rst four bending and torsion modes and corresponding changes in natural frequencies to estimate the location of a
crack in a beam. It is reported that if the crack is located at the peak / trough positions of the strain-mode shapes, then
percentage changes in frequencies would be higher for corresponding modes. It is also found that if the crack is located at the
nodal points of the strain-mode shapes, then the percentage change in frequency values would be lower for corresponding
modes.

Tracy and Pardoen [1989] have also found that if the delamination is in a region of mode shape where the shear force is very
high, there will be considerable degradation in natural frequency which is otherwise not signicant. Hence, by studying the mode
shapes and the corresponding natural frequencies, estimation on the location of delamination can be made.

The anti-resonance frequencies are the frequencies at which the magnitude of the frequency response at measured degrees of
freedom approaches zero. To calculate anti-resonance frequencies of a dynamic system, He and Li [2002] have developed an
accurate and efficient method for undamped systems. The reasons for looking to the anti-resonance frequencies are that these
anti-resonance frequencies can be easily and accurately measured in a similar way as for the natural frequencies. Furthermore, a
system can have much greater number of anti-resonance frequencies than natural frequencies since every FRF between an
actuator and a sensor pair contains a set of anti-resonance frequencies.

Doebling and Farrar [1997] have examined changes in the frequencies and mode shapes of a bridge as a function of damage.
This study focuses on estimating the statistics of the modal parameters using Monte Carlo procedures to determine if damage
has produced a statistically signicant change in the mode shapes. Stanbridge et al [1997] have also used mode shape changes
to detect saw-cut and fatigue crack damage in at plates. Methods of extracting those mode shapes using Laser Doppler
Vibrometer have been discussed.

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Mode shape curvatures / modal strain energy

Pandey et al [1991] have identied the absolute changes in mode shape curvature as an indicator of damage. Zhang et al
[1998] have proposed a structural damage identication method based on element modal strain energy, which uses measured
mode shapes and modal frequencies from both damaged and undamaged structures as well as a nite element model to locate
damage.

Ho and Ewins [2000] have found that higher derivatives of mode shapes are more sensitive to damage, but the dierentiation
process enhances the experimental variations inherent in those mode shapes. An experimental damage detection investigation of
ber-reinforced polymer honeycomb sandwich beams has been performed by Lestari and Qiao [2005] based on the curvature
mode shapes. In these experiments impulse hammer is used for actuation and surface bonded array of PZT sensors are used for
acquiring the curvature modes of structure.

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Modal damping

When compared to frequencies and mode shapes, damping properties have not been used as extensively as frequencies and
mode shapes for damage diagnosis. Crack detection in a structure based on damping, however, has the advantage over other
detection schemes based on frequencies and mode shapes. This is due to the fact that the damping changes have the ability to
detect the nonlinear, dissipative effects that cracks produce. Modena et al [1999] show that the visually undetectable cracks
cause very little change in resonant frequencies and require higher mode shapes to be detected, while the same cracks cause
larger changes in the damping. Zonta et al [2000] observe that crack creates a non-viscous dissipative mechanism for making
damping more sensitive to damage. Kawiecki [2000] noted that damping can be a useful damage-sensitive feature particularly
suitable for SHM of lightweight and micro-structures. The application of arrays of surface-bonded piezo-elements to determine
modal damping characteristics for SHM of light weight and micro structure are discussed. Many structural health monitoring
techniques rely on the fact that structural damage can be expressed by a reduction in stiffness. Maeck and Roeck [2001] have
applied a direct stiffness approach to damage detection, localization and quantication for a bridge structure which uses
experimental frequencies and mode shapes in deriving the dynamic stiffness of a structure.

A reduction in stiffness corresponds to an increase in structural exibility. Pandey and Biswas [1994] have presented a damage
detection and damage localization method based on changes in the exibility of the structure. Bernal [2000] mentions that
changes in the exibility matrix are sometimes more desirable to monitor than changes in the stiffness matrix. Since the exibility
matrix is dominated by the lower modes, good approximations can be obtained even when only a few lower modes are employed.
Reich and Park [2000] focus on the use of localized exibility properties for structural damage detection. The authors choose
exibility over stiffness for several reasons, including the facts that

1. exibility matrices are directly attainable through the modes and mode shapes determined by the system identication
process,
2. iterative algorithms usually converge fast to high eigen values,
3. in exibility-based methods, these eigen values correspond to the dominant low frequency components in structural
vibrations.

A structural exibility partitioning technique is used because when the global exibility matrix is used, there is an inability to
uniquely model elemental changes in exibility. The strain based substructural exibility matrices measured before and after a
damage event, are compared to identify the location and relative degree of damage.

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Limitations of modal domain techniques in SHM

Modal methods are not very sensitive to small size delaminations which are of practical interest and can be very cumbersome
and computationally expensive while implementing in practice for on-line health monitoring. In most of the methods based on
modal parameters, it is assumed that the modes under consideration are affected by damages. As pointed out by Ratcliffe [2000],
the changes in individual natural frequencies due to small damage may become insignicant and may fall within measurement
error. In practical situation, this can considerably reduce the effectiveness of the prediction. The relative insensitivity of lower
modes to damage becomes a signicant problem when only a few lower modes are used in SHM. Change of structural dynamic
performance caused by structural damage that is less than 1 per cent of the total structural size is unnoticeable. Yan and Yam
[2002] have pointed out that when the crack length in a composite plate equals 1 per cent of the plate length, the relative variation
of structural natural frequency is only about 0.01 to 0.1 per cent. Therefore, using vibration modal parameters, e.g., natural
frequencies, displacement or strain mode shapes and modal damping are generally ineffective in identifying small and incipient
structural damage.

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Frequency domain

In the frequency domain method, most important part is to calculate the dynamic stiffness matrix at each frequency either from
stiffness and mass matrix or directly from spectral formulation. The applied load vector is transformed in the frequency domain by
Fourier Transform and solved for structural response at each frequency. After getting responses for each frequency, inverse
Fourier Transform provides the time domain responses.

Although majority of investigations into structures under dynamic loading are concerned with obtaining the natural frequencies,
and possibly mode shapes of the structure, a much more valuable description of the dynamic behavior of the structure is the
Frequency Response Function (FRF), which describes the relationship between a local excitation force applied at one location on
the structure and the resulting response at another location. Essentially, the FRF returns information about the behavior of the
structure over a range of frequencies. The response at a particular frequency for some forcing and response locations will simply
be a complex vector, which is often plotted in terms of real and imaginary parts or in terms of amplitude and phase. The
frequency response of a system can be measured by:

1. applying an impulse to the system and measuring its response;


2. sweeping a constant-amplitude pure tone through the bandwidth of interest and measuring the output level and phase
shift relative to the input.

Mal et al [2005] have presented a methodology for automatic damage identication and localization using FRF of the structure.
Lopes et al [2000] relate the electrical impedance of the piezoelectric material to the FRFs of a structure. The FRFs are
extracted from the measured electrical impedance through the electromechanical interaction of the piezo-ceramic material and
the structure.

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Impedance domain

The basic concept of impedance method is to use high-frequency structural excitations to monitor the local area of a structure for
changes in structural impedance that would indicate imminent damage. The impedance domain technique successfully detects
damage that is located near the sensor / actuator. Electro-mechanical impedance is a technique for SHM that uses a collocated
piezoelectric actuator / sensor to measure the variations of mechanical impedance of a structural component or assembly. This
technique relies on the electro-mechanical coupling between the electrical impedance of the piezoelectric materials and the local
mechanical impedance of the structure adjacent to the PZT patches. The PZT patches are used both to actuate the structure and
to monitor the response. From the input and output relationship of the piezoelectric materials, the electrical impedance is
computed. When the PZT sensor-actuator is bonded to a structure, the electrical impedance is coupled with the local mechanical
impedance. Small aws in the early stages of damage are often undetectable through global vibration signature methods, but
these aws can be detected using the PZT sensor-actuator, provided that they are near the incipient damage. By inspecting the
differences between the impedance spectrum of a reference baseline of the structure in an undamaged condition and the
impedance spectrum of the same structure with damage, incipient anomalies of the structural integrity can be detected. This
health monitoring technique can also be implemented in an on-line fashion to provide a real-time assessment to detect the
presence of structural damage. Giurgiutiu and Zagrai [2005] have used high-frequency electro-mechanical impedance spectra for
health monitoring of thin plates. Park et al [2003] have summarized the hardware and software issues of impedance-based
SHM, where high-frequency structural excitations are used to monitor the local area of a structure from changes in structural
impedance. Piezoelectric-wafer active sensor based SHM and damage detection based on elastic wave propagation and electro-
mechanical (E/M) impedance technique are reviewed by Giurgiutiu et al [2002].

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 15: Vibration based damage detection

The Lecture Contains:

Introduction

Vibration based damage detection

Analysis results of damage detection with methods based on natural vibration

Damage Index (DI)

Experimental set for data gathering

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 15: Vibration based damage detection

Vibration based damage detection

Vibration based damage detection methods make use of

Dynamic responses of a structure


Natural frequencies and mode shapes, and frequency response function (FRF)
Digital signal processing based on measured data may enhance the results of damage localization

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Module 1: Overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Lecture 15: Vibration based damage detection

Analysis results of damage detection with methods based on natural vibration

Mode Shape Curvature (MSC)

Bending stiffness at the location of the damage is reduced


Magnitude of the mode curvatures increase
Highest in the region of the damage and negligibly small outside this region
Help to identify damage location in structures
Difference in absolute curvatures of the healthy and damaged structures, for each mode is MSC

(5.1)

Where and stands for mode shape second derivative of undamaged and damaged state.
Applicable to isotropic beams, laminated composite beams, or the wooden board.

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Figure 15.1: MSCwithout (a ) and with(b) proposed signal processing (damage size10 %
of the beam height located at 0.3 x/L )

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Lecture 15: Vibration based damage detection

Damage Index (DI)

Based on the relative differences in modal strain energy, before and after the damage

(15.2)

Applied to composite, concrete and isotropic beams

Coordinate Modal Assurance criterion (COMAC)

Identifies the co-ordinates at which two sets of the mode shape do not agree

The COMAC factor at a point between two sets of the same mode shape, in two state is

(15.3)

Related to degrees of freedom of the structure


Dependent on the geometry of a structure and the location of a damage
Applicable to reinforced concrete beam, the wooden board and the isotropic beam

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Lecture 15: Vibration based damage detection

Strain energy damage index (SEDI)

Accounts for the change in strain energy, when it deforms in mode shape
Based on the decrease in modal strain energy
Changes in flexural rigidity
SEDI for the ith element centered around ith degree of freedom can be written as

(15.4)

= Experimentally determined fractional strain energy for mode j between the end points of element i.
Applied to isotropic beams and plates, RC beams by the wooden board in, the composite laminated beams, aluminium
plate.

Modified Laplacian operator (MLO)

Localized changes of element stiffness


The one-dimensional Laplacian of the discrete mode shape can be introduced.

(15.5)

Gapped Smoothing Method

Based on the idea that a mode shape for an undamaged structure is smooth
Defined as the square of the difference between the measured data and the smoothed fitting values
Not provide reliable information due to not very clean information occurring at the ends.

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Figure 15.2: Gapped Smoothing Method (GSM).

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Lecture 15: Vibration based damage detection

Potential strain energy change based damage indicator

Commonly known that for a timeshenko beam the strain energy,

(15.6)

Clear relation between the strain change and the second derivative of every mode shape
Natural frequency change,depending on a damage location along the beam length.

(15.7)

Hybrid Damage Detection method (HDD)

Utilizing natural frequencies and mode shapes for fatigue damage detection

Experimental set for data gathering

Mode shape are sensitive to damage


Mode shapes have been obtained experimentally
To obtain the modal parameters
Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) via Fast Fourier Transformation
Determination of natural frequencies by finding local maxima in averaged FRF graph
Those frequencies have been examine ODS (operational deflection shapes).

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Figure 15.3: Expermental setup for data generation

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Lecture 15: Vibration based damage detection

Vibration deflection shape (VDS)

Uses LDV & PSV software


Visual interpretation of vibration pattern
Damage detected in terms of geometric features
Exact response of the structure is used so accurate
Good near natural frequency
Peak point of VDS indicates damage
Distortion in VDS at damage site

Issues related to VDS

Correct location of damage not possible


Easy to obtain data
In low frequency VDS exact location of damage cannot be predicted
In high frequency VDs small damage can be located
Change in excitation point help in damage detection

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Module 2: Active Vibration Control of Smart Composite Plate


Lecture 16: Vibration Control of Smart Composite Plate

The Lecture Contains:

Introduction

Formulation of a high precision plate element

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Module 2: Active Vibration Control of Smart Composite Plate


Lecture 16: Vibration Control of Smart Composite Plate

Introduction

The active control of dynamic structural systems has been extensively studied for last 30 years. Leipholz and others have
obtained closed-form solutions for vibration in beams and plates subjected to a distributed control force. The analytical solutions
have gained renewed and practical utility with the advent of smart materials as truly distributed sensing and actuation layers could
be developed from these materials. To site a few important milestones in this direction, Burke and Hubbard have designed
distributed controller for vibration suppression in cantilever beam using PVDF film. Crawley and Rogers have brought out the role
of important parameters like thickness ratio of smart and passive elements, the distance of smart actuating layer from the neutral
axis etc. required for efficient vibration control. All these analysis are performed on Euler Bernoulli beam model. Reddy et al
[1991] have extended it to models in which shear deformation and rotary inertia are included. Finite elements are used to bring
out the importance of higher order terms on vibration suppression. Cowper has earlier developed a triangular thin plate element
with transverse deflection and their first and second derivatives as DOF and the displacement function in the form of constrained
quintic polynomial. Finite element proposed by Reddy et al [1991] is based on this Cowper element. Tzou have developed iso-
parametric finite element for the analysis of smart plates and shells.

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Module 2: Active Vibration Control of Smart Composite Plate


Lecture 16: Vibration Control of Smart Composite Plate

Introduction

The theoretical model for studying dynamic response of composite plates are available in literature, however, analytical solutions
are obtainable only for simple geometric and boundary conditions due to the difficulties in solving partial differential equations of
motion for arbitrary initial and boundary conditions. Finite Element technique is used often to deal with complex geometry and
boundary conditions. However, instead of using 3-D elements like hexahedral or brick element, one can use 2-D high precision
elements (generally 9-12 degrees of freedom per node) for solving the plate problems. The advantage of using 2-D high precision
element is that it is simpler than 3-D element and also it is computationally less intensive for dynamic analysis of plate structure.
These elements are used for modal analysis (eigen frequencies and mode shape) of passive plate structures. But the refinement
of mesh for accurate estimation of modal frequencies and shape is limited due to computational burden generated by large
degrees of freedom.

To reduce the computational burden of numerical integration, symbolic manipulation has been carried out by using
MATHEMATICA. The closed form expressions of stiffness and mass matrices are used wherever required to reduce the
computational burden. Static condensation is used to further reduce the size of the eigen value problem.

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Module 2: Active Vibration Control of Smart Composite Plate


Lecture 16: Vibration Control of Smart Composite Plate

Formulation of a High Precision Plate Element

The plate elements with lower degree of polynomial displacement functions cannot simulate true curvature distribution precisely
unless a very fine mesh is generated. Bending moment or shear stresses generated by such polynomials are discontinuous as
inter element continuity cannot be ensured with a low degree polynomial. Also, many engineering laminates are thin and are
analyzed using Classical Laminated Plate Theory (CLPT). By virtue of Kirchhoff hypothesis, the model neglects the effects due to
transverse shear and normal strain in the thickness direction. The present finite element formulation is based on CLPT and, thus,
limited to thin plates. The element has 3 nodes at the vertices and uses 12 degrees of freedom at each vertex, the in plane
displacements in the x and y directions and their first derivatives, along with the normal displacement in the thickness direction
and its first and second derivatives. Two more in-plane displacements at the centroid of the element are condensed out before
assembly. The displacement functions used here are the same as used in the high precision elements developed by
Jeyachandrabose et al [1985] and Bhattacharya et al [1998]. These high precision elements are recognized for accurate
deformation prediction. They have used complete cubic polynomials for the in-plane displacements u, v and a constrained quintic
polynomial for the normal displacement w. The elements are completely conforming and rapidly converging. Each element has
total 38 degrees of freedom (DOF). The coordinate system and element configuration are shown in Figure 16.1.

Figure 16.1: Triangular element used in HPFE

Consider the deformation of a laminate in x-z plane and assume that normal to the mid plane remain straight and normal after
deformation. This assumption is equivalent to neglecting shearing deformations and is also equivalent to assuming that the
lamina that make up the cross section do not slip over each other.

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Module 2: Module 2: Active Vibration Control of Smart Composite Plate


Lecture 16: Vibration Control of Smart Composite Plate

The normals are presumed to have constant length so that the strain perpendicular to the middle surface is ignored i.e. = 0.
Under these assumptions, the strain-displacement relations for a point at a distance z from the middle surface of the laminate are
given by

(16.1)

or,

(16.2)

where is the mid plane strain vector and is the curvature vector; u, v are the

tangential mid plane displacements. The constitutive relationship for the kth layer with respect to the principal material axis is
given by

(16.3)

The elements of the matrix Q are expressed in terms of elastic constants as

(16.4)

Of the 5 engineering elastic constants, only 4 are independent and the fifth is evaluated from the relation

(16.5)

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Lecture 17: Constitutive Relationship

The Lecture Contains:

Constitutive relationship

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Lecture 17: Constitutive Relationship

Constitutive Relationship

The constitutive relation may be transformed from the in plane principal axes of the lamina 1-2 to the global coordinate system x-
y by

(17.1)

Figure 17.1: A typical lamina

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Lecture 17: Constitutive Relationship

Figure 17.2: A typical composite plate

The elements of the transformed matrix [Q]are given as

(17.2)

in which and is the angle between the global axes x-y and the principal axis of each lamina 1-
2. It is also known as the fiber orientation angle.

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Lecture 17: Constitutive Relationship

The stress in a laminate varies from layer to layer. Hence, it is convenient to deal with a simple but equivalent system of forces
and moments acting on a laminate cross section. Therefore, the resultant forces and moments are obtained by integrating the
corresponding stress through the laminate thickness, .

(17.3)

and

(17.4)

N is the membrane force vector, M is the bending moment vector and n is the total number of layers. The constitutive relations
are given by

(17.5)

, and the extensional, extensional-bending coupling and bending stiffness matrix of the laminate respectively
are defined as

(17.6)

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Lecture 18: Element Matrices

The Lecture Contains:

Element stiffness matrix

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Lecture 18: Element Matrices

Element stiffness matrix

The element properties are derived in the area coordinate system and . These coordinates are related to the Cartesian
coordinates as

(18.1)

where,

(18.2)

and

(18.3)

Here are in cyclic order and are the global coordinates of the three vertices of
the triangle in Cartesian system and denotes area of the triangular element.

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Lecture 18: Element Matrices

In each element, three field displacements (in-plane components) and (transverse component) along and x-z
directions are considered. Nodal DOF chosen are grouped into three vectors as

(18.4)

where,

(18.5)

(18.6)

(18.7)

and etc. are the first order derivatives with respect to the node Similarly, etc. are the
second order derivatives; denote the displacements along x and y direction at the centroid of the element. The in-plane
displacement functions are assumed to be complete cubic polynomial such as

or,

(18.8)

where

(18.9)

and

(18.10)

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Lecture 18: Element Matrices

A quintic polynomial series is adopted for the transverse displacement function

(18.11)

where,

(18.12)

By using Equation (18.7), each elements of U can be expressed in terms of the elements of C. There are ten such relations
corresponding to the ten in-plane DOF which can be summarized as a matrix equation.

(18.13)

The constants of the in-plane displacement polynomial can be expressed in terms of U as

(18.14)

where

(18.15)

However, using this relation, the in-plane displacement field u can be expressed in terms of nodal DOF U as

(18.16)

Similarly,

(18.17)

and

(18.18)

where,

and (18.19)

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and are the transformation matrices between natural and global coordinates.

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Lecture 18: Element Matrices

The strain energy of a thin laminated plate element is given by area integral over the element

(18.14)

Substituting from Equation (17.4) into Equation (18.14), the strain energy may be written as

(18.15)

In terms of area co-ordinates

and (18.16)

where,

and (18.17)

(18.19)

Substituting from Equation (18.16) into Equation (18.15), the expression of strain energy is

(18.20)

In the above equation

(18.21)

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The strain energy in the form of element stiffness matrix can also be written as

(18.22)

The element stiffness matrix [K] is given by

(18.23)

where,

(18.24)

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Lecture 19: Element Mass Matrix

The Lecture Contains:

Mass matrix

Dynamic analysis of a passive plate

Determination of fundamental frequencies and mode shapes

Analysis of smart plate vibration

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Lecture 19: Element Mass Matrix

Mass matrix

The kinetic energy, T of the element is given as

(19.1)

M is the mass matrix, the density of the plate and V is the volume of the element. Expressing (u,v) and w in terms of nodal
variables and and using Equation (18.12), the expression for kinetic energy may be written as

(19.2)

Hence, for any composite laminate, the mass matrix can be written as

(19.3)

= thickness of the kth layer, density per unit area of the kth layer.

(19.4)

The shape functions used to find mass matrix are the same as that for the field displacement. Such mass matrix is termed as
consistent mass matrix. The consistent mass matrix is computationally more intensive, but more accurate for dynamic
analysis and hence it is chosen for this problem.

The expression for mass matrix on transformation to area coordinates is

(19.5)

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Lecture 19: Element Mass Matrix

Dynamic Analysis of a Passive Plate

The objective of using a high precision finite element is to carry out the dynamic analysis of laminated composite plates. Such
analysis often requires repeated operations; each involves the computational effort equivalent to a single static solution for a
single load vector. To reduce the amount of computation, it is sometimes helpful to reduce the size of matrices being
manipulated. Various kinds of reduction can be identified. Each can be regarded as either a way of imposing an elastic constraint
or as a way of providing a reduced basis. A basis is a set of linearly independent vectors that can be combined in various
proportions to represent other vectors. In the context of structural vibration, other vectors implies the complete set of eigen
vectors of the FE model. A basis is called reduced if it includes fewer vectors than the complete set.

The internal degrees of freedom do not have any physical significance; hence, they can be condensed from the system
equations. In the element level for undamped free vibration, stiffness and mass matrices are partitioned as

(19.6)

Here D1 and D2 are the master and slave degrees of freedom respectively. Lower partition is solved for D2 and is substituted into
the upper partition. Thus obtaining a smaller system that has only D1 as DOF. Matrices of such a reduced system would be
frequency-dependent. To obtain a frequency-independent transformation, Guyan suggested that the relation between the slaves
and the masters be dictated entirely by stiffness coefficients. So, the modified stiffness and mass matrices are

(19.6)

Modal analysis is a powerful tool to determine the free and forced vibration responses of multi-degree systems. The system
vibrates with harmonic motion at a natural frequency when and only when the amplitudes of vibration of the masses in the system
satisfy any one of its mode shape

(19.7)

Inbuilt solver of MATLAB and subspace iteration techniques is used to find the eigen frequencies. A standard FEM package
ABAQUS is used for modal analysis to check the dynamic behavior for higher modes and also to verify the FEM code.

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Lecture 19: Element Mass Matrix

Determination of fundamental frequency and mode shape

High precision plate element has been used to obtain the mode shape and fundamental frequencies for the passive composite
plate. The composite plate considered for numerical analysis and the arrangement of elements are shown in Figure 19.1. Other
details of laminated composite plates are presented in Table 19.1.

Figure 19.1: Composite laminate and its element configuration

Table 19.1 Numerical details used in the computation

Composite Glass-epoxy
Stacking sequence 0/0/0/0
Elastic modulus, E1 28.45 GPa

Elastic modulus, E2 2.148 GPa

Shear modulus, G12 1.032 GPa

Poissons ratio, 0.21


Density, 1670 kg/m3
Thickness of each layer 0.5mm

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Lecture 19: Element Mass Matrix

Figure 19.2: First mode shape from HPFE

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Figure 19.3: First six mode shapes from ABAQUS software

Table 19.2 Natural frequencies of passive composite plate obtained by using HPFE and
ABAQUS

Modal frequencies by HPFE Modal frequencies by


Mode
(Hz) ABAQUS (Hz)
1 48.31 44.67
2 99.13 92.66
3 137.47 123.12
4 218.37 200.38
5 261.23 241.39
6 372.41 334.10

The fundamental frequencies obtained by HPFE and the corresponding values obtained by ABAQUS are listed in Table 19.2. The
results show that the fundamental frequencies obtained from HPFE with 8 elements used in the present analysis are in good
agreement with results from standard FEM package ABAQUS.

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Lecture 19: Element Mass Matrix

Analysis of Smart Plate Vibrations

The integration of laminated composites with piezoelectric materials to provide an active light weight smart structure has
considerable practical interest. These light weight structures, however, are prone to excessive vibration due to poor natural
damping and fatigue failure. There are number of methods for vibration reduction in structures. One of them is active vibration
control which is drawing attention because of its being cost effective due to rapid development in electronic technologies. Wang
et al [2001] have studied the vibration control of smart piezoelectric composite plates by formulating a smart eight nodded
quadrilateral finite element. The piezoelectric layers are considered as plies with special properties into the active laminate and
assumed that consistent deformations exist in the substrate and piezoelectric layers. This consistent methodology is followed
here with high precision element.

The objective of this study is to develop an active damping matrix that can control the vibration. Actuator and sensor influence
matrices are developed corresponding to piezoelectric material. The governing equations of motion are modified by including
negative velocity feedback based control force. Finally, studies on the effect of piezoelectric patch distribution and control gain on
vibration response are carried out.

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Lecture 20: Developing actuator and sensor influence matrix.

The Lecture Contains:

Developing actuator and sensor influence matrices.

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Lecture 20: Developing actuator and sensor influence matrix.

Developing actuator and sensor influence matrices.

The linear constitutive equations of a piezoelectric layer for the converse and direct piezoelectric effects can be written as

(20.1)

Where and are the stress and strain vector, Ek is the electric field vector, Dl is the electric displacement vector, is
the elastic stiffness matrix, is the piezoelectric stress charge tensor and is the piezoelectric permittivity matrix. The
electric field vector of the piezoelectric layer is related to the electric potential vector V by

(20.2)

The governing equation of motion neglecting material damping for this case can be written as

(20.3)

and are the structural nodal acceleration and displacement vectors. ] and are the structural mass and
stiffness matrices. F is the global force vector; is the structural electro-mechanical matrix and is the actuator voltage
vector. The equivalent forces dadue to the actuator voltages can be expressed as. . The controller is designed
after the placement of actuators and sensors. Therefore, the mass, damping and the stiffness matrices will not contain feedback
gain elements explicitly; although change in location of actuators across the layers will change all these matrices. The analysis is
done for collocated sensor and actuator. The electric voltage vector of the element can be expressed as

(20.4)

Np is the number of piezoelectric layers and is the electric voltage of the kth piezoelectric layer in

the i th element.

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Lecture 20: Developing actuator and sensor influence matrix.

Developing actuator and sensor influence matrices.

The work done by the actuator, Wa can be expressed as

(20.5)

or,

(20.6)

Cp is elastic modulus of piezoelectric patch and denotes the active strains generated.

The constitutive equation for a laminated composite with piezoelectric layer can be written as

(20.7)

For piezoelectric layer

(20.8)

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Module 2: Active Vibration Control of Smart Composite Plate


Lecture 20: Developing actuator and sensor influence matrix.

The transformation between principal direction and x-y are

(20.9)

and

(20.10)

where,

(20.11)

and,

(20.12)

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Module 2: Active Vibration Control of Smart Composite Plate


Lecture 20: Developing actuator and sensor influence matrix.

Developing actuator and sensor influence matrix.

The strain vector can be written in another form as

(20.13)

where

and (20.14)

(20.15)

Aq is the shape function matrix

(20.16)

, (20.17)

Finally, multiplying T2 and Aq

(20.18)

Substituting the expression of strain from Equation (20.8) into Equation (20.5), we get

(20.19)

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Since at the element level, the force by the actuator is from Equation (20.11), it may be written as

(20.20)

(20.21)

or

(20.22)

Matrix is the integration part of .

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Lecture 21: Sensor Voltage

The Lecture Contains:

Sensor Voltage

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Lecture 21: Sensor Voltage

Sensor Voltage

A typical piezoelectric sensor circuit is shown in Figure 21.1.

Since, in the sensory layer only mechanical field is present at sensor surface, the applied voltage is zero .

Figure 21.1: Piezoelectric sensory circuit.

The resultant stress due to mechanical deformation from Equation (20.5) could be written as

(21.1)

The electric displacement from Equation (20.1) on the sensor surfaces is given as

(21.2)

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Lecture 21: Sensor Voltage

Sensor Voltage

From Gauss law, the charge output Qi(t) of the ith electroplated sensor can be expressed in terms of spatial integration of D3 over

its surface as denotes the element number of the ith sensor.

(21.3)

If

(21.4)

in matrix form may be written as

(21.5)

Charge for the ith electroplated sensor . is the electro-mechanical matrix of the ith sensor.

Elementwise could be written as

(21.6)

When piezoelectric sensors are used as strain rate sensors, the output charge can be transformed to sensor voltage as

(21.7)

Where is the constant gain of the charge amplifier of the ith electroplated sensor.

The combined sensor voltage vector can be expressed as

(21.8)

Ns is the total number of piezoelectric sensors and

; (21.19)

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Lecture 21: Sensor Voltage

Negative velocity feedback control

A constant gain matrix [G] is used to couple the input actuator voltage vector and the output sensor voltage as

(21.20)

As stated above

(21.21)

Substituting Equation (21.9) into Equation (21.10) yields

(21.22)

Substituting Equation (21.11) into Equation (20.3), the equation of motion may be obtained

(21.23)

is the active damping matrix

(21.24)

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Lecture 22: Active Control of Damping

The Lecture Contains:

Active control of damping

Response of a general dynamic system

Vibration suppression of composite plate and determination of settling time

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Module 2: Active Vibration Control of Smart Composite Plate


Lecture 22: Active Control of Damping

Active control of damping

For the purpose of considering the control of damping of the structure, a derivative control algorithm governing the actuator
voltage may be chosen

(22.1)

Where , is the control gain and is the stiffness matrix of these actuators containing the
interaction terms between the displacement and voltage and may be written as

(22.2)

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Lecture 22: Active Control of Damping

Response of a General Dynamic System

The equation of motion for a general dynamical system is in the form

(22.3)

The matrix C is arbitrary and may not be symmetric. The system must be treated as a general one. It is assumed that M and K
are positive definite.

Introducing the 2n- dimensional state vector and the 2n-dimensional excitation vector,
Equation (22.2) can be transformed into

(22.4)

and are real matrices. is a positive definite symmetric matrix. is


neither positive definite nor symmetric.

Equation (22.4) can be rendered into a more convenient form by the Cholesky decomposition

(22.5)

Then, introducing the linear transformation

(22.6)

(22.7

where =( )=

Equation (22.5) can be reduced to

(22.8)

in which is a real non symmetrical matrix and is a real vector.

Since this is a free vibration case, , Hence, Equation (22.7) reduces to

(22.9)

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The solution of Equation (22.8) may be expressed as

(22.10)

The final response may be obtained from Equation (22.9)

(20.11)

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Lecture 22: Active Control of Damping

Vibration suppression of composite plate and determination of settling time

The objective of this numerical analysis is to find the dynamic response at the centre of a composite plate and to find out the
settling time for vibration within a tolerance level at the centre. The dynamic responses are simulated for different gain values.
Effect of variation in the size and location of PVDF patch on the vibration response and settling time is also studied.

Simply supported plate in fixed-free-fixed-free boundary condition is bonded with PVDF actuator patches of different size and
configuration [Figure 22.1].

Figure 22.1: Composite laminate and element configuration

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Module 2: Active Vibration Control of Smart Composite Plate


Lecture 22: Active Control of Damping

Vibration suppression of composite plate and determination of settling time

The finite element mesh and patch geometries are similar. Laminate is covered with piezo-patches to the extent of 25 per cent,
50 per cent and 100 per cent in four different configurations as shown in Figure 22.2.

Figure 22.2: Different patch sizes and configurations of PVDF patch actuator

Free vibration response at the centre of the plate is obtained and plotted for different gain values to obtain settling time and
damping ratio. Material properties of composite laminate and PVDF film are listed in Table 22.1.

Table 22.1 Numerical data used in analysis

Composite Glass-epoxy
Stacking sequence 0/0/0/0
Ply thickness 0.5 mm
Elastic modulus, E1 28.45 GPa
Elastic modulus, E2 2.148 GPa
Shear modulus, G12 1.032 GPa
Poisson ratio, 12 0.21
Density, 1670 kg/m3
Sensor PVDF film
Elastic modulus, E1 = E2 2.0 GPa
Shear modulus, G12 0.77 GPa

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Poisson's ratio, 12 0.31


Density, 1800 kg/m3
Thickness of PVDF film (at top and bottom surface of laminate) 0.1 mm
Electro-mechanical coupling, d31 = d32 -2.74 x 10-12 C/N

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Lecture 23: A Case Study Performance of different patch configurations

The Lecture Contains:

Performance evaluation of different patch configurations

Dynamic response of smart composite plate

Variation in settling time with gain

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Lecture 23: A Case Study Performance of different patch configurations

Performance evaluation of different patch configurations

The settling time is defined as the time required for the response curve to reach within a range of 5 per cent of the amplitude.
This is an important parameter for structures such as flexible wings etc. The study of variation of settling time with gain is
done for the response amplitude at the centre of the plate. Settling time and damping ratio for different configurations are
plotted in Figures 23.1(a) and (b) for a gain value of 50.

Figure 23.1: Comparison of (a) settling time and (b) damping ratio for different
configuration of PVDF patches for a gain = 50

According to the numerical simulation, Configuration B (covering 50 per cent of the top surface of laminate) and configuration
D (totally covering the top surface) show better vibration suppression. When the PVDF film covers half of the upper surface
along the clamp side (Configuration B), the patch has the best vibration suppression capability as the response at the centre
of the plate reaches the tolerable limit in 8 seconds [see Figure 23.1(a)]. Second best performance is observed in fully
covered film where the response takes slightly more time (8.5 seconds) to settle.

Figure 23.1(b) shows the damping ratio for the different configurations. Damping ratio is highest in case of patch B. Patch C
has inferior vibration suppression capability and is characterized by lower damping properties. Patch A covering only a
quarter of the top surface, shows better vibration control performance than Patch C.

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Lecture 23: A Case Study Performance of different patch configurations

Variation in settling time with gain

A plot of settling time with variation in gain value is presented in Figure 23.2.

Figure 23.2 Variation of settling time with control gain

An exponential decrease in settling time is observed with increase in gain values. For example, increasing the gain to 200
results in a settling time response of 4 seconds while a gain value of 500 brings it to 2 seconds only.

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Figure 23.3: Variation in damping ratio with control gain

Figure 23.3 shows that the damping ratio increases with increased gain value in almost linear fashion and reaches the critical
value of 1 at a gain of 500. The increase in gain value beyond this point has little practical value as the system will be too
sluggish due to overdamping.

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Lecture 23: A Case Study Performance of different patch configurations

Variation in settling time with gain

Figures 23.4(a) to (f) show response amplitude at the centre of the composite laminate with time for different gain values for
patch B configuration (piezo-patch covering half of the top surface along the clamped side). The plots clearly suggest an
exponential drop in settling time with increase in gain value suggesting quick response and faster rate of damping of
vibrations.

Figure 23.4 (a) Dynamic response of smart composite plate (Gain = 20)

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Figure 23.4 (b) Dynamic response of smart composite plate (Gain =50)

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Figure 23.4 (c) Dynamic response of smart composite plate (Gain = 100)

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Figure 23.4 (d) Dynamic response of smart composite plate (Gain = 200)

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Figure 23.4 (e) Dynamic response of smart composite plate (Gain = 500)

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Figure 23.4 (f) Dynamic response of smart composite plate (Gain = 1000)

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Module 3: SHM in Ribbon Reinforced Composites


Lecture 24: Structural health monitoring of composite laminate using piezoelectric sensory layer

The Lecture Contains:

Introduction

Ribbon reinforced composites

Damage detection in laminated composites

Convergence of voltage in PVDF sensory layer

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Module 3: SHM in Ribbon Reinforced Composites


Lecture 24: Structural health monitoring of composite laminate using piezoelectric sensory layer

Introduction

The functional advantages of laminated composites are often compromised due to the presence of hidden defects. Damages
such as delaminations, ply failures, cracks in the matrix or debonding may lead to severe reduction in the load bearing capacity of
a composite. Therefore, it is important to develop a technique for monitoring the severity, type and location of damage in such
composites. Experimental damage monitoring techniques mainly involve non-destructive sensing of damage in the structures
such as using ultrasonics, magnetic field or x-ray based scanning etc. Many of these methods of identification involve
experimental techniques which are quite expensive and also difficult for in-situ applications.

Chung has developed an electrical resistance based method for structural health monitoring of composite materials. It is limited to
composite materials which are electrically conductive such as composites with carbon fibers. Pandey et al [1991] have
developed a damage identification technique based on curvature of mode shapes. They have shown that the absolute difference
in the curvature of mode shapes between the healthy and the damaged ply may be used as a parameter for predicting the
damage and its location. This concept has been applied to a vibrating flat plate with the assumption that the modulus of elasticity
in the damaged area becomes equal to zero. Liu et al [2003] have shown that embedded piezoelectric sensors can act as wave
transmitters as well as sensors. The evaluation of the structural status can be monitored using information carried by waves
propagating in the structure and interacting with any internal damage. Coverley and Staszewski [2003] have shown that using a
classical sensor triangulation scheme and a genetic algorithm procedure the impact location can be accurately identified. This
procedure substantially alleviates the complexity in learning and matching and thus becomes computationally efficient.

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Module 3: SHM in Ribbon Reinforced Composites


Lecture 24: Structural health monitoring of composite laminate using piezoelectric sensory layer

Ribbon Reinforced Composites

Ribbon reinforced composites are widely used in prosthetics, particularly in the field of orthodontics where canine-to-canine
retention is carried out with the help of resin composite retainers reinforced with kevlar /polyethylene ribbons. These composites
can have high strength and stiffness in two directions: longitudinal and in-plane direction. Such composites can nearly be
isotropic in the plane of a sheet exhibiting almost equal strength in all directions [refer Figure 24.1].

Figure 24.1: Cross section of a typical ribbon reinforced composite

The aligned fiber composites have poor transverse strength and may be replaced by ribbon reinforced composites as per
requirements. They are less prone to crack and require less care in handling. They are also fairly resistant to puncture by sharp
objects. Additional advantage of ribbon as reinforcement is that they can be packed in larger volume fractions in comparison to
circular fibers.

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Module 3:SHM in Ribbon Reinforced Composites


Lecture 24: Structural health monitoring of composite laminate using piezoelectric sensory layer

Elastic Modulus of Ribbon Reinforced Composites

The volume fraction of ribbon may be expressed as

(24.1)

where and are the width and thickness of the ribbon, is the spacing between two layers of the ribbons and is
the spacing between two ribbons in a given layer.

Longitudinal elastic modulus of ribbon composites similar to continuous fiber composites may be determined using the rule of
mixtures

(24.2)

where is the elastic modulus of ribbon, is elastic modulus of the matrix, is the volume fraction of ribbon. The in-
plane behavior of ribbon composites is analogous to the behavior of aligned short fiber composites. Therefore, the in-plane
transverse modulus may be calculated using the Halpin-Tsai equation

(24.3)

where,

(24.4)

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Lecture 24: Structural health monitoring of composite laminate using piezoelectric sensory layer

Damage Detection in Laminated Composites

There are mainly two types of damages in composites:

ply failure
delamination failure.

For ply failure, the stiffness contribution of the corresponding ply to total stiffness of the structure is assumed to be negligible. For
delamination, a simple mechanics has been followed. A lamina with delamination has been treated equivalent to two laminae
separated by delaminations.

Figure 24,1 A composite laminate with delamination

The constitutive equation for the upper part of the laminated composite (i.e. above delamination) may be written as

(24.4)

where and . N1 and M1 are axial and bending stress resultants of the upper part respectively.
Similarly, for the lower part of the laminated composite (i.e. below delamination)

(24.5)

where and

Thus, at the interface

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and (24.6)

The modified A, B and D matrices of delaminated composite may be written as

(24.7)

The modified and matrices have been used in the finite element formulation to recalculate the stress and strain
profiles and obtain the voltage response from the delaminated plate. Numerical studies are carried out to obtain voltage
distribution on the laminate subjected to different known delaminations.

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Lecture 24: Structural health monitoring of composite laminate using piezoelectric sensory layer

Convergence of Voltage in PVDF Sensory Layer

A numerical convergence of voltage analysis has been carried out for a simple problem using a high precision piezoelectric finite
element which can be used with a piezoelectric sensory network.

A 225 mm x 150 mm glass-epoxy composite laminate with [04] stacking sequence is covered with PVDF sensing layer of 0.1 mm
thickness and spread over half of the top surface. The ply thickness for all the four layers is 0.5 mm. The boundary conditions are
shown in the layout [Figure 24.2].

Figure 24.2 Composite laminate with PVDF layer

Details of the parameters used in the numerical analysis are listed in Table 24.1

Table 24.1: Numerical data used in analysis

Composite Glass-epoxy
Dimensions of the plate 250 mm x 150 mm
Stacking sequence 0/0/0/0
Ply thickness 0.5 mm
Elastic modulus, E1 28.45 GPa

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Elastic modulus, E2 2.148 GPa

Shear modulus, G12 1.032 GPa

Poissons ratio, 12 0.21

Density, 1670 kg/m3


Sensor PVDF film
Elastic modulus, E1 = E2 2.0 GPa

Poissons ratio, 12 0.31

Density, 1800 kg/m3


PVDF film thickness 0.1 mm

Table 24.1: Details of parameters used in convergence analysis of voltage

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Lecture 24: Structural health monitoring of composite laminate using piezoelectric sensory layer

The smart composite plate subjected to a force acting at the centre of the plate shows a voltage response due to the PVDF patch
bonded to the surface of the plate. The magnitude of the voltage depends on location of the element, stacking position of the ply
and its orientation.

Figure 24.3 Convergence of voltage output from PVDF sensory layer

Figure 24.3 shows the normalized voltage plot with increase in number of elements. It is clear from the plot that normalized
voltage has converged rapidly to a value of 0.66. It is also evident that even a smaller number of elements (coarse mesh) has
produced significant voltage in the PVDF sensory patch.

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Lecture 25: Delamination sensing with piezoelectric sensory layer

The Lecture Contains:

Delamination sensing with piezoelectric sensory layer

Voltage response in piezoelectric patch for Configuration 1

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Lecture 25: Delamination sensing with piezoelectric sensory layer

Delamination Sensing with Piezoelectric Sensory Layer

A numerical analysis has been carried out to determine the damage, its location and severity on the basis of voltage signal
recorded for damages induced in various elements and these signals have been compared with the responses from healthy
laminates.

A kevlar / polyethylene composite laminate with stacking sequence [0/45/-45/0] is used in the numerical analysis for determining
the voltage profile of the damaged locations. Each element is subjected to known delamination to compare the voltage profiles
from the healthy and the damaged composites.

Two different laminate configurations have been used in the numerical analysis. The first configuration has elements placed in
symmetrical positions with respect to the vertical line dividing the laminate in two equal parts. The second configuration has a
diagonal symmetry. Both the laminate configurations with boundary conditions are shown in Figure 25.1.

Figure 25.1: Laminate configurations used in numerical analysis

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Module 3: SHM in Ribbon Reinforced Composites


Lecture 25: Delamination sensing with piezoelectric sensory layer

Delamination Sensing with Piezoelectric Sensory Layer

Details of ribbon-reinforced composite and other important parameters used in the analysis are listed in Table 25.1.

Table 25.1.: Numerical data used in analysis for ribbon- reinforced composite

Ribbon-reinforced composite kevlar /polyethylene


Stacking sequence 0/45/-45/0
Dimensions of the plate 250 mm x 150 mm
Thickness of the plate 2 mm
Elastic modulus of the ribbon (Kevlar) 62.0 GPa
Elastic modulus of the matrix (Polyethylene) 0.889 GPa
Width of the ribbon, Wr 200 m
Extent of overlap, B 20 m
Spacing between the ribbons, Wm 10 m
Thickness of the ribbon, tr 10 m
Spacing between layers of ribbon, ts 10 m
Spring constant, k 100 N/m
Amplitude of force applied at the centre of the plate, F(t) 10 N

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Lecture 25: Delamination sensing with piezoelectric sensory layer

Voltage response in piezoelectric patch for Configuration 1

Voltage response for healthy laminate is shown in Figure 25.2.

Figure 25.2 Voltage profile in the healthy laminate for Configuration (1)

Figures 25.3(a) to (f) represent the voltage signals obtained in all the 8 elements of Configuration 1. The voltage profile in all the
elements are predicted by simulating delamination in a particular element at a time. It has been assumed that the shape of
delamination is exactly matching with the shape of the element. Since, Configuration 1 has a vertical symmetry along the line
dividing the plate in two equal parts; the elements placed symmetrically with respect to one another have similar voltage
responses. In case of delamination in a particular element, it is assumed that the stiffness contribution of that element is
negligible. This suggests a modified stress distribution in the laminate and loss of symmetry of stress in a lamina prevailing before
delamination. In all the figures, voltage response of delaminated composite is compared with the healthy ones.

In the healthy laminate, elements 1, 4, 5 and 8 are subjected to greater stresses due to their location (closer to the centre of the
plate) and the voltage responses for healthy laminate for these elements are in the range of 0.30V to 0.31V [Figure 25.2].
Elements 2, 3, 6 and 7 are stressed to a lesser extent and have voltage responses in the range of 0.18V to 0.19V.

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Module 3: SHM in Ribbon Reinforced Composites


Lecture 25: Delamination sensing with piezoelectric sensory layer

Voltage response in piezoelectric patch for Configuration 1

Figure 25.3(a) shows the voltage response in the elements when delamination is considered in element 1. A drop in voltage from
0.31V to 0.30V is predicted. Since element 1 is not receiving any load, a localized stress redistribution will cause modified voltage
responses in elements located close to it.

Figure 25.3 (a) Voltage profile for damage in element 1 of interface 1

Figures 25.3(b) to 25.3 (f) show the voltage responses when delaminations are assumed in elements 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8
respectively. Elements 2 and 3 (and their corresponding symmetric pairs 7 and 6) show little change in response due to
delamination [Figures 25.3(b) and (c)].

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Figure 25.3(b) Voltage profile for damage in element 2 of interface 1

Figure 25.3(c) Voltage profile for damage in element 3 of interface 1

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Module 3: SHM in Ribbon Reinforced Composites


Lecture 25: Delamination sensing with piezoelectric sensory layer

Voltage response in piezoelectric patch for Configuration 1

Elements 4 and 5 form symmetric pair and similar voltage responses are observed in Figures 25.3 (d) and (e). Element 8 is
symmetrically located with respect to element 1and a similar voltage response is predicted for it [see Figure 25.3 (a) and (f)].

Figure 25.3(d) Voltage profile for damage in element 4 of interface 1 for Configuration (1)

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Figure 25.3(e) Voltage profile for damage in element 5 of interface 1 for Configuration (1)

Figure 4.7(f) Voltage profile for damage in element 8 of interface 1 for Configuration (1)

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Lecture 26: Voltage response in piezoelectric patch for Configuration 2

The Lecture Contains:

Voltage response in piezoelectric patch for Configuration 2

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Module 3: SHM in Ribbon Reinforced Composites


Lecture 26: Voltage response in piezoelectric patch for Configuration 2

Voltage responses in piezoelectric patches for Configuration 2 are presented for two different interfaces. Figure 26.1 shows the
voltage response of the healthy laminate.

Figure 26.1: Voltage profile in the healthy laminate for Configuration 2

Figures 26.2 (a) to (d) show representative voltage responses obtained in various elements subjected to delamination in interface
1 while Figures 26.3 (a) to (d) for delamination in interface 3. Configuration 2 has a diagonal symmetry of the elements. The
elements placed symmetrically with respect to the diagonal dividing the plate in two equal parts show similar voltage responses.

Elements 4 and 5 are subjected to greater stresses due to their location (closer to the centre of the plate) and the voltage
response of healthy laminate for these elements is in the range of 0.33V to 0.35V. Other elements are stressed to a lesser extent
and have a lower voltage response predicted for them in the range of 0.06V to 0.12V.

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Lecture 26: Voltage response in piezoelectric patch for Configuration 2

Figures 26.2 (a) and (b) show the voltage responses for elements 3 and 6 which form symmetric pair. It is clear from
Configuration 2 that this pair is situated away from the centre and is subjected to lower stresses in comparison to the other
elements. Accordingly, very little change in voltage response is predicted for the above pair.

Figure 26.2 (a) Voltage profile for damage in element 3 of interface 1

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Figure 26.2 (b) Voltage profile for damage in element 6 of interface 1

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Lecture 26: Voltage response in piezoelectric patch for Configuration 2

Figures 26.2 (c) and (d) show the voltage responses for elements 4 and 5 forming another symmetrical pair. They are located
close to the centre and are subjected to greater stresses. It is clear from the above figures that in case of delamination in any of
the two elements, the stress redistribution will result in substantial increase in stresses in nearby elements. A substantial increase
in voltage responses for elements 3 (less than 0.1V to approximately 0.2V) and 5 (0.35V to 0.55V) is predicted when element 4 is
assumed to have delamination.

Figure 26.2 (c) Voltage profile for damage in element 4 of interface 1

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Figure 26.2 (d) Voltage profile for damage in element 5 of interface 1

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Lecture 26: Voltage response in piezoelectric patch for Configuration 2

Likewise, similar increased voltage responses in elements 4 and 6 are predicted in case of delamination in element 5.

Figures 26.3 (a) and (b) show voltage responses for a symmetric pair of elements 1 and 8 for Interface 3. Figures 26.3 (c) and (d)
represent another set of symmetric pair of elements 4 and 5. The voltage response in these cases are very similar to the cases
discussed earlier.

Figure 26.3 (a) Voltage profile for damage in element 1 of interface 3

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Figure 26.3 (b) Voltage profile for damage in element 8 of interface 3

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Lecture 26: Voltage response in piezoelectric patch for Configuration 2

Figure 26.3 (c) Voltage profile for damage in element 4 of interface 3

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Figure 26.3 (d) Voltage profile for damage in element 5 of interface 3

It can be stated that in general, voltage response in piezoelectric patch can give a good reflection of the state of the composite
laminate when compared with the response for the healthy laminate and a qualitative estimation of damage can be predicted
using piezo- sensory patches.

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Lecture 27: Electrical-Mechanical Impedance (EMI) Method

The Lecture Contains:

Electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) method

Formulation of mechanical impedance for a composite laminate

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Lecture 27: Electrical-Mechanical Impedance (EMI) Method

Electrical- Mechanical Impedance (EMI) Method

Chung has observed that electrical impedance of the PZT bonded onto a structure is directly related to the mechanical
impedance of the host structure. The variation in the PZT electrical impedance over a range of frequencies is analogous to
Frequency Response Function (FRF) of a structure, which contains vital information regarding the health of the structure.
Damage to a structure causes direct changes in the structural stiffness and /or damping and alters the local dynamic
characteristics. In other words, the mechanical impedance is modified by damages to the structure. Since, all other properties of
PZT remain invariable; it is the structural impedance that uniquely determines the overall admittance. Hence, any change in
electrical impedance is an indicator of modification in the structural integrity.

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Lecture 27: Electrical-Mechanical Impedance (EMI) Method

Electrical- Mechanical Impedance (EMI) Method

Impedance based structural health monitoring techniques have been developed by utilizing the electro-mechanical coupling
property of piezoelectric materials and form an important class of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method. Since structural
mechanical impedance measurements are difficult to obtain, impedance methods utilize the electrical impedance of the host
structure, which is affected by the presence of structural damage. Through continuous monitoring of electrical impedance and
comparing it with a base line measurement, one can qualitatively determine whether structural damage has occurred or is
imminent. In order to ensure high sensitivity to incipient damage, the electrical impedance is measured at high frequencies
(greater than 30 kHz). The basic concept of this approach is to monitor the variation in structural mechanical impedance caused
by the presence of damage. At such high frequencies, the wavelength of the excitation is small and is sensitive enough to detect
minor changes in the structural integrity. More importantly, high frequency signals require very low voltage (less than 1volt at
microwatts) to produce a useful impedance excitation in the host structure. By integrating the impedance technique with self-
sensing smart materials, it has been demonstrated that the impedance based method is suitable for use in a wide variety of
structural health monitoring applications.

In the following slides a brief outline of obtaining the mechanical impedance of composite laminate using the already developed
HPFE will be presented.

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Lecture 27: Electrical-Mechanical Impedance (EMI) Method

Formulation of mechanical impedance for a composite laminate

In Lecture 22, the equation of motion of a general dynamical system has been presented [Equation 22.3] as

(27.1)

The equation may be transformed into state-space form as

(27.2)

by introducing 2n- dimensional state vector, q(t) and excitation vector, Q(t), followed by Cholesky decomposition and linear
transformation.

Here is a real nonsymmetrical matrix and is a real vector.

The solution of the above equation may be obtained by modal analysis which amounts to the determination of the Jordan form for
A.

The eigen value problem associated with Equation (27.2) has the solution of the form

(27.3)

The solution consists of 2n eigen values and 2n eigen vectors .

The Jordan matrix is diagonal and may be expressed as

(27.4)

Eigen vectors , known as right eigen vectors of A, can be arranged in the square matrix

(27.5)

Similarly, left eigen vectors could be arranged in a square matrix as

(27.6)

The set of eigen vectors is orthogonal to the set of eigen vectors and the eigen vectors may be normalized so as to
satisfy

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(27.7)

in that case, the Jordan matrix is simply represented as

(27.8)

Either set of eigen vectors can be taken as a basis for .

Assuming that the solution of equation has the form

(27.9)

where is a 2n vector with components .

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Lecture 27: Electrical-Mechanical Impedance (EMI) Method

Formulation of mechanical impedance for a composite laminate

Substituting Equation (27.9) into Equation (27.1) and pre-multiplying the result by and using Equations (27.7) and (27.8), we
get

(27.10)

in which

(27.11)

Since the actual response of the system is

(27.12)

The homogeneous solution of Equation (27.1) is

(27.13)

The complete solution of Equation (27.1) is

(27.14)

Thus, the actual response becomes

(27.15)

The velocity can be obtained from the transformed equation for general dynamic system as

(27.16)

The mechanical impedance of the system could be obtained as

(27.17)

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Lecture 28: A case study: results and discussions

The Lecture Contains:

Electro-mechanical impedence mathod: A case study

Conclusions

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Lecture 28: A case study: results and discussions

Electro-mechanical impedence mathod: A case study

The mechanical impedance responses are recorded for healthy and delaminated composite laminates for Configuration 1 based
on same inputs as used in case of voltage response analysis. Since the elements in Configuration 1 have vertical as well as
horizontal symmetry, mechanical impedance responses for a quarter portion i.e. element 1 and 2 for all the four plies are studied.
In this analysis also, the delamination is assumed in one element at a time and its effect on mechanical impedance response is
predicted.

Figure 28.1 presents the mechanical impedance response of a healthy ply.

Figure 28.1 Mechanical impedance for the healthy ply for Configuration 1

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Lecture 28: A case study: results and discussions

A Case Study: Results and discussion

Mechanical impedance responses for element 1 and 2 for ply 1 are presented in Figures 28.2(a) and (b).

Figure 28.2 (a) Mechanical impedance for damage in element 1 of ply1

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Figure 28.2 (b) Mechanical impedance for damage in element 2 of ply1 for Configuration (1)

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Lecture 28: A case study: results and discussions

A Case Study: Results and discussion

Similarly, the mechanical impedances for plies 2, 3 and 4 are shown in Figures 28.3 to 28.5. Perusal of Figures 28.2 to 28.5
suggests a general decrease in impedance response in all the elements across the plies due to delamination. This loss in
response is the reflection of loss of stiffness in the locality of damage represented by various elements of the laminate. The loss
of stiffness in damaged element results in increased velocity of vibration of the particles in the vicinity of damage, resulting in a
drop of mechanical impedance response for an applied force at the centre of the plate. It is also observed that the impedance
response is fairly prominent in the lower frequency range and it goes on diminishing with increase in the frequency.

Figure 28.3 (a) Mechanical impedance for damage in element 1 of ply 2

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Figure 28.3 (b) Mechanical impedance for damage in element 2 of ply 2

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Lecture 28: A case study: results and discussions

A Case Study: Results and discussion

Figure 28.4 (a) Mechanical impedance for damage in element 1 of ply 3

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Figure 28.4 (b) Mechanical impedance for damage in element 2 of ply 3

Figure 28.5 (a) Mechanical impedance for damage in element 1 of ply 4

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Figure 28.5 (b) Mechanical impedance for damage in element 2 of ply 4

Further, delamination leads to shift in peak to a lower frequency value and presence of additional local peaks, especially in low
frequency range. Thus, mechanical impedance responses may be effectively utilized in qualitative prediction of damages in
composite laminate.

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Lecture 28: A case study: results and discussions

Conclusions

The voltage responses are compared both for healthy and damaged composite laminates for the chosen configurations. All the
elements have shown decrease in voltage at the point of damage. Configuration 1 chosen for numerical analysis is symmetric
about the vertical line and Configuration 2 has a diagonal symmetry. This symmetry is reflected in the voltage profiles of the
healthy and the damaged laminates. Elements which are symmetrically located with respect to each other have similar voltage
responses. Delamination simulated in a particular element causes redistribution of the stresses in the nearby elements. The
stress increase in nearby elements depends on their respective orientations. The redistribution of stresses in case of
delamination in a particular element is not very prominent in Configuration 1 as all other elements are sharing incremental load
due to symmetrical arrangement of the elements. However, in Configuration 2, delamination introduced in elements situated close
to the centre of the composite plate results in sharp increase in stresses in nearby elements as elements located away from the
centre seems to receive little increase in redistributed load.

Mechanical impedance responses are also compared for both healthy and damaged composite plates. A general decrease in
impedance response for elements with damage is observed in comparison to the healthy ones. Delamination leads to loss of
stiffness in the locality of damage and thus, changes in the dynamic response of the laminate. The loss of stiffness in damaged
element results in increased velocity of vibration of the particles in the vicinity of the damage, resulting in drop of mechanical
impedance response for an applied force at the centre of the plate. Mechanical impedance responses are fairly prominent in
lower frequency range and they go on diminishing with increase in the frequency. Shift in peaks to lower frequency values and
presence of additional local peaks in low frequency range are also predicted in delaminated composite plates.

A knowledge based database is created for ribbon reinforced composite for detection of damages and monitoring of the severity,
type and location of damage using piezoelectric sensory layer. The results of dynamic analysis presented here can be helpful in
efficient damage diagnosis of composite structures. Voltage response from piezoelectric sensory layer and its mechanical
impedance response can provide vital information regarding the state of the structure on real time basis.

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Module 4: Active SHM using Magnetostrictive Material


Lecture 29: Structural health monitoring using magnetostrictive sensory layer

The Lecture Contains:

Introduction to magnetostriction

Magnetostriction

Basis of magnetization and hysteresis

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Lecture 29: Structural health monitoring using magnetostrictive sensory layer

Introduction to magnetostriction

Fundamental research and development in smart materials and structures have shown great potential for enhancing the
functionality, serviceability and increased life span of civil and mechanical infrastructure systems.

Researchers from diverse disciplines have been drawn into vigorous efforts to develop smart and intelligent structures that can
monitor their own conditions, detect impending failure, control damage and adapt to changing environments. The potential
applications of such smart materials and systems are abundant ranging from design of smart aircraft skin embedded with smart
sensors for detection of structural flaws to bridges with embedded sensing elements to detect violent vibrations to name a few.
Smart structures are generally created through synthesis by combining sensing, processing and actuating elements integrated
with conventional structural materials such as steel, concrete, or composites. Various types of smart patches e.g. PZT patches
and PVDF films have been used extensively as smart sensors to sense and detect damage in composite structures. These smart
sensors provide real time sensing by exploiting their functional properties. However, piezoelectric sensors need direct electrical
connectivity which may cause problem in structural integrity, particularly for embedded sensors. Also, piezoelectric sensors have
a limited active life due to discharging of the sensors. Magnetostrictive materials (MS) and sensors based on such materials are
more advantageous in this regard. With the commercial availability of Terfenol-D in particulate form; it is now feasible to
developed MS particulate sensors to detect damages such as delamination with minimum effect on structural integrity on real
time basis.

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Lecture 29: Structural health monitoring using magnetostrictive sensory layer

Magnetostriction

Under the influence of an external magnetic field, the grains of certain ferromagnetic and rare-earth materials consisting of
numerous small randomly oriented magnetic domains align according to the applied magnetic field. This is known as
magnetostriction.

Magnetostrction has following effects:

Joule effect
Villari effect
Wiedmann effect
Matteuci effect

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Lecture 29: Structural health monitoring using magnetostrictive sensory layer

Joule effect:

Under the influence of external magnetic field, the magnetostrictive material undergoes deformation in axial direction. This effect
is known as Joule effect. It has application in actuators.

Villari effect

A magnetostrictive material undergoes change in magnetization under the influence of applied uniaxial stress. This effect pertains
to the transduction of energy from the elastic to the magnetic state. Villari effect is used in non destructive evaluation and
sensing.

Wiedmann effect

When a current carrying ferromagnetic wire is subjected to axial magnetic field, some of the moments align in a helical fashion
creating a twist in the wire. This effect is known as Wiedmann effect.

Matteuci effect

A change in axial magnetization of a current carrying wire when it is twisted is called Matteuci effect.

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Lecture 29: Structural health monitoring using magnetostrictive sensory layer

Basis of magnetization and hysteresis

The changes in magnetization due to an applied magnetic field can be either reversible or irreversible. In reversible
magnetization, the material can return to the original magnetic state upon removal of the field. Irreversible magnetization is
dissipative as external restoring forces such as large magnetic fields are needed to bring it to its original state. When a
ferromagnetic material is cooled below its Curie temperature, the magnetic moments become ordered within magnetic domains.
Each domain has all its moments aligned parallel producing a spontaneous magnetization Ms . In the absence of magnetic field,
the direction of Ms varies from domain to domain producing almost zero bulk magnetization in the material.

In the presence of small magnetic field, domains get oriented favorably with respect to the field and grow at the expense of the
remaining domains. The main magnetization mechanism at this phase is domain wall motion. With increase in magnetic field,
entire domains rotate to orient with the easy axis [Figure 29.1]. This produces a burst region in the M H and H curve in
which small field changes produce fairly large magnetization or strain changes.

Figure 29.1 Basis of magnetostriction and effect of prestressing

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Lecture 29: Structural health monitoring using magnetostrictive sensory layer

Further increase in field makes the material to acts as a single domain as all magnetic moments rotate coherently from the easy
axis into the direction of the field. This produces saturation of the magnetization. Typical magnetization and strain loops [shown in
Figure 29.2(a) and (b)] illustrate the burst region and saturation effects. From a design perspective, magnetic biasing is used to
centre operation in the burst region for optimum performance.

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Figure 29.2 (a) Experimental magnetic induction and (b) Total strain with change in
magnetic field

For low magnetic field levels, partial excursions in the M H or H curve are approximately linear. The hysteresis can be
attributed to the irreversible impediment to domain motion by pinning sites, such as when domain walls move across twin
boundaries in Terfenol-D.

One advantage of magnetostrictive transducer over other types of transducers is that they can be driven with conventional low
impedance amplifiers suggesting that magnetostrictive transducer may work at low driving voltages. This is useful in many
applications and can greatly simplify the amplifier design.

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Lecture 29: Structural health monitoring using magnetostrictive sensory layer

Magnetic biasing and pre stressing

Since the magnetostriction is produced by the rotation of magnetic moments, a magnetostrictive transducer driven by an
alternating magnetic field vibrate at twice the drive frequency and the motion takes place in only one direction. For dynamic
applications, like vibration suppression, reversal of actuation strain is very much necessary. For such applications, these
actuators are operated with a biased magnetic field to obtain reversal of strain with respect to the biasing centre [Figure 29.3].

Figure 29.3 Effect of magnetic bias on the strain produced by a magnetostrictive


transducer

This leads to reduction in the available actuation strain by approximately 50 per cent. This has been the prime reason for
magnetostriction loosing its cutting edge over the piezoelectric materials. By applying magnetic bias, the frequency of the input is
preserved and the output is made bidirectional with substantial increase in the ratio of output per input. To operate the
transducers in the vicinity of the desired bias point, a permanent magnet is employed in combination with a static field. Permanent
magnet biasing has the advantage of substantial power saving but it adds to bulk and weight. Conversely, DC generates
considerable power losses through ohmic heating but facilitate savings in bulk and weight.

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Lecture 29: Structural health monitoring using magnetostrictive sensory layer

Although, Terfenol-D rods are manufactured with the magnetic moments nearly perpendicular to its axis, a static stress
(mechanical preload) is must for achieving full alignment of all the moments. The stress and isotropy generated by the static
compression (or tension in the case of materials with negative magnetostriction) enhances the overall magnetoelastic state of the
material [Figure 29.1]. A mechanical preload also adds to the cause as it helps in avoiding operating the rod in tension,
particularly when driving brittle material such as Terfenol-D at/or near mechanical
resonance.

There has been a resurgence of interest in MS materials during the last decade primarily due to the commercial availability of the
rare-earth iron compounds capable of producing large quasi-static strains of over 1600 strain in response to moderate magnetic
field of 160kA/m. The most technologically advanced of these compounds is the alloy Terfenol-D, Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.92 , which has
become the primary MS material for transducer applications. Terfenol-D exhibits a combination of high single crystal
magnetostriction and low magneto-crystalline anisotropy. Since magnetostriction is an inherent material property, it does not
degrade over time. More importantly, Terfenol-D layers can easily be embedded into laminated composite structures without
significantly affecting their structural integrity.

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Lecture 30: Delamination

The Lecture Contains:

Damage detection using Terfenol-D

Constitutive relationship for magnetostrictive composites

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Lecture 30: Delamination

Damage detection using Terfenol-D

Delamination is one of the predominant forms of failure in laminated composites due to lack of reinforcement in the thickness
direction. Fiber composites often consist of layers that are bonded together as part of the curing process. The strength of this
bond is limited by the matrix strength. Delamination results in severe loss of bending stiffness and strength of the composite
structure.

One method to design against delamination failure is to calculate the interlaminar stresses and compare these with allowable
interlaminar stress. Another way of assessing the reliability of laminates with respect to delaminnation is to adopt fracture
mechanics approach by assuming the presence of crack like flaw as initial delamination and to determine the stress that will lead
to propagation of this initial delamination crack. Though the structure is not usually designed with an initial delaminaton, it can
arise from loadings such as accidental impact or from initial imperfections in the structure. In this lecture, an effort has been made
to formulate a model to sense delamination in fiber composite laminates using MS layer of Terfenol-D, thus to establish
magnetostriction as an effective method of real time integrity monitoring of composite structures.

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Lecture 30: Delamination

Constitutive relationship for magnetostrictive composites

Although the MS materials show nonlinear relationship, the behavior of most of these materials can be described by using a
linear theory as the active materials could easily be biased. With biasing, the material behaves in a quasi-linear manner and
follows the following constitutive relationship

Actuation equation

(30.1)

Sensing equation

(30.2)

Where SH is the compliance at constant magnetic field intensity H; the permeability at constant stress , d the magneto-
mechanical constant, B the flux density and the strain.

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Lecture 30: Delamination

Analysis of Magnetostrictive Composites

Here a laminated composite beam has been considered with one of its layer having Terfenol-D particles as shown in Figure 30.1.

Figure 30.1 Smart composite beam with delamination

In such a laminate, the Terfenol-D layer will experience a change in stress at the onset of delamination as the particular layer will
not be taking any load leading to transfer of stresses to other layers including the MS layer. This change of stress in MS layer
brings a change in its magnetic state which can be sensed as an induced open circuit voltage in sensing coil enclosing the beam.
The Terfenol-D composite carries an initial or bias mechanical stress and magnetic field intensity. A current of the form

(30.3)

is applied along with appropriate bias field through the actuator coil resulting in stresses in the magnetostrictive layer at a
localized portion only over a width equal to the width of the coil. Here Ib is the bias current, I0 the amplitude and the frequency
of the applied current.

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Lecture 30: Delamination

Analysis of Magnetostrictive Composites

The phenomenon of Joule magnetostriction is shown in Figure 30.2.

Figure 30.2 Joule magnetostriction (a) Magnetic field is proportional to current passing
through the solenoid when a voltage is applied (b) Strain increases in linear fashion for
lower magnetic fields.

Symmetric as well as asymmetric laminates with different stacking sequences with one of its layer embedded with Terfenol-D
particulates have been taken for numerical analysis. With the application of alternating current of the form as in Equation (30.3), a
compressive stress is generated in the MS layer. To balance the beam statically, there will be an equivalent and opposite tensile
stress in the rest of the composite laminate. With increase in current, the stress in MS layer goes on increasing, causing increase
in stresses in all other layers depending upon their placement and orientations. This results in delamination at the weakest
interface where the stresses are just beyond the allowable stresses.

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Lecture 31: Constitutive relations for composite laminate

The Lecture Contains:

Classical laminate theory

MS layer embedded in a symmetric laminate

MS layer embedded in asymmetric laminate

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Lecture 31: Constitutive relations for composite laminate

Classical laminate theory

In this lecture, the constitutive relationship of a laminated composite beam has been described which will be required to find out
the voltage generated in the sensing coil. Consider the laminated beam with ply arrangements as shown in Figure 31.1,

Figure 31.1 Notation for location of ply interfaces of a composite beam

Strain at the top and bottom of lamina of the composite laminate is given by

(31.1)

Stresses at the top and bottom interface could be obtained as

(31.2)

(31.3)

is the mid plane strain and and are the distances of lower and upper interfaces of the lamina, is the mid
plane curvature and is the stiffness matrix.

The stress resultants are expressed as

(31.4)

In-plane and bending stress resultants are given by

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(31.5)

and

(32.6)

A, B and D are extensional, coupling and bending stiffness matrices. N and M are forces and moments per unit length and h is
the total thickness of the laminate beam.

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Lecture 31: Constitutive relations for composite laminate

MS layer embedded in a symmetric laminate

When the beam is symmetric and magnetostrictive layer is placed in the middle and no other forces are acting, only axial forces
are assumed to be acting on the beam.

Considering static equilibrium [Figure 31.2 (a)],

Figure 31.2 (a) Force balance in symmetric laminate

The net force per unit length in MS layer (compressive in nature)

(31.7)

is the stress in the magnetostrictive layer and is the thickness of the layer. From Equation (31.4), since the coupling
matrix B is zero for the symmetric laminate, the forces in upper and lower segments of the composite laminate are

(31.8)

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Lecture 31: Constitutive relations for composite laminate

MS layer embedded in a symmetric laminate

If no other external force is applied, the average strain may be expressed as

(31.9)

Strain in MS layer and composite host are same. Putting the value of strain in Equation (31.1) and solving for stress ,

(31.10)

Putting

(31.11)

Magnetic induction B, in MS layer due to stress on it may be written using Equation (31.2)

(31.12)

The open circuit voltage in the sensing coil could be obtained as

(31.13)

Here, n is the number of turns of magnetizing coil per unit length, l the total length, ar area of the cross-section of the coil and
is the frequency.

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Lecture 31: Constitutive relations for composite laminate

MS layer embedded in asymmetric laminate

If the magnetostrictive layer is placed anywhere else, other than in the middle of the laminate, compressive stresses in MS layer
result in moment causing bending in the beam [Figure 31.2 (b)].

Figure 31.2 (b) Force and moment balance in asymmetric laminate

Hence, axial strain in MS layer including the bending effect

(31.14)

is the distance from mid plane in thickness direction.

Mid plane curvature

(31.15)

Moment M on beam due to stresses induced in the MS layer

(31.16)

Here a, b and c are the distances from top where the forces are assumed to be acting. Using Equation (31.1) and (31.3), stresses
in MS layer including the bending effect are

(31.17)

Putting this stress value in Equation (31.2), the voltage can be obtained as

(31.18)

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Lecture 32: Laminated beam subjected to mechanical input

The Lecture Contains:

Laminated beam subjected to mechanical input

Numerical analysis for MS composites

Symmetric laminate with MS layer at the mid plane

Symmetric laminate with MS layer at mid plane subjected to mechanical input

Symmetric laminate with MS layer away from mid plane

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Lecture 32: Laminated beam subjected to mechanical input

Laminated beam subjected to mechanical input

A mechanical force of the form of is assumed to be acting on the beam. Assuming mid plane strain and curvature
as and t

Strain in the MS layer

Corresponding stress in the MS layer

(32.1)

Hence, the voltage response can be obtained as

(32.2)

With the increase in mechanical load, the stresses in different layers will increase. Depending upon the elastic properties of the
individual lamina and its orientation, the lamina which reaches the stress just beyond its allowable limit will delaminate. Voltage
response at this point is the delaminating voltage. Delaminating stress may be determined using an appropriate failure theory.

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Lecture 32: Laminated beam subjected to mechanical input

Numerical analysis for MS composites

Using the basis presented in the previous section, voltage output in magnetostrictive sensory layer has been numerically
determined using symmetric as well as asymmetric laminates.

The effect of mechanical input along with magnetostriction is also presented taking both symmetric and asymmetric laminate
configurations. Numerical inputs used in the analysis are presented in Table 32.1

Table.32.1. Numerical details used in the analysis

Composite carbon - epoxy


Symmetric laminate stacking [0/90/0/45/m/45/0/90/0]
Asymmetric laminate stacking [0/90/0/45/0/90/m/90/0]
[45/-45/0/0/90/90/0/0/-45/m/45]
Thickness of the composite lamina 0.4 mm
Thickness of the MS layer 0.4 mm
Elastic modulus of the carbon fiber 350 GPa
Elastic modulus of the epoxy matrix 3.50 GPa
Elastic modulus of Terfenol-D 30 GPa
Volume fraction of the fiber 0.16
Volume fraction of Terfenol-D 0.0224
Poisson's ratio of the carbon fiber 0.3
Poisson's ratio of the epoxy matrix 0.4
Poisson's ratio for Terfenol-D 0.25
Number of turns in the coil per meter 1000
Carrier frequency, 1000 Hz
Carrier current 0.4 A
Piezo-magnetic coefficient, d 1.5 e8 m/A
Permeability, 14.13e 7
Coupling coefficient of Terfenol-D, k 0.75
Tensile strength of Terfenol-D 28 MPa
Compressive strength of Terfenol-D 700 MPa
Fracture toughness of MS layer 30 MPa-m1/2
Size of crack at delamination, c 2 mm
Length of beam, l 100 mm
Width of beam, b 20 mm

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Lecture 32: Laminated beam subjected to mechanical input

Symmetric laminate with MS layer at the mid plane

In the first case, a nine layer symmetric laminate beam [0/90/0/45/m/45/0/90/0] with MS layer in the middle is subjected to
actuating current causing magnetostriction to develop in the MS layer leading to compression in it and equivalent balancing
stresses in other layers. With increase in magnetostriction by increasing the current rating, the stress and strain level at various
interfaces will increase. Variation of stress and strain at various interfaces including the MS layer and voltage induced in MS layer
at the time of delamination are shown in Figures 32.1, 32.2 and 32.3.

Figure 32.1 Stress variations at various interfaces and in MS layer at the time of
delamination when the laminate is subjected to only actuator current

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Figure 32.2 Stress variations at various interfaces and in MS layer at the time of
delamination when the laminate is subjected to only actuator current

Figure 32.3 Open circuit voltage in MS layer at the time of delamination when the laminate
is subjected to only actuator current

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Due to the symmetric stacking sequence and the assumption that only axial forces are acting, a number of interfaces can attain
the delaminating stress simultaneously (1, 2, 7 and 8) and have theoretically equal chances of delamination. Fibers oriented in
the longitudinal direction can bear the maximum stress while those oriented in the transverse direction could bear the least. Thus,
fibers with 900 orientations will make those layers reach the allowable stress for the layer at an early stage causing delamination.
Figures 32.1, 32.2 and 32.3 show that at a stress of approximately 17.53 MPa, all the four interfaces involving 900 fiber
orientations will reach the delaminating stress and an open circuit voltage of around 57 mV is obtained in the sensing coil at this
stress. The strain at the time of delamination is 223 micron in the laminate and a compressive stress of 58.3 MPa is developed in
the MS layer.

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Lecture 32: Laminated beam subjected to mechanical input

Symmetric laminate with MS layer at mid plane subjected to mechanical input

The same symmetric laminate is now subjected to increasing mechanical input along with the actuator current to induce MS effect
till delamination in one of the weakest interface is produced. Stress and strain at various interfaces and voltage induced in MS
layer at the time of delamination in the weakest ply are shown in Figures 32.4, 32.5 and 32.6.

Figure 32.4 Stress variations at various interfaces and in MS layer at the time of
delamination when the laminate is subjected to mechanical load along with actuator
current

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Figure 32.5 Strain variations at various interfaces and in MS layer at the time of
delamination when the laminate is subjected to mechanical load along with actuator
current

Figure 32.6 Open circuit voltage in MS layer when the laminate is subjected to mechanical
load along with actuator current

Delamination is predicted to occur in the 1st interface from the top due to increased stresses caused due to bending. Open circuit
voltage in the sensing coil at delamination comes down to around 18 mV due to mechanical input causing bending of the beam.
Bending of the beam has resulted in decrease in open circuit voltage as it works against the compressive stresses in MS layer
and thus reduces its sensing capability. The kind of bending (for example: sagging or hogging) decides the open circuit voltage
sensed in the sensing coil.

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Lecture 32: Laminated beam subjected to mechanical input

Symmetric laminate with MS layer away from mid plane

The same symmetric laminate with MS layer placed in the seventh layer in place of earlier position in the middle will make it
asymmetric. When the laminate is subjected to alternating current, the compression in MS layer away from centre will bring
bending in consideration. Stress, strain and voltage profile of composite laminate with 7th layer from the top having Terfenol-D is
presented in Figures 33.7, 33.8 and 33.9.

Figure 32.7 Stress variations at various interfaces and in MS layer at the time of
delamination when the laminate is subjected to mechanical load along with actuator
current

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Figure 32.8 Strain variations at various interfaces and in MS layer at the time of
delamination when the laminate is subjected to mechanical load along with actuator
current

Figure 32.9 Open circuit voltage in MS layer when the laminate is subjected to mechanical
load along with actuator current

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Figure 32.9 suggests that the MS layer away from the mid plane is more effective as it helps in generating higher induced voltage
of 67 mV in the sensing coil due to bending effect. At the time of delamination the MS layer has a compressive stress of
approximately 64.5 MPa and the delamination will occur in the outer most layer due to tensile stress of approximately 17.82 MPa.
The laminate will have a strain of 232 micron at the interface in its outer most layer.

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Lecture 33: Asymmetric laminate with MS layer away from the mid plane

The Lecture Contains:

Asymmetric laminate with MS layer away from the mid plane

Asymmetric laminate subjected to mechanical input

Effect of location of MS layer on sensing voltage

Effect of thickness of MS layer on sensing voltage

Effect of actuating current on sensing voltage

Validation of present model

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Lecture 33: Asymmetric laminate with MS layer away from the mid plane

Asymmetric laminate with MS layer away from the mid plane

An 11 layer asymmetric laminate [45/-45/0/0/90/90/0/0/-45/m/45] with MS layer in the 10th layer from the top is subjected to only
actuating current. The stress, strain and voltage profiles in the MS layer are presented in Figures 33.1, 33.2 and 33.3.

Figure 33.1: Stress variations at various interfaces and in MS layer at the time of
delamination when the laminate is subjected to only actuator current

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Figure 33.2: Strain variations at various interfaces and in MS layer at the time of
delamination when the laminate is subjected to only actuator current

Figure 33.3: Open circuit voltage in MS layer at the time of delamination when the laminate
is subjected to only actuator current (with and without bending consideration)

When subjected to only actuating current, the delamination is predicted to take place at the eighth interface at a stress value of
23.7 MPa. The voltage response in sensing coil is 137 mV. The voltage response was obtained by not considering the bending

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effect. Thus, effect of curvature on mid plane strain was not added. Without bending consideration an open circuit voltage of 172
mV is predicted in the numerical analysis.

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Lecture 33: Asymmetric laminate with MS layer away from the mid plane

Asymmetric laminate subjected to mechanical input

The same 11 layer asymmetric laminate is subjected to a mechanical load at the end in cantilever beam arrangement. The results
are displayed in Figures 33.4, 33.5 and 33.6.

Figure 33.4: Stress variations at various interfaces and in MS layer at the time of
delamination when the laminate is subjected to mechanical load along with actuator
current

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Figure 33.5: Strain variations at various interfaces and in MS layer at the time of
delamination when the laminate is subjected to mechanical load along with actuator
current

Figure 33.6: Open circuit voltage in MS layer when the laminate is subjected to mechanical
load along with actuator current

The mechanical input acts against the compressive stress in the MS layer causing reduction in sensing voltage. A drop in sensing
voltage from 137 mV to 64 mV is predicted. Hence, a mechanical load which acts against the compressive force in MS layer is

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going to decrease the sensing voltage. If the mechanical load is applied in a fashion that it adds to the compression of MS layer,
the sensing voltage may be increased.

Analyzing other stacking arrangements, it has been observed that the effect of orientation of plies is more prominent than the
bending effect, especially in those cases where the difference in elastic properties of fiber and matrix is greater and the matrix
governs the transverse behavior of the composite laminate.

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Lecture 34: Asymmetric laminate with MS layer away from the mid plane

Effect of location of MS layer on sensing voltage

From the numerical analysis of previous case, it is clear that keeping the MS layer away from the mid plane is good for sensing
as the curvature effect of beam comes into play and MS layer is stressed to a greater level leading to increase in the sensing
voltage.

Figure 33.7: Open circuit voltage with the change in position of MS layer for unidirectional
laminate.

Figure 33.7 displays the effect of location of MS layer on its sensing capability for a nine ply unidirectional laminate. It clearly
depicts that as the MS layer is moved away from mid plane, a change in sensing voltage from 51mV to 69 mV is predicted.

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Lecture 33: Asymmetric laminate with MS layer away from the mid plane

Effect of thickness of MS layer on sensing voltage

Increased thickness of MS layer results in better sensing as MS layer is in position to sustain higher stresses which results in
increased sensing voltage.

Figure 33.8: Stress in the MS layer due to magnetostriction with the change of MS layer
thickness for unidirectional laminate

Figure 33.8 shows that increasing the thickness of MS layer from 0.1mm to 0.8mm, increase in stresses cause increase in
voltage from 51mV to 97 mV when the MS layer is placed at the top layer. A nominal increase is also predicted for MS layer
placed at the centre of the laminate.

Effect of actuating current on sensing voltage

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Figure 33.9: Open circuit voltage in the sensing coil with the increase in current in
actuating coil.

Figure 33.9 shows the effect of actuating current on the sensing capability of the MS layer. It is obvious that increased current
rating is going to increase the magnetostriction capability. Hence, increased sensing voltage is expected.

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Lecture 33: Asymmetric laminate with MS layer away from the mid plane

Validation of Present Model

The present model has been applied on an important earlier work [Guirgiutiu et al , 2001] on woven composite laminates for its
validation. Guirgiutiu et al , [2001] have presented theoretical and experimental results for stress and strain profile in a woven
composite beam and have determined the magneto-mechanical coupling for a seven layer smart beam tagged with Terfenol-D
particulates in the top and bottom layers. Stress and strain profiles have been determined using two approaches namely -
balanced orthotropic (BO) and orthotropic cross ply equivalent layers for woven composites [Figure 33.10 (a) and (b)].

Figure 33.10 (a) Balanced orthotropic and (b) Orthotropic cross ply layup models.

Since a woven roving has fibers in warp and fill directions, a woven layer was replaced with two equivalent conventional layers in
the fill and warp direction with half the original thickness as suggested by Tsai [1998]. The other approach used by them is to
replace the balanced woven layer by an orthotropic layer with averaged properties. A woven composite having fibers aligned with
the loading axes gives BO behavior. They have determined the stress and strain convergence for the above mentioned two
approaches for woven composites by doubling the number of layers while reducing the thickness of the layer so as to keep the
overall thickness of the laminate fixed.

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Lecture 34: Convergence analysis for stress and strain using present model

The Lecture Contains:

Numerical analysis of woven MS composites

Conclusion

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Lecture 34: Convergence analysis for stress and strain using present model

Numerical analysis of woven MS composites

The analysis involves a simply supported beam with a pointed load at the centre which is gradually being increased. The beam is
also subjected to an alternating current of the form of Equation (26.3).The description of woven composite used by Guirguitiu et
al [2001] is shown in Figure 34.1.

Figure 34.1 Simply supported beam with tagged magnetostrictive particulates in top and
bottom layers

Two MS layers at the top and bottom of the beam experience compressive forces N1 and N2. These forces on the beam are
statically balanced by other layers with an equivalent and opposite tensile stress, N

Force acting in non- MS layers

(34.1)

Forces acting on two MS layers

(34.2)

Since the distances from the mid plane and the thickness of the magnetostrictive layers are same

(34.3)

since,

(34.4)

Rearranging for mid plane strain

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(34.5)

It is known from Equation (26.1) that

(34.6)

Comparing it with Equation (32.13), we get

(34.7)

Magnetic flux density is governed by the Equation (31.2)

(34.8)

Hence, the open circuit induced voltage may be calculated from

(34.9)

Substituting the value of from Equation (34.5)

(34.10)

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Lecture 34: Convergence analysis for stress and strain using present model

Case Studies

The smart composite laminate is subjected to a point load P at the centre which is gradually being increased. Since it is a
constant load, it is not going to alter the magnetic flux density. Hence, voltage in this case may be written as

(34.11)

hm is the thickness of MS layer, n is the number of turns per unit length, l the total length and ar the area of the cross-section of
the conductor. The numerical inputs used in the referred analysis are presented in Table 34.1

Table 34.1 Numerical data used in analysis

Composite urethane-vinyl ester


Laminate stacking sequence (cross ply 14 layers) [(0/90)3 /0] s

Laminate stacking sequence (cross ply 28 layers) [(0/90) 7] s

Laminate stacking sequence (cross ply 56 layers) [(0/90)14] s


Balanced orthotropic (7 layered) ---
Total thickness of composite lamina 6.5 mm
Elastic modulus of fiber 72.4 GPa
Elastic modulus of resin 3.25 GPa
Elastic modulus of Terfenol- D 30.0GPa
Volume fraction of fiber 0.16
Volume fraction of Terfenol- D 0.0224
Poisson's ratio of fiber 0.20
Poisson's ratio of resin 0.30
Poisson's ratio of Terfenol-D 0.25
Number of turns in the coil per meter length 500
Carrier frequency 1000 Hz
Carrier current 0.4 A
Piezomagnetic coefficient, d 1.5 e -8 m/A
Permeability, 14.13e -7
Coupling coefficient of Terfenol-D, k 0.75
Tensile Strength of Terfenol-D 28 MPa
Compressive strength of Terfenol-D 700 MPa
Fracture toughness of MS layer, 30 MPa-m 1/2
Size of crack at delamination, c 2 mm
Length of beam, l 600 mm

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Width of beam, b 100 mm

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Module 4: Active SHM using Magnetostrictive Material


Lecture 34: Convergence analysis for stress and strain using present model

Case Studies

The numerical analysis for stress, strain and electromagnetic response in MS layer has been presented
in Table 34.2.

Table 34.2. Summary of theoretical and experimental results

The experimental strain value of 1333 micron was reported for 7 layered balanced orthotropic composite at 60 N load by Guirguitiu et

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al [2001]. Convergence analysis for stresses in various cross ply models predicted a value close to 20 MPa. The stress and strain
values predicted for balanced orthotropic model in the present analysis (12.71 MPa and 1348m) are very close to the corresponding
values (12.72 MPa and 1347m) obtained by Guirguitiu et al [2001]. Numerical analysis were conducted for a number of cross ply
arrangements by doubling the number of plies while decreasing the thickness of individual plies to a half so as to keep the overall
thickness of the composite laminate same.

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Module 4: Active SHM using Magnetostrictive Material


Lecture 34: Convergence analysis for stress and strain using present model

Validation of present model

The predictions for stress and strain values of the cross ply models (14, 28 and 56 layered) for 60 N load form a close set (19.06,
19.38 and 19.60 MPa and 1321, 1344 and 1356 ) and are definite improvement over the analytical results obtained by Guirguitiu
et al [2001]. Hence, the present numerical analysis gives a quick convergence of stress and strain values. In the analysis, a
crack like initial delamination of 2 mm has been assumed to propagate when the weakest ply is subjected to more than critical
stress for that ply. Griffith's criterion for brittle fracture has been used as the matrix is causing propagation of delamination and
epoxy is fairly brittle in nature. These results are presented in Figures 34.2, 34.3, 34.4. Some more result are present in Figures
34.5 and 34.6 . Summry is presented in Table 34.2.

Figure 34.2 Convergence of longitudinal stress results on the beam surface under
maximum load condition as predicted by various models

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Figure 34.3 Convergence of longitudinal strain results on the beam surface under
maximum load condition as predicted by various models

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Module 4: Active SHM using Magnetostrictive Material


Lecture 34: Convergence analysis for stress and strain using present model

Validation of present model: some more results

Stress, strain and voltage responses in the sensing coil at the time of delamination have also been predicted and have been
displayed in Table 34.2.The expected load at the time of delamination and the delaminating layer are predicted and are listed in
the summary of results in Table 34.2. The analysis suggests delamination to be taking place in the second interface from the top
in both the cases i.e.12th and 26th layer in 14 and 28 layer composites [see Figures 35.4, 35.5 and 35.6]. It is due to the presence
of Terfenol-D particulates in the top layer which has better stiffness and strength properties in comparison to the matrix material
and hence, it is in position to sustain greater bending loads. Further, the layer adjacent to the top layer has the fiber orientation in
the longitudinal direction and will sustain greater stress in comparison to the third layer in which fibers are in transverse direction
and it is likely to delaminate under bending load. It is important to add that if the stacking sequence differs from the present cross
ply arrangements, the delamination in a layer will be governed by its fiber orientation and elastic properties. The layer reaching its
critical stress value first will be delaminating at the earliest. Figures 34.4, 34.5 and 34.6 show the stress, strain and predicted
delamination loads in the present analysis.

Figure 34.4 Strain across all the interfaces of 14 layer MS-tagged composite at 60 N and 130
N ( i.e. delaminating load )

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Figure 34.5 Strain across all the interfaces of 28 layer MS-tagged composite at 60 N and 130
N ( i.e. delaminating load)

Figure 34.6 Strain across all the interfaces of 28 layer MS-tagged composite at 60 N and 130
N ( i.e. delaminating load)

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Module 4: Active SHM using Magnetostrictive Material


Lecture 34: Convergence analysis for stress and strain using present model

Conclusions

The analysis suggests that change in stiffness of critical members in structure due to damage can be sensed using smart
magnetostrictive layer as change in magnetic state of the MS layer may be detected as induced open circuit voltage in the
sensing coil enclosing the structure and the health of the structure may be monitored on real-time basis using this non-contact
module. It has been observed that placing MS layer away from the mid plane and using a thicker MS layer brings improvement in
sensing capability of the magnetostrictive sensory layer. The results of present numerical analysis are in close conformity with the
experimental results of Guirguitiu et al [2001] and convergence of longitudinal stress and strain in present case are definite
improvement over the numerical results obtained by them [see Table 34.2]. The analysis suggests that a more accurate
prediction of stress and strain behavior of woven composites is possible with the use of present model.

Use of MS layers in composites for in-service NDE offers great potential in comparison to the conventional strain measuring
methods as it presents distributed sensory properties with easier fabrication and embedding. It is capable of surviving the
complete service life of the structure. Hence, MS sensors present a viable non-contact alternative for on-line structural health
monitoring on real-time basis.

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Module 5: Experimental Modal Analysis for SHM


Lecture 35: Experimental modal analysis for damage detection in composite plates using laser doppler
vibrometer

The Lecture Contains:

Introduction to Laser Doppler Vibrometer ( LDV )

Review of literature related to Experimental Modal analysis ( EMA )

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Module 5: Experimental Modal Analysis for SHM


Lecture 35: Experimental modal analysis for damage detection in composite plates using laser doppler
vibrometer

Introduction to Laser Doppler Vibrometer

The composites are gaining importance as structural material in many critical and advanced applications. Their extensive use is
still lagging due to the lack of efficient and reliable damage detection methods which could ensure sustained reliability and well
being of the structure over its planned service life. There is a growing need for continuous monitoring of structures made of
advanced composites to avert catastrophic failures and to provide confidence for the rapid introduction of these high performance
and heterogeneous materials into service. The dynamic responses of structure offer unique information on defects inside the
structure. Changes in the physical properties of the structures due to damage alter the dynamic responses such as natural
frequencies, modal damping and mode shapes. These changes in physical parameters can be extracted to estimate damages in
the structure by experimental modal analysis. In this module, dynamic responses of glass-epoxy composite laminates with
different ply orientations are studied. Laser Doppler Vibrometer has been used to capture the vibration characteristics of
dynamically excited healthy and delaminated composite laminates. Delaminations have been introduced in the laminates at
different locations to simulate damage situations. The effect of delamination on modal characteristics (natural frequencies, modal
damping and mode shapes) of the composite laminates has been analyzed for the purpose of damage detection, its location and
severity. The first four natural frequencies recorded during experimental modal analysis for healthy laminates are compared with
a standard FE software ABAQUS. Perceptible changes in natural frequencies, damping and mode shapes are observed in all
delaminated specimen during experimental modal analysis. Laminates with longitudinal and transverse direction fiber
arrangements are more prone to these changes while cross ply laminates are only marginally affected. A change in modal
damping in a locality is a good indicator of potential delaminating site.

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Module 5: Experimental Modal Analysis for SHM


Lecture 35: Experimental modal analysis for damage detection in composite plates using laser doppler
vibrometer

Damage detection using LDV

Composite structures are prone to unpredicted failures due to greater complexity of design, high operational loads and longer
service life. Fiber-reinforced composites mainly exhibit four types of damages namely- fiber breakage, matrix cracking,
delamination and debonding. Generally, failure occurs due to combination of two or more of these damage types. In this chapter,
detection of delamination in composite plates using dynamic analysis is studied. Delamination is a debonding or separation
between individual plies in composite laminates. High strength of fibrous composites in the direction of reinforcement is
accompanied by a low resistance against interlaminar shear and transverse tension. This may cause delamination leading to
initiation and propagation of cracks. Delamination may arise at the fabrication stage itself ( e.g., incomplete wetting, air
entrapment), during transportation (mishandling, low intensity impacts) and/or during its use (e.g., low velocity impact, bird strikes
on aircraft panels). Delaminations present nearer to the surface are greatly affected by local buckling. When situated deep inside
the bulk of the material, they act similar to a crack in the medium. The presence of delamination significantly reduces the stiffness
and strength of the structure and affects critical design parameters. If modified dynamic response of the structure due to damages
is closer to the operating frequency range during the use, it may cause serious damage to the structure due to uncontrolled
vibration response.

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Module 5: Experimental Modal Analysis for SHM


Lecture 35: Experimental modal analysis for damage detection in composite plates using laser doppler
vibrometer

NDT versus LDV

Non destructive testing procedures such as X-ray imaging, ultrasonic scans, infrared thermograph and eddy current methods are
commonly used for damage detection. These techniques have their own limitations. They are time consuming and difficult to
implement in field conditions. Most of the above techniques require the vicinity of damage known a priori and readily accessible.
In many complex structures even if the detection of defect is accurate, its location and characterization may be difficult and
require expert opinion.

The use of advanced and precise optical measurement systems such as Laser Doppler Vibrometer is gaining in extracting
vibration signatures for the purpose of damage detection as mass loading of the specimen due to sensors and actuators in
embedded systems may be avoided and repeatability and reproducibility of measurements may be ensured. A Polytec Scanning
Vibrometer (PSV-3D) [Polytech Gmbh, Germany] has been used in this study for experimental modal analysis.

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Module 5: Experimental Modal Analysis for SHM


Lecture 35: Experimental modal analysis for damage detection in composite plates using laser doppler
vibrometer

Review of literature related to experimental modal analysis ( EMA )

Damages in a structure may alter its modal parameters (i.e. modal frequencies, mode shapes and modal damping) and structural
parameters (i.e. mass and stiffness). These dynamic characteristics are used to study the condition of the structure as they reflect
the state of the whole structure.

Some of the researches related to damage detection using dynamics based approach are summarized as follows:

Presence of localized damage reduces stiffness and increases damping at that region.

Cawley and Adams [1979] have noted that ratio of frequency changes in two modes is a function of damage location.
Location of damage zone is identified where the theoretically determined ratios of frequencies and experimental values
are equal.
Vandiver and Mitome [1979] have used the same principle of changes in natural frequencies to detect damage in
offshore platforms.
Swamidas et al [2003] have explained experimental procedure for crack detection in beams using changes in
frequencies and corresponding amplitudes in frequency response functions.
Pandey et al [1991] have proposed the use of curvature mode shapes for damage detection in concrete beam sections.
Curvature mode shapes are related to the flexural stiffness of the beam cross sections. Curvature of the mode shape
increases due to reduction of stiffness at the damage region. Absolute change in the curvature for damaged and
undamaged beam can be used for measuring the degree of damage. Curvature changes increase with the increase in
the damage size.
Valdes and Scoutis [1999] have applied resonant ultrasound spectroscopy for obtaining modal frequencies of
delaminated specimen. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy is based on the study of spectra obtained by forced
mechanical resonance of test objects using swept sine excitation. It is used to determine the elastic constants of a test
specimen from its resonance spectrum. In this method, the test object is placed on actuator-sensor couple. The actuator
is excited with a sine wave producing mechanical vibrations within the specimen at the same frequency as the actuator
and the sensor detects the amplitude of the induced vibration. The complete response spectrum of the object is obtained
by this method. It has been reported that the effect of delamination is pronounced in the high frequency region. For low
frequency region, the positioning of actuating and sensing devices is critical for excitation of specific modes.
According to Tracy and Pardoen [1989], delamination has no more than twenty percent effect on the first four natural
frequencies of the delaminated beams compared to the undamaged composite beams.
Hanagud and Luo [1993] have proposed a method of delamination coefficients to study the existence of delamination in
composite plates without visualizing the mode shapes. Higher values of these coefficients are used as quantitative
measure of delamination in the composite plates.
Yam et al [2004] have proposed a mode dependent energy dissipation method for locating the delamination in
cantilever composite plates. For a given mode shape, there is an associated strain field related to the displacements at
different sections of the object. The modal strain energy stored in different sections gives unique information regarding

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energy distribution for a given mode shape. Presence of a defect induces more damping leading to more energy
dissipation in that region. Intact and delaminated composite plate specimens are analyzed using modal stain energy
distribution for locating the delamination.
Kessler et al [2002] in their pioneer work have used Laser Doppler Vibrometer for observing changes in natural
frequencies and mode shapes for various types of damages such as impact, cut-out and delamination in graphite-epoxy
composite beams. Frequency response based methods are found to be more reliable than mode dependent damage
detection methods as coalescence of higher frequency modes makes it difficult to analyze the true nature of the
damages.
In-depth information regarding mechanics of delamination and its effects and vibration based detection methods are
found in the reviews of Bolotin [1996] and Zou et al [2000].

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Module 5: Experimental Modal Analysis for SHM


Lecture 36: Laser doppler vibrometry

The Lecture Contains:

Laser Doppler Vibrometry

Basics of Laser Doppler Vibrometry

Components of the LDV system

Working with the LDV system

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Module 5: Experimental Modal Analysis for SHM


Lecture 36: Laser doppler vibrometry

Laser Doppler Vibrometry

Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) is a Laser based non-contact vibration measurement system. It consists of three measuring
scan heads which are capable of measuring the movements in all the three orthogonal directions yielding full information of the
three dimensional movements [Figure 36.1]. The system works on the principle of Doppler Effect and interferometry for vibration
measurement.

Figure 36.1 Laser Doppler Vibrometer with composite test plate

The minimum detectable vibration speed using this system is 5 m/s at1Hz resolution while the maximum speed is of 10 m/s.
The LDV system software controls the entire measurement process with graphical user interface. The PSV system also has the
provision for input channels which can be used for simultaneous acquisition of data from accelerometers, load cells etc. Transfer
function between any of the input channels connected to the system can be obtained. Signal generator card (NI-671x) contained
in the system is used for generating excitation signals in the frequency range of 0-80 kHz. LDVs can measure vibrations up to 30
MHz range with very linear phase response and high accuracy. Applications of LDV include modal analysis of automotive parts,
car bodies and aircraft panels etc.

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Module 5: Experimental Modal Analysis for SHM


Lecture 36: Laser doppler vibrometry

Basics of Laser Doppler Vibrometry

Doppler Effect
Heterodyne Interferometry

Doppler Effect

Doppler Effect is the change in the frequency (or wavelength) of emitted waves as the source of the wave approaches or moves
away from an observer. This effect was named after the Austrian physicist Christian Johann Doppler who first stated this physical
principle in 1842. The change or shift in frequency observed depends on the speed and direction of travel of both source and
observer. Helium-Neon (He-Ne) Laser beam is made to incident on the vibrating surface and the reflected
Laser light from the surface is detected by the vibrometer scanning unit. Incident and reflected beams are made to interfere on
the detector by suitable arrangement. A moving surface induces a frequency shift on the light received by Vibrometer optics.

(36.1)

where fD is the frequency shift in the reflected beam, V is the velocity of the surface and is the wavelength of the He-Ne Laser.

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Module 5: Experimental Modal Analysis for SHM


Lecture 36: Laser doppler vibrometry

Heterodyne Interferometry

The Laser Doppler Vibrometer works on the basis of optical interference requiring two coherent light beams. The interference
term relates to the path difference between both the beams. If the path difference between the interfering beams is integral
multiplier of Laser wavelength, constructive interference occurs.

(36.2)

Itotal is the resultant intensity, I1 and I2 are the intensities of two interfering Laser beams and ( r1 - r2 ) is the path difference. In
this case, overall intensity becomes four times the single intensity. If the path difference is odd multiplier of half the wave length,
destructive interference occurs where the overall intensity becomes zero. The interference phenomenon is exploited technically in
Laser Doppler Vibrometer as shown in the Figure 36.2.

Figure 36.2 Schematic system setup for measuring vibration using LDV

A He-Ne Laser beam is split by a beam splitter BS1 into a reference beam and a measurement beam. After passing the beam
splitter BS2, the measurement beam is focused onto the object to be measured. The object to be investigated must be reflective.
Surface of the object may be made reflective by applying Ardox spray coating or retro reflective tape. The reflected beam is
deflected by BS2 and is merged with the reference beam by the third beam splitter BS3 and is then directed on to the detector.
As the path length of the reference beam is constant over time, a movement of object under consideration generates a dark and

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bright fringe pattern on the detector. One complete darkbright cycle corresponds to an object displacement of exactly half the
wavelength of the light used. For a He-Ne Laser, this displacement is 316 nanometers. Change in the optical path length per unit
time causes the Doppler frequency shift of the measured beam. The modulation frequency of the interferometer pattern is exactly
proportional to the velocity of the object.

Same interference patterns (and frequency shifts) are generated as the object moves towards or moves away from the
interferometer. A Bragg cell is placed in the reference beam to distinguish the direction of movement as it shifts the Laser
frequency by 40 MHz. A modulation frequency of the fringe pattern of 40 MHz is generated when the object is at rest. Movement
of the object towards the interferometer reduces the modulation frequency while it increases when the object moves away from
the Vibrometer. The detector receives a frequency lower or higher than 40 MHz indicating the direction and amplitude of
movement of the object.

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Module 5: Experimental Modal Analysis for SHM


Lecture 36: Laser doppler vibrometry

Components of the LDV system

The main components of the Polytec Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer are the scan heads (top, left and right), Vibrometer
controllers (OFV-5000) for each scan head, junction box connecting all these controllers and a personal computer (PC)
containing the PSV software.

PSV-I-400 Scan head

Each scanning head has four major inbuilt units. They are video, scan electronics, scanning mirrors and photo sensor (OFV-505)
units as shown in the Figure 36.3.

Figure 36.3 Scan head and its inbuilt units.

Salient features of the scanning head are

Scan angle 20o with 0.02o resolution


72 x Zoom video camera
Large working distances 0.5 m to 50 m
Close up unit for scanning small objects in millimeter range
Laser focus, alignment procedures can be remote controlled using PDA which connects directly to the PSV software

Vibrometer Controller (OFV-5000)

The Vibrometer controller provides signals and power for the sensor head which is present in the scan head and processes the
vibration signals. They are electronically converted by specially developed analog and digital decoders within the controller to
obtain velocity and displacement information about the test structure. Information provided by controller is available in analog or
digital form for further evaluation of data. The analog output is provided at standard BNC connectors.

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Junction Box

The junction box acts as an interface between the Vibrometer controller and the PSV software. Vibrometer controller of each scan
head is connected to the junction box. Input for up to 8 analog signals and trigger are available on BNC connectors.

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Module 5: Experimental Modal Analysis for SHM


Lecture 36: Laser doppler vibrometry

Working with the LDV system

The sequence of steps followed while workings with the PSV system are shown in Figure 36.4.

Figure 36.4 Workflow during the experiment on LDV

Details of the test setup

Composite plates are coated with white spray for the purpose of better reflection. Plates are experimented in cantilever position
as shown in the Figure 36.5 (a).

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Figure 36.5 (a) Composite test plate with dynamic shaker

For the dynamic excitation of the composite plate an electro-dynamic shaker is used. A power amplifier (make: LDS, PA500L
series) is connected to the shaker for the purpose of amplifying the excitation signal generated by the LDV system. During the
experiment, a pseudo random signal in the frequency range of 0-2000 Hz is used for the excitation of the composite plate.
Experiment is carried out in two steps. In the first step the plate is excited from 0-800 Hz with a signal voltage of 0.2 V. In the
second step the plate is excited from 800-2000 Hz with increased amplifier gain in order to excite the high frequency modes.

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Module 5: Experimental Modal Analysis for SHM


Lecture 36: Laser doppler vibrometry

Alignment procedure

The 2-D alignment step is carried out to relate the video and scanner coordinate system. This is done by selecting 10-15 points
for each Laser head on the scan area. PSV software stores the video coordinates and the scan angles of these points on the
scan area and calculates the polynomial interpolation. 2-D alignment step performed for one of the scan heads is shown in Figure
36.5(b).

Figure 36.5 (b) 2-D alignment step performed for the composite plate

Alignment procedure for 3D

In 3D alignment, coordinate system for the scan area is defined. This is done by selecting origin, point on X-axis, and point on X-
Y plane on the scan area. After this step, all the three Lasers are made to coincide at other four to five points. The purpose of
using these points is to back calculate the position and angle between the Laser heads by PSV software. After 3-D alignment
procedure, the software is able to provide the coordinates (X, Y, and Z) of any point on the scan area with respect to the chosen
coordinate system.

Geometry scan

All the scan points in the mesh grid are accessed by the three Lasers in order to estimate the surface of the test object. The three
Lasers coincide at each and every scan point on the mesh grid [Figure 36.5(c)]. The accuracy of the surface estimated depends
on the previous steps. This step is crucial to obtain the exact simulations of the test surface during the test.

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Figure 36.5 (c) Status points on the scanned composite plate

Rectangular mesh grid of size 250 mm x 200 mm was done in ABAQUS. This grid was imported into the PSV software to define
the scan area as shown in Figure 6.5(d). The grid has 356 scan points in the present case.

Figure 36.5 (d) Mesh grid with the scan points on the rectangular composite plate.

Data acquisition parameters

Data acquisition properties such as the excitation signal to be used, frequency range, parameters for the FFT analysis (number of
FFT lines, bandwidth etc.), averages, windows, velocity decoder are given in this step. Time required for the complete scan
depends on the number of scan points defined and FFT parameters. In the present analysis, 356 scan points were defined on the
composite plate and it took about one hour to complete the scan. Response plots, mode shapes animations are visualized after
the scan.

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Module 5: Experimental Modal Analysis for SHM


Lecture 37: Velocity and displacement measurement

The Lecture Contains:

Measurement of Damping

Experimental Modal Analysis

Comparison of Experimental Modal Analysis Results with Standard Finite Element Software ABAQUS for
Healthy Laminates

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Module 5: Experimental Modal Analysis for SHM


Lecture 37: Velocity and displacement measurement

The measurement Laser beam and the reflected Laser beam are made to interfere on the photo detector creating a fringe
pattern. An optical sensor system OFV-505 detects the changes in the fringe pattern and generates optical interference signal
which is fed to the decoders. Decoders generate an analog signal in relation to this input optical interference signal.

Measurement of damping

A quantitative measure of damping factor is obtained by using the half-power bandwidth method shown graphically in Figure
37.1.

Figure 37.1 Damping measurement using 3dB method

The damping factor, can be determined by

(37.1)

is determined from the half power points down from the resonant peak value, Xmax. On a decibel scale, this corresponds to
3dB down from the peak value. Hence, is also referred as 3 dB method .

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Module 5: Experimental Modal Analysis for SHM


Lecture 37: Velocity and displacement measurement

Experimental Modal Analysis

Sample preparation

Glass-epoxy composite plates with dimensions 270 mm x 200 mm are fabricated for experimental modal analysis. Laminated
plates with three different ply orientations: all zero plies [0/0/0/0], all 90 plies [90/90/90/90] and a cross ply laminate [0/90/0/90]
are used. All the plates are prepared using unidirectional glass-epoxy mats by hand layup technique in the laboratory.

Material properties of the glass-epoxy composite laminate used in the experimental modal analysis are listed in Table 37.1.

Table 37.1 Material properties of glass-epoxy laminate

Composite Glass-epoxy
Elastic modulus, E1 28.45 GPa
Elastic modulus, E2 2.14 GPa
Shear modulus, G12 1.032 GPa
Poisson's ratio, 0.24
Density, 1670 kg/m3

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Module 5: Experimental Modal Analysis for SHM


Lecture 37: Velocity and displacement measurement

Experimental Modal Analysis

Specimen with induced delamination

Dynamic responses for healthy and delaminated composite plates are experimentally recorded for damage detection.
Delamination is introduced by placing a square Teflon sheet (50mm x 50mm) in the laminate. Two different locations have been
chosen for delamination in the laminated plates. In the first case Teflon sheet is placed at a distance of 50 mm from the clamped
end. In the second case, it is placed at a distance of 150 mm from the clamped end. Teflon sheets are placed at top edge of the
plate in both the cases to simulate delamination patterns of Delam Type-I and Type-II [Figure 37.2].

Figure 37.2 Composite plates with induced delaminations (Delam Type-I and Delam Type-II)

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Module 5: Experimental Modal Analysis for SHM


Lecture 37: Velocity and displacement measurement

Experimental Modal Analysis

Sample preparation

For both the cases, delaminations have been introduced in two different layers of the 4-ply laminates. The laminates with
delaminations in the middle layer (i.e. II interface) are designated as Type A and those with delamination in the offset layer (i.e. I
interface as shown in Figure 37.2) are designated as Type B. The experiments are conducted on these composite plates in fixed-
free boundary condition (more precisely C-F-F-F). Dynamic excitation is given at the center of the plate by an electro-dynamic
shaker. Laminated composite plates used in experimental modal analysis are detailed in Table 37.2.

Table 37.2 Laminated composite plates used in experimental modal analysis

S.No. Ply configuration Type


1 [0/0/0/0] Healthy
Delam Type-I A & B
Delam Type-II A & B
2 [90/90/90/90] Healthy

Delam Type-I A & B


Delam Type-II A & B
3 [0/90/0/90] Healthy

Delam Type-I A & B

The experiments are carried out on Polytec Scanning (PSV) Vibrometer in 3-D scan mode. The excitation details are provided in
Table 37.3

Table 37.3 Detalis of the excitation signal used in 3-D scan mode

Excitation signal pseudo-random


Frequency Range 0-2000 Hz
FFT lines 1600
Window Rectangle
Averages 10 (complex)

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Velocity Decoder VD-08 Digital decoder


(velocity range 0-10 mm/s)

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Module 5: Experimental Modal Analysis for SHM


Lecture 37: Velocity and displacement measurement

Comparison of Experimental Modal Analysis Results with Standard Finite


Element Software ABAQUS for Healthy Laminates

Finite element modeling of healthy composite plates is carried out using a standard finite element software package ABAQUS.
Conventional solid element is extruded with composite layup to model the composite plate. A fine mesh size of 0.004 mm is used
for accurate prediction of modal frequencies. First four modal frequencies are obtained through experimental modal analysis
carried out on healthy laminates of different orientations. The comparisons between the experimental and numerical analyses
results for the representative modes are presented in Table 37.4.

Table 37.4: Comparison of EMA and ABAQUS results

Laminate Mode type B1(Hz) Tl(Hz) B2(Hz) B22(Hz) B32 B02


(Hz) (Hz)
Experiment 32.5 56.3 146.3 285.2 - -
Healthy 0o plies
ABAQUS 28.03 46.18 129.24 272.14 - -

Experiment 25.0 45.1 81.3 - 238.3 -


Healthy 90o plies

ABAQUS 23.88 41.68 98.84 - 221.38 -


Experiment 27.5 63.8 143.8 - - 278.8
Healthy 0o /90o plies

ABAQUS 25.05 46.18 129.24 - - 258.92

A standard FEM Package ABAQUS' is used for modal analysis of healthy composite plates to verify and validate the results of
experimental modal analysis. A fairly good agreement in natural frequencies for different modes is seen for various ply
orientations. The modal frequencies predicted by ABAQUS for different orientations of composite laminates are on the lower side
in comparison to the experimental results for all the modes. The agreement in results is very good in general for higher frequency
modes. Prediction of first modal frequency is in close conformity with the experimental results for all 900 plies and cross ply
laminates while for all 00 plies, the results are somewhat conservative in comparison to the experimental results.

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Lecture 38: Composite plates with 0o plies

The Lecture Contains:

Frequency response function plots

Comparison of the modal frequencies

Comparison of modal damping

Comparison of displacement and velocity from frequency response plots

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Lecture 39: Composite plates with 0o plies

Composite plates with 0o plies

The modal parameters are compared for first four modes namely:

first bending mode in longitudinal direction (B1),


second bending in the longitudinal direction (B2),
second bending mode in both longitudinal and transverse direction (B22) and
first torsion mode (T1).

Typical first four mode shapes are shown in Figure 38.1.

Figure 38.1 Typical first four mode shapes for 0o plies

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Lecture 38: Composite plates with 0o plies

Frequency response plots

Frequency response plots of healthy laminate plate are shown in Figures 38.2 (a) and (b) for a frequency range of 0-800 and 800-
2000 Hz respectively.

Figure 38.2 (a) Frequency response plot from 0-800 Hz for the healthy composite plate with
00 plies

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Figure 38.2 (b) Frequency response plot from 800-2000 Hz for the healthy composite plate
with 00 piles

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Lecture 38: Composite plates with 0o plies

Comparison of the modal frequencies

A general decrease in modal frequencies is seen due to the presence of delaminations. Healthy ply has first modal frequency at
32.5 Hz. It decreases to 30.0 Hz for Delam Type-I and 27.5 Hz for Delam Type-II composite laminates. Similar decrease is
observed in other three modal frequencies. These changes are shown in Figure 38.3 (a), (b) and (c) .

Figure 38.3 (a) Shift in natural frequencies corresponding to B1 and T1 modes due to
delamination in 0o plies

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Figure 38.3 (b) Shift in natural frequencies corresponding to the B2 mode due to
delamination in 0o plies

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Figure 38.3 (c) Shift in natural frequencies corresponding to the B22 mode due to
delamination in 0o plies

Four additional local modes are present in the Delam Type-I case at 887.5 Hz, 912.5 Hz, 992.5 Hz and 1325 Hz. These local
modes seem to have been generated due to delamination as they are not seen in the healthy laminate. Similarly, six additional
local modes are observed in Delam Type-II case at 976.3 Hz, 1442.5 Hz, 1577.5 Hz, 1592.5 Hz, 1806 Hz and 1892.5 Hz
respectively.

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Lecture 38: Composite plates with 0o plies

Comparison of the modal frequencies

Changes in modal frequencies of delaminated specimens are presented in comparison to the healthy laminate in percentage term
in Figure 38.4 (a). It is evident that percentage decrease in first four modal frequencies in Delam Type-II is higher than in Delam
Type-I. A frequency decrease of the order of 15 and 22 per cent in Delam Type-II for first and second bending mode is observed
with respect to healthy laminate.

Figure 38.4 (a) Change in modal frequency with respect to the healthy laminate (0o plies)

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Lecture 38: Composite plates with 0o plies

Comparison of the modal damping

Changes in modal damping of delaminated specimens are presented in comparison to the healthy laminate in percentage term in
Figure 38.4(b).

Figure 38.4 (b) Change in modal damping with respect to the healthy laminate (0o plies)

It is seen that the increase in modal damping in Delam Type-I is more prominent in comparison to Delam Type-II. Prominent
increase in modal damping for all the modes except second bending mode is observed with respect to healthy laminate. Damping
increase is nominal in second bending mode. It may be explained as the first case lies in a higher shear region (i.e. closer to the
clamped end).

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Lecture 39: Composite plates with 90o plies

The Lecture Contains:

Introduction

FRF plots for 900 laminate

Comparison of the modal frequencies

Comparison of modal damping

Comparison of displacement and velocity from frequency response plots

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Module 5: Experimental Modal Analysis for SHM


Lecture 39: Composite plates with 90o plies

Introduction

The frequency modes compared are first bending in longitudinal direction ( B1 ), second bending in longitudinal direction ( B2),
bending in both longitudinal and transverse directions ( B32 ) and first torsion mode ( T1). The mode shape for the B32 mode is
shown in Fig. 39.1.

Figure 39.1: Mode shape for the B32 mode

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Lecture 39: Composite plates with 90o plies

FRF plots for 900 laminate

Frequency response plots of healthy laminate with 90o plies are presented in Figure 39.2 (a) & (b) for a frequency range of 0-800
and 800-2000 Hz respectively.

Figure 39.2 (a) Frequency response plot from 0-800 Hz for the healthy composite plate with
90o plies

Figure 39.2 (b) Frequency response plot from 800-2000 Hz for the healthy composite plate
with 900 piles

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Lecture 39: Composite plates with 90o plies

Comparison of modal frequencies

A general decrease in modal frequencies is seen very similar to the earlier case of 0o plies. However, the general decrease in
modal frequencies in this case is less prominent compared to 0o plies. Healthy laminate has first modal frequency at 25 Hz. It
decreases marginally to 23.8 Hz for both the cases i.e. Delam Type-I and Delam Type-II. Similar marginal decrease is observed
in other three modal frequencies. These changes are shown in Figures 39.3 (a), (b) and (c). Similar to the earlier case of 0o plies,
additional local peaks are present in both types of delaminations. In Delam Type-I, three local modes are present at 823 Hz,
902.5 Hz and 961.3 Hz. Peaks present in the healthy laminate are flattened out in the delaminated specimen at 1876.5 Hz and
1976 Hz probably due to increase in damping. Three local modes are present at 823 Hz, 902.5 Hz and 961.3 Hz in Delam Type-
II. Peaks present in the healthy laminate are flattened at 1700 Hz, 1876.5 Hz and 1976 Hz in the delaminated specimen, again
possibly due to increased damping.

Figure 39.3 (a) Shift in natural frequencies corresponding to B1 and T1 modes due to
delamination in 90 0 plies

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Figure 39.3 (b) Shift in natural frequencies corresponding to the B2 mode due to
delamination in 90o plies

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Figure 39.3 (c) Shift in natural frequencies corresponding to the B32 mode due to
delamination in 900 plies

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Lecture 39: Composite plates with 90o plies

Comparison of modal damping

The damping values (in percentage) for the representative modes B1, B2, B32 and T1 are determined using 3dB method for all
the laminates with 900 plies. These are detailed in Table 39.1. The damping changes are quite prominent for first and second
bending modes but no fixed pattern of increase in damping is observed in this case as observed in the case of laminates with 0o
plies. This change is probably due to transverse orientation of the fibers.

Table 39.1 summary of modal parameters for 900 laminate

S.No. Property Damage Mode shape


Type B1 T1 B2 B32
1 Modal frequency, Healthy 25.0 45.1 81.3 238.3
Hz
Delam type-I 23.8 45.0 80.2 217.5

Delam type-II 23.8 43.8 67.8 182.5


2 Modal Damping, Healthy 11.65 5.84 16.60 3.21
%
Delam type-I 20.13 5.96 16.60 2.71

Delam type-II 11.49 4.44 22.43 3.32

3 Displacement, m Healthy 5.742 0.994 0.980 0.337

Delam type-I 5.499 0.865 0.963 0.398

Delam type-II 6.944 0.952 1.271 0.558

4 Velocity, m/s Healthy 850.7 281.1 500.3 506.4

Delam type-I 1040.3 244.5 284.4 620.2

Delam type-II 860.1 276.9 519.1 649.3

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Comparison of displacement and velocity from frequency response plots

Magnitudes of displacement and velocity for the representative modes obtained from the frequency response plots are
summarized in Table 39.1. A change in velocity amplitude pattern is observed in case of Delam Type-I. In this case, where a
decrease in velocity is observed for torsion and second bending mode which is opposite to what is observed in the case of 0o
plies.

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Lecture 40: Cross-ply composite plates

The Lecture Contains:

FRF plots for cross-ply composite plates

Comparison of modal frequencies

Comparison of modal damping

Comparison of displacement and velocity from frequency response plots

Effect of delamination introduced in different layers (Type A and B)

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Lecture 40: Cross-ply composite plates

Cross-ply composite plates

First four modes considered for comparison are first bending (B1), second bending in longitudinal direction (B2), second bending
in transverse direction (B02) and first torsion mode (T1). The mode shape of B02 mode is shown below in Figure 40.1.

Figure 40.1: B02 mode shape

FRF plots for cross-ply composite plates

Frequency response plots of healthy cross ply laminate are shown in Figures 40.2(a) and (b) for a frequency range of 0-800 and
800-2000 Hz respectively.

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Figure 40.1 (a) Frequency response plot from 0-800 Hz for the healthy
composite plate with 00 / 900 cross plies

Figure 40.2 (b) Frequency response plot from 800-2000 Hz for the healthy

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composite plate with 00/900 cross plies

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Lecture 40: Cross-ply composite plates

Figure 40.3 (a) shift in natural freqencies corresponding to B1 and T1 modes due to
delamination in 00/900 cross plies

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Figure 40.3 (b) shift in natural freqencies corresponding to the B2 modes due to
delamination in 00/900 cross plies

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Figure 40.3 (c) shift in natural freqencies corresponding to the B02 modes due to
delamination in 00/900 cross plies

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Lecture 40: Cross-ply composite plates

Comparison of modal frequencies

Very little change in first four modal frequencies is noticed in healthy and Delam Type-I specimen. This trend is totally different
from the earlier two cases. It seems that due to sufficient stiffness in both the planer directions, the cross ply laminate shows little
drop in frequency. The comparisons of modal frequencies are shown in Table 40.1.

Table 40.1 Summary of modal parameters for [0/90] cross ply laminate

S.No. Property Damage Type Modal shapes


B1 T1 B2 B02
1 Modal frequency, Hz Healthy 27.5 63.8 143.8 278.8
Delam type-I 27.5 61.3 146.3 277.5
2 Modal Healthy 12.59 1.881 6.849 3.061
Damping, % Delam type-I 12.31 2.350 6.413 3.037
3 Displacement, m Healthy 6.403 1.023 0.745 0.329
Delam type-I 6.362 1.354 0.753 0.351
4 Velocity, m/s Healthy 1106.4 400.6 673.1 576.3
Delam type-I 1099.4 521.1 691.9 617.5

Comparison of modal damping

The damping values for the representative modes B1, B2, B02 and T1 listed in Table 40.2. There is hardly any change in modal
damping in delaminated specimen in comparison to the healthy laminates. The modal damping values are 12.59 per cent and
12.39 per cent for the healthy and the delaminated specimens.

Comparison of displacement and velocity from frequency response plots

Magnitude of displacement and velocity values for the representative modes are obtained from the frequency response plots and
are listed in Table 40.2. The displacements and velocity values for healthy and delaminated specimens show very little variation
suggesting the modal parameters are marginally affected by these delaminations. The complete summary of changes in modal
parameters for cross ply is presented in Table 40.2.

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Lecture 40: Cross-ply composite plates

Effect of delamination introduced in different layers (Type A and B)

Velocity magnitude vs frequency plots for healthy and delaminated specimens were obtained with delaminations introduced in
middle layer and in the offset layer of the four ply laminates of different orientations. Two such plots are presented in Figure 40.4
and 40.5 for comparing the responses of healthy and Delam Type-I plate specimens. It is observed that velocity magnitude is
quite high in comparison to the healthy ply for 00 plies as well as for 900 plies when delamination is introduced in the middle layer
(Type A). A decrease in velocity magnitude is observed in the case of delamination in offset layer (Type B) for both the cases of
delamination i.e. Delam Type-I and Delam Type-II.

Figure 40.4: Comparison of velocity amplitude for 00 plies with delamination

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Figure 40.5: Comparison of velocity amplitude for 900 plies with delamination

A good damping is observed in both the types of delaminations for all the ply orientations if the delamination is introduced in the
middle layer. A decrease in damping behavior is observed in 00 ply laminate while fairly good damping is observed in 900 plies in
case of delamination in the offset layer (Type B). Summary of modal damping changes in the healthy and the delaminated
specimens when delamination is introduced in middle and offset layers are presented in Table 40.2.

Table 40.2 Summary of modal damping changes in healthy and delaminated specimen

Laminate Delaminated Modal damping (in per cent)


interface Healthy Delam Type-I Delam Type-
II
0/0/0/0 Middle 9.49 14.95 13.32

First 8.87 11.43


90/90/90/90 Middle 11.65 20.13 11.49

First 14.22 12.40


0/90/0/90 Middle 12.59 12.31 X

First 8.9 X

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Lecture 40: Cross-ply composite plates

Conclusions

Experimental analysis of dynamic response of the composite plates with and without delamination has been carried out
on composite plates with different ply orientations. Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) is used for capturing the vibration
signatures with the aim to detect delamination in composite plates. A standard finite element software package ABAQUS
is used to determine modal frequencies for healthy composite plates of different orientations. The results of experimental
modal analysis show good agreement with modal frequencies predicted in numerical analysis.

Followings are the major conclusions from the experimental modal analysis:
Presence of delamination causes changes in modal frequencies. A general decrease in modal frequencies is observed
for all the laminates. This decrease is more prominent in the cases of delamination present in higher shear zone.
Additional local modes are noticed at higher frequencies in all the delaminated composite plates suggesting change in
vibration signatures in the presence of delaminations.

Modal damping observes a general increase for all the modes in the presence of delamination. Damping is higher for
delaminations present closer to the clamped end in comparison to one away from the fixed end. Delaminations present in
the middle layer show greater damping characteristics in comparison to one in the outer layers. It has been observed that
in some cases though the decrease in modal frequency is nominal, the specimens show good damping behavior. It is
suggestive of the fact that damping is a more sensitive indicator of stiffness or loss of it.

The present study suggest that use of advanced and precise optical measurement systems such as Laser Doppler
Vibrometer in extracting vibration signatures offer a potential on-line and off-line structural health monitoring alternative
for the structures. Its advantage lies in it being a non contact type of sensing device in which mass loading of specimen
is absent and dynamic responses may be recorded in purest form. LDV also offers good repeatability and reproducibility
of the measurements.

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