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Steam inlet Temperature

Water inlet temperature


Water outlet temperature
Assumptions
1.The shell fluid temperature is an average isothermal tempeature at any cross
2.There is an equal amount of heating surface in each pass.

3.The overall coefficient of heat transfer is constant.

4.The rate of flow of each fluid is constant.


5.Specific heat of each fluid is constant.
7.Heat losses are negligible.

STEP1
SELECTION OF HEAT EXCHANGER AS PER
Heat balance:
Specific Heat of water
Latent heat of steam at 1.46psi
Dryness fraction of steam

Heat absorbed by water = Heat removed from Stea


Total latent heat

20% extra for safety


Heat removed from Steam
Calculation of Mass of water
Change in water temperature
Mass of water
Change in hot fluid inlet Temperature and cold fluid outlet Temperature
Change in hot fluid outlet Temperature and cold fluid inlet Temperature
Difference of Change in Temperature
Logarithmic value ln(14.22/32.22)
Lean mean temperature difference(LMTD)

Average temperature of hot fluid


Average temperature of cold fluid
Calculation of required area
Triangular pitch of tubes 1.25 times of diameter of tube
No. of tube pass
BWG(Birmingham wire gauge)
Tube count constant(2 pass)
Tube layout constant
Number of tubes
Projected area of tube layout
Calculation of diameter of shell
Inner diameter of shell
Shell cross flow area
Mass flow velocity

Reynolds number
Calburn factor
(C/K)^0.33
K/D
Outer heat transfer of shell
Calculation of area of tube
Area
Mass flow of velocity
Velocity
Reynolds number
Heat transfer of inner tube from graph
Total heat transfer
Clean overall coefficient
Dirt factor

Calculation of pressure drop of shell


Tube length(shall diameter/tube length=1/10)
Number of crosses(N+1)
Pressure drop in shell
Calculation of pressure drop of tube
Pressure drop
Return loss drop
Total tube side pressure drop

Total area of tubes


Discharge of flow tubes

How much inlet of discharge of flow

Condenser efficiency

Volumetric flow rate of water


Total number of tubes calculate

Two pass are provided


Number of tubes per p
Cross sectional area o
Flow area per pass
Volumetric flow rate of water = Flow area by pass*velocity

Number of tubes

Length of tube

Outside surface area of tube/m le


Length of each tube

Shell diamiter
Two pass arrangement in square p
Assume

(N/K)^1/n
Shell diamiter
Use 10% Clearence
Correct shell diamiter
HEAT EXCHANGER
FLUIDS
FLUID TEMARETURE OF STE
FLUID TEMARETURE OF WA
INLET PRESSURE OF STEAM
Latent heat of steam
RATE OF MASS FLOW STEAM
Outer diameter of tube
Baffle space
Heat transfer coefficient
Number of tubes
Clearance from tube to tube
Equivalent diameter of shel
Dynamic viscosity of steam
Specific heat constant
Thermal conductivity
Equivalent diameter inner tu
Density at 80F
Flow area per tube
Dynamic viscosity of water
Friction factor from Reynold
Friction factor from Reynold
Specific gravity of water
V^2/2g depend on mass ve
At 1.46psi saturation tempe
Innerdiamiter of tube
T1 116.6 F 47 Deg C
T3 68 F 20 Deg C
T4 95 F 35 Deg C

ature at any cross section.


ER AS PER (LMTD) VALUE

1 Btu/lbF
833 BTU/hr
0.8 (Mass of dry steam / Mass of wet steam)

moved from Steam


69442834.68 BTU/hr 324 kg/s

13888567
83,331,402 BTU/hr

27 F
2571957 lb/hr 324 kg/s
21.6 F
48.6 F
27 F
0.8109302162
33.2950967421 F

116.6 F
81.5 F
3113 ft^2 289 m^2
1.25 in
1
15
0.9
0.87
300
1.359375 in^2

24.0042012684 in 2.00035 ft 0.61 m


1.3335667371 ft^2
62490.1121777

2349.25233751
25
1.5391863961
7.2
277.053551305 Btu/hr ft^2F

1.2 ft^2
2143297.36653 lb/hr(ft^2)
9.5257660735 fps 2.9 m/s
152817.102233
700 Btu/hr ft^2F
601.325301205 Btu/hr ft^2F
189.666804605 Btu/hr ft^2F
-0.0037798666

216.5 in 5.5 m 18.0 ft


5.4
0.0010124 psi

4.5 psi
0.3 psi
4.7 psi

1413.4 ft^2 774982.7


13463.3 ft^3/s 813744.1 l/s

0.3252642235 m^3/s 651600 L/h

57.8356610402 %

Reference by Dr.Shrikant D. Dawande

0.325264 m^3/s
tubes calculate

wo pass are provided on tube side


umber of tubes per pass N/2
ross sectional area of tube(a) 0.00037 m^2
ow area per pass a*N/2
pass*velocity

605.7666

ace area of tube/m length 0.079899 m^2/m


5.975398 m

angement in square pitch


K 0.156
n 2.291

36.8675
0.936435 m
1.1
1.030078 m
STEAM & WATER
LUID TEMARETURE OF STEAM 91.22 F
LUID TEMARETURE OF WATER 77 to 59 F
NLET PRESSURE OF STEAM 0.722 psi
atent heat of steam 833.3 BTU/lb
ATE OF MASS FLOW STEAM 83334.735 lb/hr
uter diameter of tube 1 in
affle space 40 in
eat transfer coefficient 670 Btu/hr ft^2F
umber of tubes 300
learance from tube to tube 0.25 in
quivalent diameter of shell as per standard by data book 0.56 in
ynamic viscosity of steam at 122F 1.33 lb/ft.hr
pecific heat constant 1 BTU/lb F
hermal conductivity 0.36 BTu/hr(ft^2)F/ft
quivalent diameter inner tube 0.856 in
ensity at 80F 62.5 lb/ft^3
ow area per tube 0.576 in^3
ynamic viscosity of water at 80F 1 lb/ft.hr
iction factor from Reynolds number of shell side 0.0025 sq ft/sq in
iction factor from Reynolds number of tube side 0.0002 sq ft/sq in
pecific gravity of water 1
^2/2g depend on mass velocity 0.07
t 1.46psi saturation temperature: 114.684 F
nerdiamiter of tube 0.856 in

Segmenta
Baffle Typ
The baffle spacing must be chosen with care.
Optimal baffle spacing is somewhere between 40% - 60% of the s

Baffle cut of 25%-35% is usually recommended


Selection of tube material
To be able to transfer heat well, the tube material should have good
cold side through the tubes there is a temperature difference throug
Because of the tendency of the material to thermally expand differe
This is addition to any stress from high pressures from fluid themse
shell and tube side fluids for long periods under the operating cond
To minimize deterioration such as corrosion. All of these requiremen
,high quality tube material, typically metal poor choice of metal in t

Tube arrangement
Triangular arrangement:
Dawande
32.9 C
25 to 15 C
0.0498 bar
1938.55 Kj/Kg
10.5 kg/s
0.083 ft 0.0254 mm
1016 mm

300
6.35 mm
0.05 ft

hr(ft^2)F/ft
0.0713 ft 0.02174 m
0.03616 lb/in^3 995 kg/m^3

0.000413 Ns/m^2
Annulus diamiters and location of coefficents

inner pipe

0.0217 m
hi

D2
D1

Segmental Cut Baffles


Baffle Type & Geometry

etween 40% - 60% of the shell diameter. Outer pipe


material should have good thermal conductivity, because heat is transferred from a hot to
mperature difference through the width of the tubes.
to thermally expand differently at various temperatures, Thermal stresses occur during operation
essures from fluid themselves, The tube material also should be compatible with both the
under the operating conditions(Temperatures, pressures, PH, etc.)
on. All of these requirements call for careful selection of strong, thermally - conductivity, corrosion resistance
al poor choice of metal in this correct way of this.
Triangular pitch (30o layout) is better for
heat transfer and surface area per unit
length (greatest tube density.)
efficents

ho
rrosion resistance