12 views

Uploaded by Mohamed Saeed

cdsss

- Ch06 Diffusion
- Hydrology for Dummies
- Cpe 5231
- Non-Fickian Drying of Polymeric Coatings
- Metallurgical & Materials Engineering
- Wax in Pipeline
- Ert
- 2008 Written Nqe Soln
- IJETR021795
- Modeling and simulation of milk emulsion drying in spray dryers.doc
- Steam
- Thermal Physics
- Masstransfer Fundamentals
- Inter Facial
- japplphysiol.91615.2008
- Combined Gas Law Lab Report HJM Research
- Chapter 2 5
- Physics
- paper 3
- Upaper24_HQTang

You are on page 1of 11

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijts

convective drying (IMCD) of food

C. Kumar a, M.U.H. Joardder a, T.W. Farrell b, M.A. Karim a, *

a

Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia

b

Mathematical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Intermittent microwave convective (IMCD) drying is an advanced drying technology that improves both

Received 2 August 2015 energy efciency and food quality during the drying of food materials. Despite numerous experimental

Received in revised form studies available for IMCD, there is no complete multiphase porous media model available to describe the

19 January 2016

process. A multiphase porous media model considering liquid water, gases and the solid matrix inside

Accepted 20 January 2016

Available online 19 April 2016

the food during drying can provide in depth understanding of IMCD. In this article, rstly a multiphase

porous media model was developed for IMCD. Then the model is validated against experimental data by

comparing moisture content and temperature distributions after each heating and tempering periods.

Keywords:

Intermittent microwave

The prole of vapour pressures and evaporation during IMCD are presented and discussed. The relative

Drying contribution of water and vapour uxes due to gas pressure and diffusion demonstrated that the uxes

Mathematical model due are relatively higher in IMCD compared to convection drying and this makes the IMCD faster.

Lambert's law 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Moisture ux

Vapour pressure

COMSOL multiphysics

Multiphase porous media

microwave convective drying without considering intermittency.

Combined microwave convection drying can signicantly Those are only either empirical models [5,15], or single-phase

shorten the drying time and improve the product quality and en- diffusion based models [3,25]. Since these models did not account

ergy efciency [59]. However, continuous application of microwave for the intermittency of microwave power, they do not provide any

energy may overheat the product [21]. To overcome this problem, understanding of the IMCD process.

Intermittent Microwave Convective Drying (IMCD) is practised There are some empirical models available in the literature for

where the heating rate can be controlled by choosing the inter- IMCD [16], however, the empirical models do not help towards

mittency [21,52]. Thus, IMCD can improve both energy efciency optimization and are only applicable for specic experimental

and product quality during drying. Many experimental in- conditions [32,41]. Apart from empirical modelling, there are some

vestigations have highlighted the advantages of IMCD showing diffusion based theoretical models that consider intermittency of

drying time reduction and quality improvement for different food microwave power [21e23,56], however, mass transfer was

products, such as, oregano [48], sage leaves [15], banana [2], and neglected in these models. Moreover, none of these intermittent

pineapple [7]. Being a relatively new technique in food drying, heating models investigated the temperature distribution and

modelling studies of IMCD are very limited. In order to describe the redistribution due to intermittent microwave power, which is

heat and mass transfer process during IMCD, an appropriate model critical for avoiding overheating of food. Therefore, it can be

has to be developed to obtain a better strategy for applying mi- concluded that currently there is no modelling work that can

crowaves and optimizing the process [33]. illustrate the mechanism of heat and mass transfer during IMCD.

The theoretical models of food drying can broadly be catego-

rized into two groups: (1) single phase (diffusion based), (2)

multiphase modes. The single-phase models consider only diffu-

* Corresponding author. Tel.: 61 7 3138 6879; fax: 61 7 3138 1516. sion inside the food product and are unable to provide an under-

E-mail address: azharul.karim@qut.edu.au (M.A. Karim). standing of other transport mechanism such as pressure driven

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2016.01.018

1290-0729/ 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

C. Kumar et al. / International Journal of Thermal Sciences 104 (2016) 304e314 305

ow and evaporation. Describing all the water transport as diffu- observable phenomenon, it was not taken into consideration in this

sion cannot be justied under all situations [57]. Therefore, multi- study. IMCD itself is a complex model and inclusion of shrinkage

phase models considering transport of liquid water, water vapour would further complicate the simulation of the model. As it is the

and air insider the food materials are more realistic. Although the rst multiphase IMCD model, it is logical that we start with a

nal equations of multiphase models seem to be simple conser- simplied model. It is our assumption that although consideration

vation equations it still provides the more fundamental and of shrinkage may provide better prediction, the trends of transport

convincing basis of transport than single-phase models [13,55]. phenomena would be the same. Therefore, we neglected the

Multiphase models can be categorised into two groups viz. equi- shrinkage in our study to focus more on transport phenomena.

librium and non-equilibrium approach of vapour pressure. In

equilibrium formulations, the vapour pressure, pv, is assumed to be

equal with equilibrium vapour pressure, pv,eq, and vice versa [57]. 2.2. Governing equations

There are some multiphase models considering the equilibrium

approach applied in vacuum drying of wood [51] and convection In this section the mathematical formulation, initial condition,

drying of wood and clay [49,10], microwave spouted bed drying of boundary conditions, and input parameters are presented. It also

apple [18] and large bagasse stockpiles [17]. discusses the heat generation term due to microwave, Qmic (W/m3).

However, equilibrium conditions may not be achieved due to

lower moisture content at the surface during drying. Therefore,

non-equilibrium multiphase models are computationally effective 2.2.1. Mass and momentum balance equations

and applied to a wide range of food processing such as frying [4,38], The representative elementary volume DV (m3) is the sum of the

microwave heating [11,45], pufng [43], baking [58], meat cooking volume of three phases, namely, gas, water, and solid, thus,

[14] etc. However, application of these non-equilibrium models in

drying of food materials is very limited. To the authors' best DV DVg DVw DVs ; (1)

knowledge, not only is there no satisfactory multiphase model,

there is not even a comprehensive single-phase model for IMCD. where DVg is the volume of gas (m3), DVw is the volume of water

The objectives of this study are to: 1) develop a multiphase (m3), and DVs is the volume of solid (m3).

porous media model for IMCD drying of food materials considering The apparent porosity, 4, is dened as the volume fraction

transport of liquid water, vapour and air, 2) validate the model for occupied by gas and water, thus,

the IMCD of an apple slice with experimental moisture and tem-

perature proles, 3) investigate the temperature distribution and DVg DVw

4 : (2)

redistribution due to the intermittency of microwave application, DV

and 4) investigate the transport mechanisms, such as, pressure

driven, binary diffusion and capillary driven ow in IMCD. The water, Sw, and gas, Sg, saturation are dened as the fraction of

pore volume occupied by that particular phase, namely,

2. Mathematical model

DVw DVw

Sw ; (3)

In this section, the equations for multiphase porous media are DVw Vg 4DV

developed describing heat, mass and momentum transfer for IMCD.

and

We also present the transport mechanism involved in drying, as-

sumptions and input parameters for the model. Apple has been

DVg DVg

considered as the sample food material for this study. Sg 1 Sw ; (4)

DVw DVg 4DV

The model developed in this research considers transport of

liquid water, vapour and air inside food materials. The mass and

respectively.

energy conservation equations include convection, diffusion and

The mass concentrations of water, cw (kg/m3), vapour, cv (kg/

evaporation of water and vapour. The energy equation also includes

m3), and air, ca (kg/m3), are given by,

a microwave heat generation term using Lambert's Law. Mo-

mentum conservation is developed from Darcy's equations. Evap- cw rw 4Sw ; (5)

oration is considered as distributed throughout the domain and a

non-equilibrium evaporation formulation is used for evaporation

pv Mv

condensationecondensation phenomena. cv 4Sg ; (6)

RT

2.1. Problem description and assumptions and

involved in drying is presented in Fig. 1. A 2D axisymmetric ge- ca 4Sg ; (7)

RT

ometry of a 3D apple slice is considered for simulation. Heat and

mass transfer takes place at all boundaries except the symmetry respectively. Here, rw is the density of water (kg/m3), R is the uni-

boundary (r 0). The apple slice is considered as a porous media versal gas constant (J/mol/K), and T is the temperature of product

and the pores are lled with three transportable phases, namely, (K), pv is the partial pressure of vapour (Pa), pa is the partial pres-

liquid water, air and water vapour as shown in Fig. 1. All phases sure of air (Pa), Ma and Mv are molar mass of air and vapour

(solid, liquid, and gases) are continuous and local thermal equi- respectively (kg/mol).

librium is assumed, which means that the temperatures in all three The mass conservation equation for liquid water considers gas

phases are equal. Liquid water transport takes place due to pressure driven ow, capillary diffusion, and evaporation of liquid

convective ow resulting from the gas pressure gradient, capillary water to vapour. The detailed derivations of these were presented

ow, and evaporation. Vapour and air transport arises from gas in Ref. [29]. The nal equations for mass concentration of liquid

pressure gradients and binary diffusion. Although shrinkage is an water can be written as,

306 C. Kumar et al. / International Journal of Thermal Sciences 104 (2016) 304e314

Fig. 1. Schematic showing 3D sample, 2D axisymmetric domain and representative elementary volume (REV) with the transport mechanism of different phases.

v kw kr;w

4Sw rw V$ rw VP Dc Vcw Revap ; (8)

vt mw

PMg

2

where kw is the intrinsic permeability of water (m ), kr,w is the rg : (12)

RT

relative permeability of water, and mw is the viscosity of water

(Pa s), Dc is the capillary diffusivity (m2/s) [29], P is total gas pres- Here Mg is the molecular weight of gas (kg/mol).

sure (Pa) and Revap is the evaporation rate of liquid water to water

vapour (kg/m3 s).

The mass balance equation for the vapour component of gas 2.2.3. Energy balance equation

phase includes bulk ow, binary diffusion and phase change [6]; Since thermal equilibrium is assumed to exist between all

namely, phases the energy balance equation can be written as [29],

v kg kr;g

!

4Sg rg uv V$ rg uv VP 4Sg rg Deff;g Vuv Revap ; vT !

vt mv reff cpeff V$ n g hg n w hw V$ keff VT hfg Revap

vt

(9) Qmic f t:

where rg is the density of gas (kg/m3), uv is the mass fraction of (13)

vapour, kg is the intrinsic permeability of gas (m2), kr,g is the relative Here T is the temperature (K) of each phases, hg is the enthalpy of

permeability of gas, and mg is the viscosity of gas (Pa s) and Deff,g is gas (J), hw is the enthalpy of water (J), hfg is the latent heat of

the binary diffusivity of vapour and air (m2/s). evaporation (J/kg), reff is the effective density (kg/m3), cpeff is the

The gas phase is a mixture of vapour and air. After calculating effective specic heat (J/kg/K), keff is the effective thermal con-

the mass fraction of vapour, uv, from the above equations, the mass ductivity (W/m/K), Qmic is the microwave heat generation and f(t) is

fraction of air, ua, can be then calculated from the intermittency function as discussed in later section.

! !

The water ux, n w , and vapour ux, n g , can be calculated from

ua 1 uv : (10)

equations (14) and (15) shown below:

! kg kr;g

2.2.2. Mass balance equations for gas phase n g rg uv VP 4Sg rg Deff;g Vuv ; (14)

mv

The total gas pressure, P, is calculated by solving the overcall

mass balance for the gas phase, namely, ! kw kr;w

n w rw VP Dc Vcw : (15)

v kg kr;g mw

rg 4Sg V$ rg VP Revap ; (11)

vt mi The thermo-physical properties change due to the change in

mass and volume fraction in each phase. Therefore, the following

C. Kumar et al. / International Journal of Thermal Sciences 104 (2016) 304e314 307

taking mass and volume changes into consideration: cwt0 rw 4Sw0 ; (25)

reff 4 Sg rg Sw rw 1 4rs ; (16) wvt0 0:0262; (26)

cpeff mg ug cpg ua cpa mw cpw ms cps ; (17) Pt0 Pamb ; (27)

and and

keff 4 Sg kth;g Sw kth;w 1 4kth;s : (18) Tt0 303 K; (28)

Here rs is the solid density (kg/m3); cpg, cpw and cps are the specic respectively.

heat capacities of gas, water and solid (J/kg/K), respectively; kth,g,

kth,w and kth,s are the thermal conductivities of gas, water and solid, 2.5. Boundary conditions

(W/m/K) respectively; mg, mw and ms are the mass fraction of gas,

water and solid, (W/m/K) respectively. The heat and mass transfer takes place at the transport

boundaries as shown in Fig. 1. The boundary conditions for Equa-

2.3. Evaporation rate tions (8) and (9) can be written as,

n w;s hmv 4Sw ; (29)

considered to calculate the evaporation rate, namely, RT

Mv

! pv pv air

Revap Kevap pv;eq pv : (19) n v;s hmv 4Sg ; (30)

RT RT

Here Mv is the molecular weight of vapour (kg/mol), pv,eq is the respectively, where pv,air vapour pressure of ambient air (Pa) and

equilibrium vapour pressure (Pa), pv is the vapour pressure (Pa), hmv is the mass transfer coefcient (m/s).

and Kevap is evaporation constant (1/s). The boundary condition for continuity equation (11) can be

The equilibrium vapour pressure, pv,eq, is obtained via the expressed as,

sorption isotherm of apple given by Ratti et al. [46] as,

P Pamb ; (31)

0:696

pv;eq Pv;sat Texp 0:182Mdb

where Pamb is the ambient pressure (Pa).

0:232e43:949M Mdb

0:0411

lnPsat T ; (20) For Equation (13), the boundary condition is given by,

pv pv air

and the saturated vapour pressure of water, Pv,sat (Pa), is a function qsurf hT T Tair hmv 4Sw hfg

of temperature and is given by Vega-Mercado et al. [53] as, RT

pv pv air

h hmv 4Sg Cp;v T; (32)

Pv;sat exp 5800:2206=T 1:3915 0:0486T 0:4176 RT

i

where hT is the heat transfer coefcient (W/m2/K) and Tair is the

104 T 2 0:01445 107 T 3 6:656 lnT :

drying air temperature (K), and Cp,v is the specic heat of vapour at

(21) constant volume (J/kg/K).

The heat and mass transfer coefcients were calculated from

The vapour pressure, pv, is obtained from partial pressure re-

well established empirical relationship as discussed in authors'

lations given by,

previous publications [27,30,34,41].

pv cv P; (22)

2.6. Input parameters

where cv is the mole fraction of vapour given by,

The input parameters of the model are listed in Table 1 and some

uv Ma of them are derived and discussed in the latter of this section.

cv : (23)

uv Ma ua Mv

Here Ma is the molecular mass of air (kg/mol). 2.6.1. Calculation of ambient vapour pressure

The moisture content (dry basis), Mdb can be calculated from, The partial pressure of vapour in ambient condition can be

calculated by pv,amb RH psat. In our experiment the ambient air

cw cv of RH 70% and 30 C was heated up to 60 C with specic hu-

Mdb : (24)

1 4rs midity of 0.0188 kg/kg db. This condition yields a relative humidity

of 15% using the psychometric chart. Therefore, ambient vapour

pressure for drying air, pv,amb 0.15 19,947 2992 Pa.

2.6.2. Permeability

The initial conditions for equations (8), (9), (11) and (13) are The intrinsic permeability of water is considered as a function of

given by, porosity by Kozeny-Carman model [19] as,

308 C. Kumar et al. / International Journal of Thermal Sciences 104 (2016) 304e314

Table 1 and

Input properties for the model.

0:65

Parameter Value Reference T

mg 0:017 103 ; (38)

Sample diameter, Dias 40 mm This work 273

Sample thickness, Ths 10 mm This work

Equivalent porosity, initial, 40 0.922 [37,42] respectively.

Water saturation, initial, Sw0 0.794 [37,42]

Initial saturation of vapour, Sv0 0.15 [37,42]

Gas saturation, initial, Sg0 0.206 [37,42]

Initial temperature, T0 303 K 2.6.4. Effective gas diffusivity

Vapour mass fraction, wv 0.026 Calculated The effective gas diffusivity can be calculated as a function of gas

saturation and porosity according to the Bruggeman correction

Constants

[37], namely,

Evaporation constant, Kevap 1000 This work

Drying air temperature, Tair 333 K This work 4=3

Universal gas constant, Rg 8.314 J mol1 K1 [9] Deff;g Dva Sg 4 ; (39)

Molecular weight of water, Mw 18.016 g mol1 [9]

Molecular weight of vapour, Mv 18.016 g mol1 [9]

where Dva is the binary diffusivity between air and water vapour

Molecular weight of gas (air), Ma 28.966 g mol1 [9]

Latent heat of evaporation, hfg 2.26e6 J kg1 [9]

(m2/s).

Ambient pressure, Pamb 101,325 Pa [9]

Gas intrinsic permeability, kg 4.0 1012 m2 [19]

Binary diffusivity, Dva 2.6 106 m2/s [13]

2.6.5. Capillary diffusivity of liquid water

Ambient vapour pressure, pv,air 2992 Pa Calculated

Heat transfer coefcient, hT 16.746 W/(m2 K) Calculated Capillary diffusivity of liquid water used in the model is a

Mass transfer coefcient, hm 0.017904 m/s Calculated function of moisture content is given by [29],

Specic heat

1 1

Apple solid, Cps 3734 J kg K Measured The relationship between dry basis moisture content, Mdb, and

Water, Cpw 4183 J kg1 K1 [8] wet basis moisture content, Mwb, is given by,

Vapour, Cpv 1900 J kg1 K1 [8]

Air, Cpa 1005.68 J kg1 K1 [8] Mwb

Mdb : (41)

Thermal conductivity 1 Mwb

1 1

Apple solid, kth,s 0.46 W m K [12]

Gas, kth,g 0.026 W m1 K1 [44]

Water, kth,w 0.644 W m1 K1 [44]

Density

Apple solid, rs 1419 kg m3 This study 2.7. Microwave power absorption

Vapour, rv Ideal gas law, kg m3

Air, ra Ideal gas law, kg m3

Water, rw 1000 kg m3 Lamberts Law has been widely used for developing microwave

heating models in literature [1,3,25,28,36,47,60]. In this study, we

also used Lambert's Law to calculate the microwave energy ab-

43 sorption inside the food samples. This law considers exponential

kw 5:578 1012 ; 0:39 < 4 < 0:77: (33) attenuation of microwave absorption within the product, given by,

1 42

The gas intrinsic permeability is considered to be constant and is Pmic P0 exp2ahz : (42)

given by [19],

Here P0 the incident power at the surface (W), a is the attenuation

kg 4:0 1012 m2 : (34) constant, h is the thickness of the material, and (h z) is the dis-

tance from top surface (towards centre). The measurement of P0 via

In this study, the relative permeabilities were considered as a experiments is presented in authors' previous publication [30].

function of water saturation given by [19], The attenuation constant, a is given by,

v

kr;w S3w ; (35) u 2s

2

3

u

u 00

u 6 1 33 0 17

2p u 0 6 7

and a u3 6 7; (43)

u

l t 4 6 2 7

5

kr;g 1:01e10:86Sw ; (36)

at 2450 MHz and air temperature 20 C) and 3 0 and 3 00 are the

2.6.3. Viscosity of water and gas dielectric constant and the dielectric loss, respectively.

Viscosities of water [50] and gas [20] as a function of tempera- The volumetric heat generation, Qmic (W/m3) is then calcu-

ture are given by, lated by;

Pmic

19:1431540

T Qmic ; (44)

mw rw e (37) V

C. Kumar et al. / International Journal of Thermal Sciences 104 (2016) 304e314 309

2.8. Dielectric constant and tempering period by placing the camera 10 cm above the

sample.

The dielectric constant, 3 0 and dielectric loss, 3 00 , are the most

important parameters that control the microwave power absorp- 3.4. Numerical solution

tion of the materials. Here we use the data of Martn-Esparza et al.

[35] in a quadratic regression analysis in which the intercept of the Engineering simulation software COMSOL Multiphysics 4.4 was

0 00

3 and 3 versus Mwb graph was set to 0.1 in order to avoid numerical used to solve the equations. COMSOL is an advanced software tool

singularity in 3 0 and 3 00 when Mwb is zero. The resulting quadratic used for modelling and simulating any physical process described

expression is found to be, by partial derivative equations.

Combinations of a rectangular function and an analytic function

0 2

3 36:638Mwb 30:289Mwb 0:1 (45) in COMSOL Multiphysics were used to develop an intermittency

function as shown in Fig. 2. Then it was multiplied with the heat

and generation term in the energy equations to implement intermit-

00

2

tency of the microwave heat source.

3 13:543Mwb 26:8150Mwb 0:1: (46) Since heat and mass transport phenomena is happening at the

transport boundaries as shown in Fig. 1, a ner mesh (maximum

element size 0.1 mm) was chosen at those boundaries to capture

this phenomena more accurately. The ner mesh at the boundary

3. Materials and methods

help to converge the solution and investigate the physics more

accurately. On the other hand, rest of the region of the domain left

In this section, we discuss the experimental IMCD procedures,

with normal mesh (coarser than boundary) because ner mesh

sample preparation, and data acquisition method.

throughout the domain will increase the computational cost and

time. To ensure that the results are grid-independent, several grid

3.1. IMCD

sensitivity tests were conducted. Finer mesh than the chosen one

shown in Fig. 3, showed similar results. Therefore, the mesh size

The IMCD was achieved using a microwave oven and a con-

0.1 mm at the boundary was chosen to capture the transport

vection dryer. The sample was placed in the microwave oven for

phenomena while minimizing the computational time and cost.

20 s followed by convection drying, for 80 s, in the convection dryer.

The time stepping was set to be 1 s. The simulation was per-

The experiments were conducted with a Panasonic Microwave

formed using a Windows 7 computer with Intel Core i7 CPU,

Oven (Model NNST663W) having inverter technology with internal

3.4 GHz processor and 24 GB of RAM. Direct solver PARDISO was

cavity dimension 352 mm (W) 230 mm (H) 347 mm (D) and a

used in order to obtain faster solution and solve complex coupling

convection dryer. The inverter technology enables accurate and

of the model.

continuous power supply at lower power settings [40]. The mi-

crowave oven is able to supply 10 accurate power levels with a

4. Results and discussion

maximum of 1100 W at 2.45 GHz frequency. The apple slices were

placed in the centre of the microwave cavity, in order to achieve an

In this section, the results of the theoretical and experimental

even absorption of microwave energy.

In order to get the intermittency of the microwave power investigations are given. Experimental data was also used to vali-

date the model developed. Specically, moisture content and

application, the sample was placed in MW for 20 s after the con-

vection drying for 80 s. The moisture loss was recorded at regular temperature obtained from experiments were compared with that

of the model. Moreover, spatial and temporal proles of moisture,

intervals at the end of each tempering period with a digital balance

(specication: 0.001 g accuracy). temperature, evaporation rate, pressure and, uxes are also

discussed.

3.2. Sample preparation

4.1. Moisture content and temperature

Fresh Granny Smith apples obtained from the local Australian

supermarkets were used for the intermittent microwave drying The prole of average moisture content obtained from simula-

experiments. The samples were stored at 5 1 C to keep them as tion and experiments is presented in Fig. 4. The model provided a

fresh as possible before they were used in the experiments. The

apples taken from the storage unit were washed and put aside for

1 h to allow their temperature to equilibrate to room temperature

prior to each drying experiment. The samples were cut into disks

with a thickness of 10 mm and diameter of approximately 40 mm.

The initial moisture content of the apple slices was approximately

0.868 kg/kg (wet basis.) or 6.61 kg/kg (dry basis).

to measure the temperature distribution on the surface. Accurate

measurement of temperature by thermal imaging camera depends

on the emissivity values. The emissivity value for apple was found

in the range between 0.94 and 0.97 [24] and set at 0.95 in the

camera before taking images. Temperatures of the top surface were

taken by thermal image camera soon after the microwave heating Fig. 2. Intermittency function.

310 C. Kumar et al. / International Journal of Thermal Sciences 104 (2016) 304e314

results higher pressure driven ow towards the surface. This result

indicates invaluable evidence signifying that by supplying more

drying air during the initial stage of IMCD, the excess moisture at

the surface can be removed. Thus, the drying rate can be further

improved. Similar higher saturation in microwave heating was

found by Wei et al. [54], throughout the heating period. Since they

neglected mass transfer, the phenomena persisted throughout the

process, whereas in the case of drying, this phenomenon lasted

only for short time period (approximately between 1e400 s). After

400 s, the surface showed minimum moisture content.

The vapour mass fractions in different time periods are illus-

trated in Fig. 6. Similar to convection drying [31], the vapour mass

Fig. 3. Mesh for the simulation.

fraction at any instant decreases gradually with distance from the

centre, and at any position the vapour mass fraction increases

quite satisfactory match with the experimental result (with steadily with time. This behaviour is similar with vapour density

R2 0.99359). It can be seen from Fig. 4 that moisture content (dry obtained by Wei et al. [54] in microwave heating. The vapour mass

basis) of apple slice dropped from its initial of 6.6 kg/kg to 4.5 kg/kg fractions decrease more sharply near the surface, which will result

after 1200 s of IMCD. in greater vapour diffusive ow and this will be discussed in

The temperature at the centre of the top surface obtained from respective sections. It is crucial to note that the vapour mass frac-

experiments and simulation at selected times are compared in tion is higher in IMCD (~0.14), compared to convection drying

Table 2. The model shows good agreement with experimental with (~0.06), because of higher vapour generation in IMCD.

the presented values. However, at the beginning of drying, the

predicted temperature was lower than the experimental. This could 4.3. Temperature prole

be due to the limitation of Lambert's Law as discussed later in the

section and no-shrinkage assumption of the material. Moreover, Fig. 7 shows the temperature prole at the surface and centre of

The table shows that the temperature reached about and above the material. It can be seen that the temperature uctuates for both

60 C after each heating cycles (320 s, 420 s etc.) and then drops to positions (on the surface and at the centre) because it rises during

about 50 C after each tempering periods (400 s, 500 s etc.). the time microwave is on (e.g. 20 s, 120 s etc.) and drops after the

tempering periods (100 s, 200 s etc.). It also shows that the tem-

perature increases after each cycle. However, this increase and the

4.2. Distribution and evolution of water and vapour uctuations of temperature can be controlled by changing the

tempering period (intermittency).

Predicted distributions of liquid saturation within the sample at Another interesting result to emerge from the gure is that the

different time intervals are presented in Fig. 5. It can be seen that interior temperature is higher than the surface at the beginning of

unlike the convection drying [31], the liquid saturation is slightly the drying (approximately about for 15 min). This could be due to

higher close to the surface than its adjacent points towards the core higher evaporative cooling phenomena [34]. Ni [37] also found

at the beginning of drying. This could be due to the excess amount lower temperature at the surface compared to the centre during

of liquid water migrating toward the surface at the beginning. Also, microwave heating simulation using Lambert's Law. Further,

experimental evidence of higher centre temperature was obtained

by Gunasekaran and Yang [22].

shown in Fig. 8. The gas pressure is found to be a maximum at the

centre and gradually decreases towards the surfaces. Due to lower

gas porosity, the transport of gas is restricted. Because of the

reduction in gas porosity, relative gas permeability is also reduced

(according to equation (36)). Thus the overall gas permeability

(product of intrinsic permeability and relative permeability) is

reduced resulting in lower transport of gas. Therefore, the gas

generated at the centre contributes to a rise in total gas pressure.

Although the moisture reduction increases the gas porosity, the

amount of migration from the centre is lower in that time period. In

microwave heating, the similar higher pressure in the interior was

found in literature [18,54].

pressure

equilibrium vapour pressure and saturated vapour pressure at the

Fig. 4. Comparison between predicted and experimental values of average moisture surface. The saturated vapour pressure varies with temperature

content during drying. and data is available from many sources. The saturated vapour

C. Kumar et al. / International Journal of Thermal Sciences 104 (2016) 304e314 311

Table 2

Comparison of experimental and model temperature at centre of top surface at different times.

Time (s) 320 400 420 500 520 600 620 700 720 800

Experimental temperature 60.0 50.0 62.0 51.0 64.0 51.8 64.7 47.0 62.0 45.9

Model temperature 58.9 51.1 61.0 52.5 62.3 52.8 63.7 55.0 65.0 55.1

pressure obtained from simulation is compared with literature [9] Fig. 7. Comparison of surface temperature between experimental and model.

and found to be consistent with available data. The equilibrium

vapour pressure is calculated from the sorption isotherm of apple

and, as expected, it was found to be lower than the saturation 4.6. Evaporation

vapour pressure. Fig. 9 shows that the difference between vapour

pressure and equilibrium vapour pressure is higher during the Evaporation is zero in the inner part of the sample (as shown

initial stage of drying resulting higher evaporation. Unlike the in Fig. 10), as the equilibrium nature of vapour pressure, due to

convection drying [29,31], the vapour pressure uctuates due to the higher moisture content, exists in the inner part of the sample. In

uctuation in temperature resulting from the intermittent micro- contrast to this, higher evaporation near the surface indicates

wave heat source. Moreover, Fig. 9 shows that the equilibrium that a non-equilibrium condition exists on the surface (as shown

vapour pressure in IMCD is much higher (14 kPa) compared to that in Fig. 10). It is found that the evaporation starts about 1 mm

of the convection drying (3 kPa) after drying time of 10 min [29,31]. beneath the surface and the evaporation rate increases as it

This is because of the higher temperature due to microwave heat moves towards the surface. This is because the difference be-

generation. However, after some time, the vapour pressure and tween equilibrium vapour pressure and vapour pressure starts

equilibrium vapour pressure coincide because the surface becomes about 1 mm beneath the surface and that increases with the

dried and equilibrium vapour pressure becomes lower. move towards the surface.

Fig. 8. Spatial distribution of total pressure across the half thickness the sample in

Fig. 6. Spatial distribution of vapour with different times. different times.

312 C. Kumar et al. / International Journal of Thermal Sciences 104 (2016) 304e314

Fig. 9. Vapour pressure, equilibrium vapour pressure and saturation pressure at

surface.

higher temperature at the centre. The surface vapour can easily be

transported to surroundings and therefore, the vapour pressure at

It is noted here that the magnitude of evaporation rate decreases the surface is very close to the ambient vapour pressure.

with time in convection drying [29,31], whereas, in IMCD, the

magnitude of evaporation increases with time (Fig. 10). This is

because the temperature in IMCD is much higher compared to 4.8. Vapour and water uxes

convection drying.

A remarkable result to emerge from the graph is that after Moisture uxes due to capillary diffusion and gas pressure

1000 s of IMCD the evaporation drops abruptly at the surface gradient are presented in Figs. 12 and 13, respectively. It can be seen

after reaching a peak at about 0.5 mm beneath the surface. The that the moisture ux due to capillary diffusion is approximately

reason is that the moisture content reduces to nearly zero (as can three times higher (Fig. 12) when compared to convection drying

be seen from Fig. 5) after 1000 s which makes the equilibrium [29]. This is mainly due to the increase in concentration gradient

vapour pressure equal to vapour pressure resulting drops in resulted from the faster drying rate in IMCD as compared to con-

evaporations. vection drying.

The most striking feature comes from the results is that the

water ux due to gas pressure in IMCD (Fig. 13) is approximately 10

4.7. Vapour pressure distribution times higher than that in convection drying [29]. This higher

transport of the moisture to the surface is eventually being evap-

Vapour pressure distribution within the sample at different orated at the surface, which is the main reason behind the signif-

times is shown in Fig. 11. It shows that vapour pressure is higher in icant reduction in drying time during IMCD.

the interior of the sample with the maximum at the centre. Vapour Figs. 14 and 15 show the spatial distribution of diffusive and

pressure at the centre is expected to have a higher value due to the convective uxes of vapour, respectively. The gures show that the

Fig. 10. Spatial distribution of evaporation rate at different drying times. Fig. 12. Water ux due to capillary at different drying times.

C. Kumar et al. / International Journal of Thermal Sciences 104 (2016) 304e314 313

vapour uxes from both sources (diffusion and convection) are tion should be less. Lamberts law fails to take this into account,

higher near the surface with zero in the core region. This can be giving always highest power at the surface, irrespective of moisture

interpreted from Fig. 6, as it shows that the gradient of vapour is content. Using Maxwell's equations of electromagnetic eld and

very high near the surface thus causing higher diffusive ux. Wei power absorption provide better and accurate heat generation due

et al. [54] also found higher vapour ux near the surface of the to microwaves.

sample during microwave heating. Moreover, the vapour ux due

to binary diffusion and pressure gradient are about 10 times higher 5. Conclusions

when compared to convention drying.

A non-equilibrium multiphase porous media model has been

developed for IMCD for food. This model is rst of its kind as a

4.9. Limitation of Lambert's law

multiphase model has not been implemented before for IMCD. The

model was validated by comparing experimental moisture and

Since this study is the rst attempt of using multiphase porous

temperature data, which demonstrated good agreement except for

media to model for IMCD, it considered Lamberts Law for micro-

some discrepancy in temperature at the beginning. This discrep-

wave power absorption. However, some limitations of using Lam-

ancy in temperature prediction could be due Lambert's Law

bert's Law have been observed during the simulations. Lambert's

approximation or no-shrinkage assumption. The IMCD drying is

law for power absorption due to microwave energy cannot capture

much faster than the convection drying, and the reason behind this

the uneven distribution, as it considers power absorption on the

was investigated by analysing the relative contribution of various

surface or on any other horizontal plane is uniform, which is not the

modes of transport. It showed that the water ux due to capillary is

actual case. This study revealed another limitation of Lambert's

three times higher and due to gas pressure gradient is ten times

Law, which was not mentioned before in the literature; namely, the

higher when compared to convection drying. On the other hand,

power absorption at the surface is always the maximum regardless

the vapour uxes due to diffusion and gas pressure is about ten

of the moisture content. It is well known that moisture or dipolar

times higher than for convection drying. The fundamental basis of

materials are mainly responsible for microwave absorption [26].

the model enables us to enhance the understanding of drying ki-

netics and transport of heat and mass of IMCD.

References

drying behaviour of garlic in an inert medium uidized bed assisted by mi-

crowave, J. Food Eng. 88 (4) (2008) 438e449, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.jfoodeng.2007.12.034.

[2] L.M. Ahrne , N.R. Pereira, N. Staack, P. Floberg, Microwave convective drying of

plant foods at constant and variable microwave power, Dry. Technol. 25 (7e8)

(2007) 1149e1153, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07373930701438436.

[3] J.R. Arballo, L.A. Campanone, R.H. Mascheroni, Modeling of microwave drying

of fruits. Part II: effect of osmotic pretreatment on the microwave dehydration

process, Dry. Technol. 30 (4) (2012) 404e415, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/

07373937.2011.645100.

[4] H.S. Bansal, P.S. Takhar, J. Maneerote, Modeling multiscale transport mecha-

nisms, phase changes and thermomechanics during frying, Food Res. Int. 62

(2014) 709e717, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2014.04.016.

[5] M. Bhattacharya, P. Srivastav, H. Mishra, Thin-layer modeling of convec-

tive and microwave-convective drying of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus

ostreatus), J. Food Sci. Technol. (2013) 1e10, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/

s13197-013-1209-2.

[6] R.B. Bird, E.W. Stewart, N.E. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena, John Wiley &

Fig. 14. Vapour ux due to binary diffusion at different drying times. Sons, 2007.

314 C. Kumar et al. / International Journal of Thermal Sciences 104 (2016) 304e314

[7] G.E. Botha, J.C. Oliveira, L. Ahrne, Microwave assisted air drying of osmotically [34] C. Kumar, G.J. Millar, M.A. Karim, Effective diffusivity and evaporative cooling

treated pineapple with variable power programmes, J. Food Eng. 108 (2) in convective drying of food material, Dry. Technol. 33 (2) (2015) 227e237,

(2012) 304e311, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2011.08.009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2014.947512.

[8] E. Carr, I. Turner, P. Perre, A dual-scale modeling approach for drying hygro- [35] M.E. Martn-Esparza, N. Martnez-Navarrete, A. Chiralt, P. Fito, Dielectric

scopic porous media, Multiscale Model. Simul. 11 (1) (2013) 362e384, http:// behavior of apple (var. Granny Smith) at different moisture contents, J. Food

dx.doi.org/10.1137/120873005. Eng. 77 (1) (2006) 51e56, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.06.018.

[9] Y.A. engel, M.A. Boles, Thermodynamics: an Engineering Approach, McGraw- [36] D. Mihoubi, A. Bellagi, Drying-induced stresses during convective and combined

Hill Higher Education, 2006. microwave and convective drying of saturated porous media, Dry. Technol. 27

[10] S. Chemkhi, W. Jomaa, F. Zagrouba, Application of a coupled thermo-hydro- (7e8) (2009) 851e856, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07373930902988122.

mechanical model to simulate the drying of nonsaturated porous media, [37] H. Ni, Multiphase Moisture Transport in Porous Media under Intensive Mi-

Dry. Technol. 27 (7e8) (2009) 842e850, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/ crowave Heating (PhD thesis), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United

07373930903021477. States, 1997.

[11] J. Chen, K. Pitchai, S. Birla, M. Negahban, D. Jones, J. Subbiah, Heat and mass [38] H. Ni, A.K. Datta, Moisture, oil and energy transport during deep-fat frying of

transport during microwave heating of mashed potato in domestic food materials, Food Bioprod. Process. 77 (3) (1999) 194e204, http://

ovendmodel development, validation, and sensitivity analysis, J. Food Sci. 79 dx.doi.org/10.1205/096030899532475.

(10) (2014) E1991eE2004, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.12636. [39] H. Ni, A.K. Datta, K.E. Torrance, Moisture transport in intensive microwave

[12] Y. Choi, M. Okos, Thermal Properties of Liquid Foods: Review, American So- heating of biomaterials: a multiphase porous media model, Int. J. Heat Mass

ciety of Agricultural Engineers, MI, 1986. Transfer 42 (8) (1999) 1501e1512, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0017-9310(98)

[13] A.K. Datta, Porous media approaches to studying simultaneous heat and mass 00123-9.

transfer in food processes. II: property data and representative results, J. Food [40] Panasonic, Linear Output for Even Cooking, 2013. Retrieved from: http://shop.

Eng. 80 (1) (2007) 96e110, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.05.012. panasonic.com/learn/microwaves/microwave-inverter/?sc_mcvanity_

[14] A. Dhall, A.K. Datta, Transport in deformable food materials: a poromechanics inverter_01172012.

approach, Chem. Eng. Sci. 66 (24) (2011) 6482e6497, http://dx.doi.org/ [41] C.A. Perussello, C. Kumar, F. de Castilhos, M.A. Karim, Heat and mass transfer

10.1016/j.ces.2011.09.001. modeling of the osmo-convective drying of yacon roots (Smallanthus sonchi-

[15] O. Esturk, Intermittent and continuous microwave-convective air-drying folius), Appl. Therm. Eng. 63 (1) (2014) 23e32, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

characteristics of sage (Salvia ofcinalis) leaves, Food Bioprocess Technol. 5 (5) j.applthermaleng.2013.10.020.

(2012) 1664e1673, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11947-010-0462-x. [42] M.S. Rahman, Food Properties Handbook, CRC Press, 2008.

[16] O. Esturk, Y. Soysal, Drying properties and quality parameters of dill dried [43] V. Rakesh, A.K. Datta, Transport in deformable hygroscopic porous media

with intermittent and continuous microwave-convective air treatments, during microwave pufng, AIChE J. 59 (1) (2013) 33e45, http://dx.doi.org/

Tarim Bilimleri Dergisi-J. Agric. Sci. 16 (1) (2010) 26e36. Retrieved from <Go 10.1002/aic.13793.

to ISI>://WOS:000279315400004. [44] V. Rakesh, A.K. Datta, J.H. Walton, K.L. McCarthy, M.J. McCarthy, Microwave

[17] T.W. Farrell, J.H. Knight, T.J. Moroney, P.A. Hobson, I.W. Turner, G.R. Fulford, combination heating: coupled electromagnetics e multiphase porous media

The mathematical modelling of large-scale bagasse stockpiles (2012). modeling and MRI experimentation, AIChE J. 58 (4) (2012) 1262e1278, http://

[18] H. Feng, J. Tang, R.P. Cavalieri, O.A. Plumb, Heat and mass transport in mi- dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.12659.

crowave drying of porous materials in a spouted bed, AIChE J. 47 (7) (2001) [45] V. Rakesh, Y. Seo, A.K. Datta, K.L. McCarthy, M.J. McCarthy, Heat transfer during

1499e1512, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690470704. microwave combination heating: computational modeling and MRI experi-

[19] H. Feng, J. Tang, O.A. Plumb, R.P. Cavalieri, Intrinsic and relative permeability ments, AIChE J. 56 (9) (2010) 2468e2478, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.12162.

for ow of humid air in unsaturated apple tissues, J. Food Eng. 62 (2) (2004) [46] C. Ratti, G.H. Crapiste, E. Rotstein, A new water sorption equilibrium expres-

185e192, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0260-8774(03)00231-0. sion for solid foods based on thermodynamic considerations, J. Food Sci. 54 (3)

[20] T. Gulati, A.K. Datta, Enabling computer-aided food process engineering: prop- (1989) 738e742, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1989.tb04693.x.

erty estimation equations for transport phenomena-based models, J. Food Eng. [47] P. Salagnac, P. Glouannec, D. Lecharpentier, Numerical modeling of heat and

116 (2) (2013) 483e504, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.12.016. mass transfer in porous medium during combined hot air, infrared and mi-

[21] S. Gunasekaran, Pulsed microwave-vacuum drying of food materials, Dry. crowaves drying, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 47 (19e20) (2004) 4479e4489,

Technol. 17 (3) (1999) 395e412, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2004.04.015.

07373939908917542. [48] Y. Soysal, M. Arslan, M. Keskin, Intermittent microwave-convective air drying

[22] S. Gunasekaran, H.-W. Yang, Effect of experimental parameters on temperature of oregano, Food Sci. Technol. Int. 15 (4) (2009) 397e406, http://dx.doi.org/

distribution during continuous and pulsed microwave heating, J. Food Eng. 78 10.1177/1082013209346588.

(4) (2007) 1452e1456, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.01.017. [49] M.A. Stanish, G.S. Schajer, F. Kayihan, A mathematical model of drying for

[23] S. Gunasekaran, H.-W. Yang, Optimization of pulsed microwave heating, hygroscopic porous media, AIChE J. 32 (8) (1986) 1301e1311, http://

J. Food Eng. 78 (4) (2007) 1457e1462, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690320808.

j.jfoodeng.2006.01.018. [50] S. Truscott, A Heterogenous Three-dimensional Computational Model for

[24] H.J. Hellebrand, H. Beuche, M. Linke, Determination of thermal emissivity and Wood Drying (PhD thesis), Queensland University of Technology, 2004.

surface temperature distribution of horticultural products, in: Paper Pre- [51] I.W. Turner, P. Perre , Vacuum drying of wood with radiative heating: II.

sented at the Sixth International Symposium on Fruit, Nut and Vegetable Comparison between theory and experiment, AIChE J. 50 (1) (2004) 108e118,

Production Engineering, Potsdam, Germany, 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.10010.

[25] M. Hemis, R. Choudhary, D.G. Watson, A coupled mathematical model for [52] I.W. Turner, J.R. Puiggali, W. Jomaa, A numerical investigation of combined

simultaneous microwave and convective drying of wheat seeds, Biosyst. Eng. 112 microwave and convective drying of a hygroscopic porous material: a study

(3) (2012) 202e209, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2012.04.002. based on pine wood, Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 76 (2) (1998) 193e209, http://

[26] M.U.H. Joardder, C. Kumar, A. Karim, Food structure: its formation and re- dx.doi.org/10.1205/026387698524622.

lationships with other properties. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. http://dx.doi.org/ [53] H. Vega-Mercado, M. Marcela Go ngora-Nieto, G.V. Barbosa-Ca

novas, Advances

10.1080/10408398.2014.971354, in press. in dehydration of foods, J. Food Eng. 49 (4) (2001) 271e289, http://dx.doi.org/

[27] M.A. Karim, M.N.A. Hawlader, Mathematical modelling and experimental 10.1016/s0260-8774(00)00224-7.

investigation of tropical fruits drying, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 48 (23e24) [54] C.K. Wei, H.T. Davis, E.A. Davis, J. Gordon, Heat and mass transfer in water-

(2005) 4914e4925, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ laden sandstone: microwave heating, AIChE J. 31 (5) (1985) 842e848,

j.ijheatmasstransfer.2005.04.035. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690310521.

[28] M.A.M. Khraisheh, T.J.R. Cooper, T.R.A. Magee, Microwave and air drying I. [55] S. Whitaker, Simultaneous heat, mass, and momentum transfer in porous

Fundamental considerations and assumptions for the simplied thermal cal- media: a theory of drying, in: P.H. James, F.I. Thomas (Eds.), Advances in Heat

culations of volumetric power absorption, J. Food Eng. 33 (1e2) (1997) Transfer, vol. 13, Elsevier, 1977, pp. 119e203.

207e219, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0260-8774(97)00050-2. [56] H.W. Yang, S. Gunasekaran, Comparison of temperature distribution in model

[29] C. Kumar, Modelling Intermittent Microwave Convective Drying (IMCD) of food cylinders based on Maxwell's equations and Lambert's law during pulsed

Food Materials (PhD thesis), Queensland University of Technology, microwave heating, J. Food Eng. 64 (4) (2004) 445e453, http://dx.doi.org/

Australia, 2015. 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2003.08.016.

[30] C. Kumar, M.U.H. Joardder, T.W. Farrell, A. Karim, A mathematical model for [57] J. Zhang, A.K. Datta, Some considerations in modeling of moisture transport in

intermittent microwave convective (IMCD) drying, Dry. Technol. (2015), heating of hygroscopic materials, Dry. Technol. 22 (8) (2004) 1983e2008,

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2015.1087408 (in press). http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/drt-200032740.

[31] S. Mercier, B. Marcos, C. Moresoli, M. Mondor, S. Villeneuve, Modeling of in- [58] J. Zhang, A.K. Datta, S. Mukherjee, Transport processes and large deformation

ternal moisture transport during durum wheat pasta drying, J. Food Eng. 124 during baking of bread, AIChE J. 51 (9) (2005) 2569e2580, http://dx.doi.org/

(0) (2014) 19e27, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2013.09.028. 10.1002/aic.10518.

[32] C. Kumar, A. Karim, M.U.H. Joardder, G.J. Miller, Modeling heat and mass [59] M. Zhang, J. Tang, A.S. Mujumdar, S. Wang, Trends in microwave-related

transfer process during convection drying of fruit, in: Paper Presented at the drying of fruits and vegetables, Trends Food Sci. Technol. 17 (10) (2006)

4th International Conference on Computational Methods, Gold Coast, 524e534, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2006.04.011.

Australia, November 25e28, 2012. [60] L. Zhou, V.M. Puri, R.C. Anantheswaran, G. Yeh, Finite element modeling of

[33] C. Kumar, M.A. Karim, M.U.H. Joardder, Intermittent drying of food products: a heat and mass transfer in food materials during microwave heating d model

critical review, J. Food Eng. 121 (0) (2014) 48e57, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ development and validation, J. Food Eng. 25 (4) (1995) 509e529, http://

j.jfoodeng.2013.08.014. dx.doi.org/10.1016/0260-8774(94)00032-5.

- Ch06 DiffusionUploaded bykrol
- Hydrology for DummiesUploaded byIulian Mihai
- Cpe 5231Uploaded byMXR-3
- Non-Fickian Drying of Polymeric CoatingsUploaded byIJSTR Research Publication
- Metallurgical & Materials EngineeringUploaded byAmaro Andres Caso Lloclla
- Wax in PipelineUploaded byKristina Paskana Kustomo
- ErtUploaded byFaris Hamir
- 2008 Written Nqe SolnUploaded byjoebloggs_com
- IJETR021795Uploaded byerpublication
- Modeling and simulation of milk emulsion drying in spray dryers.docUploaded bycordobaluisf
- SteamUploaded byashraf
- Thermal PhysicsUploaded byAbdul Halim
- Masstransfer FundamentalsUploaded byMarco Silva
- Inter FacialUploaded bymimahmoud
- japplphysiol.91615.2008Uploaded byYunita Risdifani
- Combined Gas Law Lab Report HJM ResearchUploaded byHelen
- Chapter 2 5Uploaded bynur_imaniah86
- PhysicsUploaded bynour1960
- paper 3Uploaded byharshanauoc
- Upaper24_HQTangUploaded bySuharman Arman
- exam2003_sol.pdfUploaded byRunkito
- 1b28 Short Notes 2008Uploaded byucaptd3
- Larkin Lab ReportUploaded bySyd_
- Project Asif Iqbal ATOSIM MD NVE SimulationUploaded byNicholas Nixon
- Principles of Refrigeration &Gas LawsUploaded byhoahongtrang
- Ideal Gas and Heat EngineUploaded byKonoka Konoe
- DiffusionUploaded byJc Jackson
- ContaminationUploaded bychinnaamulya
- 366016952 Chemistry Chapter 3 of Fsc Part IUploaded byMuhammad Hamza
- AP Problems Database UhrichUploaded byMagesh Kumar

- 46816Uploaded byMohamed Saeed
- A 162097Uploaded byMohamed Saeed
- 2proUploaded byMohamed Saeed
- TheoryPlast_03Uploaded byPrantik Adhar Samanta
- Matlab Report GeneratorUploaded byMohamed Saeed
- Lab Report 1Uploaded byMohamed Saeed
- Project 5Uploaded byMohamed Saeed
- Please Help Me With ThisUploaded byMohamed Saeed
- CISE 316 Control Systems Design Lab ManualUploaded bynirmal_inbox
- ahmed Control System Design Assignment (1)Uploaded byMohamed Saeed
- Facerec OctaveUploaded byAnand Raj
- Project Description (1)Uploaded byMohamed Saeed
- license.txtUploaded byAndri Romadhona Gunawan
- REF 5Uploaded byMohamed Saeed
- PresentationSen.pptUploaded byMohamed Saeed
- 351_27435_EE411_2015_1__1_1_0 3 EE411 Lec6,7 compensation RL (1)Uploaded byMohamed Saeed
- Simulink ModelUploaded byMohamed Saeed
- Matlab 1Uploaded byadnan
- 7888651Uploaded byMohamed Saeed
- 2011 Regs_20Uploaded byMohamed Saeed
- 2011 Regs_20Uploaded byMohamed Saeed
- Hoop StressesUploaded byKathirgamanathan Sivanathan
- GuideUploaded byMohamed Saeed
- Writting Reliable (2) (1)Uploaded byMohamed Saeed
- fitur ekstraksi daunUploaded byMurdoko Ragil
- bnetsUploaded byMohamed Saeed
- firresale_1113Uploaded byMohamed Saeed
- Shi Final ReportUploaded byMohamed Saeed
- An Introduction to Digital Image Processing With MatlabUploaded byitssiraj

- Applied Mathematics Level 1Uploaded byVishal Jalan
- CVVTUploaded byMoaed Kanbar
- 1476-072X-7-17Uploaded byMuhammad Alidf
- ASCIA HP Clinical Update Food Allergy 2016 HP Version UPDATEDUploaded bykkkssbb
- Power Series Chap1Uploaded byIsrael Lives
- as2000sg.pdfUploaded byMihael Polak
- Beneficial Applications and Deleterious Effects of Near-Infrared From Biological and Medical Perspectives (2013)Uploaded byVas Ra
- Montgomery Et Al Ksigma CGMUploaded byLeonardo Faúndez G
- 3799 Parts ManualUploaded byCaroline Daniel
- tro3lecture021-100902124808-phpapp02Uploaded bymauromaurolara
- Dermatology Guide Amended May 2012Uploaded byAtawna Atef
- Drawing List - Addendum 1 to Contract DocumentsUploaded byAnonymous uLAATWpf
- EXTC Sem 3 and Sem 4 Syllabus as per 2012.Uploaded bySG Can
- Do Not Disturb - A R TorreUploaded byglobowens
- 1sem_project_Presentation_CEE.xlsxUploaded byGodfred Nkansah
- Sy012-2Uploaded byzaabulla
- Medical Treatment for Combined Fusarium and Acanthamoeba Keratitis.Uploaded byRodrigo Barrera
- Shear StrengthUploaded byFernando Chiriboga
- Glaucoma 1Uploaded bymanognaaaa
- Moral RelativismUploaded bySatishSharma
- The Discovery of the Body: Human Dissection and Its Cultural Contexts in Ancient GreeceUploaded byedinjuve
- History of Geothermal Exploration in IndonesiaUploaded byDeddy Wolley
- Bawang Putih Bawang Merah- DIALOGUEUploaded byRyn Well
- Bonds AnalysisUploaded byAvi Hundiwale
- 7Uploaded bynimalranasinghe2505
- ddpqUploaded byZeyad Tareq Al Sarori
- Gilad Surgery QuestionsUploaded byqlrjqlejr
- 3D fabricUploaded byFaizan Shaikh
- ReportUploaded byshabina921
- CCI OrderUploaded byBar & Bench