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CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR BASICS

TRAINING
Why and How?
Why:
How:
1. Practical aspects
2. Basics
SBW compressor in Iran
Performance in Lavan
Performance in Abadan
Compressor Definition:
Increases the pressure of a gas.
Delivers the gas.
Increases pressure and delivers the gas.
Compressor application:
Dentist, Oil, gas, petrochemical, aviation
Compression
How compression or delivery is achieved?

Positive-displacement compressors confine


successive volumes of fluid within a closed space in
which the pressure of the fluid is increased as the
volume of the closed space is decreased. Dynamic-
type compressors use rotating vanes or impellers to
impart velocity and pressure to the fluid.
Compressors Classification

Positive displacement
Dynamics
Compressor Classification
Reciprocating Compressor
Screw Compressors
Axial Compressors
Integrally geared centrifugal compressor
Compressor Comparision
Compressors Range
Compressor Pr. Ratio
Centrifugal Compressor
Centrifugal compressors use a rotating disk or impeller in a
shaped housing to force the gas to the rim of the impeller,
increasing the velocity of the gas. A diffuser (divergent duct)
section converts the velocity energy to pressure energy. They are
primarily used for continuous, stationary service in industries such
as oil refineries, chemical and petrochemical plants and natural
gas processing plants.Their application can be from 100
horsepower (75 kW) to thousands of horsepower. With multiple
staging, they can achieve extremely high output pressures greater
than 10,000 psi (69 MPa).
. They are also used in internal combustion engines as
superchargers and turbochargers. Centrifugal compressors are
used in small gas turbine engines or as the final compression stage
of medium sized gas turbines. Sometimes the capacity of the
compressors is written in NM3/hr. Here 'N' stands for normal
temperature pressure (20C and 1 atm ) for example 5500 NM3/hr.
Howe C. Compressor works
Howe C. Compressor works
Howe C. Compressor works
Howe C. Compressor works
Centrifugal compressor component
Casing
Impeller
Rotor
Bearings
Sealing system
Balance system
Control system
Protection system
Compressor casing
Horizontally (axially) split case
A horizontally split case is split parallel to the axis of the rotor. The upper half of
the case is bolted and doweled to the lower half. Access to the internals of the
compressor for inspection and maintenance is facilitated with this case design
(especially when the process piping connections are located on the bottom half
of the case). The horizontally split design is inherently pressure-limited to
prevent gas leakage at the case split joint.
Vertically (radially) split case
This case is split perpendicular to the axis of the rotor. Heads (end covers) are
installed at both ends for pressure containment. The vertically split case
configuration is capable of handling higher pressures than the horizontally split
type. The rotor and stationary internals are assembled as a cylindrical inner
bundle that is inserted axially through one end of the case. Inspection and
maintenance of a radially split centrifugal compressor require that the inner
bundle be removed for disassembly. Removal of the inner bundle requires that
sufficient space be provided in the layout of the compressor installation.
Horizontal split compressor
Vertical split compressor
Impellers
Impeller type
Impeller type
Rotor
Rotor Impeller-Balance disk
C. Compressor Major Components
Rotor Axial Balance
Rotor axial balance
Back to Back Balance
Back to Back Compressors
Compressor Sealing
Internal sealing
Shaft sealing
Internal Sealing
Internal Sealing
Shaft Sealing
Wet sealing system
Dry sealing system
Wet seal
DRY GAS SEAL
It will be explained in BCL compressor description.
Dry Gas Seal
Beginning in the late 1980s, the compressor industry began to embrace the application of dry gas seal
technology to the critical function of shaft sealing. The seal consists of a rotating disc running very
close to a stationary ring. The rotating disc face contains special grooves that generate an axial (lift)
force during rotation. The stationary ring is backed by a quantity of coil springs that force it tightly
against the rotating disc when the compressor is at rest. The lift force compresses the coil springs
slightly, resulting in the very small running clearance between the two faces. This small clearance
effectively limits gas leakage from the compressor seals. The small amount of gas leakage exits the
compressor through auxiliary seal piping, where it is then either sent to a flare system or to some
other recovery system. Usually the two compressor seals (inlet and discharge ends of the compressor)
are subjected to the gas suction pressure. A thrust balance line subjects the discharge end dry gas seal
to inlet pressure, thereby avoiding the need to seal the higher discharge pressure.
Dry gas seals require clean and dry gas for reliable operation. Seal gas is normally taken from the
compressor discharge and then cooled and filtered as part of an external seal gas processing system. A
seal reference pressure is measured just inboard of the dry gas seal, and a pressure regulating valve
supplies the seal gas to the sealing faces at a pressure slightly above the reference pressure. This
system ensures that the seals are not exposed to untreated process gas containing liquids or
particulate matter that could damage the seals. Although dry gas seals are relatively expensive, their
auxiliary system is less complex, physically smaller, and less expensive than the auxiliary system
required by the predecessor liquid film design.
Dry Gas Seal: Single seal
Dry Gas Seal Dual seal
DGS: Tandem arrangement without
intermediate labyrinth
Tandem arrangement with intermediate
labyrinth
DGS: Tandem arrangement with intermediate
labyrinth
Tandem arrangement with intermediate labyrinth
The seal consists of two single seals arranged in tandem with an
intermediate labyrinth.
During normal operation the pressure is reduced via the sliding
faces of the main seal to the pressure of the vent system, which
exceeds the atmosphere pressure only slightly.
The seal gas pressure ("Secondary seal gas") at the second seal
exceeds the pressure at connection B ("Primary vent") only
slightly.
The product side seal is supplied with clean gas ("Primary seal gas")
via connection A .
The seal gas ("Secondary seal gas") is fed in via connection C .
The seal gas pressure ("Secondary seal gas") slightly exceeds the
pressure of the primary vent B , i.e. a flow direction through the
intermediate labyrinth towards the the vent is ensured.
Thus the leakage of the product-side seal is carried
off via connection B and a product leakage to the
atmosphere is avoided if the system is operated as
directed.
If no gas is fed in at connection C some leakage
of the seal gas will get to connection S via the
secondary seal during normal operation. The
function will be like that of a tandem arrangement
without an intermediate labyrinth; the existing
labyrinth can be used as additional throttle or
monitoring device for the secondary seal.
DGS: Tandem arrangement with
intermediate labyrinth
DGS
DGS
Centrifugal Compressor Theory
Thermodynamics Process
Polytropic head
PV^n=C P1V1^n=P2V2^n=C
n= 0 p1 =p2 Isobaric process
n= 1 T1=T2 Isothermal
n= K Adiabatic process = no heat transform
Head Generated
Compressor Performance Curves
Compressor Standards
Important API 617 definitions:

Compressor rated point Maximum allowable temp., pressure


Maximum continuous speed, Normal speed,100% speed, Trip
speed, Critical speed
API617
Notes to API
Surge and surge line
The surge limit defines the flow at which, for a given speed, the operation of the
compressor becomes unstable. At flow rates below the surge limit the characteristic
curve actually droops toward zero flow after having reached its maximum point at
the surge limit. Because operation below the surge limit is unstable, this portion of
the curve is not shown in Fig. 8. When the flow is reduced below the surge limit,
the pressure at the discharge of the compressor exceeds the pressure-making
capability of the compressor, causing a momentary reversal of flow. When this flow
reversal occurs, the pressure of the discharge system is reduced, allowing the
compressor to resume delivering flow until the discharge pressure again increases,
and the surge cycle repeats. Surging usually creates a clearly audible noise.
Prolonged operation in this unstable mode can cause serious mechanical damage to
the compressor. When operating in a surge condition, the compressor discharge
temperature increases significantly and the compressor experiences erratic and
severe vibration levels that can cause mechanical damageparticularly to the
internal seals.
Surge Control
Stone wall(Chock)

The stonewall limit of the performance curve defines


the flow at which the gas velocity at one of the
impellers approaches the velocity of sound for the gas
at the conditions within the compressor where this
sonic condition is first encountered. At the stonewall
(or choke) flow the pressure vs. volume curve becomes
essentially vertical, and it is not possible to develop
head or pressure at any greater flow. When the
required operating flow exceeds the stonewall limit,
the only remedy is to reconfigure the compressor with
impellers (and matched stationary hardware)
designed for larger flow rates.
Safety and monitoring devices
Centrifugal compressors are equipped with instrumentation to monitor mechanical
health. Vibration monitoring is accomplished by eddy current probes installed at
each of the compressor bearings. Vibration amplitude is measured at each radial
bearing, and the axial position of the rotor is measured at the thrust disc or shaft
end. The trend of radial vibration amplitude provides insight into the condition of
the compressor regarding rotor balance and alignment. When a problem arises, the
vibration frequency spectrum can also be analyzed to provide useful diagnostic
information. The axial position probe monitors the state of thrust bearing wear.
Each of the bearings is also fitted with temperature-sensing devices. By trending the
thrust bearing pad temperatures, it is possible to discern the condition of the
internal seals because changes in seal condition affect thrust loads and, therefore,
bearing temperature. Alarm and shutdown settings for high bearing vibration and
temperature are established in the compressor control system.
External to the compressor are numerous other alarm and shutdown safeguards. As
a minimum, low lube oil pressure, low seal gas pressure differential, overspeed, high
discharge gas temperature, high and low suction and discharge pressures, and high
liquid level in the suction scrubber are monitored and will initiate a shutdown when
necessary.
Thanks