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D rug and A lcohol S ervices I nformation S ystem

The DASIS Report


March 2001 October 4, 2002

Substance Abuse
Services and In Brief

Staffing in Adult ● Approximately 94 percent of


Federal prisons, 56 percent of
Correctional State prisons, and 33 percent
of jails provided on-site
Facilities substance abuse treatment
to inmates

T
he Uniform Facility Data Set 1997
Survey of Correctional Facilities1
collected information about the ● In all types of adult correctional
availability of drug and alcohol treatment facilities with treatment, the
and supplemental on-site services in the most common setting for
nation’s correctional facilities, including substance abuse treatment
Federal prisons, State prisons, jails, and
was in the general population
juvenile facilities identified by the Depart-
ment of Justice. Treatment was defined to of the facility
include services such as detoxification, group
or individual counseling, rehabilitation, and ● In most Federal and State pris-
methadone or other pharmaceutical treat- ons with treatment, substance
ment. This report examines treatment abuse treatment providers
services and staffing in adult correctional were paid staff members rather
facilities only.2
than volunteer providers,
The survey response rate of Federal pris- although volunteers were more
ons, State prisons, and jails was 100 percent, common in State prisons than
94 percent, and 97 percent, respectively, for a
in Federal prisons
total of 4,265 adult correctional facilities
(129 Federal prisons, 1,069 State prisons,
The DASIS Report is published periodically by the Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
(SAMHSA). All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission from SAMHSA.
Additional copies of this report or other reports from the Office of Applied Studies are available on-line: http://www.DrugAbuseStatistics.samhsa.gov.
Citation of the source is appreciated
DASIS REPORT: SUBSTANCE ABUSE SERVICES AND STAFFING IN ADULT CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES October 4, 2002

Figure 1. Percent of Adult Facilities Offering Figure 2. Percent of Adult Facilities Offering
Counseling* Various Treatment Settings**

99 99
100 90 93 100 94
82 79
80 77 80
64
Percent

Percent
60 60
41
40 40 33 31
26
19
20 12 20
6 6 8
0 0
Federal State Jails Federal State Jails
Prisons Prisons Prisons Prisons
Individual Group Family General Population Specialized Units Hospital

Source: 1997 SAMHSA Uniform Facility Data Set (UFDS), Survey of Correctional Facilities.

and 3,067 jails).3 Information was Federal prisons, 93 percent of State offered treatment in a hospital or
also used from an additional 114 prisons, and 64 percent of jails with psychiatric unit. About 79 percent of
State prisons and 47 jails already treatment. Family counseling was less jails that provided substance abuse
identified in the 1996 Uniform common; family counseling was treatment offered treatment within
Facility Data Set as providing offered by 12 percent of Federal the general population of the facility,
treatment.4 prisons, 26 percent of State prisons, 31 percent offered treatment in
and 19 percent of jails with treatment. specialized treatment units, and 8
percent offered treatment in hospital
The survey characterized treat-
Treatment and ment in three distinct settings. Each
or psychiatric units.
Treatment Settings facility with treatment was asked
whether inmates received treatment
Approximately 94 percent of Federal
while housed among the general
Staffing
prisons provided substance abuse
treatment, with close to 13,000 population of the facility, while The survey collected information
individuals receiving treatment in housed in specialized units within the about paid and volunteer staff
Federal prisons on the date of the facility but apart from the general providing treatment in the correc-
survey. About 56 percent of State facility population, or while housed in tional facilities. Among facilities
prisons provided substance abuse a hospital or psychiatric unit of the providing substance abuse treatment,
treatment, with nearly 100,000 facility. Facilities could provide 87 percent of Federal prisons, 73
individuals receiving treatment in treatment in more than one setting. percent of State prisons, and 49
State prisons on the survey date. Almost all (94 percent) Federal percent of jails responded to questions
Some 33 percent of jails provided prisons that provided substance abuse selected for this analysis pertaining to
substance abuse treatment, with more treatment provided treatment within staff directly involved in counseling
than 34,000 individuals receiving the general population of the facility, services (data not shown). The
treatment in jails on the survey date.5 41 percent provided treatment in response rates to these questions,
specialized units, and 6 percent particularly that of jails, warrants
Facilities providing treatment caution in drawing conclusions about
were asked about individual counsel- offered treatment in hospital or
psychiatric units (Figure 2). The treatment staffing practices.
ing, group counseling, and family
counseling services. Individual majority (82 percent) of State prisons Of the Federal prisons that
counseling was offered by 99 percent that provided substance abuse provided information about substance
of Federal prisons, 90 percent of State treatment provided it within the abuse services staff, 100 percent used
prisons, and 77 percent of jails with general population of the facility, 33 paid staff to conduct counseling
treatment (Figure 1). Group counsel- percent offered treatment in special- sessions (data not shown), and 97
ing was offered by 99 percent of ized treatment units, and 6 percent percent employed a paid staff
October 4, 2002 DASIS REPORT: SUBSTANCE ABUSE SERVICES AND STAFFING IN ADULT CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES

member to direct substance abuse percent employed a paid staff psychologists or other Ph.D. level
treatment services (Figure 3). Approxi- member to direct substance abuse providers, and 78 percent employed
mately 91 percent employed master’s treatment services (Figure 3). About master’s or bachelor’s level provid-
or bachelor’s level treatment provid- 88 percent employed master’s or ers.12 About 33 percent of jails used
ers, 87 percent employed psychologists bachelor’s level providers, 15 percent volunteer staff to conduct counseling
or other Ph.D. level providers, and 6 employed psychologists or other sessions.13 Among jails reporting
percent employed physicians.6 In Ph.D. level providers, and 5 percent patients in treatment and paid
addition, 13 percent of Federal prisons employed physicians.9 Volunteer staff treatment staff, the average ratio of
used volunteer staff to conduct were used to conduct counseling patients to paid treatment staff was
counseling sessions.7 Among the sessions in 24 percent of State 10:1.14
Federal prisons reporting both prisons.10 Among State prisons
patients in treatment and paid reporting both patients in treatment End Notes
treatment staff, the average ratio of and paid treatment staff, the average 1
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services
patients to paid treatment staff was 7:1.8 ratio of patients to paid treatment Administration (2000). Substance Abuse
staff was 25:1.11 Treatment in Adult and Juvenile Correctional
Of the State prisons that provided Facilities: Findings from the Uniform Facility Data
Set 1997 Survey of Correctional Facilities
information about substance abuse Among jails that provided (DHHS Publication No. SMA 00-3380). Rockville,
services staffing, 98 percent used paid information about substance abuse MD: Author. (hereinafter 1997 Findings)
2
treatment staff to conduct counseling services staffing, 98 percent used paid Approximately 98 percent of inmates in adult
correctional facilities (Federal prisons, State
sessions (data not shown), and 90 treatment staff to conduct counseling prisons, and jails) were aged 18 or older (ad hoc
sessions (data not analysis). Information about juvenile facilities
can be found in the 1997 Findings and in The
Figure 3. Percent of Adult Facilities with a Paid shown), and 62 DASIS Report “Drug and Alcohol Treatment in
Juvenile Correctional Facilities” (May 10, 2002).
Staff Member to Direct Substance Abuse percent employed 3
1997 Findings, Table 1.
Treatment*** a paid staff 4
1997 Findings, Table 4.
member to direct 5
1997 Findings, Table 3 and Table 11.
97 substance abuse 6
100 90 UFDS 1997 Survey of Correctional Facilities, ad
treatment hoc analysis.
80 services (Figure 7
UFDS 1997 Survey of Correctional Facilities, ad
3). Approxi- hoc analysis.
62 8
1997 Findings, Table 14.
Percent

60 mately 30 percent 9
UFDS 1997 Survey of Correctional Facilities, ad
employed hoc analysis.
40 physicians 10
UFDS 1997 Survey of Correctional Facilities, ad
among the paid hoc analysis.
20 staff directly
11
1997 Findings, Table 14.
12
providing UFDS 1997 Survey of Correctional Facilities, ad
0 hoc analysis.
Federal State Jails substance abuse 13
UFDS 1997 Survey of Correctional Facilities, ad
Prisons Prisons treatment, 32 hoc analysis.
percent employed 14
1997 Findings, Table 14.

Figure Notes
The Drug and Alcohol Services Information System (DASIS) is an integrated data system
*Substance Abuse Treatment in Adult and maintained by the Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services
Juvenile Correctional Facilities: Findings from the Administration (SAMHSA). One component of DASIS is the Uniform Facility Data Set (UFDS),
Uniform Facility Data Set 1997 Survey of now known as the National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS), an annual
Correctional Facilities (hereinafter 1997
survey of all facilities in the United States, both public and private, that provide substance abuse
Findings), Table 13; sample size is 121 Federal
prisons, 716 State prisons, and 1,047 jails with treatment.
on-site substance abuse treatment. The DASIS Report is prepared by the Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA; Synectics for
**1997 Findings, Table 9; sample size is 121 Management Decisions, Inc., Arlington, Virginia; and RTI, Research Triangle Park, North
Federal prisons, 716 State prisons, and 1,047 Carolina.
jails with on-site substance abuse treatment.
Access the latest UFDS reports at: http://www.samhsa.gov/oas/dasis.htm
***Sample size is 105 Federal prisons (87 percent
item response rate), 522 State prisons (73 Access the latest UFDS public use files at: http://www.samhsa.gov/oas/SAMHDA.htm
percent item response rate), and 518 jails (49
percent item response rate) with on-site Other substance abuse reports are available at: http://www.DrugAbuseStatistics.samhsa.gov
substance abuse treatment.

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES


Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
Office of Applied Studies
www.samhsa.gov