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ENGLISH APPLICATION IN PUBLIC HEALTH

Child Maltreatment

Lecturer:
Arya Dharma Shinta, M. P. H

Group 6 (A Class)
Dhevia Darma Tesya 1510713021
Indana Zulfa 1510713029
Khairunnisa Rafikasari 1510713030

Major:
Public Health

FACULTY OF HEALTH SCIENCES


UNIVERSITY OF PEMBANGUNAN NASIONAL
VETERAN JAKARTA
PREFACE

All praise be to Allah SWT who has been giving us the mercy and blessing,
so we always in Allah guidance. Shalawat with salam we send to our big prophet
Muhammad SAW and his relatives, so we can do our duties and responsibilities
well. We are aware of this paper is formed on support from other parties.
Therefore, we would like to thank especially to:

1. Our parents, who kept giving motivation and support and always pray for
us.

2. Mrs. Ayu Anggraeni Dyah Purbasari, SKM. MPH as the head of Public
Health Department.

3. Mrs. Arya Dharma Shinta, M.P.H, as a lecturer of English Application in


Public Health.

4. All parties involved that we can not mention one by one.

However, we realizes that there are still many shortcomings in this paper.
Therefore we enthusiastically welcomes the objective criticism and suggestion for
the improvement of this paper. Finally, we hope that this paper will be useful not
only for the writer but also for the readers.
TABLE OF CONTENS
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1Background of The Study

Child maltreatment is the abuse and neglect that occurs to children under 18
years of age. Child maltreatment is a global problem with serious life-long
consequences. International studies reveal that a quarter of all adults report having
been physically abused as children and 1 in 5 women and 1 in 13 men report
having been sexually abused as a child. Additionally, many children are subject to
emotional abuse (sometimes referred to as psychological abuse) and to neglect.

Every year, there are an estimated 41 000 homicide deaths in children under
15 years of age. This number underestimates the true extent of the problem, as a
significant proportion of deaths due to child maltreatment are incorrectly
attributed to falls, burns, drowning and other causes.

1.2 Research Questions

1. What is child maltreatment?

2. What are types of child maltreatment?

3. What are the consequences of child maltreatment?

4. How to prevent child maltreatment?

1.3Purpose

1. To know the definition of child maltreatment.


2. To know the types of child maltreatment.

3. To know the consequences of child maltreatment.


4. To know how to prevent child maltreatment.

CHAPTER II

DISCUSSION

2.1Definition of Child Maltreatment

Child maltreatment is the abuse and neglect that occurs to children under 18
years of age. Child maltreatment is a global problem with serious life-long
consequences. It includes all types of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment,
sexual abuse, neglect, negligence and commercial or other exploitation, which
results in actual or potential harm to the childs health, survival, development or
dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power. Exposure
to intimate partner violence is also sometimes included as a form of child
maltreatment.

2.2Types of Child Maltreatment

1. Physical abuse

Physical abuse is deliberately hurting a child causing injuries such as


bruises, broken bones, burns or cuts.
2. Sexual abuse
A child is sexually abused when they are forced or persuaded to take part in
sexual activities. This doesn't have to be physical contact, and it can happen
online.
3. Emotional abuse
Children who are emotionally abused suffer emotional maltreatment or
neglect. It's sometimes called psychological abuse and can cause children serious
harm.
4. Neglect
Neglect is the ongoing failure to meet a child's basic needs. It's dangerous
and children can suffer serious and long-term harm.
5. Domestic abuse
Witnessing domestic abuse is child abuse, and teenagers can suffer domestic
abuse in their relationships.
6. Online abuse
Online abuse is any type of abuse that happens on the web, whether through
social networks, playing online games or using mobile phones.

7. Bullying and cyberbullying


Bullying can happen anywhere at school, at home or online. Its usually
repeated over a long period of time and can hurt a child both physically and
emotionally.

8. Child sexual exploitation


Child sexual exploitation is a type of sexual abuse in which children are
sexually exploited for money, power or status.

9. Female genital mutilation (FGM)


Female genital mutilation (FGM) is the partial or total removal of external
female genitalia for non-medical reasons.

10. Child trafficking


Child trafficking is a type of abuse where children are recruited, moved or
transported and then exploited, forced to work or sold.

11. Grooming
Children and young people can be groomed online or in the real world, by a
stranger or by someone they know - for example a family member, friend or
professional.

12. Harmful sexual behaviour


Children and young people who develop harmful sexual behaviour harm
themselves and others.

2.3Consequences of Child Maltreatment

Child maltreatment causes suffering to children and families and can have
long-term consequences. Maltreatment causes stress that is associated with
disruption in early brain development. Extreme stress can impair the development
of the nervous and immune systems. Consequently, as adults, maltreated children
are at increased risk for behavioural, physical and mental health problems such as:
1. Perpetrating or being a victim of violence
2. Depression
3. Smoking
4. Obesity
5. High-risk sexual behaviours
6. Unintended pregnancy
7. Alcohol and drug misuse.

Via these behavioural and mental health consequences, maltreatment can


contribute to heart disease, cancer, suicide and sexually transmitted infections.
Beyond the health and social consequences of child maltreatment, there is
an economic impact, including costs of hospitalization, mental health treatment,
child welfare, and longer-term health costs.
2.4Prevention

Preventing child maltreatment requires a multisectoral approach. Effective


programmes are those that support parents and teach positive parenting skills.
These include:

1. visits by nurses to parents and children in their homes to provide support,


education, and information;

2. parent education, usually delivered in groups, to improve child-rearing


skills, increase knowledge of child development, and encourage positive
child management strategies; and

3. multi-component interventions, which typically include support and


education of parents, pre-school education, and child care.

Other prevention programmes have shown some promise.

1. Programmes to prevent abusive head trauma (also referred to as shaken


baby syndrome, shaken infant syndrome and inflicted traumatic brain
injury). These are usually hospital-based programmes targeting new
parents prior to discharge from the hospital, informing of the dangers of
shaken baby syndrome and advising on how to deal with babies that cry
inconsolably.

2. Programmes to prevent child sexual abuse. These are usually delivered in


schools and teach children about:

a. body ownership
b. the difference between good and bad touch
c. how to recognize abusive situations
d. how to say "no"
e. how to disclose abuse to a trusted adult.
Such programmes are effective at strengthening protective factors against
child sexual abuse (e.g. knowledge of sexual abuse and protective behaviours),
but evidence about whether such programmes reduce other kinds of abuse is
lacking.
The earlier such interventions occur in children's lives, the greater the
benefits to the child (e.g. cognitive development, behavioural and social
competence, educational attainment) and to society (e.g. reduced delinquency and
crime).
In addition, early case recognition coupled with ongoing care of child
victims and families can help reduce reoccurrence of maltreatment and lessen its
consequences.
To maximize the effects of prevention and care, WHO recommends that
interventions are delivered as part of a four-step public health approach:
1. defining the problem;
2. identifying causes and risk factors;
3. designing and testing interventions aimed at minimizing the risk factors;
4. disseminating information about the effectiveness of interventions and
increasing the scale of proven effective interventions.

CHAPTER III

CONCLUSION

Child maltreatment, sometimes referred to as child abuse and neglect,


includes all forms of physical and emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect,
and exploitation that results in actual or potential harm to the childs health,
development or dignity. Within this broad definition, five subtypes can be
distinguished physical abuse; sexual abuse; neglect and negligent treatment;
emotional abuse; and exploitation.

Child maltreatment causes suffering to children and families and can have
long-term consequences. Consequently, as adults, maltreated children are at
increased risk for behavioural, physical and mental health problems also
economic impact.

Preventing child maltreatment requires a multisectoral approach. Effective


programmes are those that support parents and teach positive parenting skills. To
maximize the effects of prevention and care, WHO recommends that interventions
are delivered as part of a four-step public health approach:
1. defining the problem;
2. identifying causes and risk factors;
3. designing and testing interventions aimed at minimizing the risk factors;
4. disseminating information about the effectiveness of interventions and
increasing the scale of proven effective interventions.
REFERENCES

NCPPC. Child abuse and neglect. https://www.nspcc.org.uk/preventing-


abuse/child-abuse-and-neglect/ (February 22, 2017)

WHO. 2016. Media center - Child maltreatment.


http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs150/en/ (February 22, 2017)

WHO. Health topics - Child maltreatment.


http://www.who.int/topics/child_abuse/en/ (February 22, 2017)

https://www.childtrends.org/indicators/child-maltreatment/ (yang ini belom gue


masukin kalo ada yang mau dimasukin masukin aja hehe)