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PRINCIPLES OF HIGH

QUALITY ASSESSMENT

Allan M. Canonigo
http://love4mathed.com
PRINCIPLES OF HIGH QUALIT Y
ASSESSMENT
1. Clarity of learning targets
2. (knowledge, reasoning, skills, products, af fects)
3. Appropriateness of Assessment Methods
4. Validity
5. Reliability
6. Fairness
7. Positive Consequences
8. Practicality and Ef ficiency
9. Ethics
1. CLARITY OF LEARNING TARGETS

(knowledge, reasoning, skills, products,


affects)
Assessment can be made precise, accurate and
dependable only if what are to be achieved are
clearly stated and feasible. The learning
targets, involving knowledge, reasoning, skills,
products and effects, need to be stated in
behavioral terms which denote something
which can be observed through the behavior of
the students.
CLARIT Y OF LEARNING TARGETS (CONT)

Cognitive Targets
B e n j a m i n B l o o m ( 1 9 5 4 ) p r o p o s e d a h i e r a rc hy o f e d u c a t io n a l o b j e c t i ve s a t t h e
c o g ni t i ve l ev e l . T h e s e a r e :

K n o w l e d g e a c q u i s i t io n o f f a c t s , c o n c e p t s a n d t h e o r i e s

C o m p r e h e n s i o n - u n d e r s t a n d i n g , i nv o l v e s c o g ni t i o n o r aw a r e n e s s o f t h e
i n te r r e l a t io n s h i p s

A p p l ic a t i o n t r a n s f e r o f k n o w l e d g e f r o m o n e f i e l d o f s t u d y to a n o t h e r o f f r o m o n e
c o n c e p t to a n o t h e r c o n c e p t i n t h e s a m e d i s c i p l in e

A n a l y s i s b r e a k i n g d o w n o f a c o n c e p t o r i d e a i n to i t s c o m p o n e n t s a n d ex p l a i ni n g g
t h e c o n c e p t a s a c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e s e c o n c ep t s

S y n t h e s i s o p p o s i te o f a n a l y s i s , e n t a i l s p u t t i n g to g et h e r t h e c o m p o n e n t s i n o r d e r
to s u m m a r i z e t h e c o n c e p t

E v a l ua t io n a n d R e a s o n in g v a l ui n g a n d j u d g m e n t o r p u t t i n g t h e w o r t h o f a
c o n c e p t o r p r i n c i p le .
CLARIT Y OF LEARNING TARGETS(CONT)

Skills, Competencies and Abilities Targets


Skills specific activities or tasks that a student can
proficiently do
Competencies cluster of skills
Abilities made up of relate competencies categorized as:
i. Cognitive
ii. Af fective
iii. Psychomotor
Products, Outputs and Project Targets
- tangible and concrete evidence of a students ability
- need to clearly specify the level of workmanship of projects
i. exper t
ii. skilled
iii. novice
2. APPROPRIATENESS OF ASSESSMENT
METHODS

a. Written-Response Instruments
Objective tests appropriate for assessing the various levels
of hierarchy of educational objectives

Essays can test the students grasp of the higher level


cognitive skills

Checklists list of several characteristics or activities


presented to the subjects of a study, where they will analyze
and place a mark opposite to the characteristics.
2. APPROPRIATENESS OF ASSESSMENT
M ETHODS
b. Product Rating Scales
Used to rate products like book reports, maps, charts,
diagrams, notebooks, creative endeavors
Need to be developed to assess various products over the
years

c. Per formance Tests - Per formance checklist

Consists of a list of behaviors that make up a certain type


of performance
Used to determine whether or not an individual behaves
in a certain way when asked to complete a particular task
2. APPROPRIATENESS OF ASSESSMENT
M ETHODS
d. Oral Questioning appropriate assessment method
when the objectives are to :
Assess the students stock knowledge and/or
Determine the students ability to communicate ideas in
coherent verbal sentences.

e. Observation and Self Reports


Useful supplementary methods when used in
conjunction with oral questioning and performance tests
3. PROPERTIES OF ASSESSMENT METHODS

Validity
Reliability
Fairness
Positive Consequences
Practicality and Efficiency
Ethics
3. VALIDIT Y

Something valid is something fair.


A valid test is one that measures what it
is supposed to measure.

Types of Validity
Face: What do students think of the test?
Construct: Am I testing in the way I
taught?
Content: Am I testing what I taught?
Criterion-related: How does this compare
with the existing valid test?
Tests can be made more valid by making
them more subjective (open items).
MORE ON VALIDIT Y

Validity appropriateness, correctness, meaningfulness and


usefulness of the specific conclusions that a teacher reaches
regarding the teaching -learning situation.

Content validity content and format of the instrument


i. Students adequate experience
ii. Coverage of sufficient material
iii. Reflect the degree of emphasis

Face validity outward appearance of the test, the lowest form


of test validity

Criterion-related validity the test is judge against a specific


criterion

Construct validity the test is loaded on a construct or factor


RELIABILITY
Something reliable is something that works well
and that you can trust.
A reliable test is a consistent measure of what
it is supposed to measure.

Questions:
Can we trust the results of the test?
Would we get the same results if the tests were
taken again and scored by a different person?

Tests can be made more reliable by making


them more objective (controlled items).
Reliability is the extent to which
an experiment, test, or any
measuring procedure yields the
same result on repeated trials.
Equivalency reliability is the extent to
which two items measure identical
concepts at an identical level of
difficulty. Equivalency reliability is
determined by relating two sets of test
scores to one another to highlight the
degree of relationship or association.
Stability reliability (sometimes
called test, re-test reliability) is the
agreement of measuring
instruments over time. To determine
stability, a measure or test is
repeated on the same subjects at a
future date.
Internal consistency is the extent to
which tests or procedures assess the
same characteristic, skill or quality.
It is a measure of the precision
between the observers or of the
measuring instruments used in a
study.
Interrater reliability is the extent to
which two or more individuals
(coders or raters) agree. Interrater
reliability addresses the consistency
of the implementation of a rating
system.
RELIABILIT Y CONSISTENCY, DEPENDABILIT Y,
STABILIT Y WHICH CAN BE ESTIMATED BY

Split-half method
Calculated using the
i. Spearman-Brown prophecy formula
ii. Kuder-Richardson KR 20 and KR21
Consistency of test results when the same test is
administered at two different time periods
i. Test-retest method
ii. Correlating the two test results
5. FAIRNESS

The concept that assessment should be 'fair' covers a


number of aspects.
Student Knowledge and learning targets of
assessment
Opportunity to learn
Prerequisite knowledge and skills
Avoiding teacher stereotype
Avoiding bias in assessment tasks and
procedures
6. POSITIVE CONSEQUENCES

Learning assessments provide students with


effective feedback and potentially improve
their motivation and/or self-esteem. Moreover,
assessments of learning gives students the
tools to assess themselves and understand
how to improve.
- Positive consequence on students, teachers,
parents, and other stakeholders
7. PRACTICALITY AND EFFICIENCY

Something practical is something effective in


real situations.
A practical test is one which can be practically
administered.

Questions:
Will the test take longer to design than apply?
Will the test be easy to mark?

Tests can be made more practical by making


it more objective (more controlled items)
Teacher Familiarity with
the Method Teachers should be
Time required familiar with the test,
Complexity of - does not require too
Administration much time
Ease of scoring - implementable
Ease of Interpretation
Cost
RELIABILITY, VALIDITY &
PRACTICALITY

The problem:

The more reliable a test is, the less valid.


The more valid a test is, the less reliable.
The more practical a test is, (generally)
the less
valid.

The solution:

As in everything, we need a balance (in


both exams and exam items)
8. ETHICS

Informed consent
Anonymity and Confidentiality
1. Gathering data
2. Recording Data
3. Reporting Data
ETHICS IN ASSESSMENT RIGHT AND
WRONG

Conforming to the standards of conduct of a given


profession or group
Ethical issues that may be raised
i. Possible harm to the participants.
ii. Confidentiality.
iii. Presence of concealment or deception.
iv. Temptation to assist students.