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# 1

## Numerical quadrature techniques seek to obtain

maximum accuracy in evaluating integrals with a
minimum of function evaluations.
When the function is given at discrete points we
use techniques like trapezoidal integration or
Simpsons rule that try to maximize accuracy
from given data.
When
Wh we can choose
h the
h points
i we evaluate
l the
h
functions we can further improve accuracy.

## R.T. Haftka EML5526 Finite Element Analysis University of Florida

2

Gauss integration
Integration of a function of one variable
x2 1 n
I fdx d W ( )
x1 1 i 1
i i

## Select weights and sampling points to

achieve exact integration of any
polynomial up to order 2n-1.

## R.T. Haftka EML5526 Finite Element Analysis University of Florida

3

Example
1

Integrate I e x dx
0

1 1
0 5 e
I 0.5 ( 1)/2
0 5 ( )d
d 0.5
1 1

## n 1 I 0.5 2 (0) e0.5 1.65

n2
I 0.5 1/ 3 1/ 3 0.5 e0.2113 e0.7887 1.7179

Exact integral 1
I e dx e e 1 1.7183
x x 1
0
0

## R.T. Haftka EML5526 Finite Element Analysis University of Florida

4

In two dimensions

Integrate sequentially
1 1 1
I , d d W , d WW ,
1 1 1 i
i i
j i
i j i j

## What property do we lose?

Can similarly extend to three dimensions
Specialized formulas available for
triangular domains

## R.T. Haftka EML5526 Finite Element Analysis University of Florida

5

Displacement field

u a1 a2 a3 a4 2 a5 a6 2 a7 2 a8 2
v a9 a10 a11 a12 2 a13 a14 2 a15 2 a16 2

## R.T. Haftka EML5526 Finite Element Analysis University of Florida

6
Shape functions

1 1 1
N 1 ( 1 )( 1 ) (N 8 N 5) N 5 (1 2
)( 1 )
4 2 2
1 1 1
N 2 ( 1 )( 1 ) (N 5 N 6 ) N 6 ( 1 )( 1 2
)
4 2 2
1 1 1
N 3 ( 1 )( 1 ) (N 6 N 7 ) N 7 (1 2
)( 1 )
4 2 2
1 1 1
N 4 ( 1 )( 1 ) (N 7 N8) N 8 ( 1 )( 1 2
)
4 2 2
R.T. Haftka EML5526 Finite Element Analysis University of Florida
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Nine node Q9
Bubble
ubb e mode
ode N 9 (1 2
)(1 2
)makes
a es into
to Lagrange
ag a ge e
element
e e t
Modify other shape functions
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
N1 (1 )(1 ) (1 )(1 ) N9 (1 )(1 ) N9 N9
2 2

4 2 2 2 2 2 2 4

Transition elements with 5-7 nodes also possible, see Table 6.4-1

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## Verdict is still out out.

See L.-X. Li, , , S. Kunimatsu, X.-P. Han and S.-Q. Xu The
analysis of interpolation precision of quadrilateral elements
elements Finite
Elements in Analysis and Design Volume 41, Issue 1, October
2004, Pages 91-108

## ABAQUS does not appear to have Q9

Q9 supposedly much less sensitive to
geometry.