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6.8 Choices in numerical integration


Full integration:
g q
quadrature that is exact for rectangular
g
geometries
How many do you need for Q4 element?
Reduced integration may remove resistance to some
displacement modes
For example,
example one point integration of Q4 element removes
resistance to modes 7,8. They become spurious

R.T. Haftka EML5526 Finite Element Analysis University of Florida


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Spurious modes
When elements are put together, spurious may be
communicable or non-communicable
In Q4-beam model below, spurious bending modes are
communicable

R.T. Haftka EML5526 Finite Element Analysis University of Florida


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Spurious modes for quadratic element

Why is hour glass mode


((d)) non-communicable?

R.T. Haftka EML5526 Finite Element Analysis University of Florida


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6.10 Stress calculation


Basic equation
E B d 0 0
Stresses at Gauss points are exceptionally accurate,
examples of Q4 (one pt) and Q8 (4pt) in text

R.T. Haftka EML5526 Finite Element Analysis University of Florida


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Stress extrapolation

Use interpolation functions with


r 3 , s 3

p Nii for i 1to 4

1 1
N1 (1r)(1s), N2 (1r)(1s)
4 4
xA 1.866 x1 0.500 x 2 0.134 x 3 0.500 x 4

See alternative method in text

R.T. Haftka EML5526 Finite Element Analysis University of Florida


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6.11 Effect of element geometry


.

R.T. Haftka EML5526 Finite Element Analysis University of Florida


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More extreme case

R.T. Haftka EML5526 Finite Element Analysis University of Florida


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6.12 Validity of isoparametric elements


Need to represent constant strain
Consider g
general linear function a1 a2 x a3 y

With interpolation functions Nii


Substitute from first equation and collect terms
a1Ni a2 Ni xi a3 Ni yi
For
F isoparametric
i t i element
l t
x Ni xi y Ni yi
So we just need to show that N i 1
However, previous equation correct if we translate
element as x=X+h
x Ni xi Ni X i h Ni X h Ni x h h Ni
R.T. Haftka EML5526 Finite Element Analysis University of Florida
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Superparametric and subparametric


elements
Coordinate transformation not always same as
displacement transformation

For subparametric element, geometry is lower order than


function Can still prove previous result
function. result, but not for
superparametric elements

R.T. Haftka EML5526 Finite Element Analysis University of Florida


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6.13 Patch test
Test whether a simple
p assembly
y of elements can represent
p
constant strain state
Example of application. Important to apply consistent loads
.
Weak version when test applies to simple geometry, and
geometry achieved by mesh refinement

R.T. Haftka EML5526 Finite Element Analysis University of Florida