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m KOINQNIOAOriA

KOINQNlOAOriKH Eni0EQPHIH THE NEAI EAAAAAZ

rPA0OYN: .

PENOZ AnOZTOAI/SHE: EmoTqjjq Kojjou Nou


B. KAPAnOZTOAHE: Mop0q Triq KowwviKqq paoqq
N. MOYZEAHE: . EAArjviKq 0opjjaXioiJq
K. TZOYKAAAZ: H appjoq KpTOuq KOI Kowujviaq
M. AMAPANTOZ: AnoAoyia TOU AvopoAoyio^o
X. ANAFNZTOY: EnovoTOorj KOI AvTsnovoToorj
DANIL BELL: H vo T^q

A. KAPMOKOAIAZ: Gynnar Myrdal (1898-1987)


M. MEAETOnOYAOZ O EXXqviKq YnoooTio/Jq
MAPIA ETMEZIAOY-
TZOYAOYBH: KowwviKfj KOI noXiTiOTiKt) ovonopoycyq orq
vEoeXXqvmf] KOIVIDVI'O

A N E K A O T H Z Y N E N T E Y E H T O Y n A N A F I Q T H K A N E A A O H O Y A O Y :
O o X i T i K r i K a K o i v w v i a o r n vTpr| E X X S a

A O I E P n M A Z T O N A H M O Z 0 E N H A A N I H A I A H

1
A P X . 350

l A N O Y A P I O Z - O E B P O Y A P I O Z - M A P T I O S 1988 E K A O Z E I S O A n A Z H Z H
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NEA KOINQNIOAOriA
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H Na KoivcvioAoyio sivai jjio npoonaOeia npocodrjonQ rijq KOWwviKi)q emorn^riq
orqv EAAaa. H^YH iunvevoriq Tqq npoonaOsiaq aurijq anoTAsaav ra nepi(priija Apxsia,
nov e^cjoav, jje Tq oeipa, o AA^ovSpoq flanavaoTaoiou Ka oi KOwwvioXyoj, Tiq 6o
npwTsq SsKasTi'sq TOU aiwva jjaq, o flavayitTrjq KavsAAnouAoq KOI OI 0IAOO0OI Tqq ysviq
TOV, TTjv Tphq KOi TTjv TTapTr] SsKaeTa, KOI O KadrjyriTtjqEAsvOspnouAoqjje Tovq^onrjTq
Tqq Nojjmfjq ZxoAqq A6ri\^w\^, OTqv Tapoy/jvq EKOETla TOV 1940.

Ol Kwfjoeiq avTq avauTvxOriKav navw oe 6vo a^ovsq: Tqv KaXXiepyeia Tqq


KoivcvioAoyiaq KOI TWV ovva0wv snioTq/jcuv OTqvxipa/jaq KOI ovyxpvwq Tqv avaXqipq
TOV EnaxOoTaTOv pyov Tqq EOvmqq avToyvwoiaq. flavw axpi^wq os avTOvq rovq 6vo
^oveq QXEI va KivqOsi q SKooq avTq. Oswpehai sSw aSvvaTO, wq npovndEoq, va
avamv^ei oiaqnoTE KoivwvioXoyiKq eniOswpqoq fjia a^ioXoyiK ovSTspq eniOTqfjq, os
jjiaxd^pOTTOV SiaKaTEXETai an jjeiCova KOIVWVIK npojiXqjjaTa vnap^ianqq 0voewq.
A VTioTpo<pa, q jjeXTq TWV eOviKWvnpofSXqiiaTwv eivai avvaTo va yivEixiiJPK Tq ovvSpojjq
Tqq KOivwviKqq EnioTqijqq, q onoia ijvo TTS anoKT yvqoia ovoia KOI oOevTiKq vnoraoq,
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jjvo TOi, JJE Tq SiaXsKTiKq qXaSq avTmapa6Eoq TWV IEWV, jjnopEi va Sie^axEi
ovoiaoTiKq Koivwvmq SiaXoyoq. IlavTwq 6a anoTsXei, q Kooq avTq, EXsvdepo ^qjjo
SiaXyov, x^PK w xJ anoXvTwq KOJJI EnioTqfjovmq, EniOTq/JoXayiKq, lEoXoyiKq KOI
Kvpiwq noXiTiKq npoKOTXqipq.

To vTvno avT anEv6vvEroi E^ioov OTO eniOTqjJovm KOI OTO (ponqTiK KOIV. EvKToio
6a qTov, va yivEi avayvworqq TOV Ka6 OKEnT^EVoq av6pwnoq, nov Ev5ia0pETai yia TO
KOIVWVIK npl^Xqjja Tqq noTpiSaq ijoq. E^aXXov, svnpoEKTq Eivai Kde ovvepyaoia nov
6a TqpEi riq EWOTq/joviKq npoSiaypa^q. Ilpnei E6W VO iEVKpivioEi, TI TQ ap6pa nov
SqiJOOiEvovTOi K(ppa(ovv ijvo Tovq ovyypa^eiq TOvq, nov xovv KOI Tqv Ev6vvq yi' OVT.

TXoq, q 6iv6vvoq Tqq Naq KoivwvioXoyiaq EvxapioTsi EpfJ Tovq EnioTqfjovEq KOI
TOvq OTOxaoTq nov 6Eoav TO Kvpoq TOvq, Tiq ovjjfiovXq TOvq, Tq ovvpo^q TOvq KOI Tiq
OKEipEiq Tovq OTq yvsoq avTqq Tqq npwTO^ovXiaq KOI vnoxETOi va npoona6qoEi va (pavei
ovT^ia Tovq.
AioiKTiri EnixsipriGSQvariAripocpopiKri
MJuxoAoYiaBAoyoTSXviaBQiAoocpia
lOiKOvoniKHrAGsgHTxvsg
ArmoioypacpiaBKoivcovioAoYia
OTopiaHOuGiKTi AycoYTi
nPOrPAMMA EniMOPa>QZHE enhaikqn
ITO KOAAEHO AGHNQN
e noioi; ancuOvcTai t o npypa^^a Eniiipcpbionq EvtiXikuv Ixeiaonvo oia nipa tuv OTiouaoriv
Ie Ke oYXPovo avTpa ri YuvaiKQ, nou 9Aei va Sieupuvsi tov poppu- Xpri OTnv eueAi^ia kqi ttiv npoooppooTiKTriTa tou, to llpYpanpa ivei oe
TIK TOU Opi^OVTQ. Kd9e onouaoTri th SuvaTTHTO va napaKoAouGrioei an va nxpi koi Aa to
Ze onouaoTsg, enixeipimaTisg, sAsGspoug enaYYeAMQTisc, TsAxn na9rmaTa evg kkAou onouuv, avAoYO pe to xpvo, to evSiacppovT tou koi
eraipeicv kqi opyqviomuv nou eni9uM0v va e^eiiKsuov oe enoTO nou Tig Yvuoeig tou.
9a ouvTeAoouv ottiv snaYYeAiiaTiKT] Toug e^Ai^n. au^vovTag nopAAriAa koi
TTIV napaYUY'KTTiTa ttiq cTaipeiag touq. laviKq ouvOiiKcq napaKoXoLi6r|otig
I e oouQ 9Aouv va KaAAiepYiioouv ra epaotTexviK tou(; evia(ppovTa. Ta jiaGrinaTa yivovtoi oto euxpioTo nepipAAov tou KoAAeyiou AGrivuv |je
tov GYXPOvo KOI pTio e^onAiojJ tou (pi3Aio9iiKn, epYaoTiipia KAn.).
YitniA cninco iaKTiKo npoouniKO
Ol Ka9TiYriTQ tou npoYpaMpaT0(; eivai iOKeKpiiava npona an tov Ako-
rinQiK, enioTTipoviK, tcxvoAoyik koi enixeipriijaTiK Tona, nou xpioipo- EAAHNOAMEPIKANIKO EKnAIAEYTIKO lAPYMA
noiov Tig mo eveeiYnveg koi oYXPOvec neGou? iaoKoAiag. EiSiKTSpa rpapparsia npoypaiJfjaTog Emppcpaarig EvqMKUv
OTQ pafiiiaTa nou xouv ecpapnoY? eniAyovTai KoGriYflTQ pe npoKTiKii nsipa Tax- dupic 65005
OTOV TOUa TOUQ. 154 10 n. WXIKO THA.: 6478.160

EAAHNOAMEPIKANIKO EKHAIAEYTIKO lAPYMA


EPrAHMPlO EAEYOEPN ZHOYAQN
NEAKOINNlOAOriA l
TPIMHNIAIA EnieEQPHSH TQN KOINQNIKQN EOIZTHMQN

A P X . 350
l A N O Y A P I O Z - O E B P O Y A P I O Z - M A P T I O Z 1988

E K A O T H I : B. nana^nonc; OEPIEXOMENA
A I E Y 0 Y N T H I : MeXrtic; H. MeXeTnouXoc;
KaXXiy 5, OiXoGn 152 37 AGtiva
An iri SiEUDVori 1
TnX.: 68.12.723-68.11.664
Pvoc;: EniOTiiijri Kopou vou 5
SuvvTEuJ;ri: navayiuTTiq KaveXXnouXot; 7
MeXTric; H. MEXETnouXoq: O EXXtivmc; unoacmanc; 13
EniZTHMONIKH EHITPOnH: NiKOc; Mou^Xric;: EXXhvikck; (j)opiJaXiaiJ(; 16
KauoTaviivoc; ToouKoXac;: r| pBpiori KpTOug kqi Koivwviac; 21
Kcbaxac; BepynouXoc; Mapia riETpE^Sou-ToouXouPti: Koivwvmii kqi noXmoTiKri
BaoiXnc; KapanooTXric; avanapayiDyii oiri vEOEXXtiviKri Koivojvia 25
A.-I.A. Mexa^ac; M. ApapavTou: AnoXovia tou AvopOoXoYiopoi) 28
NiKoq Mou^Xric; XpiioTou K. AvayviOTOu: Enovdaraori m\n 29
ASapvTioq fleneXaaric; Danil Bell: H va T^ri, ijia va vvoia 33
Kjvoxavxivoc; T o o u K a X a q AriMiiTpri F. KappoKXia: Gynnar Myrdal (1898-1987) 36
BaoiXn KapanooTXn: Mop^c; Tnq KOivioviKiiq Spaoriq 40
Ol nTEpeq ir\q EXXr|viKiiq KoivaivioXDyiaq: AnuooSvriq AaviriXiSpq 43
$ti)TOOTOiXEio6oia - eninXeia (I)WTOYpd(l)iori - AniJOOEvri AaviriXiSri: H KOivTriTa tou noXiTionou 50
N. MaupoppTFiq & Zia EDE, Mayep 11,104 38 ABiiva Bi|3XioKpiTiKri 55
Trik. 5225479, 5221479,5244555 ' Apriv 57

rPAOEIA: KAAATA 5, (DIAOGEH 152 37, A0HNA

O ttXoc; e i v a i e u y e v i K n n p o o ( ] ) o p a t o u k . I .
AnayopeETai n a v a S n u o o i e u o r i xriq Z T a i a a T n o u X o u , o o n o i o c ; e i x e eKcboei k o -
t TO n a p e X B v eniBecJbpriri k o i v o j v i k j v e-
Triq 5i8u6voea)(; niOTrili)v p e q u t v t o v T i T X o .

H Na KoivivioXoyia KunXo^opei KBe Tpeiq \ir\vec, om |3ipXiona)Xeia k q i oxa nepinigpa anocrreXXETai k q t ' oi-
Kov OTOuq ouvSpopHTq Tipii tsxouc;: 350 6px. Tipii ouvSpoptic;: 1.400 5px.: fppaia, Opyavtopoi 2.000.

H Na KoivcjvioXovia Sxsiai pQpa, enioToXc; K.Xn. O i ripooisupvEc; ani|)Ei(; EK^pail^ouv pvov louc; ouy-
Ypa(l)i(; touc;, oi onoioi eIvgi unsGuvoi y i ' auxc; xa avjvupa ppo k o i oi pvipEc; oxiXec; Ypa(l)ovTai an xriv
Gvxa^ri xou nspioSiKO kqi K(J)pa?^ouv xrjv yvcbpr) xouc; xEipypacJja 5v nixp(|)ovxai

NEA KOINQNIOAOriA 3
P E N O Y H P A K A H & 2 T A N T H

A H O E T O A I A H

AM-eOAOFiA
N E O E A A H N I K H S T P A M M A T E I A S

nXTjpe^ C o r p u s . Tjxot 7. LeXlSs?: 3 8 2 0 .

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T5fiot 3,CTeXtesi746.'A7t T s*^^- TS(xot 4,<TeXte(; 2074.At7iY^(ia-


MeaaCtdva, &<; t I ? (xpe? {lai;, ^^QE^^'-V Tot 137,S!.Y)YTJ(AaTOYp(X(pojv 97,Ta
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8>){ioTix'jTCotujoT)Tpiwv altvwv. WK Ypo"P'*? "T^? pt^ps? [Jtai;.

Elvai TTt avTt>tei(isvixT) xdcTotj^Yj -rij? NsoeXXjvtxrj? AoyoTexvta?, vTsXwi;


AvsTnjpaa-nj dcTt ISsi;, pavartajio!;, x a l 7roXiTtx<; Oaeii; rj Trapaxa^eK;.

'O T/iO(;: QX 3200 ara pi^XiontoXea, 2800 xaxvQOfiixx;, xal dn Mr)6i'>-


fivTjQ 43 (jcXaTea'A/isQix^g) ia x^^Q'^S- Taxvgojuixg mxayg: Kvglav
Blav P. 'ATioaxoXidri, MTjOvnvriQ 43, 'Adyai 11252. TriUqxava: 8646977 xal
8676053. Ta fiiPXia arXvovrai navra a/MacjQ fiera Tfjv eanga^rj axertxfji;
xaxvQOfuxTJc mxayfjs i] ni xaxvgofiixfj dvrixaxaPoXfj.

BIBAIA KAI AAAA ENTYHA PENOY HPAKAH AHOSTOAIAH


A N 0 T A H . MuiaTpvitia. A p x 4 0 0 / 3 2 0 .
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T X s i a CTuvTpi,(3iQ cttIc; [i.p<; [xai;, x w v E T T i g p E a ^ E l XrjV TTOpELa TWV7X:pay[i.aTWV,
aXa^ovixJv xstvwv TTpopXeTTTixoTig- S y ] X a S y ) t t j v Ta^a ' I ctto p i a , x i ti ctiXwc;,
x w v , TOi ia, (iEyaXcov 6a)p7)Ttxcv TTIC, f l o X t x i x ^ avTi6ETa aTr' ,Tt 6a 6Xa[j.E (x' ettI /iXiexiec; sXafXE),
Olxovojxia(; x a l Trjt; Koi,va)vi.oXoyta(; Su TrspaCTfivwv 7} vopit^a[XE, 7^ ^axoXou6o[j. va Tii[i.vou[X va Tra-
(KI Tao xpavTaxra, xao anavrjpd avvdpa, i^ETiE- paCTTatvou[j. xt vo[xi^ou[xe ( x a l CTUvacpw^)) apa ccva
paapvtov) aivjv v an Ep iyp an xa anX o - 7rpaxT0U[X)) x a l v' aTto7Ttpw[X6a), x a t t p a y jji a -
Kov KI da vy X (i> p r] X a t an X o v a x EU x i K o v T a T t o p E u o v x a i pva x OVQ, loipiQ fxa^,
TCV npaypdxcov Kai x eb v n p o P X r] p d x co v /wplc; TT) yvw(X7) y.aq t t ) CTTTouSaia)) x a l Ty]v tcto toc-
paaiovaXiapov '8ia^aC,t: Kvx, flpouvxv, 5(a tnaiovaa, x a T r p a y [ x a x a xtjc; a v 6 p w T c i -
M a p 5 , MTiaxouvw, [ia x a l Aviv p^aia, SxaXtv, Tp- V7]!;)) rdia ' ICTx o p i a <;)> e x o u v x l c ; a T r X u -
xCTXt, ji.' svaCTcopxiXat; anxovTa kniBoE^ouc, p6oSo- XE^ X i V ] X 7^ p i c; TOUC, S u V a (X i <; paa,
^oavopOSo^ouc; dvaECopr/xiKOQ <(vTO(;-xxoc;-x' - xouQ, Kai xinoxa (rj: axEv xinoxa) EV pnopovpz
Til Tauxa xouc; dvaOECOpijxiaxcQ nou 8 CTU[i,[jiat^euov- vd KdvovpE dvxippond XOVQ, axa pdg ndvE, EV xd
xav! - fj xpayiKa yEXoionoig iay/E- ndpE novOEvd pEQ dn' nou OXovpE, KI dpa pdxaia
a i c, n a U)V x a l tcctwv ((Trpocp7)Ti.x6)v Eivai xd Xyia pag dXa (xd pExd ndaav KOIVCOVIK^V
^ a y y E X t v y i a ^ s X I ^ e k ; ) ) x a l TTpo- niaxrjprjv) unpbc, avvxijprjarjn Stjev TJ unpbc, navd-
TCTs;;)) S Y i 6 E v a v a T c T p E T T T a , nou y.S.c; x a - CTxaCTT]))..- Tcoia navdaxaarj; x a l noid avvxrjprjari; Tq
TTaTiEiXoCTav o l a9pi,CT(j.vot Travxa TcpoTrayavSiaxi; EiSaTE x a l xlc; Su, ttcto ctxv xaip (xai; Tuia Sei/xt)-

NEA KOINQNIOAOriA 5
xav xoXkriTsq pis t7]v TtXaxYj i^eit; xou 'Stou 'laa-taa paTaTa, Ttapaxaxa, a^tCet va rcpoCTTratxat, a^t^ei
xaXTTLXou vo[i.a[xaTOi;, cp' w x' sxoi peuaxoTioiovTai va TTaXeY) xavetc; xaxt t o u /wpou xoiv Tpo(Xpciv Tipo-
paySaa xwpa x i aoL)(j,(jLaCsuxa Xa TOUQ x a x a / a rai)- pXYjfxaxwv Tqc, va 7rapaTY)piQCTY) TitCTxafxsvax; x a t va
TOiKa xa6e[i,ia(; xi. avuTcpPaxa)), xt X' rj avata)(uvx7) [xeXexYjCTY]' [xeOoStxa, [XTra^ xat...
(xi aXXo TOO SiaaxeSaaxixT) aacpaXci;) avvovaia TOUC,
Tcapayst r a izib xpavxa/xa ^aaxGysXa xcjv votjjjlov- Mvo xCTt av TOTTOSTT^CTOUV Xat CT^eXtXa TO-
OTspojvCT'Xo xov TtXavi^xT), x a i . . . TToOexYjouv oi vot TY)^ utSo^Yjc; NaQ KoivwvioAo-
K a t . . - a^CTopapeufjiaCTTe,Xolttv, Xiyo ^apaTra- yiag, nou (xo J^i^TY)CTav xai. x Tipwxo ap6po icavxa
vwCTTOVttto [xac;!
Sw, ej^ouv 'tocoi; xaTrotei; XTutSs^ xaxt va CTTpwCTOuv,
Kai. [xaXiCTxa: octoi SiexSixoupis va xavoufxe Trpa-
xaTTOto sSacpoc; va TrpoXetavouvCTTot;(ta)Sc(;cttovspfxo
y[XaXl. 71 I.CTX Y) [X Y) ! ttto [HCC,, y t a x a r i o t a xaTroTs TitOavwt; xotvwvtxY] ni-
Oxe v a oxe TraXaia xa)(^a Koi.va)vioXoyia. CTXT^fXY] {i], SCTxco,CTxi];Y)xaTa^oXtxY], y t a x a n o t a jaCTt-
KotvwvioXoyta, x a x a xo SovaTv, auAc,. M ttoXXy; xa TO /wpou totou).
'TcpoCTox', ttoXXy) [xeXxY], [x xppio y t a xas stSouc; Tot; x syofxat.
yxacpet; ttoij TiapacpuXav ct xaOe pYJjxa xov ccpijUEVO u-
'Ax(xa x a t y t ' (XtcXy] TcpoCTWTrtxi^ xouc; avionkrjpo-
7ltCTTY)(X7]^ XOlVtVlX'^i;)) - TOV ipi/JEVO 8Y]XaSY) TnoxT]-
(ppriar], xaw^ IXeys TraTspac; [xou:
(XY)t;, Sc Tco x a Xfxe, TrepLicou [x y] S u v a t y] i; ( x i at; McAztjaa. ao pnopovaa, yia vd nXrjpofoprjaa)
Xet ,xt Xet ttoioc; xupLO(; Kvx 9} Kpioc, MdpE, y] nep} avTd)v TV cauz pov... "O/i, npQ 0EO, zzoia pE-
TTotoi; iXkoq ap-/t^sTcepaCT[xsvo;; xt apxtaTrXouCTTuxY)(; yalonidapaza. vd Kdvui K' niaztjpij zd/a yid ZOVQ dX-
OextxtCTXYjc;)) ^STTSpaCTfxvwv attvtv), dXXa tto Tia- Aovg, yid XOUQ!.. IJOA pEydAeg KovfivzEq, naii pou!

r p a ( t ) T 8 i T e u v S p o j j r i T q T r | v N a K o i v c o v i o X o v i a -

E ^ a ^ a X i J ^ e x e n p o T 8 p a i T r | T a k q i x a x u T r i T a g t t i

i a v o i a r ]
ZYNENTEYEH: nANAriTHZ KANEAAOHOYAOZ

nOAlTIKHmKOmMAETH NEOJEPHEAAAM

H ouv8VT80^r| nou QKoXousi Eivai pia an i i q teXeu- nai^e npuTaYOJViOTiK pXo, k o i n eniOTripoviKii Siauyeia
Taieq nou toe o navayiwTric; KaveXXnouXoc;, npiv t o T)V GOEtV TOU.
6avaT TOU. O i OKi|jeic; t o u , nou aKoXouBov, payvriTO- SripavTiK yia t t i v EXXriviKti noXiTiKii EniOTripn or|-
(}))vriBriKav o t o ypa^eio t o u , o t t i v o5 AKoSriiiiac; 33, pEia Tnq ouvvTEu^riq Eivai auT nou o O. KaveXXnou-
TOV lavoupio t o u 1985. Tri ouvvTeu^n ntipE o MeXrric; Xoq EnionpaivEi rriv aSuvapia E^appoytiq t w v 5ie6vwv
MEXETnouXoc;. KaiEpwpvwv pwv, nwq AE^iq, KevTpwoq Ka
Z t o KsipEv nou okoXouBe o <I>iXoo<t)oc; k o i OoXiti- ApioTEpq, ornv eXXnviKii npaypaTiKTriTa. Enioriq
Kc; avanTuooEi tic; ani))ic; t o u y ' o ttjv i5iaf[ouoa oxori noXuTipn eivai q KOTOTa^ri t w v noXiTiKwv napoT^ewv
TJV KOIVWVIKWV 5optv 1J8 Tiq noXiTiKc; SiEpyaoiEc; orriv pE Poon ouoiaoTiK KoivwvioXoyiKa Kpiriipia koi
EXXaSa t o u Eikooto Aiwva. A^iooripeiuiTn eivai ri an- XI TuniK, riXaSii Kpnripia nou va a(t)opouv Tn SiaKq-
XuTTi anooraoionoiriori t o u riavaYiwTri KavEXXnouXo puypvn iSEoXoyia k o i t o v noXiTiKoyEwypa^iK auro-
an pia nepio6o ttic; eXXriviKnc; laropiaq, nou o iSioq - npoo5iopiop KBe x ^ p o u .

NEA KOINQNIOAOriA 7
EP. r i o i a eivai t q loropiK xapaKTripiOTiK k q i n koi- TO oooiaXiop, O aSep(t>c; Tnc; pnTpac; pou, o Anpiirpioc;
vcovioXoYiKri |3aari t w v napQT^ewv nou ovon^ouije Fovapnq, an t o 1909 TxBnKe evavTiov t o u EXeuGe-
ornv EXXSa Ae^i, KvTpo, Apiorep; piou Bevi?;Xou. a nope ti rjTav Se^iTepoc; an t o v
EXeuGpio Bevi!^Xo; Aev nTov.
n.K.: Aut t q npypaTO \i' xouv anaoxoXtioei, t q ' x w
An TO 1910, ' 11 KOI Kupiwc; an t o 1915 pxioav va
noXXq (J)Op(; OK8<t)T6i. 'AXXo ijcc; ei vai va OKcpTeoai
onpeiwvovToi TTOiec; cjuyxoeiq pera^ Tnc; koivwviko-
KTI KI XXo eivai oe epojTnor) nou oou Grouv va Swoeic;
noXiTiKtic; ouveiSiioewc; n TonoBeTiioewc; opicjpvwv noXi-
pia oXoKXnpcupvn anvTTior). Ae 0a enixeipnoi va 5t-
TiKcbv Koi Tnc; eniKoipnc; Tre KoppaTiKiic; TonoGeTnoewc;
ot oXoKXripojpvri anovTrion aXX 9a ntu pepiKq OK-
TOUQ, TToiec; ouyxoeic;, nou eivai SokoXo v a nope ti
\^E\q nou auTti Tq OTiYiiii pxovTOi npxeipa OTa x s ' ^ l
TO Kppa TWV OiXeXeuGpwv lTav Kvrpo k o i Xoi oi o-
pou.
noioi TxGqKav evavriov r o u KppoToc; auro, r w v OiXe-
T a lOTopiK xapaKTTipioTiK TWV Tpiwv pepiSwv Tn<; XeuGpwv, evavriov r o u EXeu9piou Bevi^Xou xei
eXXnviKiiq OoXiTiKTic; ^wiiq eivai 5uo5iKpiTa. K i etvai onpaoia k o i aur, r o rovifjw, yiari n npoowniKrnra l i -
5uo5iaKpiTa, Kupiwq, t o xapaKTnpioriK peTO^ Tn<; Xe- r a v r n v enoxn noX onpavriKrepo yeyovc; an r n v i -
ypevnc; Ae^iq k o i t o u Xeypevou Kvrpou. Ka yioTi SeoXoyia ri Xoi auroi n r a v Ae^ioi. Bpaia, oi na-
eivai 5uo6iKpiTa; TiaTi av Sev npe o t o 19o aiwva, k o i Xaioi noXiriKoi, oi onoioi t o '15 rav onpeiw9nKe r o
^eKiviiooupe an t o 1909, an Tqv enavoraon t o u Au- npiTO pnypa k i pxioe o peyXoq Sixaopc; ouvevw9n-
yooTOu, Tqv Xeuoq t o u EXeuOepiou BeviJ^Xou ornv A- Kov pe TOV Anpiirpio Fovapn, pe rov ' I w v a Apayopn,
iiva, 6a SianiTwooupe toto: ZTV] peyXn eKeivn e^p- O onoioc; k o i aurq crrpa(t)nKe evavriov r o u EXeuGpiou
pnon TOU BeviJeXou k o i t o u KppoToq t w v OiXeXsuB- BeviC;Xou, pe r o NiKXao Z r p a r o , o onoioc; n r a v unoup-
pwv n o u yive an t o 1910 k o i npo, SokoXo eivai v a yc; r o u k o i eorpacfin evavriov r o u , oi naXaioi, oi onoioi
Ppope TO xapaKTnpioTiK eire t o u KevTpou, eiTe Tqc; auvevwGnKOv ]idQ lovq, auroi npnei va GewpnGov ri
Ae^iQ. Ae ppioKoupe |33aia, ttic; Apiorepc. lirav Ae^ioi un r q v vvoia piac; narponapSornc; Se^ic;
MniiKOv o t o Kppa t w v 0iXeXeu6pwv avayKaoTiK voorponiac;, Se^iq k o i cno Gepa r o yXwooiK aKpa,
yiOTi OKcpTnKav ti Sev uniipxe Tqv wpa eKeivn XXn y i ' aXX KOI oe Xa r ' XXa Gpara.
auToq St^oSoq, k o i apiorepiJ^ovTeq noXixiKoi. Zuvepy-
TriKOv pe TOV EXeuSpio Bevi^Xo, (|)ep' eineiv o AX- Zupnpaopa: H nepioSoc; eKeivn Sev pac; enirpenei va
^avSpoc; flanavaoTaoiou k.. AXX t o Kpio xapaKTripi- Kvoupe aurii r n v avnSiaoroXn pera^ r o u Kpparoc;
OTiK TOU KppoToc; TWV (J)iXeXeu9pwv xi pvo oxnv r w v OiXeXeuGpwv koi neira r o u Kpparoc; r w v EGvi-
npwrn nepioSo, nou npenei va Oewpnooupe ti KXeivei Kocppvwv r o u AnpnTpiou fovapn, t o u Aoko Kppa-
TO 1915, yiOTi TTe apxi^ei o Aixappq, aXX Ka o r n Se- roc; nwc; t o perovpaoav r o 1920 eni r n Pon koivwvi-
Tepn, k o t ' E^oxnv o r n Serepn nepioSo, rj onoia apxiJ^ei KooiKovopiKwv Kpirnpiwv. AKpa k o i t o 1920 o Anprj-
TO 1928, t o Kpio xapaxTHpioTiK Sev nTOv oTe n Ae- rpioc; Fovapnc; enicn-pcpovrac; an r n v e^opia SieKiipu-
^l, OTe TO KvTpo. O EXeuGpioq Bevi^Xoc; PaoioTrjKe ^8 apxc; aouyKptrwc; npooSeurmrepec; nou yyiJJav
oe peyXo |3a6p k i Kove iowc; koX otouc; 'EX- pXiora Koi rre r o v oooiaXiop an tic; apxq ric; o-
Xnvec; t o u e^wTepiKo k o i Kupiwc; Tr)q AiynTou, SnXaSri noiec; nicrreue o EXeuGptoc; Bevi^Xoc; k i n avriSpaon r-
oe peyXouq Ke^oXaioxouc;, yiari r q v wpa eKeivn npe- re r o u nio yKupou, pnopei v a nei KOveic;, opyvou r o u
ne va yivei n eSpaiwon t o u ootiko KaBecrrwTOc;- r\- EXeuG. BeviJJXou, r n c Ecrriac;, kot tic; opiXiec; nou -
Spaiwon auTo t o u KoBecrrwToc; ananooe |3Paia Tri Kove O Fovapnc; rav ^raoe crrnv Flarpa, eivai xapa-
oupPoXii TWV peyXwv auTwv koivotitwv t o u anoSiipou KrnpioriKii. Eine ri Knpooei ooPiermc; iSec;. 'Eypaipe
EXXnviopo, KOi TOV Xw t o u anoSipou EXXnviopo ti, Akouoov, kouoov unpxouv aurc; oi Suo X^eic;
Sev evvow t o u anoSiipou EXXrjviopo t w v Hvwpvwv p ' va GaupaoTiK, Jjiirnae OKpn va SoGei ipncpoc; k o i
rioXiTeiwv, yiQTi t t i v enoxn eKeivn nrav (})Twxoi, aXX r|- crriq yuvaiKec;. Ka enicjnc; eKiipu^e r n v Siavopii r w v
t o v o EXXqviopc; Tqq AiynTOu kot Kpio Xyo n o yaiwv KOI Kripooovrac; auriiv, ypaijje rre n Ecrria r o
EXXnviopc; TOU AovSivou. 1920 Ka peoa xi ppeoa, peoa eKoXeoe rouq ayprec;
va evSia^epGov k o i va enavacrrarrjoouv evavriov r w v
EP. AcrriKc;, SqXaSn Suvpeic;; yaiOKrnpvwv. Eivai xapanrnpiOTiK aur r o yeyovc;
nou pxerai auTiiv r n crriypn cjrn pvfipn pou. 0 a Ppei
n . K . AoTiKc;, peyXeq aoTiKc; Suvpeic;. T i 9a nope;
KOveic;, rroia yeyovra npa noXX k o i pnopei va nei
O t i t o Kppa TWV 0iX6Xeu9pwv l i r a v KvTpo ti Ae^i;
ri Sev Ga nrav Se^irepoq an r o v EXeuGpio Bevil^Xo,
Aev nTov OTe t o va, ore t o XXo. Sxn aKi|)n t o u
ore TI O EXeuG. Bevi^Xoc; nrav Se^irepoc; an r o
Bevi^Xou, vopi^w, ti Sev eixe ^eKaBapioei n SiKptcjn
AaK Kppa oXKXnpo.
auTii Koi Sev l i r a v avyKn va ^eKoBapioei, yiaTi n nepio-
Soc; eKeivn Tnc; eXXnviKTjc; Koivwviac; Sev t o anaiTooe. O Ficrri; Ficni, nap r o yeyovc; ri o Fovapnc; nrav r-
iSioc; KXive pXXov an oikovopikokoivwviki anoil>n oo npooSeuTiKc;, r a nto noXX oreXxn t o u AaKO
npoc; Tn Ae^i, crreXxn t o u pwc;, Sev evvow k o v t o v Kpparoc; (yiari r 'GeXe roi n <J)Opa r w v npayprwv),
AX^avSpo Oanavacrraoiou n o u KXive npoc; t ' apicrre- l i r a v avriSpacmKa. Kat o iSioc; cjrn ZuvXeuon r n v EGvt-
p, aXX XXa crreXxn t o u , r)Tav nio npooSeuTiK. I.r\- Kti TO ' 20 pe ' 22 ppGnKe pnpocrra oe avriSpaoei(; an
peiwGnKe, pXicna, t o e^nc;, TTe icnopiK napSo^o n rouq iSiouc; rouc; (])iXou<; r o u . Aev pnpeoe v a nepoei o-
(jjuxoXcyiK napSo^o yeyovc;, ti eKeivoc; nou an t o piopva vopoGeriipara npcxiSeuriK. Aur eivai r o ou-
1902 eixe ui|)iboei Tn onpaia peyXwv koivwvikwv peTOp- pnpaopa r o onoio ouvyw an r q v nepioSo eKeivn.
pu9pioewv KOI poXicna peTappu9pioewv nou yyi^av Ka FIoX npxetpa Kat noX PiacrriK.

m NEA KOINNIOAOriA
ApyTEpa, peT t o '28, napoXeinw ttiv EvSiijeori noXXoi a n ' auroq, xi Xoi, npoq r o v Koppouviop. 'E-
nepioo, exoupe noXi r n v avTiBeon peTa^ t o u KppoToq va epyariK Kivnpa pe ia(t)opouq rnouq, nou reXiK oi
tjv (l)iXeXeu6p)v pe apxnv t o v naXi eXvTa ornv <})opeiq auroi r o u Kiviiparoq ovpaoav rouq eauroq TOuq
EXXaSa EXeu. BeviJ^Xo k o i t o Kppa t o Aqk, pe ap- Koppouviorq.
Xny TOV n a v a y n TooXSpn. TT6 O n . ToaXSpnc; 5ev Ew xoupe pia Ecj)appoyn rnq Ka9iEpwpvnq vvoiaq
eixe Tnv npooSeuTiKTqTa ir\v onoia eixE o Fovapnc;. KOI ornv EXXa. Aev pnopope va nope r o iio ore
' H t o v otevc; ouvepYornQ k o i (i>\Koq aXXa nrav nio ou- yia rouq e^ioq ore yia rouq KevTpwouq. Orvoupe
VTnpnTiKq, noX nio ouvTnpnTiKc;. AXXa ev pnopw va OTO erepo FlayKopio FlXepo yiari oa per r o 1933
nw TI riTov ouvTnpnTiKTepoc; an t o v EXeu. Bevi^Xo yivav ev xouv oxon pe KOivwviKonoXiTiK eXarnpia
nou enpTeive o iioq t o liwvupo ornv nepioo EKeivn- aXX xouv oxon pe r o (J)avaTiop o onoioq eixe eni-
BXnoupe, Xomv, nwq eivai okoXo va Kvoupe auTn Z,r\ae\i nou (jjvpKe pvo npoq OTiypnv ri eixe Kon-
r n v e<))appoYn t w v ieSvwq EniKpoTovTwv Kpnnpiwv, oei TO 1926 TQV yive n OiKoupeviKii KufBpvrion t o
|3aoei TWV onoiwv XpE, auTq Eivai Se^iq k o i EKeivoq (()avaTiop n o u eixe ttiv nnyn f o u o r o ixaop r o u 1915.
eivai KevTpcJjoq (e piXnoa yia apioTepoq OKpa) ev O SeTEpoq FlayKopioq FlXepoq ^eKoBpioe Knwq riq
pnopope va t o Kovoupe oTe yia Tqv nepioSo peT t o Toeiq Koi KOTeuvoeiq r w v EXXiivwv. H Karoxn titov -
1928. vo (JjoPep oxoXeio, peyXo oxoXeio aXX (J)o|3ep koi
ESw, OTapoTw XiyKi yia va nw pepiK Xyia k o i yia rpayiK, nou KOve XXouq va Tpa(3ii^ouv apioreprepa
Touq apiOTepoq. Apiorepoi n r a v nn an t o 19o aiwva KOI XXouq, nou 9a eixav pwq r n 5i9eon va eivai npo-
opiopvoi (e 6a kovw avaywyti ornv nepioo eKeivn yia oSeuriKoi, an avriSpaon npoq r o E A M , npoq t o KK,
oeq oooiaXioriKq leq k o i o A n p . Fovapnq r o 1902 rouq KOve va rpaPn^ouv Se^i. Ka nXi pwq, Sev
eixe e^ayyeiXei) aXX ronoSernpvoi neioriK pe r n 6- pnopope va nope xi Xoi auroi nou Se ouppepiorn-
Xnon va eni|3aXXouv Xiyo-Xiyo r i q oooiaXiOTiKq avriXn- Kov r o Ka9onYnpvo an r o KK, E A M k o i nou ev a-
i|)eiq rouq, n r a v Xiyoi oriq npwreq So eKoerieq r o u ai- naprif^rav nap pvo kot va pmp noooor an
wva paq. ' H ev eixav OKpa r n uvarrnra va opya- Koppouviorq, ri Xoi auroi nou e ouppepiJovrav, ri
vw6ov. B|3aia, pe r o v AXe^. Hanavaaraoiou npnei va nrav e^ioi. Ynnpxav K9e Xoyiiq anoxpwoeiq Kevrpwwv
ovopaoTOv KI auToi ouveinr apiorepi^^ovTeq, xi api- KOI e^iwv, OKpa, koi yia va npoupe va napeiypa,
orepi^ovreq pe r n v vvoia ti cfiTavav pxpi r o u Kop- orouq a^iwpariKOq nou aywviornKOv rre. <t>ep' emeiv,
pouviopo, KOe oXXo, ouvuaCjav onwoiinore r n v no- oywviorq r w v BeviC^XiKwv Kivnpxwv pxpi k o i t o '35
XuKoppoTiKti AnpoKparia pe r o v ZooiaXiap ornv v- XXoi ep^aviornKov apioreprepoi, XXoi e^irepoi. O
voia rnq eupraTnq KoivwviKiiq OoXiTiKiiq, nwq r o k- Bevrtpnq eivai e^iq, o iioq o Fovarq, o onoioq sixe
vouv onpepa r a Xeypeva oooiaXonpoKpariK Kppa- noXireurei nXov r o 1926 aXX qrav an rouq nYxeq rnq
f TO. A n ' r n v aXXp pepi pwq, eixav apxioei o r n erepn enavaoroewq r o u 1922, nou rpPn^e Se^i. 'AXXoi e-
Tp3n?civ opiarepTepQ, nwq o Op4>avq, nwq o Fpn-
SeKoeria t o u aiwva paq va axnpari^ovTai opaeq oooia-
yopiSnq K.. BXnoupe Xomv, ri poa an rouq kX-
Xiorwv nou per r o 1917 per r n v opioriKr) iaonaon
nouq Tnq iiaq oiKoyveiaq, k o i niipa rouq orpariwriKoq
rnq Seurpaq Sievoq, n onoia ouoiaoriK eixe onpeiw-
y i a r i eivai noX XTunnr napeiypa, XXoi rpPn^av
6ei KOi oriq apxq r o u aiwva pe r n ionaon peTO^
npoq r n pia k o i XXoi npoq r n v XXn Kareuvon. T o
MevoePiKwv k o i MnoXoePiKwv aXXa Kupiwq pe t o ' 17,
'l,r\aa eyw npoowniK nap noX aur k q i o r o npwTO
pe r n v ouoiaoriKti Sionaon nXov, r n v nXiipn rnq Seur-
roq r n q Karoxnq k q i o r n Mon AvaroXn nou n i i y a k o i
paq 5ie6voq k o i r n v ipuon r n q rpirnq, OTpa(J)nKav

NEA KOINQNIOAOriA 9
aoKrioa t q KaBiiKovia t o u Avunpopou k q i t o u Y- TOTOon eKeivn.
noupyo EBviKTic; Avivric;. TTe, pnopope va nope ti MeT TO '50 yiverai pia Knwq oa^oTepn SiKpion
^EKaapifJei n vvoia tjv KevTpcijJv k o i n vvoia tjv pera^ Ae^iq k o i KvTpou. Ae piXpe m a yia r q v Api-
5e{;ijv. OTE o t o Siaornpa t o u epctJXiou noXpou t o u orep, yiari unpxei aa(t)oTaTn n on rqq ApiOTEpq,
1946-1949. AiTi an tte ouppEpiornKOv, xi apoujc; - EITE Tnq Kpaq ApiOTEpq, SnXaSii r o u K K , sire k q i eKei-
Xoi aXXa Xoi nou anapTif^av KppoTo, t o napaSooiaK vwv TWV piKpwv Kopprwv l i op5wv nou lioav koGo-
OTnv EXXa, KOI EKEivoi nou anapTiJav t o Aok Kppa pwq oooioXiOTiK. H oyxuoq untipxe k o i unpxei pera-
KI EKEivoi nou anpTioav t o Kppa tjv (tiXEXEuGpJv ^ Kvrpou KOI Ae^iq. Ka pwTw:
TO un TOV ZoclJoXn, k i EKEivoi nou njc; o FEiijpYioq
rianavSpou, o SocjJOKXnc; o Bevif^Xoc; koi eydj eixapE ' H r a v O Zuvayeppq, un r o v n a n a y o k o i orepa n
oxnpaTiaei Tnv EOE, t o ouvaoniop Tpidjv KoppTJv k o i EPE un t o v KopapavXii, Ae^i; Kar va nooooT, vai.
KaTEPnKopE oe nepioSeio t o '46, Xoi, XXoi vjpnepa npwTOV KOT va onpovriK noooor r w v onaSwv l i koi
Koi XXoi apyTepa, ouppepiornKOv Tnv eu9vn Tnq a- TWV oreXexwv, yiari oreXxn kcc onaSoi eSw okoXou-
VTipETwnioEjq t o u kivvou o onoioq ttc napouoi- Gov ti oKoXouGooav (ev ppei yiveTOi otipepa r o iSio)
OTnKe KOI o onoioq 5ev EixE avaXovia pe t o AeKep|3pia- npoowniKrnreq nepioorepo nap iSeq, eKrq eKeivwv
v, Y'ciTi o t o AeKepPpiav eixE ^EonKjGei oXKXnpo t o 01 onoioi eivai ronoGernpvoi ornv Apiorep ti eivai ro-
E A M KOI avaYKaoTiiKGv va nve va t o avTipeTujnioouv. noGernpvoi ornv avriSpaon Xyw oup^epvrwv, nwq
Ka TO E A M titov va peyXo Tpiipa t o u EXXqviKO Xa- eivai eKeivoi oi onoioi eivai (Jjopeiq peyXwv oup(t)ep-
o, eine KnoTe o MiKnq SeoSjpKnq, t o onoio t o '45 vrwv. Ol pev koi oi Se, auroi eivai ronoGernpvoi oa(l)wq,
lirav t o 70%, k o i anvrnoa: Aev pnopei v ' t o v t o Koi SiaoraupwGnKav koi o r a oreXxn k o i orouq ona-
70%, 6 ' t o v pjq, npypari, t o 35%, 40%, k o i va 25- Soq, Kupiwq r o u Zuvoyeppo k o i neira orouq onaSoq
30% nou pvEi an^j k o i eivai av xi naOnrm, nvTjq OKpa nepioorepo rnq EPE, roeiq Si(t)opeq, k o i roeiq
apToxo an anipewq ponq. Evd) t o '46-'49 lirav t o Se^iq Koi roeiq Kevrpweq, xi pvo yiari pntiKove k o i
KoppouviOTiK Kppa KI EKEivol 01 onoioi napaopOnKov OTOV Zuvayepp koi neira ornv EPE koi noX nptv ei-
ti ouppEpioTnKov ev noei nepmTJoei t o v ayjva t o u xav ^eKivtioei on t o Kppa r w v OiXeXeuGpwv, yiari ei-
K.K.E. ' O X a t ' XXa Kppara, EKTq on pepiK r a o- nape k o i o t o Kppa r w v OiXeXguGpwv Sev uniipxe n Si-
noia peivav apTOxa pmp Kppara ti npooojniKTn- Kpion auTii oocpiiq, o xapaxTnpiopq Sev nrav oactjtiq,
Teq nou iSpuoav opyTepa Kppara. ripoojniKTnTeq - aXX KOI oxera an aur, n noXiriKii nou OKoXoGnoe
njq o SPiijXoq, o Fivvnq o ZocfitavnouXoq auTq ei- o Zuvayeppq, ev npoupe Pgaia r o Gpa rnq or-
xe iSpoei Kppa t o 1936 peivav aproxoi, aXX Xoi onq r o u anvavri rnq ApiorEpq, tirav Ppaia Sia(t)ope-
Ol XXoi nou onpTi^av t o peyXa KppoTo avopeixn- riKii an r n v noXiTiKti nou OKoXouGooe ev peve o
Kov QTOV oytljva eKeivo. 'AXXoi an epq pnopei v nXaortipaq, PPaia, aXX av e^aipooupe aur r o on-
' t o v KevTpdjoi, XXoi pnopei v ' t o v 5e^ioi, pepiKoi peio, TO onoio lirav nepioorepo ipuxoXoyiK nap iSeo-
pnopei v ' t o v npooSeuTiKTepoi an KevTpuJOuq xo- XoyiK, nepioorepo nG'x nap iSeoXoyiK, ov e^aip-
VToq SnpOKpaTiKq-ooaiaXioTiKq avTiXtii|jeiq, aXX avri- ooupe aur, kot r ' XXa SokoXo pnopope va K-
QETEq npoq Tiq avTiXiit()Eiq t o u K K nou onpXEne, {t)uoiK voupe avrinapGeon pe r o Kpiriipio t o SieGvwq KoGiepw-
njq TO 0Xei n lEoXoyia t o u , oxnv iSpuon piaq XoKiiq pvo, Ae^i koi Kvrpo. BPaia, oreXxn t o u FlXaoriipa,
AnpoKpariaq, t o u unapKTO EooiaXiopo, nwq ovop- nwq O KaprXnq, eixav rpaPn^ei npoq apiorepifjouoeq
T,eia\, Xoi oi XXoi eixape avTiperwnioei r n v ko- Toeiq: o KaprXnq eixe apiorepif^ouoa ron evw eixe

10 NEA KOINQNIOAOriA
^eKivtioei an noXu Sefji. Ka o t o pa OKpo r o KoGe- nwq SnpioupynnKe rre, n 'Evwon Kvrpou (koi ovo-
OTJTiK an TO 1936 yivs pia oulinTnon paO t o u (JjiXiKn pornKe Evwon Kvrpou yiari ouvaoniornKov Sicjiopeq
aXXa vTovn' eixE eKnXtoei unp Tnq enioTpocfiriq t o u opSeq) eixe Si^opeq nrpuyeq. O i opSeq aurq yivav
BaoiXuq k o i sixe YPai|^' ppo eiq Tnv AnpnoXn Tre, nrpuyeq Si(})opeq r o u iSiou opyoviopo. A n ' r n v XXn
ppo evavTiov. TTe t o npypoTa naipvouv 6iact)opeq pepi ornv EPE unnpxav enionq XXoi npooSeuriKTepoi
pop(!)q nou ktw a n ' auTq, ei vai SokoXo va SioKpivei nou a pnopooav va ovopoaov xi onXwq Kevrpwoi
Koveiq noia eivoi n iSeoXoyiKn |3an, n iSeoXoyiKn nnyn, oXX nio npooSeuTiKoi koi on rouq Kevrpwouq, koi X-
TO iSeoXoyiK KivnTpo. B|5aia, pwq, eixe noXX npoo- Xoi Se^ioi Koi noXXoi ouvrnpnTiKoi. FiotI npnei v
SeuTiK oToixeia auyKevTpdioei o OXaoTiipaq OTnv E- 'xoupe unipn paq ri Kppora r a onoia ^enepvov opi-
n E K , oXX Sev nrav Xa t o OTeXxn npooSeuTiK. <tu- opvo apiGp onaSwv k o i oreXexwv Sev pnopei vo ' v a i
oiK uniipxav k o i Se^ioi, unnpxav k o i oaejxjjq aa<^k- Kppora pvov, eivai napar^eiq. Ka oriq napar^eiq
OTOTO Se^ioi KOi OTnv EPIEK k o i o t o Kppa t w v Oi- unpxouv nrpuyeq noXXq.
XeXeupwv eni Zo(t)oXn k o i neiTo, per t o voto t o u Aev pnopei va Kppo nou 'xei t o 40% t o u EXXnvi-
So<t>oXn, un Tnv nvEoic TOU So())OKXn t o u BevitjXou. O Ko Xao n t o 45% l i t o 50% oe opiopveq nepmTwoeiq,
r . OonavSpou OTnv nepioSo eKeivn t o u Zuvayeppo, va ' v o i povoKppoTo, va eivoi evioio iSeoXoyiK, eivai
1952-'53, eixe pnei OTn BouXn yioTi eixe [Byei wq ave^p- aSvoTOv. Fia va Swow va npoowpiv reppa ornv
TnToq oTo ouvSuaop t o u Suvoyeppo ornv flTpa. Ka n p w r n epwrnon, Xw ri aurii r n onypti xoupe Suo pe-
Sev eixe pwq SeopeuOei KOi eixe t o SiKoiwpa vo eKSq- yXeq nopar^eiq. Ae piXw yia r o KoppouvioriK Kp-
Xwei nwq eKSnXwnKe peT t o v AnpiXio t o u 1953, wq pa, eivai oxeriK peyXn napra^n xai aurii aXX |3aoi-
avTinoXiTeupevoq k o i vTova avTinoXneupevoq.' O i i- K, So eivai, y i o r i eKeivo eivai onwoSrinore eviaio, ot-
Seq TOU nTov avap(t)io|3nTnTa npooSeuxiKTepeq an t o (I)ia, ouyKeKpipvo oe Ke r o u Pnpa k o i oe Ke r o u i -
viTO TOU- Se piXnoa wq Twpa yia Tn on Tnv iSeoXoyi- So. Z r ' XXa So Kpparo pnopope va nope ri Xoi
Kii TOU r . OanavSpou yiari Twpa apxif^ei n nepioSoq nou r a ijjiicjjioav k o i Xoi nou anoprijouv r a oreXxn t o u
Tnq peyXnq t o u SpaornpiTnTaq. ' H t o v SpooTiipioq koi eivai o r n pia nepinrwon, t o u FIAZOK, oooiaXiorq k o i
an TO '20 k o i an t o '23 k o i t o '40 k o i t o '44 k o i - ornv XXn nepinrwon, rnq Naq AnpoKpariaq, Se^ioi;
Tov tipe OTnv Mon AvoToXn KOI oxnpTioe Ku^pvnon, Aev pnopope va r o nope. Flwq a nope ri r o 48%
oXX TTe lTav t o yeyovra t o u '44-'46 rToia nou Sev nou ntipe r o ' 8 1 o AvSpaq OanavSpou, ri eivai oo-
enTpei|jav otov iSiov, nwq Sev enTpeijjav koi oe pvo, oiaXiorq; To 1974, oriq eKXoyq niipe 13%, t o 1977 ntipe
va eKSnXwooupe Tiq KoivwviKonoXiTiKq paq avTiXni|jeiq. 24-25%, rooepo xpvio apyrepo naipvei 48%. ' E t o i ,
An TO '52-'53 koi Swe pxioe va eKSnXwvei, enavepx- oXXiiJouv Tiq nenoitioeiq rouq oi Xaoi; ' O x i , |3Paia.
pevoq, avaXapPvovToq pXXov t o Pnpa t w v naXaiwv 'AXXoi Xyoi i]>uxoXoyiKoi, Touq onoiouq Sev eivai av-
tou iSewv, pxioe va eKSnXwvei Toeiq oi onoieq lirav yKn vo ava(})pw, enSpaoav wore vo Snpioupynei aurii
Koap KevTpweq. Ka Toi pnopope va nope ti o F. n peyXn napra^n. n onoia SnpioupynnKe xi eiq P-
FlanavSpou eivai xi o npwToq noXiTiKq n o u 'xei Ke- poq rnq napar^ewq nou anoreXooe XXore n EPE l i
vrpweq Toeiq, Sev pnopope va nope aur, aXX o anoreXei Twpa n Na AnpoKparia, aXX eiq Ppoq r o u
npwToq nou yive apyTepa apxnyq peyXou Kpparoq Kvrpou. ' A p a yia va Snpioupynei eiq Ppoq r o u K-
nou KOI auTq k o i t o Kppo eixav Kevrpweq roeiq. K o i vrpou onpaivEi ri otfiopoiwoe, xi a(!)opoiwoe iSeoXoyi-
pXnoupe rre v ' apxifjet va ^eKoapifJei ourii n SiKpion K, aXX nepiXaPe orouq KXnouq r o u k o i rpPn^e -
pera^ Ae^iq k o i Kvrpou. Bpaio, r o ^eKopiopo au- vav noX peyXo apip Kevrpwwv oi onoioi Sev l i r a v
T Sev nrav rroio wore va pnopope va nope ri n oooioXiorq. A n ' r n v XXn pepi PPaia, vav Knoio
EPE nrav Ae^i. Yniipxav oroixeia Se^i k o i uniipxav apip Kevrpwwv rppn^e k o i n Na AnpoKporia, iSiwq
OToixeia npooSeuriKrepa nou a pnopooav va ovopa- av ouyKpivoupe r o noouq niipe r o ' 8 1 pe r o noouq n i i -
oov KEVTpwa on onijjewq oiKovopiKOKOivwviKtiq pe oriq EupweKXoyq rou nepaopvou louviou nou k o i
Tonoeriiaewq. r o O A Z O K neoe k o i n Na AnpoKparia Knwq avPn-
Ke. (Oepioorepo neoe r o O A Z O K koi Xiyrepo avPn-
O iSioq O KapapavXnq, vopiijw, (eixa r n v euKoipia vo
Ke n Na AnpoKparia). BPaia, nwq eivai otipepa n Si-
ouvepyoow xpvia \ia'Q t o u k o i ouvSopai paf^i r o u no-
ro^n TWV Suvpewv orn BouXti oe oxon pe r o O A Z O K
X) eixe npooSeuTiKq roeiq k o i xei. AXX P^aia,
(oxera av orouq KXnouq t o u ei vai KevTpwot pnopei va
npooSeuriKq poa o r o nXaioia r a napaSooiOK. Mno-
'vat KOI ouvrnpnTiKoi), eivai n Na AnpoKparia Se^i,
pope vo nope ri an r o 1961 koi Swe, rav pxioe o
oe oxon pe t o O A Z O K Stort n ovrieon eivoi peyXn
avvSoroq aywvoq, koi pxioe o avvSoroq aywvaq per
nXov, Sev eivai nwq eivai n avTieon pera^ Evwoewq
r n v vwon r w v rre Xeypevwv Kevrpwwv Suvpewv,
Kvrpou Kat EPE ti Evwoewq Kvrpou k o i Naq Anpo-
nou yive npiv Xiyo npiv r i q eKXoyq r o u ' 6 1 k o i eniKe-
Kpariaq pxpt r w v eKXoywv r o u 1977. H avrieon r w p o
(])aXnq TonoeriinKe o F. OanavSpou xovraq nXi r o u
eivai noX peyaXTepn k o i (])uoiKa ec])' oov Sev napep-
f pwq oav oiovei oTJvapxny r o Zo(|)OKXn t o Bevif^Xo. O
PXXerai k o i kti evSipeoo, (tJoiverai OKpn peyaXre-
F. FlanavSpou avap(|)ioPnTnra nrav Kevrpwoq pe npo-
pn. Kat oxera an r n voorponia ti r i q iSeoXoyieq r w v
oSeuriKq oe opiopvo onpeia apiorepijouoeq roeiq, o
peXwv, r w v onaStitv, rwv i|jn<|)0(])pwv Kat r w v oreXexciJv
Zo(t)OKXnq O BevitjXoq Sev nrav. ' H r a v oriq avriXniJjEiq
eivai n SiTO^n t w v Suvpewv rroia nou pnopope va
rou yiq r o u narpa r o u , SnXaSii, a pnopoae k o i t o v
nope TI eSw xoupe va oooiaXioriK Kppa k o i eKei
EXeu. Bevi?;Xo va ovopooupe Se^i koi t o Zo(t)OKXti
xoupe pia Ae^t, aXX Ae^t ev oxoet npoq r o Zoota-
BevifJXo va r o v ovopooupe Se^i. AnXaSn, n ouveiSn-
XioriK Kppa, XI Ae^i k o i ev oxoet pe r o avnapKTo
oii rouq nrav Se^i. BXnoupe, Xomv, ri k o i t o Kvrpo

NEA KOINQNIOAOriA 11
nXov OTf) BouXr) KvTpo. Ze oxori pe t n v 'Evcuori K- avriKpuopa. Be^aiwq, unpxouv npoowniKTnreq k o i u-
v i p o u r| Na AripcKpaxia Sev xei enouoiwSeiq 5ia(t)opc;, npxet o r n Pon, Yia va xPnoiponottiow ourti r n X^n
li pnopei va loxupifjovtai pepmoi ti eixe ti Kot ti xet, rnq pSoq nou Sev p ' opoet noX, Kevrpwa ipuxoXoyio
KOt pnopei va 'xouv SiKto eKeivot nou t o toxupiZ^ovTOt Kot Kevrpwa voorponia, nou an ani|jewq apt0po Sev
oxeTtK pe TOV eauT TOuq, aXX Sev pnopouv va t o t- pnopei va eKTtpn0ei pe prpo r o rt ntipe oriq eKXoyq
oxuptOTotjv oxeTiK pe touc; onaSoijc; touc; Kat pe t o ku- r o u 1977 n "Evwon Kvrpou ti oriq eKXoyq r o u 1981 ti
ptTepa oTeXxn t(jju TTe KevTpotcov KoppTCjjv citoTe Kot oriq eKXoyq rqq EupwnaKtiq BouXtiq. Eivai noX nepio-
otipepa n StKpton eivat euKoXrepn. Mnopei va XPIO'- orepot aX,X Sev pnopw va rouq perptiow, oro Xo, o r n
ponoitiooupe t o KpiTiipia t o onoia eivai KaSiepwpva pon nwq Xve otipepa k o i noX Xiyrepot eKeivot oi o-
Stevjq aXX pe TOuq neptoptopoijc; xouc; onoiouc; eino noioi napouotfjovrat oriq eKXoyq k o i i|jn(t)t^ouv eire
nptv. M ' aXXa Xyia, yiveTOt KOTxpnon ornv EXXaSa, ornv ' Evwon Kvrpou un r o v Fedipyto Mapo r o ' 77,
TouXaxtcjTOv Ae^tc; Kat Kvrpou. M t a KOTxpnon n o- eire r n v ' Evwon Kvrpou un rov F. Mapo nXt r o ' 81
noio Se pXanret, P^aia, nor touc; Kevrpwouq rav u- ti oriq EupweKXoyq r n v 'Evwori Kvrpou un r o v Zi-
npxouv Kat oot unpxouv, pXnret pwq noXXoq nou ySn. To iSio pnop) va nw k o i yta r o K O A H Z O eire un
Kararooovrat o r n Ae^t xwP'Q va eivat. f t o r i xt pvo rnv nyeoia r o u FiyKou neoparfjyXou eire un r n Sie-
oro Tno paq aXX Kupiwq o t o Tno paq t o ouvGiipoTa 0uvon Twpa r o u Mnpnn t o u Flpwronan, k o i t o u AKn
naipvouv peyaXtJrepn a^ia o n ' rtq tSeq, o n ' rtq KoupoKXn- A u r o i eivat Xiyot nwq epcjjavif^ovroi oriq e-
tSeoXoyteq. KXoyq aXX o r o Xa npnet va unoXoyiooupe rt unp-
xei nvro pto voorponia, pta ipuxoXoyia Kevrptbo, oe va
EP. Ftari n Ae^i nappeive noXtj nto oupnaytiq oav
rptipa r o u Xao pio rroia voorponia, pta rroia
nopro^n cin r o noXuStaonwpevo rre k o i otipepa e^a-
4)uxoXoyia.
(povtopvo Kvrpo;
n . K . Eivat SijoKoXo, Ppata, va So9ei pto npxetpn ep- EP. K a r ' eoq yiaxi Sev evoapKwvexai, SnXaSti, auxti
pnveia auTotJ r o u (Jjoivopvou r o onoio npypart onpei- n ijJUXoXoyia o ' va oxnpaxtop toxup, auxti xq oxtypii;
)0nKe. BXnoupe o n ' r n pta pepi r o AaK Kppo va
perarpnerat orw koi av SiaXBnKe, oe KoppariKOijq n . K . 'lowq yiaxi xei SiaSoBei n axpo^aipa xqq nXw-
oxnpciTiopotjq 01 onoioi eivat peyXoi k o i aupnayeiq, - onq. Oxi iowq, ao(()aX)q, aXX Xw iowq, ytaxi Sev ^-
nwq O Zuvayeppq, EPE, Na AnpoKparia, k o i pXnoupe pw XI 9a yivei oriq enpeveq eKXoyq. MiXope eni r n P-
a n ' r n v XXq pepi r o Kppa r w v l^iXeXeuSpwv va 'xei oei TWV SeSopvwv rou ' 8 1 k o i t o u '84. Ynpxei, Xoi-
Siaonaorei noXXq (popkq (koi t o Aok eixe StacTnaorei nv, aurti n Ton n onoia avoyKtjei noXXoq va pnv n-
TO 1936 t o u KaeoTwriKo aXX nXi enovaouvevwBn- ve eKei nou o X"Jpoq eivat oxevq ornv enKt)veia k o i n-
Ke). BXnoupe, Xomv, va xet Siaonaorei noXij nepioo- ve eKei nou o x ^ p o q ornv eni(t)aveia eivat eupq. Kat e-
repeq (jjopq. "lowq aur octjeiXerat o r o yeyovq rt t o ni(J)avEia einape eivat n BouXti. Mnopei, pwq, aur va
Kvrpo tirav peraPartK, vaq peraPariKq xwpoq. 'E- Sope v ' aXX^ei oxiq epxpeveq eKXoyq. Aev xo npo-
vaq peraPariKq x ^ p o q r o Kvrpo, wq rnoq, ytoTi eina- PXnw pe 0exiKTnTa, K0e XXo. A u r i i v r n onypti npo-
pe orqv ouoia unpxouv KevrpcJjoi o r n ouveiSnon k o i PXnw vraon (tJavoTictpo, pa vraon rnq noXwoewq
oro AaK Kppa. Yntipxov k o i o t o Zuvayepp koi oxnv KOt evSexopvwq nXi k o i iowq oe peyaXrepo Pa0p
EPE KOt OKpa nepiooxepo crrn Na AnpoKparia, oXX r n v avayKaoxiKii npooxwpnon eScb ti eKei, xwv nepiooo-
wq rnoq t o Kppara r a onoia npotiX9av on r o naXoi xpwv ouxwv nou oviiKouv o ' auxti xn voorponia, r n v
AaK Kppa KOI on rptipa r o u Kpparoq r w v (f tXeXeu- KEvrpwa. H nppXei})n aurti Sev eivat 0eTiKti k o i nvrwq
9pwv, yiari npnet va Tovif^oupe aur, petve oupnayq. Sev avronoKpiverai CTTiq npooSoKieq pou k o i oriq eXni-
O Kopoq auTq eivat oupnaytiq, orw k o i pe Siocfiopert- Seq pou. KaX 0a tirav o r n x ^ p a paq va pnv ouvextorei
Kq perovopooieq. (Ka npnet va nw ti aurq ot pexo- aurti n nXwon k o i va unpxei SuvarTnra pioq Knoioq
vopooieq 0a npene va oxapaxtioouv Knoxe. Aev xouv nto loopponnpvnq xt pvov oriq ijjuxq xou Xao k o i
vnpa). Evw r o Kvxpo eivat kti t o pexoPaxtK. ISiwq oxn ouveiSqon r o u Xao, aXX k o i oxnv eni(t)veia xnq
Se, entipav npa noX pexaPartK xapoKTtipa r n ortypri noXixiKiiq f^wtiq. Fiaxi n eni(})veia Sev ovxanoKpivexoi
KOT r n v onoia per r o 1974 o AvSpaq rianavSpou, ornv ouveiSnon Xwv xwv EXXiivwv. H eni^veia pwq
epxpevoq a n ' ^w iSpuoe r o FIAZOK, SnXaSti Swoe - eivat eKeivn n onoia oou napouoifjei pta xpiKupio (t)oPe-
va rvo reXeiwq 5ta(l)opErtK orov Kopo, rov onoio ou- pti KOI pnopei oxa POq, va ppoq xou EXXnviKo Xao
yKvrpwoe ypw r o u , Xtyrepo Kopo t o ' 7 4 , nepioo- vo pnv avxexai auTti r n v rpiKupio ti pXXov va pnv r n
repo r o '77 KOt OKpo nepioorepo r o ' 8 1 , vav reXeiwq 0Xei oXX r n v avxerot. Tnv avxeroi ytari Sev pnopei
6ia(t)opeTiK xvo an eKeivov o onoioq eixe 5o0i oxnv va Kvei aXXidiq. ' H Sev ^pei rt npnet va Kvet aX-
'Evwon Kvrpou an rov narpa rou r o F. FlanavSp- Xoiotq. ' H Sev xet aKOoei r n (l)wvti eKeivn n onoio 0a
ou. Aut Sev npOKXeoe apowq xn peyXn peiwon xou xov KOve va neioOei xt npnet va rpaPti^ei XXo
Kvrpou KOi Knwq Kpaxii9nK xo Kvrpo cniq eKXoyq Sppo.
xou 1974, aXX oxiq eKXoyq xou '77 xov ou^tiOnKe n
EP. Ze noio Pa0p eniPtwvet o E9viKq Sixaopq OTiq
Svapri r o u O A Z O K , ouppiKvcGnKe npa noX r o K-
onpepivq noXiriKq Siapxeq;
VTpo. Ynpxouv npoowniKrrireq ot onoieq eivat a^iXo-
yeq, nou npoonGnoav ti npocmaGov OKpa va eKnpo- n . K . Aruxwq enipiwvet. EniPicbvei k o i 0a ' x a v k o i otipe-
owntioouv aurv r o v Kopo o onoioq tirav Kevrptboq, pa oSvaxo va ptXtioei Koveiq poa oxnv BouXti pe avxi-
aXX rouXxtorov oro npooKtivio, o r n BouXti, ytari n KeipeviKxnxa yta xa yeyovxa xou 1915 ti xou 1920-'22
BouXti eivat t o npooKtivto, xet e^acpavtorei. Aev unpxet Xwpiq va eivat ennpeaopvoq.

12 NEA KOINQNIOAOriA
EAAHNIKH KOINQNIA

OEmmomopnmoi
TO MeAsTrj H MsXETnoXo

EneiSii oiriv EXXa n Koivujvia Ka r| oiKovopia 5ev OKOnoGeoieq, KOivoq KwSiKeq koi koivt) oupnepi(})Opa.
npaoav an t i g (t)oeic; rnq AuTmoeupwnaKiiq loropi- ' E t o i , oTnv EXXSo, napouoioTriKav Sicjjopeq t u -
Knq E^Xi^nq (OEOuSapxia, EK|3ioiJnxvion, AoTiopq) Xaieq opSeq, pe p(t)UTn SiaXuTiKii Ton, nou nXoTioov
KOI Sev pnpEoav va Siavaouv eniTUxiJq t o aviioToixa Xyw piaq KannaXiormriq paoTijpirnraq, xwp'q pwq
OTSia, Se SnpioupYnnKE noT Aonopq, pe r n SuTiKti va Snpioupynoouv aoTiKii ra^rj. Aut t o cfiaivpevo ovo-
vvoia TOU pou^ pi^eToi vnoaoTiaiJq.
' Onic; opi^^eTOi an Xouq Touq peyXouq KOivwvioX- ' Etoi n eXXnvmn Koivwvia KupiapxeiToi onypiaia an
youq, an t o v MARX koi t o v WEBER tuq rov ouyxpovo KaniToXioTiK pop(])wpaTa, nou yevvwvTai, GvnoKouv koi
SCHUMPETER, Aoiiopq Sev eivai pvov o KannaXi- ovayevvwvTOi Sio KpanKwv Soveiwv n pow eKTKTwv
OTiKq Tpnoq napaywynq k o i t o oiKovopiK k o i koivw- nepinTwoewv, nwq ep(})Xioq nXepoq, e^wTepiKii Poti-
viK t o u ouvenoKXouBa. Aoxiopq eivai enionq koi va Geia KXn. AnoTXeopo eivai ti pxovToi kot Koipoq
nvepa, nou nponynOnKe ev noXXoiq a n ' auTv^. Fto t o v OTnv eni(l)aveia 6i(t)opeq opSeq nou xouv avTiGeTiKii
WEBER, TOV AoTiop yvvnoe n npoTeoTavTiKti ni^n^- yewypoctJiKii, noXinoTiKn k q i koivwviki npoXeuon. F i '
To yeviK nvepa pwq t o u AoTiopo, touXxioto o n q OUT n eKOTOTe pXOUOa OlKOVOpiKli KQI KOlVWVlKti T-
apxq TOU, eivai n SnpioupyiKTnTo, t o piijJOKivSuvo, n ^n xei avTi(t)aTiKn iSioouoTooio, acpo anoTeXeirai an
enevSuTiKii k o i enavenEvSuTiKti Ton, pa koi n anoTo- TToiou eiSouq npoowpivnq ouoToewq opSeq' KGe pia
pEuon, n a^ioKpoTio, n epnEpiOTaTwpvn texvikti KOTp- an' auTq eni^XXei yia t o SioTnpa nopapovtiq Tqq
Tion K.Xn. AoTiopq Eivai enionq k o i pia napSoon, nou OTOV xwpo auT Tnq Ke^aXaioKpaxiKtiq napaywytiq
SiapKei nSn OTn AuTiKii Eupwnn koi oxnv ApepiKTi, So Touq Kovveq Tnq k o i Tn yXwooa Tnq koi eyKOToXeinei t o
KQI nXov aiwveq. O i Sopq t o u xouv anoKpuoToXXwGEi Xcijpo OUT, aclitivovTaq niow xqq t o unoXeipoTa t o u oi-
e^eXioopeveq. 'Exei anoKpuoToXXwGei nopXXnXa pio KovopiKo Tnq TuxoSiwKTiopo. AnoTXeopo eivai o a-
vooTponio, vaq Tpnoq t o u OKnTEoGai, vaq Koivq OTiKq xwpoq, OTnv eXXnviKii Koivwvia k o i oiKovopia, va
KwSiKoq aupnepict)opq, Koivoi noXmoriKoi napovopa- PpiGei on TTOio unoXeippoTo, t w v onoiwv o ouvtovi-
orq KOI tSeoXoyiK OTOixeia. opq KOI n ouGeon eivai oSvoTq. E^ ou koi n npoPXn-
STnv EXXSa, 01 KoivwviKq Korriyopieq k o i oi v- poTiKTnTa Tqq oiKOvopiKtiq k o i SnpooiovopiKiiq noXiTi-
voieq auTq ppioKOVToi oe pia nayiwpvn epPpuaKii kot- Kiiq KGe Kuppvnoqq.
OToon. O l noXXonXq npoonGeieq e^aoTiopo nou yi- ' AXXo onoTXeopa eivai n npoPXnpoTiKTnTO Tnq Sia-
vav an TO X. TpiKonn wq t o v A. FlanavSpou, pe ovSeonq t w v evvoiwv noXiTiKiiq nVEoiaq k o i oiKOvopi-
KupiTepn auTiiv Tnq ep(|)Teuanq oXKXnpnq aoTiKiiq t- Kwv Suvpewv. H npopXnpoTiKTnTo auTT) eKcJipJ^eTOi
^nq n TOuXXIOTOV OOTIKO KOlVWVlKO-OlKOVOpiKO ou- OTnv opTnpiooKXqpwTiKq nayiwoq evq oretpa avano-
YKpOTiipaToq an Tnv eXXriviKti opoyveio OTnv eXXaSiKti paypevou KOTeornpvou.
eniKpTeia nou yive on t o v E. BEviii^Xo, Sev oSnynoav
nouGev, nap pvo oe koivwvik eni(I)aivpeva, x^jpiq XopoKTqpiOTiK yvwpiopoTa t o u eXXnviKO unooori-
SipKeia. opo eivai t o OKXouGa:
E^XXou 01 KoniTaXiOTiKq SuvapiKq OTnv EXXSa - H oqpooio TOU Sqpoiou Topa. Z r q AuTiKq Eu-
Xouv xapoKTHpa KopiTn: SnpioupyovTai oe npo(t)Opeq pwnn, o ' Xn Tn SipKeia Tnq KaniToXiOTiKriq ovnTu^nq
oiKovopiK enoxq, Siavouv pia XPuoii nepioSo unep- TO KpToq nepiopioTqKe o t o pXo t o u vuxTO(l)XaKa
KepSwv KOI oTepa napoKpi^ouv, xpewKonov n yivo- KOT Tiq KpoTooeq TTe oiKovopiKq Gewpieq^. Erqv EX-
VTOi npoPXnpoTiKq, Xyw eXXeiilJewq TexvoXoyiKO eK- XSa, TO avTiGeTO OKpiPwq ouvPn: o KoniTaXiopq yev-
ouyxpoviopo, uil^nXwv npo5iaypa(l)wv n x a i yeviKiiq a- vqGqKe ev noXXoiq pe KaoopiKii Topn on t o v peTonpo-
viKOvTnTaq TWV SiaSxiv, aKpi|3wq Xyw avunap^ioq Tiop, pe KpoTiKn enpPaoq. Ka o npwTonpoq t o u e-
a^iOKpoTiaq'', ootiko nvepoToq koi aoTiKtiq noiSeiaq. ^aoTiopo, TpiKonnq koi Kupiwq o Bevi^Xoq xpnoipo-
FlpaypoTiK peyoXoi KaniToXioTq OTnv EXXSa lTav noinoov, O npwToq peooia oiKovopiK OTpwpaTO, o Se-
eXxioToi. T^n pwq oXKXnpn, nou va pnopope va Tepoq avwTepa: k o i t o pev k o i t o Se pwq eixav peTO-
Tnq anoSwooupe xapaKTnpo ootikti Sev uniipxe noT. npoTiK xapaxTtipa q touXxiotov npocjiorn peTonpa-
T^n 'vai xi opSa avGpwnwv evwpvq npoowpiv o- TiKii npoXeuon- AuTq n KpOTiKn enpPaon Snpiopynoe
n nepioTooiOK oupcJjpovTa (out Ga anoTeXooe pX- pia nopSoon aXXnXe^pTnonq KpTouq-Ke^aXaiou,
Xov va eiSoq opSaq nioewq), aXX ovaTrjpa avGpwni- nou npooXaPe SpapoTiKrepo xapoKTiipa peT Tqv ne-
vnq ^wtiq, nXaiaio avGpwnivnq SpooTnpiTnTaq, poa TpeXa'Kn Kpion t o u 1973.
OTO onoio KivovToi, Spouv, napyouv oiKovopiK k o i Eivai Xomv owTnpioKo xapaKTiipa o Xeypevoq
noXiTiK vGpwnoi evwpvoi opyaviK, pe KOivti koivw- KpaTiKq napepPoTiopq, e^ ou k o i eivai pvipo otoi-
viKti iSeoXoyio k o i oup(3oXiopoq, koivt) naiSeio, Koivq Xeio Tnq Snpoiaq oiKovopiKiiq noXiTiKtiq ove^apTqTwq

NEA KOINNIOAOriA 13
napaT^ecv. Eivai 5opiK (t)aivp8vo \i\aq avEKnXiipu)- cnnKe Tn XaKn napSoon, Tnv apxiTeKTOviKn KGe t-
Triq EKpioprixvioric;, evw orri Aori o ZooiaXiopq pe nou, oTC KOi KpoTcijVTaq pvo Tiq e^wTepmq rnq pop-
TOV napepPoTiap rip9e oav wpipoc; Kopnq piac; no- (t)q. O l nXeiq OTn A. Eupwnn Sev xooav r n v napaSo-
peiaq eKaetiwv e^Xi^nc;, avanTu^nq, oXonXiipworiq k o i oioKii TOuq TouTTnTo: uneppovTpva emxeipnoiOK K-
epneipiaq. vTpa orey^ovToi oe avoYewnoiOK KTipia.
O Sripoioc; auTc; Topaq, OTr|v EXXSa, xei Xomv O eXXnviKq unoaoTiopq xi pvo Se SiaefiXa^e Tn
aaact)r) pio pe t o v i6iu)tik, avaXapPvei o iSioq oiko- ouvoXiKii eviKn TouTrnTo, oXX Se SiocfiXa^e ore Tnv
vopiKc; 6paoTripiTr|T6c; k o t ' e^oxnv iSituTiKiiq (t)oeu)c; iSiaiTepn noXiTicniKii TauTTnra Tnq KOivwviKtiq t o u npo-
KOI ouvTripei pia npo^XripaTiKf) orpoTi avTinapOYtY'- Xeuonq' Se Siarripnoe kov Tn XoKii nopSoon wq
Kcjv unaXXiiXwv, ave^XeYKTWv (t)uaiK an Tnv noXiTiKn (])oXkXp.
e^ouoia. EKTq auTo, o eXXnviKq unoaoTiopq Sev pnpeoe
'AXXo xapoKTnpioTiK TOU YnoooTiopo eivai, - va ap9pd)oei va Sik t o u koivwvik Xyo, va t o v kgX-
nwc; npoava(t)pape, n avunap^ia aariKO noXmopo. XiepYnoei KOI va t o v eni|3XXei ornv eXXnviKii Koivwvia.
ZTn Aori, O aoTiKc; Kopoc; SnpiopYnoe veq iSeoXo- Aev pnpeoe nor oe Kopi (})on t o u va Snpioup-
yiKc; KOI noXiTicrriKc; o^ieq, va oXnXnpo nveupariK ynei iSieq a^ieq, opPoXa, KwSiKeq oupnepi({)opq' koi
ocrrnpa, ^oveq nvuj otouc; onoiouq KiviiBnKe n ^ w i eniKoivwviaq. AnoTXeopo eivoi va pipeirai ^va koivw-
Ttv ooTJv, cjTiq pn uXiKq TOuq SpaoTnpiTnreq. O o- vik npTuno xwpiq eniTuxia- t o iSio ouv|3n k o i oTn
OTiopq eKei SiOTiipnoe n a p ' Xa out k o i KoXXipynoe XoyoTexvia^.
Tnv n6oYPa(t)ia k o i t o v napaSooiOK noXmop, oe|3- XapOKTnpiOTiK TOU eXXnviKo unoaoTiopo eivai
enionq o veonXomiojjq. O veonXouTiopq eivai pia ou-
pnepi(t)op KoGop avTienevSuTmn, pa avTiaoriKn. Ei-
vai eniSeiKTiKq k o i npOKoXei t o v koivwvik (t)9vo k o i
TO To^iK piooq, evw oi SuriKoi aoroi npoonBnoav va
nXnoiaoouv i|)uxoXoYiKa tic; aoSEvoTepgc; T^eic; pg Tr| XaiOKpariKiiq napaywytiq Sev pnopei va ^e(])yei on r o
(t)iXav6pa)nia, tic; ({)a|3iavc; lec;^ k q i t o v xpioriaviKiic; e- peranpariK xapa^Tiipa n o u eixe ovKOev n eXXnviKii
pnvEOEWc; oooiaXiop pgyaXiv acrrwv hoXitikiv, nwq oiKovopio. rioX nepioorepo aurti n unoacniKti Suvapi-
O L E O N B L U M ti o R A M S A Y M C D O N A L D . 'AXXo xa- Kti enc()epe eva nXiioq SuoXeiroupytwv: k q t ' e^oxtiv
paKTnpioTiK TOU vEonXouTiopoi) Eivai n onaopcuSiKii napaSeiypoTO, o napaoiriopq^^ koi n napooiKovopia^^.
onaTXn xP^PCiToq nou o(})EiXETai orriv XXEii|jn yvibonq Kat r o So eivat (Jiaivpevo ovenpKeiaq koi SuoXei-
Koi napSoonc; oov a(}>opa r n v opBii t o u XPn^n- ^Pn- Toupyiaq r o u oiKovopiKo KUKXwparoq. T o airia eivai
oiponoiEirai t o xPnpa pE Tpnouc; npoaariKOq, nwq 6a poei KOt piOk: avyovrai ornv KOtvwviKii icrropio rnq
t o ^Sue SnXaii Evaq oyprnq on Knoio yovo Pou- verepnq EXXSaq^*. T a ouvenoKXoua pwq ocfiopov
v, n o u npE OTnv A6nva k o i PpnKE OTO 5ppo va oXKXnpo r o noXiriK oornpo, r o noXtrioriK enoiKoS-
nooyyi pe XecIjt: evtj OTiq aoriKq KOivoivigq t o XPnMCi pnpa KOI r n v HveupaTiKti Koivwvia, e^ioou Se k o i r n v e-
XPncponoisiToi napoyaiyiKa pE OKonoq EKnaiEUTiKoq viKii paq rourrnra- Xa aur r a oroixeia rqq iSioou-
Koi avanapaywyiKOq, pe SioKpiTiKn pop^n. AvTirwq, oraoiaq r o u vou eXXnviopo eivat npoPXnpariK, noX-
ornv EXXSa n TuxpnacKn auTti onoTXn XPnpaToq u- Xq Se (})opq Xeinouv navreXiljq. Me pta X^n Sev unp-
no5nXd)vei iKovonoinon xpoviwv anwOnpvojv, nou pe r n Xet vnavamv^q. Ynpxei avchpaXr) avamv^ri, nou oSti-
oeip Touq ct)avep(jjvouv npo^arn koi anropn oikovo- ynoe r n oyxpovn eXXnviKii Koivwvia oe KoivwviKq te-
piKii vo5o, aXX nopXXnXa k o i <^^O nappoiaq an- paroyoviEq, oe pta pvipn oiKOvopiKii Suonpayia koi oe
Topnq oiKOvopiKtiq koSou. pta eniKi'vSuvri KOivwviKti avioopponia.
SnpavTiKWTOTO xapQKTripiOTiK TOU eXXnviKO u-
noaoTiopo Eivai n XXei4)n Koiv)viKt)q ovveiSrjoqq k o i
ouvoiononq Tnq KOiv(jDviKi)q anooroXqq rnq ouyKeKpip-
vnq T^nq- EcIjoov n oiKovopiKt npoSoq enepXiin an VnOIHMEiniEIZ
TO SuTiK ooTiop ijq Kupiopxn iSeoXoyiKti a^ia oro o-
1. Ol nepmoTEpoi 'EAXriveq KoivwvioAyoi (AmiriXiSriq,
OTnpa rnq KOivwviKnq ^wnq, <})uaiK nrav n aoriKn r^n
KavsAAnouAoq, KapaliiSaq KQI mo npaipaTo 0iAiaq, TOKW-
VQ anoreXei r o npruno; va npruno eivoi (Jjuoik va
vaq, KaOwq KOI OI aYXPovoi Mou(Ariq, Bepijqq KOI KiTpofjri-
oupnEpict)pETai wq Troio, Sivovraq r o napSeiypa o ' - AiSqq) napaSxovToi avv) rrjv apxn, oov a(popa TIJV sAArjviKrj
Xa r a pXn r n q Koivwviaq, piaq k o i n aoriKii i5eoXoyia KOWwviKi) e^Ai^rj.
yiverai n Kupiapxn e6viKn iSeoXoyia. Mipnriopq koi ve- 2. FeviKa decopsirai TI OI omovopiKq oxoeiq avTovaKXdi-
onXouriopq pwq eivai ooupPiPaora pe oiaStinorE v- xnai arriv nvEupaTiKi) s^Ai^q.
voia npornou. 3. ETO nEpi<pripo pyo rov KamraXiopq KOI npOTearavriKij
Aur pPaio r o cJjoivpEvo avayerai oro yeviKrepo HlKlj.
nppXnpa Tnq avunap^aq oa(t)Oq ra^iKiiq ouveiSnonq'" 4. H AAeiipn a^ioKpariaq ocpsiAerai o' aur ro xopoKjqpi-
o r n v EXXSa nou ocfJEiXerai, pe r n oeip rnq ornv koi- OTIK TOU owpaviKoi) ovoTqpaToq SioKvPepvrioeioq, nou o
MAX WEBER ovpaoe oovAraviop.
vwviKri aKoraoTaoia ti koi avapxia nou Kupiapxei eSw
5. Kara TOV Pvo AnocnoAiSrj unoaoTiK sivai auT noo an-
per r n v AneXeupwon' aur r o reXeuroio (l)atvpevo
Tuxs va yivEi aorm KQI peive o' auri) rrjv EvSiapsori KOT-
Sev npnet va napopoi^erai pe r n v vvoia rnq Kotvwvi- OTaarj, nov ovopa^ETai unoaarmi).
Kiiq KivnTiKrnTaq^^: aurti n reXEuraia onpoivei ti cmq 6. JOHNSTEWARTMILLS, DAVIDRICARDO K.Xn.
pn apTnpiooKXnpwriKq Koivwvieq ot ^ioi pnopov va 7. ATTITUDE arriv raXXiKq-AyyXiKf) KoivwvioXoyia.
npooSeouv, x ^ p i q va epnoSifjovrai an a^enpaora r a - 8. H npwTri nai SEUTEpri AdrivaKi) SxoXi) /3aai(ovTat arriv
^iK pia. Anevovriaq ornv EXXSa n koivwvikooikovo- Ijipqari rou yaXXiKo Po/javTiopov Ka riapvaooiapo. O BEVI-
piKti voSoq o(()eiXeTai oe avwpoXeq eGvrnq nepioroeiq, ^eXiKq Kopoq pipeirai orriv KOIVWVIKI TOV ovpnepKpopa ay-
nwq O paupayopiriopq, nXepoi nou euvoov r o Xa- yXayaAXiK nprvna- nio npocpara oi psranoXEpiKq aori^ov-
pepnpio, n euvoioKparia k q i o venoriopq, Kowq k o i OEq opaeq, Kvpicuq apepiKavma nprvna.
r a Sveia, nou eivat navreXwq ave^prnra on oiaStino- 9. H 0a^iavii Eraipia iSpvdnKE TO 1883 an pia opaa l3pE-
Te vvoia a^ioKpariaq. ravwv Siavooupvwv KOI ovvnpalJE orriv iSpuaq rou EpyariKou
Kpparoq rqq AyyXiaq.
Ze yeviKq ypoppq, pnopope v a nope rt o aort- 10. flappoia npo/SXiipara nwq avra rwv ipuxoXoyiKwv
Kq xwpoq OTnv EXXSa, o x ^ p o q SnXaSti r n q Kecjjo- napaXeiToupymv rwv KOIVWVIKWV T^EWV SSV XOUV PEXETTIOEI
OE Evpsia SKraari an rnv EXATIVIKIJ KOWWVIKI) Eniarnpr).
11. O KaOiEpwpvoq poq ara yaXXiK sivai "MOBILITE".
12. O napaoiTiapq pnopei va opiaOsi wq ro ouvoXo TWV OI-
KovopiKwv SpaarripiOTiJTwv nov Sev xouv Kapia opyaviKi) aq-
paaia yia TO omovopiK avarqpa KOI nov xovv KaTaoKEuaarEi
TExvriT yia va KoraKparovv va ppoq rwv KepSwv OE enineSa
PEOa^vrwv KOI aXXwv evSiapeawv napayvrwv.
13. H napaoiKovopia anoreXei va napaXXqXo oiKovopiK
KVKXwpa nov ^epevysi rou KpariKo eXyxov KOI npoypappari-
opou KOI KOE (popoXoyiKijq axaqq ps ro Kparoq.
14. KXaoiK napapvEi navrorE yia ro 6pa aur ro pyo
rov A. AaviriXiSn NeoeXArivmi) Koivwvia KOI OiKovopia
(1934), TO onoio Kave ExoXri ps riq jiaamq rov unoOaeiq, riq
onoieq SxrjKav Karniv oi nepioarspoi KoivwvioXyoi, an
rqv Kpa apiarepa pxpi rqv Kpa Se^ia.

NEA KOINQNIOAOriA 15
EAAHNIKH KOINQNIA

EMHMKOI 0OPmiEMOI: nOMTlKEEKAl


noMmmmEYPEi mi YnAmnmHi*
TOU NiKOu Mov^Xri
1. n a p a S s i Y p a T a E^XnviKo (t)opnaXiano

' E v a an xa XTunnra xapaKxnpiaTiKa jr\c, noXiTiKiiq pEoonXepo yia va nEioBopE. Booik rnq xapaxrnpi-
KOI noXiTiOTiKnc; npaKTiKqc; otov eXXnviK kowwvik OTiK nrav O yvwoTq Sixaopq, n Sioipeon avpeoa oe
oxni-ictTiap eivai o |3a6p<; otov onoio oi ouyKpouoEiq peviJJeXiKOq k o i avriPevifJeXiKoq^ oro Bpo rnq povap-
KOI 01 oufJnTiioeiq naipvouv (t)op|jaXioTiK-vo|jiKiaTiK Xiaq. ' E r o i Xomv, orriv nepioSo nou o ' Xeq riq |3aX-
XapOKTiipa ngTaTovTOc; rnv npoooxn t w v po^wv an KOviKq xwpeq unipxav loxup ayporiK Kivnpara k o i
TO ouoiwn npoPXiinaTa (n.x- npo|3XnpaTa nou xouv Kppara, r a onoia npoonaBooov pe nepioorepn l i Xi-
oxon pe TOuq |3aoiKoq to^ikouc; avTaycvioiJoc; koi Tn yTEpn eniTUxia va npowBiioouv r a oup(t)povTa r w v a-
oyKpouon TWV i5ewv) o t o enouoiwSn. YpOTwv, r o nppXnpa r o u Bpvou KorpBwoe va ano-
A. ZxETiK |JE Tic; noXiTiKc; npoKTiKc; Eivai xapoKTn- npooavaroXioet rouq 'EXXnveq aypreq koi va rouq na-
pioTiK TI n Tunmn noXniKti ouZ^nTnon OTn Xwpc paq Ei- paopei oe pi evSoacmKii Siapxn nou Xiyn oxon eixe
TE naipvEi Tn popctin neTa(t)uoiK)v SiEv^ewv navw ae pe r a npayporiK rouq oup^povra. Koi npaypariK, n-
yEViKq vvoieq nwq n eXeuSepia, n SnuoKpaTia, o oo- oo oxern ornv ouoia tirav aurii n Siapxn pe r a oupcfi-
oiaXiO|jq K.Xn vvoieq nou xPno'PonoiouvTai pe re- povTO xwv aypoxwv pnopope va xo Sianioxtbooupe an
Xeiwq acjjnpnpvo Tpno ki eivai roi onoKoppveq an xo yeyovq ri n BXio KoroTaoii rouq noX Xiyo XXa-
To peoa npoPXnpaTa koi xnv KoBnpepivn epneipia t o u ^e o r n SeKOEria nou SipKeoe n aPooiXeurn AripoKpa-
noXirn eire naipvei rnv OKpi^wq avxiGexn popct)n: xou Tia, per rnv Karpynon rnq povopxiaq r o 1923^.
avxoywviopo oe Koop npoowniK enineSo. Ouom, Avnru^o o r o kecJ). 5 rouq iSiairepouq Xyouq yia
to 5uo aux enine5a, xo npoowniK k o i xo 0oppaXioxi- rouq onoiouq n eXXnviKti ayporiKii r^n anruxe va op-
K, ouvSovxai pexa^ xouq koi aXXnXooupnXnpwvovToi. yavwGsi noXiriK. Z r o Ke(t)Xaio aur Ba liBeXa va ora-
Ka noX ouxv niow a n ' auxoq xouq 5i(l)Opouq 5ia^i- Gtlj o ' va ni yeviK np|3Xnpa: oro np(3npa nou ova-
ct)iopoq pe Tiq a(l)npnpveq vvoieq koi Tiq uipnXq nmq (t)peTai o ' va rno noXiriKo (|)oppaXiopo o onoioq -
apxq PpioKoupe va KpPovrai KoBap iSioTeXii oupiji- XI pvo xapoKrnpi^ei rriv noXiriKii Kororaon rnq aypo-
povTo KOI npoowniKq c!)iXo5o^iEq npypa koBXou TiKiiq r^nC OTOV peoonXepo oXX Siarpxei Xn r n
EKnXnKTiK (BPaio, av npoupE unt|jn r n v iSEoXoyiKii oyxpovn eXXnviKii lOTOpia. Fio nopSeiypa, nappoieq
Koi opyavwTiKii pEUOTrnro xwv eXXnviKwv Koppxwv, SiaSiKooieq Snpioupyiaq oyxuonq k o i anpooavaroXi-
xnv euKoXio pe xnv onoia oi noXixiKoi paq pexann6ov opo TWV paf^jv enovaXapPvovrai Xiyo apyrepo per
on xo va Kppa oxo XXo k o i yevmxepa t o ocnnpa rnv KarocrrpoctJiKti KorXn^n ^nq eXXnviKtiq eKorpareiaq
Tnq eKXoyiKiiq neXoreiaq pe Tiq avrioToixeq i6eoXoyiKq orn MiKp Aoio r o 1923. Zrnv eKorpareia aurti n eXXn-
eninrwoeiq t o u ' . viKii aoTiKii r^n npoonBnoe va npayparonoitioEi r o -
Aev eivoi SokoXo va SianioTtooupe ti auTq o veipo rnq MEyXnq EXXSoq EnEKTEivovraq r a pia r o u
ouvSuoopq (3eppnaXiopo k o i npoownoKpoTiKO npo- EXXnviKO Kprouq npa an r o Aiyaio FlXayoq pE r n
oavoToXiopo Tnq noXiTiKnq ^wnq anoreXei va noX a- Snpioupyia EXXnviKtiq enapxiaq o r n MiKp Aoio, nou
noTEXEopariK pnxaviop ouvriipnonq r o u status quo. yta noXXoq aicitvEq eunpepooav peiovrnreq eXXnvmibv
ZuvreXei nEpiooTEpo on kBe nyepoviKn iSeoXoyio o r o napoiKiwv. H oXoKXnpcjDTiKrj o n o r u x i a r n q e^tonpay-
vo onoKXeiovrai ouornpariK an xov noXixiK oxi(3o p a t i K i i q auxriq crrpariojTiKriq nepinTEiaq eixe oav ano
npopXiipara nou ava(})povxai oe PooiKq xa^iKq Sia- teXeopo r o v epxop koi r n v eyKaroraon o r n v EXXSa
(t)opq Koi npopXnpoTa ouoiaoriKnq aXXayiiq. <t>uoiK - navw an va eKaropppio npoo(t)ywv. Z r n v eKpnKriKti
Xoi auroi oi pnxcviopoi perBeonq Sev onoreXov o- Karoraori nou SnpioupytiBnKe an r o paii^iK epxop
noKXeioriK eXXnviK (})aivpevo. Ynpxouv oe Xa r a rwv ^epi^wpvwv k o i evSecbv ornv KuptoXe^ta npoo(!)-
noXiriK ouortipara, oe Xeq r i q ro^mq eniKOivwvieq ywv, o Sixaopq, oav pnxaviopq ouvriipnonq, KOve
(KaniroXiOTiKq k o i pn) koi iSioirepa o n q unavnruKreq. KOt nXi r o Bapa r o u . 'OXoq aurq o Kopoq avri va
AXX vopi^w nwq o ct)oppaXiopq oav poo Siortipnonq orpiljei rr| SiKOtoXoynpvn opyii r o u evvrio koi o t o
rou status quo xei npei o r n X^pa paq rroieq Siaor- So ooriK Kppora, PaoiK ouvuneBuva yta r n v eBvt-
oeiq nou pnopope va rov Bewpnooupe oav pia iSiopop-
4>ia rnq veo-eXXnvmiiq KOivwviaq. Aev xoupE nap va
* An TO NsoeXArjviKij Koivwvia 'Oipeiq unavanTu^qq, E^a-
KoiT^oupe r n Sopii k o i r n v E^Xi^n Tnq noXiriKiiq oro vraq, 1978, 2q KSoaq.

16 NEA KOIM2NIOAOIIA
Kti oupcjjopd, napaapGr|KE Kat XstTOijpYrioe noXtitK p- OTiipoToq, nappeivov ovnacljeq^.
oa o r a nXaiota t o u Stxaopo. 'EcJjTaoav Tot va ntor- B. O <l)OppaXiopq o t o noXirtoriK enineSo eivat ni
i|)Ouv Tt TO AaK Kppa, nou PptOKTOv ornv e^ouoia ([lavepq y i ' aur Se xpeijerat va entpeivw noX. Ha-
TOV Kotp Tnq psyaXnq tlTToq, tirav t o pvo uneijuvo poGrw pvo peptK nopaSeiypoTO nou vopiJ^w nwq ap-
yta Tn peyaXn oup(t)opa Kat va npoo^pouv r n pa^tKti Kov yta va Sei^ouv r o (t)atvpevo.
TOuq unooTtipt^n otov BEVtfJXo, o onoioq ornv npaypa- O xwpiopq r n q oyxpovnq eXXr|viKtiq yXwoooq oe
TtKTnTO tirav O opxtrKTOvaq auTtiq rnq ipneptaXiortKtiq SnporiKii (rn f^wvTOVii yXwooo r o u Xao) k o i koGo-
rpXaq*. H Koraorpocljti o r n MiKpa Aoio eixe Kot pta aX- peouoa (rnv KoGopii apxoKii yXwooiKii KoraoKeuii)
Xn onpavTtKti eniSpoon ornv t5eoXoytKti Sopti r o u eXXn- KOt ot arXetwreq Stapxeq yta r o yXwootK, anoreXov
vtKO KotvwviKo oxnMCtTtopoiJ: otipave r o rXoq rnq ao(t)aXwq povaStK cfiatvpevo OKpa Kot oe oyKpton pe
MeyXnq I6aq, r o u peyaXenii|3oXou opparoq nou oijre Xwpeq nou xouv noX onpavrtKti apxaia Xoyorexvia. H
Xiyo oiJre noXij nepteixe r n v enayyeXia Tnq ovaoijoraonq Stonoon aurti rnq eXXnvtKtiq yXwoooq eixe oav anor-
rnq xapvnq Pufjavrtvtiq auroKparopioq KOt r n v anoKor- Xeopa r a eXXnvnoiSa va unoxpewvovrai pxpt npo(l)a-
o r a o n Tnq KivorovrtvotjnoXnq oav r o peyXo nveupo- r a vo paGaivouv o r o oxoXeio KOt r n SnportKti Kot r n v
TtK Kvrpo r o u eXXnvtopoij. O at4)vi5toq Gvaroq aurotj KoGopeouoa Kat (jjuoik r n v apxoia eXXnvtKti. H
r o u oveipou act)noe va peyXo Kev ornv tSeoXoytKti Siaft)op avpeoa ortq So nopoXXayq rnq veoeXXnvi-
navonXia rnq Kupiapxnq oortKtiq r^nq- 'Erot o 5txa- Ktiq yXwooaq Sev npnet va raurijerat pe r n Sta^op a-
opq KOt yeviKrepo ot npoowntKq (JjoppaXtortKeq vpeoo ornv KoGoptXoupvn k o i r n yXwooa r w v ypopp-
5tapxeq ouvxtf^av va naifjouv onpavrtK pXo oav pn- r w v nou ouvovrpe o ' Xeq rtq Kotvwvieq pe uilJtiX eni-
Xavtopoi StOTtipnonq rou status quo*. neSo eyypapparoovnq. Ore n 5tac|)op aurti eK^pilJet
Ot pnxcvtopoi auroi Sev nailjav va Xetroupyoijv anX ra^tKq ti rontKq nopoXXayq. AnportKti Kot ko-
ornv nepioSo r o u peoonoXpou: nap t o yeyovq rt ot Gopeouoo xouv oe peyXo PaGp StacjjoperiK Xe^tX-
Seopoi avpeoa ornv ra^tKti Sopti Kot r n v noXtrtKti o r n yto KOt 5ta(j)opertKoq Kovveq ypappartKtiq. H KoGa-
peranoXeptKti EXXSa yivav ni peoot, n Ton r o u no- peouoa avrtnpoowneet pto npoonGeto rexvnrtiq av-
XiriKOtJ ouoTiipoToq va peraGrei r a ouoiaoriK npo- nXaonq yXwootKwv pop(l)wv r o u napeXGvroq koi 6nt|3o-
pXiipara oe (})oppaXioriKq Siapxeq napapvei OKpa i- Xtiq rouq oro yponr KOt npO(t)optK Xyo. Anwrepoq
oxupti. BXnoupe rouq pnxavtopoq aurouq perGeonq OKonq rou Ktvtiporoq rnq KoGopeouoaq eivat va avrt-
va XeiTOupyotJv xt pvo o r o piKpo-noXiriK enineSo aX- KOTOortioet orov avwraro Suvar |3a6p r n xuSaia
X enionq koi orouq ni nepiopiopvouq ropeiq rnq koi- E^wvravti yXwooa pe pto XXn, nou va potJJei oo yive-
vJviKiiq fjojiiq. To (})Oitt|tik Kivnpa k o i oi peraSiKToro- rat pe r n yXwooa rwv opxoiwv npwv npoyvwv. Ae
piKq eKnaiSeuriKq peroppuGpioeiq anoreXov noX Xpetfjerat va nope nwq ot poGnrq, ovayKaopevot vo
XTunnr napoSeiypora. Me r o v npwiK pXo nou nat- paGaivouv KOt SnportKti Kat KoGapeouoa, reXiK Se pa-
^av 01 (J)Oirnrq o r n SiKraropia, r o peraSiKraropiK (|)oi- Gaivouv OWOT Kopt an rtq So. EkoXo yiverat (()ave-
rnriK Kivnpa eixe r o Kupoq k o i Tn StJvapn va eni(t)pei pti n ouvrnpnrtKti Xetroupyia rnq yXwootKtiq Sionaonq.
pi^Kq aXXoyq o r o anapxaicDpvo eXXnviK eKnoiSeuTi- Anptoupyei xt pvo peyXo noXtrtortK xopa avpeoa
K oornpo. ' Opwq, Xo aur r o reporio SuvapiK ko- orouq Xiyouq nou Korxouv r n v KoGapeouoa (koi enop-
raonoraXtiGriKe ornv ouoia eire oe aywveq yta onoxou- vwq pnopov vo KoroXaPaivouv KoXrepa r n yXwooa
vronoinon r w v naveniornpiJV (oytveq yta r n v onop- rnq StoiKnonq, r w v entornpovtKwv ouyypopprwv, K.Xn.)
Kpuvon r o u SiSoKTiKo npoojniKo nou ouvepyornKe KOt orov unXotno nXnGuop. O rexvnrq KOt opxaKq
pe Tn xovTO KOt ot onoioi nap r n v avayKotrnr rouq, xapOKrtipaq rnq KoGopeouooq onovKpwoe r n v noiSeia
nai^av k i auroi anonpooavaroXiariK pXo), eire oe pt KOt anorXeoe r q |3aotXtKti oS yta r n (t)oppaXtortKti oK-
unepenavooraTiKii pnropeio, noX onopaKpuopvri on iljn p ' XXa Xyia r n pn oKilJn'-
r a peoa k o i kout eKnaiSeuTiK npopXiipara. Anor-
'AXXo oxeriK nopSeiypa noXirioriKO (jjoppaXi-
Xeopa: r o pvo nou KOTopGwGnKe tirav pepiKq aXXoyq
opo napouoiiijerat orov rpno nou SiSoKovrai r a ap-
o r o SiSoKTiK npoowniK, evw ot Geopoi, ot PaoiKq So-
Xoio EXXnviK o r n pon eKnaiSeuon- Troio eivat r o P-
pq r o u Kopnrou Kat KaranieoriKo eKnaiSeuriKO ou-
poq nou Si verat o r n PooiKii pop(t)ti, wore eXxiorn npo-
ooxn aOispojvetai o r o nepiexpevo xwv apxaiwv Ksipe- noiov xiq (t)iXoSo^ieq xouq (eywnevxpiKq koi pri) k o i vo
vuiv nou avoXovxai. Mexo an ^i xpvia EvxaxiKriq ek- XPnoiponoiov Tiq mavxnTq Touq KOTaniovpevoi pe
pGnonq xjv apxaijv eXXnviKwv, o pooq 'EXXnvac; npoPXiipaxa nou xouv nio ouXXoyiK k o i ouoiootik
paGnxriq xou yupvooiou pnopEi va yviopifjei (3(3aia a n ' xapoKTiipa. An xnv XXn pepi, oxnv EXXSa xo Sopi-
E^o) xa aviJpaXa piipoxa koi xouc; noXnXoKouc; Kovveq K noXixiK nXoioio eivoi xxoio, nou avan(!)UKTa n
xnc; YpappaxiKtiq k q i xou ouvxoktikoij, aXXa oxeSv Sev npowGnon ti n eKnXtipwon KGe (jJiXoSo^iaq (eywKevTpi.
xei iSa yia xn ct)iXooo(t)ia k o i xn SiSaoKoXia xtv pey- Ktiq ti aXxpoui'oTiKtiq) eivat SuvoTti pvo tov OKoXouGei
X)v KXooiKtJjv auyYpa(J)cv. K o i enopvwc; Sev anoxeXei KOveiq r n XoyiKti Tnq noTpwveiaq -pouo^eToXoyiaq k o i ,
KnXn^n TO yeyovc; xi o 'EXXnvaq on^onoq xou yu- o ' va XXo enineSo, Touq (t)oppaXioTiKoq KOVveq t o u
pvooiou, napXo n o u onou5a?]E\a xpvio, noXiTiKO natxvtSio. Ft' ouToq Touq Xyouq, nioTew
(J)aivexai evxeXwc; oviSecx; oe ouyKpion p ' auxo.q nou k- nwq pto nto iKovonoinnKti e^tiynon Tnq Tonq t o u veo-
vouv KXooiKc; onouSq oxn AuxiKii EupcJjnn. eXXnva va peTOTpnei Tnv ouoia oe (})ppa, npnet vo -
Ki va xeXeuToio nopSeiypa; xo yeyovq xi oxa eX- Xei pXXov vav nto lOTOpiK k o i KoivwvtoXoyiK
XnviK navenioxiipia ouvriGujq enixuxio oxiq e^exoeiq a- XapoKTtipa.
Kpa onpaivei onopvnpveuon xojv Pi^Xiojv n t w v on-
B. ApxiK, pnopope va Swooupe pto Knwq yeviKti
peicjoewv xou KoGnynTn anoxeXei dXXri pia o a ^ n vSei^n
e^tiynon OTO (j)aivpevo t o u noXiTiKo Kot noXiTtoTiKo
TOU aKpoiou c()oppaXiopo nou xapaKTnpifJei oXKXnpo
(t)oppaXiopo. Z ' Xeq Tiq KOivwvieq nou ot 9eopoi Sev
TO eXXnviK eKnaiSeuTiK ooTnpa^.
ovanTooovTai pe evSoyevti xpno aXX, pof^i pe xnv a-
vanxuypvn xexvoXoyia, etoyovxat an xn Aon n PaX-
2. Anneipa epjitiveiaq
Xov enipaXXovxai an xo Suxik ipnepiaXiop, Siantoxw-
T o napaSeiypoTO nou Swoo nopanavw anXwq eni- veTQt n XXeii|jn opyoviKtiq oxonq k o i Seoptbv avpEoa
onpaivouv, Sev e^nyov, t o PoGp noXniKo k o i noXm- oxouq VTniouq k o i ^vouq Geopoq. O i ^voi Geopoi ene
OTiKo (fioppaXiopou KOI t o ouvTnpnxiK pXo nou noifjei naitjouv KoGop SioKoopnTiK pXo (nwq t o koivoPo-
OTOV Tno paq. KaGwq o vTovoq cpoppaXiopq xapC" Xto oe pepmq x^peq Tnq A^pmtiq) ti tov piJ;)vouv Po-
KTnpi^ei Xn Tn ouyxpovn eXXnviKn lOTopio, TO np|3Xn- 9\ OTn xwpa nou Touq onoSxeTot, Se ouyxwveovTOt
pa Tnq ouoxripaxiKiiq e^nynonq xou <l)aivopvou eivoi e- anoxeXeopaxiK pe xiq naXixEpEq 0EoptKq Sopq. Zu-
^aipexiK noXnXoKO k o i xepaoxio koi anoixei xnv av- vunpxouv pe xxoto xpno woxe Kovvaq Se XeiToupyei
Xuon xnq yveonq k o i avnxu^nq xwv onpovxiKxepwv owox. ' E v a on xa onoxeXopoxa auxtiq xnq Sifjeu^nc;
eXXnviKtv Geopdjv poa o t o nXoioia xnq To^iKiiq naXnq. eivat ouvtiGwq o (})oppaXiapq k o i oxo enineSo xwv Ge-
Eva TToio eyxeipnpa pwq ^enepvei t o nXaioia outo opwv k o i oxo enineSo xnq Sponq^".
TOU SoKipiou. a emxeipnow TOi xi |3|3aia va Swow Ev5ia(!)pov nopouoif^et eSdj n avxioTotxia pe Tiq e-
oXoKXnpwpveq anovTnoeiq o t o np|3Xnpa oXX va Sio- ^eXi^Eiq oxnv unoSopti. 'Exw ava^pei nto nvw nwq n
Tunwow pepmq unoGoeiq nou Seixvouv Tnv KOTeGuvon XTunriTii 5ia<)opa n o u unpxei o t o v tpno jie xov o-
KOI TO neSia nou auTq oi anavxnoeiq Ga npnei va a- n o i o O KanixaXicmKq xpnoq napcrywYnq XeiTOupyei
vaf^nxnGov. EXnif^w ti oi unoGoeiq auxq 9a PonGn- OTiq nnTponoXiTiKsq k d i crriq npi(])EpiaKq xwpe<; a-
oouv enionq va ^eKoGapioxei OKpa KoXxepa n vvoia noTEXei xnv o u o i a iric; unavnTu^riq. AKptPwq nwq
xnq unovdnxu^nq nou ovXuoa oxo Sexepo Kec|)aXaio. CJTO oiKovoptK enineSo o KaniTaXiopq ouvapGpwveTot
A. a neXo va opxiow onoppinxovxaq ouvonxiK apvnTiK pe Ttq nponpxouoeq Suvpeiq k o i oxoeiq
xiq ouvnGiopvEq ilJuxoXoyiKq Gewpieq nou npoona9ov napaywytiq, roi k o i ctto enoiKoSpnpa ot noXiTtKoi Kot
va eppnveoouv xo ct)oppaXiaxiK yevma koi xiq noiKiXeq noXiTioTiKoi Geopoi nou eioyovToi ouvSovTai apvnri-
eKSnXwoeiq xou oxo noXixiK k o i eKnaiSeuTiK ooTnpa K pe TOuq VTniouq 9eapoq. A v o KoniTaXiopq naip-
KaTa(l)eYOVTaq otov e9viK xapoKTtipa (n KOKoSaipo- vei pop^ti 9XaKa cno enineSo Tnq oiKOvopiaq, ot no-
via xnq (}>uXnq paq) n oxo nGix noiv k o i xo xapciKxnpa XiTiKoi KOI iSeoXoyiKoi Geopoi nou eioyovTai KOToXapP-
TWV noXixiKwv KOI xwv SaoKXwv. K i oKpa eKeiveq xiq vouv avXoyn Gon o t o noXniK enoiKoSpnpa: ote
KoivwviKO-ilJUxoXoyiKq 9ewpieq nou pixvouv Xo t o P- KaTaoTp(])ouv oTe evowpoTwvouv GeTiK xiq npo-Koni-
poq o t o v Tpno nou SianaiSaywyovToi t o naiSi oxo ToXioTiKq pop(l)q xou enomoSoptipaxoq. Ot noXixiKoi
oxoXeio ti xnv oiKoyveia (kokti koi Xa9epvn koivwvi- Kat noXixtoxiKoi Geopoi nou eioyovTot XeiTOupyov pe
Konoinon'). Txoieq Gewpieq eivai ovenapKeiq oxo va ep- Tpno a) evTeXcijq 5ia(j)opeTiK an t o v Tpno nou Xet-
pnveoouv xo (t)aivpevo av xi yia Kovvo XXo Xyo, Toupyov OTO pnxponoXixiK Kvxpa (avxiE^EXiKxiKii 9-
nap eneiSii oxn ouvxeia Ga npene va e^nvioouv yioxi on) KOI P) Xiyxepo anoxeXeopaxiK k o i iKovonoinxiK
xo eXXnviK oxoXeio k o i r| oiKoyveia KOivwviKonoiov an xnv noipn xwv oupejjepvxwv xnq nXetoil)n<t)iaq xou
xa naiSi p ' aux xov xpno l i yioxi oi 'EXXnveq noXixi- Xao (9on xnq Suoavnxu^nq'^)- A v oxo enineSo xnq oi-
Koi eivoi xoo SiE(})Gappvoi. T a nXaioia pwq ava(})o- Kovopiaq n XXen|;n auxti anoxeXeopaxiKxnxaq k o i n a-
pq xouq Sev Ennpnouv TTOiEq Eppnveieq. Z t h v npoy- noStopyvwon xet oav anoxXeopa Tn onoTXn ti xnv
paxiKxnxa, av OTnv EXXSa, kot noX m o vTovo Tp- avTiXaiKti xPloiponoinon xwv otKOvopiKwv npwv (o-
no a n ' ,xi oxn Aon, niow an xiq (|)oppaX\c3TiKq noXi- vepyio, avxinapoywyiKti XP^on t o u nXeovopoToq, pe-
xmq Siopxsq KpPovxai npoownmq Siocfiopq, out Se Tatjjopa nXoTOu cjto e^wTepiK), o t o enineSo t o u enoi-
oripoivei nwq oi 'EXXnveq noXixiKoi oav xopa eivoi mo KoSoptipaxoq naipvet xn pop(|)ti noXixiKwv k o i noXixicrri-
eywKevxpiKoi kqi unokpnq on xouq Eupwnaiouq ouvo- Kwv SieuGextioewv nou Siaa<l)aXif;ouv xn Siatwvton xwv
5X({)ouq xouq. AnXooxaxa oi xeXeuxoioi Spouv poa o ' aSie^Swv k o i xwv avxicpoewv xnq unoSoptiq. K i auxti
va GeopiK nXoioio nou xouq emxpnei va npaypaxo- aKpiPtq eivoi n iSioiTepn ouppoXti xou (t)oppaXiopo oxn

18 NEA KOINQNIOAOriA
5iaTripr|ori xou status quo. Me aXXo Xyia, av oiKovopi- OTiK Kivnpa k o i xiq noXixiKq opyavwoeiq, pe naxepva-
KT] unavnxu^n oripoivei iaiKOoieqc; peow xwv onoiwv XioxiKq n npi-ouvxexviOKq KpaxiKq puGpioeiq (n.x. Oe-
n 5ieia5uon xou Suxikou KanixaXiono oxouq koivwvi- pv oxnv ApyevTivn). Mi Tpirq pop(l)n e^apTnpvqq ev-
Koq oxnyaTiopouq xou xpixou Kopou Kivnxonoiei koi - owpdrwonq o u v i o r a r o i o r o va nepiopifjerai n koivoPou-
neixa Kaxav|jei xouq eyxwpiouq oiKovopiKoq npouq \IE XeuriKii eXeuGepia pvo o r a aoriKd Kpparo k o i vo e-
xpno nou va eivoi enw(I)eXnq yia xa pn^ponoXixiK k- cftappfjovrai Sid(t)opeq vpipeq, nP'vpipeq koi nopdvo-
vxpa KOI yia pio piKpii xoniKti oXiyopxia oe (iapoq xou peq rexviKq yia va anoKXeiovrai oi apiorepq Suvdpeiq
vxniou nXn9uo|jo, noXixiKii k o i noXixioxiKii unavnxu- an r n v noXixiKti SiaSiKooio (xxoio Koxdoxaon eniKpo-
?n onpoivei xiq SiaSiKOoieq eneiveq pow xwv onoiwv n Tooe oxnv EXXdSo oxiq So peranoXepiKq SeKoerieq
eioaywyti noXixiKwv koi noXixioxiKwv Geopwv on xq A- pX. Keel). 7).
on xei oav anoxXeopa xnv Kivnxonoinon iSeoXoyiKwv P) H dXXri noXiTiKn evaXXaKriKn Xon, iSiairepa tov
npwv (noXixiKii unooxfipi^n. vopiponoinon) yia xn Siaxii- onoTxouv Ol Sia(j)opoi rpnoi e^opxqpvnq evowpxw-
pnon t o u status quo, SnXan yia xqv ovanxu^n Tqq oi- onq, eivai (fiuoiK n oKwx\n xwv KOivoPouXeu-
KOvopiKiiq unavonTu^nq. TiKwv Geopwv KQI n npoonGeia va avxioxpa^ei rj SioSi-
Av npoonaBiiooupe va e^eTooupe xiq SioSiKooieq a- Kooio xqq ouppexoxnq xwv pafjwv oxnv noXixiKii pe 5i-
n xa^iKti OKonia, pnopope vo nope nwq o' va una- KToropiKOq xpnouq: pe XXo Xyia peGoSeexai n a-
vnxuKxo noXixiK ooxnpa oi Kupiapxeq x^eiq ovxipe- noXixiKonoinon xwv pofjwv k o i o anoKXeiopq xouq an
xwnifjouv xr|v Kivnxonoinon xnq oypoxiKnq k o i epyaxiKiiq xnv evepy noXixiKii. AXX eneiSn k o i n Sexepn auxii e-
xd^nq (Kivnxonoinon nou eivai ovayKoio enoKXouGo xnq vaXXoKxiKri Xon, nwq eiSope oxnv nepinxwon xnq 5i-
Kupiapxiaq xou KonixaXioxiKo xpnou napaywynq o ' - Kxoxopiaq xou 1967, Sev eivai avoyKOOxiK nio oxaGepii
va KOIVWVIK oxnpaTiop) pe Tpnouq nou epnoSifJouv o n ' ,xi 01 nponyopeveq, Sionioxwvoupe pia evaXXoyii
Tnv eiooS Touq OTnv noXniKii oav avTvopEq noXiTiKq SiKxoxopiKwv KOI nP'"KoivoPouXeuxiKwv Xaewv, KoGwq
Suvdpeiq. fioTi n auTvopn noXiTiKii opyvwon Tnq o- Ol Kupiapxeq x^eiq npoonoGov va avxipexwnioouv xo
ypoTidq n TOU npoXeTopiTou eivoi aoup|3i3aoTn pe t o v npoPXtipoxa xnq Kivnronoinonq r w v paJwv koi Tqq Xa-
Tno ouoowpeuonq nou xapaxTnpifJei Tnv KaniTaXioTiKT) Kiiq Suo(])opiaq nou Snpioupyovrai an r n v KoniToXi-
unovdnTu^n, pe Tnv vvoia ti pia epyoTiKii T^n noXm- oxiKTi unovnru^n-
Kd auTvopn 5e 0a pnopoae vo anoSexTei Tiq TepdoTieq ripoKnrei Xomv r o oupnpoopo ri n PooiKii Sia-
avioTnTeq koi Tiq povopepeiq Guoieq nou onoxeXov ({lop avpeoa o r o noXiriK oornpa r w v avonruypvwv
nponGeon yio xn SuvopiKii ovdnTu^n Tnq oiKovopioq KOI r w v unavnruKTWv KaniraXioriKwv koivwvikwv oxn^
(PX. Keet). 7, ppoq 2)'^. MnpooT o ' auTiiv Tnv KOTdoTo- pariopwv eivai ri orouq npwrouq o KoniraXiopq Sev
on undpxouv pvo So eupxepeq noXixmq evaXXoKxi- ei vai aoupPiPaoroq pe r n v nap^n oxeriK ourvopwv
Kq Xoeiq nou poKponpGeopo oup(j)wvov pe xov xno ouvSiKaXioriKwv koi noXiriKwv opyovwoewv r w v epya^^
xnq ouoowpeuonc nou yivexai kxw an xnv nyepovio pevwv r^ewv, evw orouq Sexepouq eivai'^. ' H , OKpiP-
xou ^vou Ke^aXaiouKoi o onoioq oiipepa anoxeXei xa- oxepa, Ol napoywyiKq Suvpeiq k o i oxoeiq oxov ava-
poKxnpioxiK yvwpiopo xwv unavdnxuKxwv koivwvikwv nxuypvo KonixaXiop Snpioupyov xa nXaioio nou ko-
oxnpciTiopwv. Gioxov Suvoxii (ov koi (t)uoiK XI oiyoupn) xqv aux-
o) H pia evoXXaKTiKii noXiTiKii Xon eivoi n XPnoipo- vopn opyvwon TWV epyafjpevwv r^ewv. Evw, an r n v
noinon TWV aoTiKwv KoivoPouXeuTiKwv Geopwv nou - XXn pepi, n unoSopn nou unpxei o n q unavnruKeq
Xouv eioaxGei pe xxoio xpno, woxe oi pdfjeq eixe Kpo- KaniraXioTiKq x^peq Sev acfinvei k o i noXX nepiGwpia
Tovxai ^w an xnv ocjiaipa xrjq evepyoq noXixiKiiq, eixe yio rroia auTvopn noXiriKn Xon. Enopvwq, ornv re-
ouppeTxouv pev oxnv noXixiKn SiaSiKOoia aXXa pe e- Xeuraia aurn nepinTwon, t o nppXnpa xnq eioSou t w v
^opxnpvo KOI aocfiaXn xpno. Opiv on xnv enmpd- pajwv ornv noXiriKii avriperwniJ^eroi eire pe SiKraropi-
xnon xou KonixoXioxiKo xpnou napaywynq, KoGwq n Kq anneipeq yia r o v anoKXeiop koi xnv anoXixiKonoi-
noXixiKti Kivnxonoinon xwv pat^wv PpioKexai oe xapn^ noti xouq n pe npiKoivoPouXeuxiKq npoonGeieq yia e-
enineSo, eivoi oxexmd eKoXo yio xnv napaSooioKn oXi-. ^apxnpvn evowpxwori xouq. Eivai eKoXo xwpa vo ko-
y'apxia, OKpo k o i xov xo SiKoiwpo i))n(l)ou eivai koGo- xaXPoupe yiaxi oi eioaypevoi noXixiKoi Geopoi Xei-
XiK, va eXyxei xiq ijititfouq pe xo ooxripa xnq noXixiKnq roupyov k o i Sia(|)opexiK k o i pe Xiyxepo iKOVonoinxiK
neXaxeiaq, xoi nou o epya^pevoq nXnGuopq vo pvei xpno (an r n v noipn Tnq nXeioi|jn(t)iaq r o u nXnGuopo)
oxn Gon xou (PX. Kecj). 6). AXXd pe xqv eniKpdxnori onq unavnruKTeq x^peq.
xou KanixaXiopo k o i xnv ouvoKXouGn epc|)dvior| xnq r . An r n ooraon rriq oav aurvopo koi ave^pTn-
pa^Kriq noXixmnq, xo nppXnpa xnq ouyKpTnonq t w v r o KpToq o n q apxq rou 19ou oiwva, n EXXSa, nwq
pot^wv, SnXaSn TO nppXnpo TOU nwq va evowpoxwGov KI XXeq noXXq KaGuorepnpveq xwpeq, SxrnKe poJJi-
* 01 epyoJJpeveq pd?]eq oxo noXixiK oornpo pe e^oprnp- Kq Soeiq Surmnq KOuXropaq. TerpoKoio xpvia o-
vo rpno, yiverai OKpa nio SokoXo k o i ap(|)iPoXo. GwpaviKiiq Karoxnq Swoav orouq Geopoq rnq xwpoq
Mop(t)n e^aprnpvnq evowpxwonq onoxXeoe k i o rp- Sopti PiOk 5iac|)opeTtKti an r n Sopti Tnq Aonq. H EX-
noq pe xov onoio oi aypxeq k o i oi npo(l)uyeq evowpa- XSa Se yvwpioe rtq peyXeq KOtvwviKo-noXiriKq aXXo-
xwGnKOV oxa ooxik Kppoxa oxnv nepioSo xou peoono- yq Ol onoieq per rrjv Kpion xnq (t)eouSapxiaq xov 14o
Xpou (PX. nopanavw KecJ). 5). M i d XXn pop(l)n ouva- KOt 15o aiwvo pexoppcfiwoav evxeXiJq r n v i})n r n q Au-
vxope oxiq xwpeq rnq AoriviKriq ApepiKiiq nou XaKoi riKiiq Eupwnnq t o u 16ou aiwvo k o i So oiwveq apyrepo
XapicpariKoi nyreq Kivnronoiov riq pdfjeq, evw rau- oStiynoov ornv ovnru^n xou PiopnxaviKO KoniraXi-
rxpova eXyxouv orevd on r o ndvw k o i t o ouvSikoXi- opo pe rouq ouvoKXouGouq aoriKOq noXiTiKOq k o i

NEA KOINQNIOAOriA 19
noXiTioTiKoq Geopoc; (noXixiKc; ^iXeXeuGspiaiJc;, 6ia- avvqq Mera^aq. BX. M. LIewellyn-Smith, The lonian Vision,
([itTioiJc; K.Xn.). Tov 16o aicjjva, tov n SuTiKti oikovo- Aovivo 1975, enioqq N. VvpovKq, H MiKpaaiariKq Karaarpo-
pia k o i o epnopiKc; KaniiaXiopc; KOTCiclJepvav oopap <j>q, ABqva 1964.
nXtiviJaTa o t o (t)EOu5apxiK ouoTripa nou ppioKiav oe 5. EKTq an ro ixaap, va aXXo oroixeia nov ovpnXqpw
anoovGeon, n EXXaSa l i i a v oKpa pia anaGXiwpvn e- ae TO iSeoXoyiK Kev per rq piKpaaiariKq Koraarpoipq qrav
avoSoq rqq avriKoppovviariKijq lsoXoyiaq (^X. F. KaTq0p
nopxia piaq Tepaotiaq auTOKpatopiaq. ApyTepa, n av-
H vopoeoia rwv jSapjiapwv, OepXio, Aqva, 1975, fiX. eniaq
nTu^n TOU (3iopnxaviKOU KannaXiopo k o i Tnq SieGvoq
A. EXecpavrq, H EnayyeXia rqq Avvarqq Enavaaraaqq: KKE
KaniTaXiOTiKiiq ayopaq evoujpaTwoe Tnv OGwpaviKii Au- KOI Aariapq aro MeaonXepo, AOqva 1976, Keep. 6, /3X. eni
TOKpOTopia nou (BpiOKTOV oe napoKpr) k o i Tiq eXXqvi- napanavw, KecpaXaio 1, ppoq 5.
Kq Tnq enopxieq oav anXa oypoTiK e^apTiipoTa t w v 6. Me rqv XXeiipq anoreXeaparmqq nieoqq an ro 4>oirqri
UVapiKOJV SUTIKWV KVTptV. Kivqpa, Ol nepiaarepeq an riq axerma pi^oanaariKq npor
' E t o i , n uioGTnon Sutikwv Geopwv k o i Tnq SuTiKiiq aeiq nov iarvnwdqKav an riq uo peramraropiKq enirpon
KouXTOupaq kot Tn 5idpKeia Tnq enovaoToonq t o u 1821 nou ipiae q Kvjipvqaq yia rq perapvOpioq rqq avwrarqq eK-
KOI peT, avan^euKTO lpGe oe oyKpouon pe t o Geopi- naievaqq peivav venp ypappa.
K nXaioio nou npomipxe koi nou t o xapat^Tiiptf^e n 7. Ynapxei pia repaoria /3i0Xioypa(pia yia ro yXwoaiK np
jiXqpa arqv EXXa. Fia pia npa^arq Xapnpq eioaywyq aro
Kupiapxia npoKaniTaXiOTiKwv Tpnwv napaywynq ornv
pa fSX. E. Moaxova, (aioaywyq) orov Mnpovoo rov A. FlaX
oiKovopia, n oouXtoviko Tnou onoXuTapxia k o i au-
Xq, AOqva 1976. H npwrq peraiKraropiKq KvPpvqaq Kapa-
Gaipeoia OTiq PaoiKq noXniKq Sopq k o i n okotoSioti- pavXq (1974) ipqipioe vopo nov Kadipwvs rqv vnoxpewriKq i
Kti avTiSuTiKn iSeoXoyio Tnq XpioTiaviKiiq Op95o^nq aoKoXia rqq qporiKqq yXwoaaq arq qporiKq Ka poq eK-
EKKXnoiaq'". naievaq. Anopvei rwpa va ovpe noia da eivai ra ovyneKpip
0UOIK, n oyKpouon avpeoa orouq SuTiKOq koi va anoreAapara rov vpou avro KOI oe noio jiadp oi peXXo
VTniouq Geopoq k o i n ouvoKXouGn npioupyio ano- vriKq Ku/3epvqaeiq 9a anoexrovv rq OepeXiwq avrq aXXa
SiapGpwTiKwv oxoewv peTo^ rouq (ki e5w ouyKoraX- aro yXwaaiK.
yeToi KOI O cJioppaXiopq) Sev anoreXov onoKXeioriK 8. Fia pia epnepiararwpvq PijiXioypacpia axeriK pe rqv e
eXXnviK paivpeva. Ta ouvovrpe yia nopSeiypo o n q XqviKt) naieia, (iX. E. Vlachos, Modern Greek Society: Contin-
uity and Change, Colorado State University, 1969, mimeo.
nio noXXq on r i q npwnv anoiKioKq x^peq r n q A(|)pi-
9. BX. n.x- Xp. Fiavvapa, To KvKXwpa, Bqpa, 22 Noep.
Kiiq KOI Tnq Aoiaq'*. 'Opwq, yia va e^erooupe r n v i-
1975
Sioirepn pop(t>n n o u n oyKpouon aurn nnpe ornv EXX-
10. BX. n.x. F. W.Riggs, Administration in Developing Co-
Sa npnei a) vo r n v ronoGeriiooupe o r o nXoioio r w v r a - untries: The Theory of Prismatic Society, Houghton and Mifflin,
^iKwv oywvwv nou yivav vwpirepo OTnv nepioSo nou Boarwvq 1964.
oxnpQTiornKe t o oyxpovo eXXqviK Kproq k o i P) v a 11. BX. KeipaXaio 2.
ppope XXo SiOKpiriK yvwpiopora r o u eXXnviKO koi- 12. To ri v(piararai avri^aaq avpeoa arqv avrvopq no-
vwviKo oxnpciTiopo nou vo pnopov va e^nvioouv r i q XiTiKq opyavwoq rwv epya(pevwv ra^ewv KOI arq avvexq Ka
eKnXnKTiKq Siooroeiq nou niipe o r n x ^ p o paq o noXi- nXqwpioriK eXeyxpevq KaniraXiariKq avanrv^q, 0aiverai a
riKq KOI noXirioriKq (t)OppaXiopq. n ro yeyovq nwq ev unapxei oure pia Xfiipo rqq AariviKqq
ApepiKijq arq peranoXepiKi) nepioo q onoia va Kara0epe va
KOranoXeprioei pe enirvxia rov nXqOwpiap Ka va enirvxe
1. <t>voiKa TO aoTripa Triq noAiriKriq neAareiaq rirav nepioo- araOepq KaniraXioriKq avanru^q paa as noXirma nXaiaia Xei-
repo ep0avq arriv npoKaniraXioTiKii nepioo rriq EAXaSaq- e- roupyiaq noXXwv Kopparwv. Ta Xiyo nervxnfiva npoypfi-
^aKoXoOrioe pwq va unapxei pe ia^opeTiKi) popcpq OKpa KI fiara araOsponoiqaqi; snmvxOnKav an avrapxiK na-
rav, per rqv enmpTqoq TO KaniAioriKov rpnou napayw- OsartTa rtj^ Ss^iaq - jiX. Thomas Skidmore. "The Politics of E-
yijq, q eXXqvmq noXiriKi) nqpe nto apeaa ra^m xopaKrqpa: conomic Stabilization in Postwar Latin America", aro J. Malloy
BX. Ke0aXaio 1, ppq 3 KOI 4 KOI Ke(paXaio 3, ppoq 2r. ZXETIK (ed.), Authoritarianism and Capitalism in Latin America, Univer-
pe TO xopaKTqpa aur Tqq eXXqviKijq noXmKqq, fiX. K.P.Legg, sity of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh 1977. Ae xpeia^srai va nov-
Poiitics in Modern Greece, Stanford University Press, Stanford, ps TI avTS^ Ol nsTvxnpivsq anneipe^ iytvav ae ppoq
Cal., 1969 KOI Z. Mevw, Oi PloXniKq Auvapeiq arqv EXXaSa, Tcuv epya^pevcuv ra^etov. Fia va npoupe ro nio yvwar na
Aqva 1966. paeiypa, ro Xeypsvo Oavpa rqq Bpa^iXiaq, ro onoio enireu
2. Fla pia noXirmq laropia rqq peoonoXepiKqq nepiou, j3X. XqKe an ro OTpariwriK KaBsarwq nov avXajie rqv e^ou
Aa<pvq, H EXXaq Mera^u Auo HoXpwv, 1923-1940,^ rp., AOq- ara 1964, ev w<pXqae (pvaiK KOI noXu rovq epyareq: Se n
va 1955, pX. eniaqq nopanavw, Ke0aXaio 6. pioo OKTw xpvwv, an ro Maprio rou 1966 wq rov AnpiXio
3. BX. A. EiSpq. H yewpyiKq noXirmq rqq EXXaoq KOT TOV 1974 (nou TO npaypariK KOT KsepaXq aKaOapiaro EBVI
rqv Xq^aoav lOOeriav 1833-1933, jiX. eniaqq nopanavw, Keipa- npov av^qqKS oqpavriK), q npayparmq a^ia rou Karwraro
Xaio 5. piaOov 0Tavs Kara paa po pvo ro 68,2% rqq paqq npay-
4. MXo nov o Bevii^Xoq ev avapi'xOqKe arq orpanwriKq pariKijq rou a^iaq arqv nepioo lovXioq 1954 AeKpjipioq
TOKTiKq nov vioOerqOqKe arqv reXevraia 0aoq rqq eKorpareiaq, 1962. K.S. Mericle, "Corporatist Control of the Working Class:
SiKrj TOV qrav fiaoiKa q la KOI q an<paoq v' anoKTqaei q Authoritarian Brazil since 1964", oro J.M. Malloy (ed.), o.n., a.
EXXa sKrerapveq nepioxq arq MiKpa Aaia, oKpa Kat pe a- 306 pX. eniaqq J. Quartin, Dictatorship and Armed Struggle in
VTXXaypa va xaaei riq qq anoKrqpveq nepioxq arq Bpeio Brazil, New Left Books, AovSivo 1971.
EXXa (jSX. A. Pallis, Greece's Anatolian Adventures and After, 13. BX. KS(paXaio 1, ppoq 1.
AovSivo 1937, a. 15 K.e.). To apKsra nepiepyo sivai nwq o p- 14. Fia pia siaaywyq arqv eXXqvmq KOivwvia rov 18ov aiw-
voq aarq noXirmq nov eKripqoe owara rq vvapq TOV avepx- va, np/3. To ovXXoyiK pyo, laropia rov EXXqvmov 'EOvou
pevou roupKiKov eOviKiapo KOI nwq qrav avvaro va iarqpq- Top. XI, EKOTIKIJ Aqvwv, A9qva 1975.
6ei yia peyaXo Siaorqpa pia unepnvria eXXqviKq enapxia, q- 15. 'Eva KXOOIK pyo axeriK p' aur ro nppXqpa eiva
rav o peXXovTiKq qpKpaaioraq iKTropaq rqq EXXaaq, o Iw- TOV D. Apter, Ghana in Transition, Na YpKq 1963.

20 NEA KOINQNIOAOriA
EAAHNIKH KOINQNIA

HAPePQEHKPATOYIKAIKOmMAE*
TOU KcvoTavTi'vou ToouKoXa

H oTioia5r)noTe npocjnaBeia npoosYYionq t o u oy- noBoyevq. Kat pwq, n SttiBnon auTii eivat oTnv npay-
Xpovou KpTouq nponoBTei pio npoKOTapKTiKii eniXo- poTiKTnTo nepinou ovanSpaoTn.
YH OsipHTiKov avTiKEiijvo, pia EniXoYH nou, n o p ' - Kat vat pev Sev eivat ek t w v npoTpwv oSiavnToq o
Xsq tic; anpoopTpriTec; npoeKToeic; Tqq, napopevEi ou- e^oPeXiopq t w v iSiwtikwv oupclJepvTwv an t o v kpo-
Xvo aSioTntTTi l i , OKpri, k o i oouveiSriTri; nepiooTEpo, tik pnxaviop. Z r n v npcijTn pXiOTO k o i tSeoTii t o u
iojq, an oXXo koivojvik (t)aivpeva, t o KpToq pnopei pop(]jri, untip^ov nepmTwoeiq nou t o ocniK KpToq op-
va evvoionoinOei an nepiooTepeq an pia OKOniq, nou yavcbBnKe GeopiK pe Tpnouq nou (t)aivovTav vo e^o-
poXovTi Sev ei vai k o t ' avyKn v aoup|3aTeq peTO^ 0(J)aXif;ouv, av xt t o v anoKXeiop, touXxiotov t o v au-
Touq, xouv Tnv ron va Xeiroupyov ujq anoKXeioTiKq. OTnp nepiopiop t w v iSiwtikjv oup^epvTwv o t o
E t o i , on Tn pia pepi, t o KpToq ep^avi^eToi t j q n K- nXoioia t w v SiaSiKaoiwv nou ovopJ^ovTOv Snpoieq'
(t)paon, n evopKLuon KQI TO opyavo Tnq opyavujpvnq npypa nou avTonoKpiveToi aa(l)iJjq oe pto noXiTiKii |3o-
OE noXiTeia Koivtuvioq, eire toto BeojpeiToi ojq uXonoin- Xnon, n onoio emSiwKe v a uXonottioei ouyKEKpipvo t o v
on evq ouXXoyiKo ti yeviKo oupcppovToq, eire ovTipe- oXoKXnpcjTiK Siaxwpiop Tnq Snpoioq k o i Tqq iSiwTi-
TjnifJeTai ujq oupnKvcuon evq epneSojpvou ouoTtipo- Ktiq o(l)aipaq, Staxwpiop OTn (3aan t o u onoiou EpsXiw-
Toq eKpeTaXXeuTiKjv oxoewv. An Tnv XXn pepi, t o VE Tn vopiponoinoii TOU KOt Tn ratio essendi t o u . Flpy-
iSio OUT KpToq eK(})pf;eTai wq uXiKq pnxaviopq, poTi, auT OKpiPjq ouvPoive orov (3a8p nou o Snp-
OTouq KXnouq t o u onoiou eKKoXnTovToi, opYavobvo- oioq Topoq, wq uXiKq pnxaviopq, KOTpBwve v a ou-
vToi KOI (tJwXit^ouv TO ouyKeKpipvo OTOpiK tSlWTlKa yKporeiTOi wq eiSiKq KoivwviKq xwpoq, o t o nXoioio
oupcjjpovTO, nwq k o i oi OToeiq, |3Xi|jetq k o i npooSo- TOU onoiou Ol npo(})avwq ovoyKoieq, ouyKeKpipveq, av-
Kieq eKeivwv nou t o v oreXexwvouv. H Xeypevn Snpoio Bpwniveq SpaoTnpiTnreq k o i unqpeoieq tirav Suvotv
o{t>aipa voeiTOi, Xotnv, e^ opiopo k o i ouyxpvwq wq va npoypoTonoiovrai pe r n pop(|)ti oreXxwonq Ti/jriri-
pto ovTTnTo KoBoXiKii KQI a^npnpvn KOI wq va SIktuo Kwv Ka ajjiadiv XeiToupynprwv. T a (jjuoik npow-
nenepaopvwv k o i ouyKeKpipvwv koivwvikwv pnxavt- na nou ookooov t o XeiToupytipoTa out tirav, un
opwv, wq vaq eiSiKq KOivwviKq x^poq, cna nXoioio rouq pouq auroq, oe Bon vo avrXov k q i npaypa-
TOU onoiou ouvcmTovToi k o i KpuoTaXXibvovToi eiSmq a- riK avrXooov r o uXik poa r n q eni|3iwonq rouq,
TopiKq axoeiq. OTO peyaXrepo ppoq, oXXo, SnXoSii on r n v npo-
To yeyovq out eivat, x ^ p i q apOiPoXio, pta an Ttq owniKti rouq nepiouoia ti ornv iStwriKti ayop. Yn rtq
oiTieq oiyoupo xt n povaSiKii nou ouvTeXov jcne ouvBiiKeq aurq, n ouotaoriKti oyxuon avpeoa o n q
TO KpoTiK (Jiaivpevo va ep(})avi(^eTai wq ovTioTeKpevo So i|)eiq r o u Kpcrrouq pnopooe va neptoptcnei ctto eX-
OE K6e avaXuTiKti npooyyion, nou xet cnxo t o ouvo- XiOTo: rav oi KpOTiKoi Xeiroupyoi' (touXxiotov oi ovib-
XiK koivwvik t o u pXo. Kat nou oSnyov oTnv na- repoi) OTparoXoyovrai anoKXeiariK avpeoa o n q koi-
pXXnXn nop^n noXXanXcbv ewpnTiKwv npooeyyioe- vwviKq Kornyopieq, nou xouv XXouq iSiwriKoq oi-
wv, ot onoieq SioKpivovToi xt pvov an Tn pBoSo nou KovoptKoq npouq, n StKpion avpeoa o t o v iSiwtik
uioSeTeiTOi aXX k o i an t o v KaBopiop t o u iSiou t o u a- Kat o t o v Snpoio xwpo epcjjavitjerai wq ovoyKoia onp-
VTiKeipvou Tnq avXuonq. An noXXq nXeupq, n opio- poto r n q ([Jonq r w v npayprwv koi onparoSoreirai wq
BTnon peTo^ iSiwTiKO KOt Snpoiou Topa, Kotvwviaq ouTovnra ent|3aXXpevn. To yeyovq aur, pXioro,
TWV noXiTwv KOI noXiTiKtiq Kotvwviaq, napapvei Xotnv rovit^Ei OKpn nepiooTepo r n v opeornro t o u tq^iko
e^atpeTiK SokoXo va ouyKeKpipevonoinBei. OpypaTi, xapoKTiipa r w v Kparwv aurcbv: n ovyKn npooraoioq
ot So ocfiaipeq Siocn-aupwvovTat k o i ouyxovTOi e^ opi- rnq iSiOKTHoiaq k o i Sianipnonq r n q r^nq ortq ovroXXa-
opo. K o i n oyxuon auTti anoxeXei, iowq, vav an KTiKq oxoeiq, nou ouvanrovrai avpeoa cnouq noXireq-
Touq lOxupTepouq nopyovTeq, nou koBiotov Suoxepn iStOKTiireq, BepeXiiIjvet r n vopiponoinon piaq noXiriKiiq
Kotvwviaq^, nou n e^ouoio ooKeirai on rouq iStouq
Tnv OVyVWOn TOU OCfWipiKO pXoU TOU KpTOuq: OKpn
rouq iSiOKTtireq-acn-oq, pe r n oupnXnpwpariKii rouq tSi-
KOt TOV SiayiyvwoKeToi npaypoToXoyiK, n SiiiBnon t o u
Snpoiou KOt t o u iStwTiKo avTipeTwnitjeToi, kot kov-
va, oav v a avTioTpaTeeTOt t o Kupiapxo KoBop k o i e- * 0770 TO KpToq, Koivwvia KOI Epyaaia
WTepiKEupvo npTuno, k o i enopvwq xet Tnv Ton vo OTq MsTanoXepiKq EXXaSa, Aqva
ewpEiToi wq <|)aivpevo nopeKKXivov, eKTpwpoTiK k o i OepXio, 1986

NEA KOINQNIOAOriA 21
rrixa wq noXirwv. AuTiiv aKpi|3wq rri SeovroXovia e^unq- OTi|3oq n p o o y w y n q K O I u X o n o i n o n q I S I W T I K W V
prrios r| |3a6piaia Spnori TOU XOYIKOU ypocljeioKpaTi- aup(t)epvTwv.
Ko ouoTiipaToq KOI r| nXiipriq KOTapyriari Tqq e^wvrionq KaBioTOTai, Xomv, oacjjq, pe Tnv onTiKti auTti, TI n
TWV npoiwv XEiToupyripaTwv, nou 6wpn6nKav npo- ppwon TOU Snpoiou xwpou KOI Tnq unXomnq KOIVW-
nooeiq yio Tnv opoTnon TOU Snpoiou x ^ p o u wq vioq naipvei avan<})euKTa pop(t)n noXnXoKn KQI OVTI-
Xwpou npooywynq anpownwv ouoTnpiKwv OTXJV^. ([jaTiKii. To KpToq eivot ouyxpvwq o xwpoq OToGepo-
ZTO nXaioio TOU voepo OUTO Kopou, eivoi SUVOTV OI noinonq, npooTOoioq KOI eyynonq TWV oxoewv KOI TWV
KpoTiKoi Xenoupyoi va epcjjovi^ovTai KOI va ovnpeTwni- ISIWTIKWV oup(t)epvTwv, nou Siapop^wvovToi ^w on
^ovToi wq iSaoToi KOI xPnoTOi KOtvwviKoi (Jiopeiq, nou a- OUT, KOI O xwpoq poa OTOV noiov Kuo(I)opovTai TO
OKov Tiq Snpoieq Xsnoupyieq TOuq KOI TO KaOnKOVT eiSiK oup(t)povTa, nou Siapop(l)wvovTai OTouq iSiouq
TOuq, xwpiq va eivai OTE SUVOT OTE EnnpEnT vo p- Touq KXnouq TOU.
(})iXoxwpov onoiEoSiinoTE npoownmq pXilieiq, oup^- nvw o ' auTti Tn |3on, TO nppXnpo Tqq apOpwonq
povTO n npooSoKieq. OpypaTi oav TOV SKTopa TJJ- Kparovq KQI Koiviuviaq Qa npnei va Oewpnei wq onap-
KuX, O aSKOOToq SiKOOTriq l i o aSi^Gopoq KpoTiKq Tif;pevo on So eni ppouq epwTiipoTo, nou ouvSo-
XEiToupyq pnopEi v a sivai TOUTxpova KOI aveuSoiaoTo vToi ppnKTo peTo^ Touq: An TO va ppoq, n ouvoXi-
OTuyvq EKpEToXXEUTiiq KOI TOKoyX(})oq n aSioTOKToq E- Kii ap6pwaq peTo^ KpTouq KOI Koivwviaq (nou 6a
nixEipnpoTiaq. flEpiooTEpo on onoiaSqnoTE oOTiKti pnopooe va ovopaoTei e^WTepiKq), q onoia nponoB-
unoKpioio, n SuvoTTHTO ouTii annxei Tqv KoGoXiKii e- Tei KOI onoiTei vav auoTnp, XoyiK KOI eopiK Sioxw-
owTEpiKEuon Tnq avTiXni|)nq Tnq Snpoiaq 0(|)aipaq wq o- piop peTo^ TWV So ocpaipwv, OTqpi^eTai SnXoSq oro
nXuTO oSiPpoxnq OE oxon pe oropiK oupcjJpovTa. a^iwpo Tnq E^WTspiKTrjTaq TOU KpTOuq wq npoq Tnv
Z r n v iSeoTii TOU popcjjii, TO KpToq poi^ei TOi v a pno- Koivwvia'. Moa o n ' ouTii Tqv onTiKii, OVOXETOI O p-
pei KOI vo npnei va OTeXexwveTOi an euouveiSnTouq Xoq TOU KpTOuq wq EyyunTii, oupnuKvwTii, Siaxeipioni,
KOI oviSiOTeXeiq XeiToupyoq, unnpreq piaq TO^iKiiq oX- npoypappoTioTii q SianqTq TWV Kupiapxwv KOIVWVIKWV
X auoTnp anpownnq SeovToXoyiaq. 'AoxeTo on Tiq oxoewv, nou PpioKOVToi e^ opiopo ^w o n ' OUT.
oiovei oxi^o<l)peviKq npoeKToeiq evq iSeoXoyiKo ou-
An TO XXO ppoq, pnopope vo evToniooupe piov
OTiipoToq, nou nopyei pio ilJuxovayKaoTiKii SixoTpnon
eowTepiKii p6pwoq KpTOuq KOI Koivwviaq wq eopi-
TWV KUpiopxwv nGiKwv KOI KOvovioTiKwv npoTnwv oe
K, TexvqT l i ovopaoTiK Sioxwpiopvwv KOIVWVIKWV
So avTi(t)aTiKa KOI oye^pwTO unoouonipaTa npoKTi-
Xwpwv npooywynq ISIWTIKWV oup(})epvTwv, pio ppw-
Kwv, TOV Kopo Tnq auoTnpTOTnq aviSiOTXeioq TOU no-
on nou ava(])peTai oTn 5iact)oponoinpvn napaywyii, a-
XiTn, eivai yeyovq TI, OKpn KOI pxP' oiipepo, eniPiw-
vanapaywyii KOI opioTnon TWV KOIVWVIKWV oxoewv
vouv, pe Si(I)opeq pop(])q, oi avTiGereq KOI oXXnXoano-
OTiq So avTioTOixeq oc|)aipeq. Z T O nXaioio OUT, TiOerai
KXeipeveq eowTepiKonoitioeiq TOU Snpoiou KOI TOU iSi-
TO ^qTnpa Tnq SiKpionq avpeoa OTiq pop(|)q KOivwvi-
WTiKo. AKpn KOI OTO eopiK enineSo, n KpoTiKii Xei-
Kiiq evowpTWoqq, nou KUO(()opovTai euwq OTOuq
Toupyia Geonif^eToi KOI onpaToSoTeiToi pe pia oeip an
KXnouq TWV pqxaviopwv TOU KpTOuq, KOI eKeivwv nou
iSiaiTBpeq pu6pioeiq Tqq Snpoiaq enoyyeXpoTiKiiq ou-
PpioKovTOi ^w o n ' OUT, Tnq SiKpionq SnXoSii avpe-
pnepicfiopq'', nou epeXiwvovToi OTqv iSeaTti iSionep-
oa OTiq KpoTiKq KOI OTiq pn KpOTmq pop<l)q Snpioup-
TnTO TOU Snpoiou XWpOU. yiaq OUptJjepVTWV, ElOoSnPTWV KOI OlKOVOpiKWV SlKOl-
QoToo, eivai oocfjq TI, an jr\v XXn pEpi, oi KOI- wpTWv. npO(t)avwq auTq o SsTepoq Tnoq ppwonq
vwviKoi (|)opeiq, oi onoioi XeiToupyov OTOV Snpoio Top- eivai SiaOopeTiKiiq T^ewq on TOV npwTO. An TO iSio
o npoo(t)povTaq onoiaSnnoTe unnpeoia nou npono9- TO yeyovq Tnq Siavopiiq powv, ayowv, apoi(3wv KOI
Tei epyaoia n avXwon evpyeioq, f^nTov KOI naipvouv npwv on TO Kproq oe iSiwriKOq Ropeiq, eni r n Poei
an TO KpToq Knoia avTinapoxn- H oxon Touq pe TO opxwv nou ep(t)avif;ovrai wq rauronpeq l i opXoyeq p '
Anpoio naipvei Tn pop(j)n opPaoriq*, POOIK OToixeio eKeiveq nou loxouv ornv iSiwriKti ayop, npoKnrei ri,
Tnq onoioq eivoi KOI n XPnpoTiKii avTiKOToPoXn, nou o- an r n v nXeup r o u arpou-SiKoioxou, oi popcjjq KOI-
(t)eiXeTai OTOV epyo^pEVO l i onooxoXopEvo Snpoio u- vwviKiiq evowprwonq eivai SUVOTV VO avriperwnif^o-
nXXnXo l i XeiTOupy. H Tpxouoa pop^ii rnq xPnpoTi- v r o i wq onXuTO ouyKpioipeq. Z r o prpo, pXioro, nou q
Ktiq auTiiq avTinopoxnq OTOuq KOivwviKoq oxnpoTi- Epyaoia o r o Snpoio ropa apEiPEroi pE r n popefiii pi-
opoq, nou Kupiapxei n e^apTnpvn piowTii epyaoia, oo, riETOi ourpora KOI TO epwrnpo r o u KOT noov
eivai npo(t)avwq n popcfiii pioOcf', poXovTi, (])uoiKa, OK- q Snpoia epyoSooia anoreXei ppoq rnq yeviKiiq (iSiw-
pn KOI oiipepo ouvavTpe KOI nomiXeq XXeq ovopooTi- riKtiq) ayopq epyooioq, n onoia npoKirrei on r n v KO-
Kq nopoXXayq. ('E^oSa napaoroewq, oSomopm, a- oXiKonoinon r n q e^aprnpvnq piowrqq epyooioq, nou
VTinapoxq, onoJnpiwoEiq, opoiPq, unepwpieq, xopnyieq ouvoSeei r q v KUpiopxio r o u KoniraXiOTiKo rpnou na-
KXn.). Me auTv TOV Tpno o Snpoioq xwpoq, o onoioq paywynq. Arr rqv anoipq amq, KQI pvd, q Sqpoia a-
KOToiKeiTOi on va noXnXoKo ooTnpo OTopiKwv oup- nooxXnon eivoi Xomv eK npwrqq ijjewq, looSvopq
(|)epvTwv, XeiToupyei ornv npoypoTiKrnTO nax; OKpi- KOI opXoyq pe r q v iSiwriKii. Ze ,Ti a(l)op rouq KOIVW-
jidjq KOI O iSiojTiKq, a(J>o oi unnpeoieq nou npoo(})- viKOq pqxoviopoq Siavopqq npwv oe ouyKeKpipvouq
povTOi an TO Topo Sev nopxovToi pe Tnv iSiTnT KoivwviKoq <!)opeiq, nou ovaXioKouv evpyeio, oi So
TOuq wq noXiTwv, aXX avTaXXaaaovrai pe Tqv iSiTnT pop(l)q e^aprnpvnq KOivwvmqq KOI epyooioKiiq evowp-
xouq wq iSiwTwv. Ave^prnTO, Xomv, an TOV ocJiaipiK rwonq ep^ovifjovrai wq evpyeia q Suvpei evaXXoKTi-
KOIVWVIK pXo nou KoXeiToi va nai^ei, TO KpToq Teivei Kq. To a^qpqpvo Kproq Xeiroupyei roi nwq KOI O-
avan(t)euKTa oxeSv va Xenoupyei KOI wq au9napKToq noiooSiinore iSiwrnq l i wq anX fiscus. Aurti, e^XXou,

22 NEA KOINQNIOAOriA
Ga pnopooe va eivai pio an TIC; SuvoTc; eppnveiec; Tnc; an r q piowrii epyaoia KOI r n poptjjti pioOq, eivat oo-
nopoTiipnonc; TOU Hegel TI n noAiTiKii eivai ouyxpvcc; (j)q TI n popctJti KpoTiKq pioOq 9a npnet va 9ewpq9ei
poa OTnv Koiviuvio KOI nvc o n ' auTiiv. wq pto eiSiKTepq pop(})ti oqporoSrqoqq ro^iKwv ox-
Me Tnv vvoia ouTii, n SinXii ppwon KpTouc; KOI oewv, nou evrooerai o r o OUVOXIK ocnqpa r w v KOI-
Koivcjjvioc; 5ev eivai evSexpevo aXX avayKaio OToixeio VWVIKWV oxoewv napaywytiq.
Tnc; uXiKnc; TOU Spnonc; Lc; KOIVJVIKO pnxaviopo. To Z r o prpo, Xotnv, nou o KporiKq pqxoviopq KOI ot
KaniToXiOTiK Kproq, KOI pXiora onoioSqnoTe Koniro- KporiKq pop(t)q Siavopiiq rou nXeovoporoq poa on
XioriK Kproq, evw an r n pra pepi eyyurai, puBpiC^ei rnv KpoTiKti epyoSooia ouvreivouv o r n Snpioupyia ti
KOI npoypopparifjei rnv KooXiKii ovanopaywyn r w v o r n v noyiwon ptaq Kcrrqyopiaq, piaq KoivwviKtiq Korq-
Kupiopxwv KOIVWVIKWV oxoewv KOI r w v KUpiapxwv yopioq l i r^qq ti TOUXXIOTOV evq oqpovriKO ppouq
pop(())v ononoonq KOI Siavopnq r o u nXeovoporoq, rqq, ourq q Korqyopio q r^n aurparo onoTeXei avo-
nou uXonoiovrai o r n o(t)aipa r q q ayopq, on r n v XXn nonacTTo ppoq r q q Kotvwviaq KOI evowpaTjverai aur-
pepi, KOI OKpiPwq o r o nXoioio rnq Xeiroupyioq r o u au- vopo o r o oorqpa r w v ra^iKwv oxoewv nou xapOKrq-
Ttiq, onoon KOI enipepifjei euGwq vo ppoq on TO pifjet aurti f q v Koivwvio. Kot ouvenjq, pvo oe ava(()op
nXevaopa aur, enivpovrq r o oe ouyKeKpipvouq pe ourti r q ocjjatpiKii ouvoXiKii Koivwvia, nou nepiKXeiet
KOivwviKoq (Ropeiq, nou Xeiroupyov peoa l i ppeoa Kat r t q r^eiq KOI KoivwviKq Kornyopieq ot onoieq Sq-
un r n v oiyiSo r o u l i un r n v npooraoia r o u . pioupyovroi cnrouq KXnouq r o u Kprouq, pnopei Koveiq
H SmXii aurii lirnra TOU Kprouq npooSiopifJei KOI vo epeuvtioei TO OUVOXIK pXo r o u Kprouq KOI rnq no-
rn SixoTpnon r w v avoXuriKwv avriperwnioewv r o u XiriKiiq e^ouoiaq.
KpoTiKO (l)aivopvou: oe peyXo |3a9p n n p w r n i|jn O Siounororoq xapoKriipoq r o u Kprouq eivai, Xoi-
rou Kprouq avoXerrai on r q v noXiriKti 9ewpia l i r q nv, npO({)aviiq. QOTOO, n napaSooiOKti eppovii o r q
Gewpio nepi Kprouq, evw n Serepn ouyKevrpiijvei r n v Sqpoia e^wrepiKii r o u unoraoq, nou ouvSerai pe r n
npoooxn rnq Bewpiaq rnq opyvwonq, rnq ypatlJeiOKpa- Spqon rnq oupPoXiKiiq rourrnraq r o u OUVOXIKO KOI-
rioq KQI rnq Snpoioq SioiKqonq. Ka, nopXo nou, (])u- vwviKo xjpou, o r o nXoioio ptaq yevmeupvnq KOIVWVI-
oiK, Ol So aurq npooeyyioeiq ore eivoi Suvar va Ktiq ovyKnq npra^nq Tqq iSeoXoyioq r o u yeviKO oup-
Xwpiorov pera^ rouq, ore KOI VOOVTOI wq aurvo- (jjpovroq, eivat xapaKTnpioriKii rnq rpxouoaq 9ewpnTi-
peq, napapvei yeyovq TI n pei^wv e^wrepmii npo- Ktiq npOKTiKiiq. Ot Xyoi eivat noXXonXoi KOI ouvSeovroi
oyyion onvia epnXKeroi pe r n v e X o o o v a avpeoa o r a XXa pe r o eyyevq Ppoq rnq KporiKtiq
eowrepiKq. oupPoXiKtiq. Opo9eT)VTaq r n v eviKti Koivwvia, r o Kp-
ZTO onpeio aKpi|3jq aur, ovOKnrei KOI TO ^nrnpa roq Se ouyKporei pvo pto SeSopvn KOivwvtKonoXiriKii
rou rpnou pe rov onoio pnopei vo re6ei r o pa rnq KOt oiKovopiKti evrnra. Tourxpovo, r q v KpucrraXXiijvei
p9pwonq Kprouq-Koivwvioq. npypari, on r q v no- KOt oupPoXiK, oiKoSopwvraq pia cnoepii KOI ano-
ijjn r w v eniSiwKpevwv orxwv, o x^piopq r o u Snp- KXetoriKii tSeoXoyiKii ovrrnra, oe ava(t)op npoq r n v
oiou KOI r o u iSiwriKo oroixeioGereiroi envw o r n Pon onoio Sopovrat Kat npoPXXovroi oi evapycnepeq KOI
rnq SiKpionq avpeoa o r n ocjtaipa rnq npow9noqq r w v novraxo napooeq cpavraoiaKq pop(J)q rnq oropiKiiq
oropiKcijv oupctJepvrwv KOI o r q o(J)aipa rqq npooywynq rarionq pe va euprepo KOIVWVIK OVOXO. Oepioo-
rou ouXXoyiKo, yeviKO l i ouornpiKo oupct)povToq. repo, Xomv, KOI on rouq XXouq Geopoq, r o Kproq,
Me r n v vvoia o u n i , r o iSio TO nppXnpa Tqq ppwonq evj ouyKporeirot oupPoXiK pe a([)ernpia TOV ep(()avt^-
Kprouq-Koivwvioq a npnei v o Siarunwei pe pouq, pevo KooXiK Xyo nop^tiq rou, ornv npaypariKrnra
nou va opif;ouv r n v Koivwvia pe rpno cboTe va ou- Xeiroupyei KOIVWVIK ^w, KOI wq va Pap ove^prnTO
pnepiXopPvovrai o ' auriiv Xeq oi /jopcpc; nopaycoyrjc;, a n ' aurv'.
avanapayojyqq q KpuoraXAwariq ISIOJTIKWV aupcpep- O Xyoq nou voqpcaifjet rouq eopoq onvia pnopei
VTwv, eire aur uXonoiovroi ornv runiK iSiwriKq vo KaXi|)t pe pto X^q oXKXqpo r o epoq r w v onpo-
ocljoipo (orqv ayop), eire npowovrai o r o nXaioio r w v oitbv, nou npooSiSovroi crrnv uXiKii npaypariKrqr
Snpoiwv (KpariKwv) pqxaviopwv. Ev wq iSiwriK rouq, ore KOI pnopei va anooraoionoiqGei an r q v KU-
ewpqei r o onoioSiinore KOIVWVIK (jjoivpevo, nou ou- piapxq iSeoXoyiKti oqporoSrqoq rqq KoivwviKiiq rouq
pnuKvcJJvei iSiwriK oupcppovra KOI iSiwriKq oiKovopi- napouoioq. K o i , oo KoGoXiKrepq eivat q GeopiKti
Kq npOKTiKq, rre oi npoKriKq aurq 5ia(()oponoio- npaypariKrqra nou vonporii^erai, roo KOI ot KOIVWVI-
v r o i oav rToieq on r o yeviK Snpoio oupcfipov, OK- Koi pot napaywytiq TWV evvoitbv KOI r w v X^ewv epnX-
pq KOI av TuniK uXonoiovTOi orouq KXnouq TOU Snp- Kovrai oe noXXanX enineSa npooyyionq, oSqywvraq
oiou ropa. Me r n v vvoia o u n i , n SiKpion/ppwon rqv iSia r q X^q oe avancjjeuKTa apcftioqpeq xptioetq. H
KpTOuq-Koivwviaq Sev eivoi Suvar vo e^avrXnei OTr) voqpariKii axX' rqq X^qq Kproq, nou napapvei a-
Oeopmt) SiKpioq Sqpoiou KOI ISIWTIKO Topo. vri(!)ariKti, apop^onoinrn, oouveiSnrn KOI Kpuppvq, ei-
'roi, ecjjoov oi iSiwriKq Koivwvmq npoKTiKq, nou vat roi xapoKrqpicTTtK eupeio: SeSopvou rt r o Kp-
opoerovroi o r o nXaioio TWV Kupiapxwv KOIVWVIKWV roq eivat q K O T ' e^oxtiv KCJjpaoq r q q puGiKtiq Koi unep-
oxoewv napaywytiq, VOOVTOI wq ra^iKq, orqv avXu- XoyiKtiq KoGoXiKrnraq r o u KOIVWVIKO oiijparoq, ot
oq r w v npOKTiKcijv ourwv a npnet vo nepiXncjJov KOI ouyKeKpipveq pop<l)q pe rtq onoieq eowrepiKonoieirai n
ot EiSiKq eKeiveq pop(j)q, oi onoieq Sopovroi KOI runo- cjjon r o u unKeivroi oe ovanefieuKreq eKXoyiKeuTiKq
noiovroi un r n v oiyiSo r o u Kprouq. K o i SeSopvou - napapop(|)woeiq. ' O n w q onpeiwGnKe ecnoxa, on r n
r i un r o Kproq r o u KaniraXicniKO rpnou napaywytiq onypti nou r o Kproq eYKoraoTGnKe oro ouXXoyiK
n KpuoTXXwon r w v KOIVWVIKWV oxoewv nepv poa (tJOvraotOK, pnopei nto r a nvra'^

NEA KOINHNIOAOriA 23
AvE^apTriTQ iijc; a n ' OUT, eivai avap(})i|3oXo TI TO 1. E6d) OKpiPwq nriYl^ei rj avTiAnipn TOV KpariKov a^idipcrro
KpToq (KQI O iJnxaviopq TOU) EVOI ouvexojq nopv wq AeiTOvpYnpcToq, nov sxi nq pi(eq Triq arriv arivaiKi) Sqpo-
OTnv i5ia Tn ouyKpTTion TWV KOIVWVIKWV OXOEWV KOI Kparia. Flappoieq avriXriipeiq npvravevav eniariq KQI orovq vs-
XI pvo ornv ovanopoYWYn Touq'^. H eTiKTqra TOU Tspovq xpvovq, nwq n.x. ora avwrepa KApKia rqq KpariKfiq
KpTOuq, nou unoYpappii^Tav on TOV HouXavTfJa OTO lEpapxiaq arriv npoPmrwpiavfi KOI jimrwpiavri AYYAIO, nov a-
Kpri KOI av apsiPovrav, oi Snpaioi AeirovpYoi Oswpovvrav e-
TEXeuToio TOU pyo, pnopEi vo GEPEXIWVETOI, PPOIO, En-
paairxveq. (npj3A. Wolfram Fischer and Peter Lundgreen, "The
vw OE noX EUpTEpEC; QVOXUOEIC; TOU OIKOVOpiKO KOI
Recruitment and Training of Administrative and Technical Per-
noXiTiKo pXou TOU KoniToXioTiKo KpTouq. QOTOO, sonnel" aro Charles Tilly (ed.). "The Formation of National Sta-
ouTii KOI pvo n nop^n TWV pEyXwv KOI noXuSioTO- tes in Western Europe", Princeton U.P., Princeton 1975, a.
Twv KpOTiKwv pnxciviopwv, nou oe noXXc; x^pec; sXy- 486-490).
xouv, xeipi^ovToi KOI enivpouv vo peyXo ppoq TOU e- 2. Fla Tiq ipiAoao<piKq nponoOasiq rov noXnmov 0IXEX
BviKo nXoTou, SnpioupywvToq TOI oup(t)povTa peoa Ospiopov EpEXiwSriq eivai n peXrri rov C.B. MacPherson, "Th
ouvaprnpvo pe Tnv enipepiOTiKn auTti XeiTOupyio, 6ei- Political Theory of Possessive Individualism", Oxford U.P., 1962.
Xvei TI onoioStinoTe npoonGeio avoywync; TOU KOIVW- Flavw arriv iSia avrij Paoq vopiponoifiOriKs KOI O nepiopiapq
VIKO pXou TOU Kprouq o n q e^wrepiKq oup^oXiKq TWV EVEPYWV noXniKwv Smaiwparwv (rov SiKaiwparoq rou E-
li nopepPoTiKq XeiToupyieq TOU, OTO nXoioio pioq on- KXsYEiv-EKXYEodai) arovq iSiOKTrirEq-aaroq, oi onoioi ps
Sirrira rovq avri) pnopovaav va Oswpovvrai wq aviSiorsXsiq
Xurnq SiKpionq Koivwvioq KOI Kprouq wq xwpiorwv e-
Ka vnEuOvvoi noXirsq.
nmSwv, KivSuveei vo eivai PaBrora ononpooovoro-
3. FlpjiX. Bert F. Hoselitz, "Levels of Economie Performance
XioriKti. A v unpxei vaq KevrpiKq KQI novraxo napwv
and Bureaucratie Structures" aro J. La Palombara (ed), "Bure-
pnxaviopq, nou v a oiKeionoieiroi KOI runiK r o KOTO- aucracy and Political Development", Princeton U.P., Princeton
papvo pepi5io^^ (ro oiKOvopiK 6nXa5n pepiSio nou 1967, a. 192-193
ep^avifjeroi oav vo nepiooeei KOI y i a r o onoio ivo- 4. Ol noXvapiOpsq pvOpiasiq TOV FIOIVIKOV KWIKO Y'O 6W-
v r a i 01 KOivwviKoi oywveq KOI nou enmXov, iowq, rouq poSoKi'a, aniaria KXn. sivai TO npoacpoprspo napaSsiYpa. Fla-
KOior KQI avan({)euKrouq), o pnxaviopq aurq eivoi ppoia sivai KOI ro aupjSoXiK nspiExpsvo TWV TEXETOUPYIKW
r o Kproq'". opKwpoaiwv, nwq KOI TO noXu aripavTiKTspo ovvSpopo rijq
SvoKoXiaq ps TTIV onoia avaYvwpiarriKav arovq Sripaiovq u-
naXXfiXouq ra SiKaiwpara rov ovvsTaipi(sa6ai ij TOV anspYsiv.
Aev eivoi, Ppoio, SUVOTV VO pnope ornv ouoia
Anpq KOI aijpepa, opiapsvsq KarriYopisq XsnoupYWV, nwq oi
r w v reporiwv ewpnriKwv npoPXnprwv, nou riGevrai
arpaTiwTiKoi, oi aorvvopiKoi i) oi SmaariKoi, vnKSivrai os siSi-
ypw on r o f^iirnpa aur. Eivoi pwq, vopi?Jw, oocjjq ri K spYOOiaK Kadsardira.
xwpiq r n v npopei^n xnq ovXuonq r n q GeriKrnroq 5. Fia ro KOT noov oi avpjiaasiq spYaoiaq aro Aqpaio
rou KporiKO pXou, nou paq ^epoKpoivei on r i q KO- anoTsXovv popipsq avYKpioipsq ps riq avpj3aaeiq epYOoiaq, nov
0apq KOI KpuorXXiveq nopoSooiOKq ovoXoeiq, no- ouvanrovrai orriv iSiwriKi) OYopa spYaoiaq, jiX. napaKrw.
popvoupe KoBnXwpvoi oe eoctiaXpva KOI napwxnpva 6. 'Onwq, paXiora, unoYPappios o Max Weber, o araOspq
ewpnriK oxnparo. H onXurn XoyiKii KOI opyoviKii 5i- pioOq sivai avaYxaio xapaKTqpioriK Triq Ypa<psiOKpaTiKijq o
Kpion avpeoa o r o Kproq KOI ornv KOivwvia 6a npnei, Yvworiq: Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, Ks<p. 6 nap. 2.
Xomv, va ovTiperwniorei nepioorepo oav vo iSeoX- 7. F\a rriv svvoia avri) pX. N. Poulantzas, " L ' tat, Ie Pouv-
ynpo pe reporieq KoivwviKq npoeKToeiq nap oav pio oir, Ie Socialisme", Paris, P.U.F. 1978, o. 143 KS
a priori npoypariKii KOI uXiKii 5ia(l)oponoinon avpeoa 8. Fla rriv, an aXXri anoipq, OspsXiaKij 5ia0opa avpeoa
orri Sripoia KOI orriv iSiwriKij spYoSoaia pX. napoKTw.
oe ovriETEq (KOI oXXnXoanoKXEipEVEq) Koivwvmq Xei-
9. Jacques Chevalier, "Rflexions sur I' Idologie de I' Intrt
roupyieq. A v oi ouyKeKpipveq popcfiq Spnonq r w v KO-
Gnral", SKoan TOV Centre Unicersitaire de Recherches Ad-
niroXioriKwv KporiKwv pnxaviopwv Karornoov 6uva-
ministratives et Politiques de Picardie, "Variations autour de I' i-
rq, e^nynnKOV KQI SiKaiwGnKov o r o nXoioio r n q 5ia- dologie de I' intrt gnral" voL I, Paris 1978, a. 37-38.
([jaivpevnq ovayKoirnrq rouq yia r n oroeponoinon 10. M. Foucault, "Les mots et les choses". Paris 1966,
KOI avonapoywyii r w v KaniroXioriKwv KOIVWVIKWV ox- passim.
oewv, n e^eXiKTiKii rouq nopeio uniipxe, on va onpeio 11. Ren Lourau, "L'tat inconscient" Paris, Minuit, 1978, a.
KOI npo, oxeriK anoXXoypvn on rouq peoouq 21. Mnopsi OKpri KOI va unoKaraorfiosi, iawq, rrj @sia BoXri-
npooSiopiopoq r o u yeviKO oup(t)povToq. K o i ov oi an, a0o TO Kparoq-FIpvoia avanspnsi avpPoXma orri &sia
oywveq ypw an r n v KTOon KQI r o nepiexpevo r w v Flpvoia.
Geopwv ourwv yivovrav operXXaKra o r o vopa io^o- 12. N. Poulantzas, "Repres" Paris 1980, a. 166- I3X. sniariq
periKwv ovTiXiiijjewv yia r o npaypariK KOI oupgoXm rov iSiov, "L'tat, Ie Pouvoir, Ie Socialisme", .n.
13. Georges Bataille, "La part maudite". Paris 1967.
vnpa r o u ouXXoyiKO Sovroq, r o npayporiK KQI
14 npPX. H. Lefebvre, "De l'tat", vol. III, o. 138. Eivai ns-
aurvopo UXIK Ppoq r w v KporiKwv IKTWV uniipxe,
pirr va roviOTsi n raxvrarri av^nco Triq ovppsTOxnq rou Kp-
ouxv, onocpaoioriKq, av KOI ouviiGwq KoXuppvoq, no- rouq oro sdviK siaSripa oe Xsq riq xt^PfC Asmopspij oroi-
pyovroq 5iapp(])wonq r n q KOivwviKiiq 5uvapiKiiq. ' I - xeia ppioKoupe oe Xeq nq Sripooisuasiq rwv SOVIKWV Xayapia-
owq, Xomv, v a pnv eivoi ruxoio r o ri, avpeoa o r o o- apwv. BX. sniariq lan Gough, "State Expenditure in Advanced
voXo r w v nruxwv r n q KoivwviKiiq npaypariKrnroq, r o Capitalism", New Left Review, rsvx. 92 (1975), a. 53 KS. KOI TOU
Kproq e^OKoXouGei v a eivoi n Xiyrepo ene^epyoop- iSiou, "The Political Economy of the Welfare State", London
vn GewpnriKii nepioxn'*, xi pvo o r q pop^ioriKii oXX 1979
KOi ornv aoriKii Gewpia. 15. FIpPX. n.x. Perry Anderson, "Western Marxism" London
1976.

24 NEA KOINQNIOAOriA
EAAHNIKH KOINQNIA

m i m m m w i m i m m m m m *
mNmEMHMKHKomm
rrjc; Mapiaq nETjjE^iou-ToouAouPri
Ol ou?;r|Tr)0ic; nou Sia^YOVTOi oxo x ^ p o tr\q KOIVCJ- xiq oxoXiKq onoixiioeiq K O I ove^dpxnxo on xo omoye-
vioXoyioc; xnq eKnaiSeuonq eniKevxpwvovxoi oxnv ou^np- veioK nepiPdXXov yio xo noiSid nou nepvov pe enixu-
vn onpaoio nou anoKx xo oxoXeio, oxiq npou)9npveq Xio xo 5idcI)opa oxd5ia eniXoynq. P) To eiSoq xwv xapa-
KonixaXioxiKq Koivwvieq, oov pnxaviopq Enipepiopo KxnpioxiKJV KOI iKovoxnxwv nou eniPpoPeei xo oxoXeio
XJV oxpojv oxiq 5ia(|)opq 9o8iq xnq KOiVJViKriq 5opnq (npoovxa yeviKiiq KouXxopoq ti xexviKq KXioeiq KOI
KOI vopiponoinonq xnq lepapxiKtiq opyavojonq XJV ox- Kivnxpo enixuxiaq, ovaXoya pe xo npxuno KotvwviKiiq
oewv epyooiaq. To evcnoiSeuxiK ooxnpa enixeXei xiq ovXi^nq nou Kuptopxov). T o enipoxo ouxd f^nTtipoTo
Xeixoupyieq ouxq oxo nXoioio pioq oxexiKO ouxvopnq avactjpovTOt oe vo (t)dopa nopoXXaywv oxouq pnxavt-
a^ioKparmriq AoyiKr/q, Ka9(i)q n Koivjvia poa an xo opoq KOivwviKtiq ovonopoywyiiq, nou ouvSovxoi dpe-
nXypo XJV oxoewv Kupiopxioq nopxei oxo eKnaiSeu- oo pe xiq i5iaixepeq loxopiKq ouvGiiKeq noyiwonq xwv
xiK ooxnpa xn Suvoxxnxo vo pexoxpnei xiq Koivwvi- xo^iKwv oxoewv KOI XWV nXoxid napoSeKxwv Kpixnpiwv
Kq Koi noXixioxiKq ovioxnxeq oe eyyeveiq Siocijopq o- oxpoxoXynonq xwv oxpwv oxiq Kotvwvmq 9oeiq xnq
vopeoo oxo xopo wq npoq xiq iKOvxqxq xouq. O Ke- elite oe pto Koivwvio.
vxpiKq pXoq xou oxoXeiou oxnv KoivwviKti ovanopa- ' O n w q 9a Sope nopoKdxw, oxqv eXXnviKii KOivwvia
ywyn, oxiq nopanavw KOivwvieq, e^exJ^exoi Kupiwq oe o pXoq xwv pop([)wxiKwv KOI noXixtoxiKwv npoovxwv
oxon pe xn Sioppcfiwon xnq voq peooioq xa^nq (TO oxnv KOlVWVlKti ovXi^n Kat ovanopaywyti Sev ouvioxd
5ieupuvpeva oxpwpoxa xwv enioxnpvwv, xexviKwv, pto nopoXXayti xou pXou nou nepiypdi|jape yta xiq ove-
ioiKnxiKwv KOI 5ieu9uvxiKjv oxeXexwv) n onoia xeivei nxuypveq KonixaXioxiKq KOivwvieq, oXXd Sia<l)oponoiei-
npooSeuxiK vo oxnpi^exoi oe vav xpno pexa|3iPaonq xoi oe peydXo PoBp, KoBwq xo pop(|)wxiKa KOI noXixi-
xwv xo^iKwv xnq npovopiwv oxouq yvouq xnq nou 5ia- oxiKd SionioTeuxiipia xouv on pvo xouq nepioptopvn
peooXa|3eixai an xo eKnai5euxiK ooxnpa. Moa on onpaoio oxiq StoSiKooieq KoivwviKiiq ovonapaywyiiq. ' H
ouxn xnv npoonxiKii oi Bernstein, Bourdieu, Passeron KOI pdXXov 6a Xyope xi xo Sionioxeuxiipia nou xopnyei xo
XXoi enixeipov vo eppnveoouv xiq aXXoyq nou no- oxoXeio onoKxov o^ia yta xo dxopo nou xo Koxxet xt
poxnpovxoi oxiq noiSaywyiKq npOKXiKq KQI xiq oxpo- xoo oxo nXaioio ptaq oxexiK ouxvopnq o^ioKpoxt-
xnyiKq noXixioxiKiiq pexoPiPoonq oxo nXoioio xnq OIKO- Ktiq XoyiKtiq, aXXd oe dpeon ouvdpxnon pe xn Sidoxaon
yveioq KOI XOU oxoXeiou oe noXXq Suxmq KOivwvieq. eKeivn Tnq KOivwviKtiq npoypoxiKxnxoq nou noiJ^ei KO-
Ol oXXayq ouxq npo^dXXouv pio xdon xaXdpwonq xwv 6opioxtK pXo oxnv nayiwon xnq xo^iKiiq Siocftoponoin-
opiwv, oxnv noiSoywyiKn npOKxiKti, ovdpeoo oxn 6on onq oxnv eXXnviKti Koivwvio. Auxti eivoi n Staoroon xnq
xou noiSoywyo KOI xn 6on xou oxpou nou u(t)ioxaTai noXtxiKtiq e^ouoioq, KOI XO evSta(])pov poq eoxidfjexoi
xov Xeyxo, Ka9jq enionq KOI pio xdon unoxwpnonq TWV oxo Pa6p Koxd xov onoio n onoxeXeopaxiKxnxo xwv
oxeyovjv ovdpeoo oxiq 5id(l)opeq yvwoxiKq nepioxq pop(t)wxtK)v KOt noXiTioTiKwv SionioTeuTnpiwv oov p-
oxo nXoioio xnq eKnoiSeuonq. Kox xouq nopondvw owv KOivwviKtiq ovXi^nq e^opTToi on Tn Suvoxxnxo
auyypa(t)eiq, oi xdoeiq ouxq, oov act)opd xo vo peooia npoPoonq oxov KpoxiK pnxaviop KOI XO Kvxpo noXi-
oxpwpoxa, oxoxeouv oxnv aneXeupwon xnq npoow- xiKiiq Svopnq nou Kd6e KOivwviKii opdSo pnopei vo
niKxnxaq xou axpou, SqXaSn oxnv aneXeu9pwon KOI e^ao(|)aXioei.
KoXxepn Suvoxn eKpexdXXeuon xwv yXwooiKwv, yvw-
oxiKwv KOI noXixioxiKwv iKOVoxnxwv xou axpou nou e-
^ao(l)aXi2;ouv xn oxoXiKti enixuxio KOI xnv KOIVWVIKI ov- O iSiahepoq pXoq TOU noAiTiKOv oroixsiou
Xi^n- A v KOI Ol ani|)eiq xwv nopondvw ouyypocjjwv ou- [...] Ka6opioxiK xapOKxnpioxiK yio xnv nopeio ov-
pninxouv oov a(t)opd xnv iSioixepn onpaoio xou oxo- nxu^nq Tnq veoeXXnvmtiq Kotvwviaq ouvioxov oi iStoixe-
Xeiou, oxnv ovanopaywyn xwv KOIVWVIKWV oviooxtixwv peq loxopiKq ouv9tiKeq, KXW an xiq onoieq Siapop(|Jj-
oxiq ovenxuypveq KonixaXioxiKq Koivwvieq, oov pnxa- 9nKe O KpoxiKq pnxaviopq, nou ennpaoov xn Xet-
viopo xopnynonc Siamoxeuxnpiwv, opiopva dXXo fy\T:r\- xoupyio xou Ka9toxJvxaq xov KevxpiK x ^ p o KOivwviKiiq
poTO onoxeXov onpeio Siopxn"? Txoio J^nTiipoTo eivoi: Sta(j)oponoinonq. O KpoxiKq pnxaviopq oxn oyxpovn
o) O iSioixepoq pXoq xou oiKoyeveiOKo nepiPdXXovxoq EXXSa anoxeXei va xwpo ypw on xov onoio ouonei-
oxnv ovdnxu^n yXwooiKwv iKOvoxnxwv KOI xnv eowxepi-
Keuon noXixioxiKjv ecjJoSiwv l i , Kdxi nou eivoi xo iio * To Keipevo aur anoreAei anonaoija an eianyncn pe TI'TAO
npdypo, O Pa9pq oxov onoio xo oxoXeio pnopei vo e- "Social and cultural reproduction in modern Greece" nou na-
navoKoGopioei xiq iKovxnxeq xou axpou oe oxon pe pouaiaaOriKe rr/v avoi^rj 1983 aro Errjaio EuvSpio rriq Bpsra-
viKijq 'Evwarjq KoivcuvioAyojv (FlaWpio rou Cardiff).

NEA KOINQNIOAOriA 25
ptvovrai TQ KoiviviKo-oiKovo|jiKa ouiJcppovTa TU)V oXXoywv OTOvq ouvTeXecnq Spnonq KTW on nioeiq
OTpioijaTwv EKeivwv nou mx] Paan piaq npovopiaKnq ox- OTpwv KOt opSwv Tnq peooioq T^nQ) oupPXXei OTnv
ar\q pe TOUC; pnxavtopoc; noXiriKiic; e^ouoiac; eiva\e G- iSionoinon npwv on Si^opa peoaio OTpwpoTO. E^ET-
on vo i5ionoin6ouv, oe Pcipoc; Kcinoiiv oXXcuv OTpjp- fjovraq r n v unavnTU^n poo on ouTti Tnv npoonTiKti,
Tcjv, va pEyXo ppoq TWV npwv nou KOTOvpovTai pE pXnoupe TI n SiaTtipnon oe eupeio KXipoKo Tnq anXtiq
Tnv noppPaon TOU KpTOuq. ' H , KTI nou Eivai OKpn epnopeupoTiKiiq napaywytiq, KOI n OTOEpTnTO Tnq a-
nio onpovTiK, 6a pnopoos va nEi KovEiq TI n SUVOT- voXoyioq ovpEOO OTOuq ouToanooxoXopEVOuq KOI
TnTO npoPoonq orov KpoTiK pnxaviop KOI TO KVTPO Touq piowTOq, OKpn KOI KOT Tn peTonoXepiKii nepio-
noXiTiKiiq Svapnq onoTEXei poo napoywYnq eioo6npa- So, KOT Tnv noia nopaTnpovTOi Toeiq oiKovopiKtiq
Toq yia opiopveq KoivwviKq opeq: n SuvaTTnTO no- pey6uvonq, Sev anoTeXov ouvneio Knoiwv XeiToup-
pKopilJnq TOU vpou (5i(!)opeq pop(t)q auoipEoiaq, - yiKwv npoanaiTOpevwv TOU nepi^epetoKo KaniToXt-
nwq ouoipeTn 5pnon, KOTonTnon Snpoioq ynq KXn.), opo. AvTiETo, ouvioT Tnv XXn nXEup TOU iStpop-
n (popoSiacpuyn, oi napoxwpiioeiq KQI TO povonwXiOK (})ou pXou Tnq nappPaonq TOU noXiTiKO CTTOIXEIOU
npovpio nou TO iSio TO KpToq xopnyei, onoTeXouv Tp- OTnv oiKovopio vo nopyEi etoSnpa, ouvOtiKn n o u e-
nouq napaywynq eiooSiipoToq OTO nXoioio pioq npovo- pnoSi^et Tn Siepuvon Tnq KaniTaXtOTiKiiq SuvopiKtiq.
piOKiiq oxonq pe TO Snpoio Topo. ' O X a OUT ouvi- Ka9tl)q o vpoq (SnXaSti nXoTi nopoSeKTq crrnv Koi-
OTOv nXoTi nopaSeKTq OTnv Koivwvio oiKOVopiKq vwvio) Tpnoq ovnru^nq oiKOVopiKiiq KOI enayyeXpaTi-
npoKTiKq KOI Siayp(t)ouv Tn XoyiKti TWV Kupiapxwv Ktiq SpooTnpiTnToq Sev euvoei npoKTiKq KQI xeipiopoq
KOivwviKo-oiKOvopiKwv Sopcijv. AuTti (jjaiveToi va 5ia(t>- PeXTiwonq Tnq enayyeXpoTiKtiq onq TOU OTpou cnn P-
pei on Tnv KoniToXicniKii XoyiKti, OTO nXoioia Tnq o- on r n q XoyiKtiq Tnq ayopq SnXaSti poo on Tn PeX-
noioq n napaywyii i^o' KOTOvopii TOU eiooSiipoToq oTnpi- riwon Tnq avToywvioTiKTnTaq, Txyj onKTnon KOTXXn-
f^eToi KQT Kpio Xyo OTOuq pnxavtopoq Tnq ayopq. Xwv npoovTwv KXn. ot SioSiKOoieq EKeiveq nou 6a
' E T O I , ot KotvwviKoi KOI oiKovopiKoi ovToywviopoi cnnv wooov ^w an Tnv ayop Tiq avanOTeXeopariKq KOI
eXXnviKti KOivwvia avanTooovToi yijpw on So SIOOT- nopaoiTiKq enixeiptioeiq (ti napooiTiK enayyXpara) ei-
OEiq ouyKpooEwv, KOibq ot KOivwvmq ouyKpooEiq vat pXXov oSvopeq KOI Sev pnopov vo ovTevepyii-
nou onoppouv an TOV KaniToXioTiK pETOOxnpaTiop oouv OTiq nopanavw ouv6tiKeq.
Tnq KOivwvioq ouvap6pwvovTai pe Tiq KoivwviKq ou-
yKpooEiq ypw on TO oxnpoTiop vpipwv SianioTEu- XopaKTrjpiGTiK rriq SiaiKOoiaq
Tnpiwv nou E^ao(t)aXi?]ouv npooPoEiq OTOV KPOTIK voiJinonoirjoriq
pnxaviop. 6 a npnEi va roviooupe PPaio n unp-
[...] r i a p ' Xo nou oi SuvoTrnTeq Evepyonoinonq
xouv vToveq ovioTnTeq, oov acpopa TO Pa6p noXm-
noXiTiKwv xeipiopcv yto r n v e^aocfiXion eiooSiipoToq
Ktiq Svapnq, avpeoa OTiq KoivwviKq opSeq nou pe
eivot vioo KOTOvepnpveq avpeoa oTiq 5i(t)opeq Koi-
TOV vo l i XXo Tpno ouvSovToi pe TO neXoTeiOK KU-
vwviKq opSeq, n oiKOVopiKii ouTti XoyiKti Teivei vo Sio-
KXcjpoTo, KOI onwoStinoTe n ooTiKti T^n xei noXXq KOI
nEpv Tnv KOivwvia oro ovoX rnq ouvicrrwvTaq vpi-
peoeq npooneXoeiq OTOV KPOTIK pnxaviop oe oxon
pn iSeoXoyia: TOt Ke oiKovopiKq (J)opaq oo ne-
pe Xa TO XXo OTpipcrro. QOTOO, pwq, n SuvoTTnTo
piopiopveq euKoipieq npoPoonq OTOV KPOTIK pnxavi-
npoonopiopo eiooSiipoToq o r n Pon piKponoXiTiKtv
op K O I av xei Sev noei v o npoopXnei cnnv e^a-
xeipiopcbv onoTeXei OTOixeio e^ioou onpavTiK KOI yta
ocjjaXion eiooStipoToq poa an piKponoXiTiKoq x^'P'-
Tnv KoivwviKo-otKOvopiKii Stac|)oponoinan TWV peooiwv
opoq, nap npoonowvToq vo PeXTtutoet Tqv nopoyw-
OTpwpTWv; yia nopSetypo, n Snpioupyia ptaq unepPo-
yiKrnTO Kat anoreXeopoTtKrnT TOU ornv ayop (o-
XiK au^n^fvnq f;tiTnonq ynq oe opiopveq ooTiKq ne-
notaStinore ayop; ayowv, unnpeoicbu, eKnoiSeuTiKtbv
pioxq pe Tnv npooTooia TOU KpTOuq (oov onoTXeopo
npoovTwv KOt oewv KXn.). Aurti n oiKOvopiKti npo-

26 NEA KOINQNIOAOriA
KTiKti ouvenayETai va Tno KoivcaviKtic; 5paoriq nou xei noKT npwTopxiK orov oiKoyeveiQK nepiyupo. H ne-
npoownoKpOTiK xapa'<Tnpa KOI KOIOT aoo^eic; iiq piopiopvn onpaoio Xwv ourwv r w v napoyvTwv ^o-
TQ^iKq ouyKpooeic; OTnv ovTiXnijJn t w v aTpwv. Moa vepwvei rov iSioirepo xapoKriipa vopiponoinonq r n q
an Tn iKpion avpeoa OTO npay/jaTiK pio TWV po- KOivwviKiiq KivnriKrnraq, SnXoSii r o xapOKTiipo r w v
wv TWV npovopiwv an Tn pia pepi, KOI r n Y^'^'x^wvr) nXoTt onoSeKTwv o^iwv nou SiKaioXoyov Tiq vi-
iSaoXayio OTqv Koivwvio nou e^oTopiKeuei TO 6pa Tnq oeq euKOipieq y i a KoivwviKti npow9non avpeoa oe ro-
npopaonq OTOV KPOTIK pnxaviop KOI, OTnv avTiXni|)n po KOI KOivwviKq opSeq. Oaparnpope o n q onovrti-
TOU K9e evepyo ^opa 5ponq, TO peraTpnei oe 9pa oeiq pto Stxurn ovriXnipn TOU OKaGpiorou r w v ouvGn-
5ianpoowniKwv ouyKpooewv, yiverai (t)avep TO eiSoq Kwv nou ouvreXov ornv KotvwviKii ovXi^n- Tia r a
Tnq a5iact)veiaq (opacity) nou napyei n eXXnviKii KOi- OTpwparo nou eivai onopoKpuopva an rouq nXouq
vwvia. Ka9wq TO noXiTiK OToixeio nopeppoivei oe K9e KoivwviKiiq/noXiTiKiiq e^ouoiaq (piKpoaoTiK o r p w p a r a
oiKOvopiKii SpaoTnpiTnra yio v a npoo5iopioei Tn poti KOI epyoriKti r^n). n aKaGopiorio ourti eK(t)paf;eTai pe-
TWV npwv, Ol KOivwviKq oxoetq reivouv v a onoKTOv oa o n q anavrtioeiq rouq pe r o v ep(!)aTiK roviop ono-
pto opeoTriTo nou ouXXapPverai OTO nXoioio 6ia- KXeioriK KOt pvo ouyKupiOKWv napayvrwv (rxn Ye-
npoowniKwv Siapoxwv, KTI nou onooTepei r n v Koivwvi- viK, onpooSKnrn onKrnon nepiouoiaq KXn.). H eiK-
Kti 5pon an pto ouXXoyiKti 3on. vo ouTii ov KOt eK(])p?;ei wq vo PoGp r n v npaypariK-
AuTii n pop(t)ti KOivwviKO-oiKovopiKtiq opyvwonq, - r n r a , KoGwq Seixvei rt poo nwq r o pop(I)WTiK eeji-
nou n KQTOxii SionioTeuTnpiwv noXiTiKiiq Suvopnq ano- Sio KOt n enoyyeXpariKti Korprton on pvo rouq xouv
reXei KoGoptoriK Kpirtipio yto r o v npoonopiop eioo5ii- Xiyn a^io yto r n v npotBnon r o u arpou, reivei vo ano-
poroq on r n v i5ta rnq r n (l)on, orepeirai evq oxeriK Kppei r n v KoivwviKii Pon TWV aviooriirwv KOI avro-
ouTvopou pnxaviopo vopiponoinonq r w v KOIVWVIKWV ywviopwv ouvSovrq rouq pe ouyKupiOKOq napyo-
aviooriirwv. KaGwq u(J)iaTaTai n uvaTrnra e^ao(J)Xi- vreq. An r n v XXn pepi, yio r a KOIVWVIK o r p w p a r a
onq npwv KOt uilJnXtbv eioo6nprwv on opiopveq Koi- nou xouv peyoXurepn npoPoon orouq nXouq e^ou-
vwviKq opSeq, oe |3poq Knoiwv XXwv, ^w on TO oiaq n eKripnon r w v euKoipiwv avoSiKiiq KwnriKTnraq
nXoioio r n q XoyiKtiq r n q ayopq, o r n (3on noXtriKWV naipvei r n pop(t)ii pioq nepiopiopvnq eniyvwonq r w v
Kpirripiwv npoPoonq orov KporiK pnxaviop, TO oij- orparnyiKwv peGSeuonq r n q KoivwviKtiq entruxioq KOI
ornpo KOIVWVIKWV aviooriirwv nou npoKunrei xet Xiyo- TWV Suvaronirwv oupperoxtiq o r a neXoreioK KUKXWPQ-
noXu ouGoipero xapoKriipa (nou n vvoia auGoipe- r o nou e^ao(j)aXi^ouv r n v KOIVWVIKT) ovXi^n- Opwq, o-
To onpaivei OKpi^wq r n v anouoio pioq XoyiKtiq OIKOVO- Kpn KQI Ol anovriioeiq nou Swoov oi anoKpivpevoi
piKwv ouvaXXoywv KOI Kpirnpiwv avraywviopou nou v a auroi eXxiora Giyouv peoa r n Sioroon r n q noXiriKiiq
vopiponoinGouv peoa, o r o oiKovopiK enineSo, r n v KO- Svapnq orouq pnxaviopoq ovoSiKiiq KivnTiKrnraq (oi
ravopii r w v npwv). Ot ouvGiiKeq aurq npoo(l)povrai euKQipieq KoivwviKiiq ovXi^nq nepiypc^ovrai ouvtiGwq
yto Tnv ovnru^n iSeoXoyi)v nou vopiponotoijv rriv KO- poo on eKct)poeiq nwq: yto v a ovPei Koveiq KOIVW-
recjrnpvn r^n anoSiSovroq KOGOXIK KQI onXuro xa- VIK Go npnet v a xet rtq KorXXnXeq KOivwviKq Sio-
poKTiipo o r o KOIVWVIK (potvpevo, npopXXovraq ou- ouvSoeiq l i n KoivwviKii npowGnon e^aprrai on r q v
vrnpnTiKq o^ieq, K O I evioxovraq TO (|)oppaXiop KOI r n entruxnpvn xPloiponoinon r w v eKnoiSeuriKwv KOI X-
pnropeia orov KOIVWVIK KQI noXiriK Xyo. H Koivwvi- Xwv npoovrwv nou onKrnoe r o ropo).
Kti OKivnoio, n onouoia loropiKtiq pvtipnq KOI n ava(t)op
H ao(t)eia nou xapoKrnpi^ei TOV rpono pe r o v onoio
o n q otwvteq o^ieq onoreXouv OUOTOTIK oroixeia r w v i-
pta oeip on napyovreq nwq r o enyyeXpa, n pp-
SeoXoyiKwv pop^wporwv nou avanTooovroi.
(t)won ti 01 iKovrnreq rou arpou oupPXXouv ornv KOI-
tKTiijqosiq TJV euKaipiibv ovoSiKqq
vwviKii ovXi^n. KaGwq n onoreXeopariKrnra r o u KoGe-
KivijTiKTrjTaq
vq on rouq napyovreq auroq ouvSufJerai pe r u -
[...] E^er^ovroq rnv ovriXnil^n TWV Suvaronirwv a- Xoieq ouvGtiKeq, ortq eiKveq r w v onoKpivopvwv, uno-
voSiKtiq KivnTiKrnraq nou oxnpariiijouv r a Si(|)opa KOI- SnXwvei r n v anouoia nXari nopaSeKrwv ornv Koivwvio
VWVIK OTpwparo poa on epneipiK SeSopvo nou ou- a v r i o r o i x i w v avpeoa oe pop(t)WTiK/enayyeXpariK
yKevrpwoope, noparnpope r n v nepiopiopvn onpaoio StanioTeurtipia KOI Goeiq ornv KoivwviKti/enoyyeXporiKti
piaq o^ioKpariKiiq XoyiKiiq yto r n v eKripnon r w v euKoi- Sopti. Me XXo Xyto, unoSnXwvei r n v nepioptopvn no-
piwv KOivwviKtiq npowGnonq on TO ropo. ' E v a rrop- ppPaon Tnq tSeoXoyioq r n q a^ioKporioq orouq pnxavt-
TO nepinou r w v onoKpivopvwv Gewpov rt n ppejiwon opoq enipepiopo r w v orpwv o n q Si(t)opeq Goeiq r n q
ouvTeXei ornv avoSiKii KtvnTiKrnra, woroo n onoreXe- KOivwviKiiq Sopiiq. H KoivwviKii entruxio (ti onoruxia)
opartKrnro r w v pop(j)WTiKwv npoovrwv Kpiveroi oxe- napouoii^erai o r n Xo'iKti iSeoXoyia oov ouvprnon o-
Sv on Xouq oe peon ouvprnon pe napyovreq - XreXa onpooSipiorwv napayvrwv KOI ouvGnKwv. To
nwq TO npoowniK xapaKrnptoriK r o u arpou, ot Koi- Kev nou Snpioupyeirai roi o r n vopiponoinon r w v KOI-
vwviKq SioouvSoeiq KOI ot euvo'iKq ouyKupieq. Enionq VWVIKWV avtoornrwv KaXnreroi an pio ron e^aropi-
n KQTXXnXn enayyeXpariKii Karprion ti n onoreXeopo- Keuonq r w v KOIVWVIKIUV ouyKpooewv KOI r w v pnxavi-
TiKrnro ornv oKnon evq enayyXporoq oov napyo- opwv KOivwviKtiq ovXi^nq: Ol ouvGtiKeq nou ouvreXov
vreq KOivwviKiiq ovXi^nq, onvia rovif^ovroi oriq eKTipti- ornv KOlVWVlKti eniruxio/anoruxia onoxwpi^ovrat on
oetq r w v euKoiptwv KOivwviKtiq npowGnonq nou Kovov pto KOlVWVlKti, ouXXoyiKti pon KQI perorpnovrot oe
ot onoKpivpevoi. OapXXnXa, eXxiorn a^io anoSiSerai ouvoprtioeiq SionpoowntKwv ovraywviopwv on r n
oe PooiKq iKovrnreq (yXwooiKq, yvworiKq), rpnouq pta pept, KOI acn-Gpnrwv ouv9nKa)v nou ennpe^ouv
oupnepKjjopq KOI noXiriariK e(t)5ia nou r o ropo o- rn oupnept(t)op TOU arpou an r n v XXn.

NEA KOINQNIOAOriA 27
AIEQNH PEYMA TA
momk TOYmpeoAomoY
TOU M. AjLipavTou

H nicrrri crrr|v EYeXiavri SiaXsKTiKii loxupiaTri vo Tnq nopOTiipnoiiq TOU; Eivai SUVOTV va eXy^ei i
OTr|v oripgpivri enioTiipri pac; unoxpeibvEi v a E^ET- unoouveiSnr TOU, TO onoio 6a TOV w6noei v o x P l o i p i
ooupE TO (l)aivpEvo TOD AvopBoXoyiopo oav oYXPOvri noiiioei Tiq enioTnpoviKq eKeivEq pe6Souq nou 6a TG
Tori Triq EnioTTipoXovioc;, uyiti ovTiSpaori o r o noyK- oSnyiioouv OTO onoTXeopo npoq TO onoio aouvaio6nT
opio pEupo TOU OpGoXoyiopo: 5riXa5ri, OTTIV Kupiopxn- KaTeu6veTai; Miinwq Xomv 6a nTov m o OKmpo v o
oooo TOuq TEXEUToiouq oitVEc; orj, npo|3aXXEi oripEpo, (fieov eXeu9epeq oi eowTepiKq Suvpeiq TOU av9pjnc
oov avTOeori o AvopGoXoyiopq. H E^Xi^ri auTii 9a o- vo eK(t)pao9ov au9evTiK;
Sriynoei y i a oouq niOTEouv OTTIV AiaXEKTiKri, oov O Op9oXoyiopq, u n ' ouTtiv Tnv vvoia, onoTeXei
KivriTiipia Svopn Triq loTOpioq OTTI SUVGEOTI, 5riXa5ri noKpiaia, Sin loxupi^erai TI pnopouv v a 5iaTunw9oi:
crrriv KOTaoKEun pioq eniOTripoXoyiaq nou 9a npopxEToi pe r n XoyiKii XoyiK emxeipiipoTO KOI avTonan
KOI an TO 5uo aur pEupoTo, on Tn ouyxwveuon Touq SiTi vopiJJei TI pnopei v o eXyxei, e^a^ovii^jovTq rei
OE va vo oojpo, OTnv EniOTiipn KOI OTOV Tpno TOU Tiq e^w-XoyiKq Xenoupyieq TOU av9pwmvou vou.
OKnTEoGoi. AXX aq OTa9ope Xiyo OTOV iSio TOV Op9oXoyiotJ
Miaq ptq K O I oiipEpa PpiOKpooTE OTO OTIO Tnq KQI OTn PaoiKii oirio nou oiipepo KOTappinreToi: TO pi
avTi9Eonq, SnXaSti Tnq npo|3oXnq TOU AvopGoXoyiopo TOU.
jq Novum Organum, (KQT' avTiSiooToXii npoq TOV Kap- H peyXn SiocjjOp TWV KOIVWVIKIUV an Tiq 9eTiK
roio), npnEi v ' aoxoXn9op p ' o u n i v SnXaSii, pe TOV emcmipeq, SiSa^e o Max Weber, eivoi n OTiq Serepe
Avop6oXoy\op, nou KOTOKT ouvExwq 5a(i)oq O (Spoq pnopeiq v a SioTunwoeiq v/jouq KQI VO Kveiq p ' auTOi
TOU OpBoXoyiopo, nou apxi^Ei v o onoTEXEi TO nopEX- npoliXipeiq. A v a^iioeiq va piiXo, 6a noei. OnwoStinc
Gv, OKpn KOI OTiq 9EnKq EmoTiipEq nwq TOUXXI- Te. AiTi unpxei o Npoq Tnq Baprnroq. O Avop6oXc
OTOV SEIXVOUV OI npwTEq EvSEi^Eiq. yiopq, Xomv, Sev eixe roi Kopi 6on o n q eriKq E
Ol unEpocjmoTq, Xomv, TOU OpBoXoyiopo, oo moTiipeq. Qq Sioio6non, wq evioio oXXnijJn TWV KOIVU
KaXmoToi K I ov EVOI, npoPXXouv r o E^iiq KEVTPIK E- viK(i)v (})aivopvwv eK TWV vSov (W. Dilthey), wq er
nixEipnpa: n XoyiKii Sinei r n f^wii paq, po nwq 9a EK- OTnpoviKii l i KoivwviKii oOpnon (K. KocrropiSnc
Siw^oupE Tn XoyiKii on r q v EmoTiipn; ' E T O I 6a KOToXii- PptiKe r n v npojTn 6on TOU OTiq KoivwviKq Emcmipeq-
^oupE OTO napciXoyo. T o X9oq Tnq yKsnoi aKpi(3wq TOi nwq opio9nKe on TOV KOTOOTaTiK xpTn TOU OK
OTO TI ouyxouv TOV Avop9oXoyiop pe TOV napoXoyi- nTeo9ai r n q paxnTiKiiq emoTiipnq, nou ouvTO^e n ^XoX
op, nou uniip^ pev ron Tnq noyKopioq rxvnq (oou- Tnq <t>pavK(t)opTnq.
pEoXiopq), oXX nor rnq Enioriipnq. ripdiToq O A'ivoTiv, 6eoe TO np|3Xnpa TOU Avop9c
O Avop9oXoyiopq, Xomv, K O T ' opxnv SE 9XnoE Xoyiopo KOI oTiq 9eTiKq emoTiipeq, cnw KQI pe ppec^
nor vo (l)pEi OTnv EniOTiipn TO nopXoyo. XnoE p- rpno: n 6ewpia Tnq oxeTiKTnToq eivoi npov Ka9ap-
vo v o EvowpoTioei o ' auTtiv to s^wAoyiK nou vnqpxe avop9oXoyiOTiKiiq oKijjnq, l i av 9XeTe, OKi|jnq eupTS
rjSq KOI nou n EmoTiipn Sev TO napaSexrav. Ynpxouv, pnq, OKil^nq aneXeu9epwpvnq an r a Seop r n q nenc
orn ^wri paq KOI o r n OKijjn paq, oXX KOI o r n Spon Tnpvnq XoyiKiiq ovciXuonq KOI SiaSiKooiaq. A v o Av.
paq, OTOixeia n o u aviiKOuv oe XXsq o(i)aipeq o n ' ouTiiv OTiv eixe npoonaBiioei v o OKE(p6ei KOI VO ouXXajiei r
rnq KopTeoioviiq XoyiKiiq: eivoi TO Zuvaio9npa, n ^ c i - 9ewpia TOU aKoXou6wvTaq pio npooeTiKii ypoppiK
VTooio, n 'Epnveuon, n Eni9upia, o MuoriKiopq KQI oKijjn, Se 6a eixe c])6aei noT crrn 66wpia Tnq oxeriKC
noXX XXo. AUT e^oPeXiornKov KoXcIjq TTe, nou n TnToq. Be|3aiwq KOI Tnv anSei^e crrepa pa9npaTiKC
emoTtipn npene va yevvn6ei pe KOioopiKti Topn, poa npjTo pwq r n ouvXoge pe rpno oxeSv l i Ka9api
o r n eoKporia TOU Meooiwva. KoTXn^e pwq o Op6o- KoXXirexviK, l i noiqTiK, pe r n v euprepn, pe rr
Xoyiopq ouTq OTn SiOTnwon crreyvwv, ^npwv, onoX- opxoioeXXnviKii vvoio r o u pou: r n v vvoia r n q Sr
Twv OTeyovonoinpvwv 6eo(t)Twv, nou rinoTe TO av- pioupyioq nou o(t)eiXeTai ornv epnveuon.
6pwnivo Sev xouv poa TOuq. An r o v Avoriv wq oiipepo, oi rexvoXoyiKq e^eX-
O Avop9oXoyiopq, SnXoSii, 6Xei va oup<|)iXiwoei ^eiq xouv oSnyiioei r n v Av6pwnrnTO OE SpopariK i :
Tnv emoTiipn pe Tn t;wn, r n oKijin pe Tnv rxvn, TO ep- nap^iOK EpwriipoTO. H TExviKii niiyE TOV 'AvGpwm
yooTiipia pe Tnv i|juxn, nou TOO onXuTo xwpioe o Op- oro (!)Eyypi: pwq, piinwq aur SEV Eivoi roo noX re
9oXoyiopq, KTW an TO oucnnp ovTiKeipevm TOU XvoXoyiK nppXnpo, oo (l)iXooo(j)iK; Miinwq, pXXo-
npiopa. Eivoi pwq noT SUVOTV O emornpoviKq nopo- eivoi r o onpeio nou ouvovribvroi n ^uoiKii pe r n Mera
TnpnTtiq v a anooTaoionoin9ei nXiipwq an TO ovriKeipe- (t)uoiKii; Miinwq eivai r o onpeio n o u o Op9oXoyiopq c

28 NEA KOINQNIOAOriA
5riYE' avayKaoTiKa orov AuopoXoviop; XiOTO ornv wq xBeq epneipio r w v 9eTiK)v eniornpwv
' ETOI an TOV AVOTIV nnyapE OTO ())eyyapi KOI an xwpiq vo XapPvovroi uni|jn, xovrpiK, oi peronoXepi-
TO (l)EYyapi ^ToapE OTIC; TEXEUTOIEC; BEwpiEc; xnc Ouoi- Kr efeXifeiq.
Kiiq, nou o(l)eiXovToi aKpi|3djq OTr\v npJTyvwpn Ena(|)n AvorpxovToq o r o nopeXBv, Sioniortijvoupe n n
TOU avQpcnou pE VEEq KOopiKc; SIOOTOEK;, pe VEC; V- BiopnxaviKti Enavoraon KOI O KoniroXiopq xouv wq
voiEc;, nou KVOUV oXKXnpn Tn onpEpivn EniOTnpn v o a n o p o i r n r n SiavonriKii npon9eon r o v Op9oXoyiop,
<I)aiveTai unepKepoopvn: pia a n ' OUTC; TIC; ecpiec; eivai pe r n v nio eupeio noXiriKti rou onpaoio. Xpeifjovroi xi-
ri Ewpio TOU Xaouq, nou ovTOvoKXaoeic; TnC pvo - XiSeq oeXiSeq y i o v ' ovonr^ei KOveiq o u n i v r n v 9on
(pGooav npoclJOTO cnnv EXXSa. K I xouv ypact)Tei XXwore x'XiSeq oeXiSeq. Srov o-
H PaoiKii 9on ounic; Tnq Oetpiaq eivoi TI OO n vrinoSo r n q XoyoKpariaq r o u KoniraXiopo, avanTx9n-
KXipaKo (n uXiKii, K Q T ' apxnv) ovePoivei, oo ([leyoupe Kov Si$opa KiviipoTO, rono9eropeva Xa o r o iSio iSe-
on TOV nXavriTn KOI peTacjjeppaoTe OTO enineSo TOU oXoyiK yeveooXoyiK Svrpo, ^eKivwvroq on TOV FO-
HXiOKou ZuoTtipaToq KI oTepa o ' OUT TOU FaXo^ia, urier KOV Tqv ouroniOTiKii r o u JTIoXireia, nepvwvroq on
TeivovToq oXovo npoq TO Xoq, TOO OI (})uoiKoi vpoi r o v MopKofJe nou ovrro^e orov rioAmofj r o v '-
(ouToi OTOuq onoiouq OTiipi^e o OpBoXoyiopq Tnv an- paiTO , rouq xinnuq KQI r o v Mio TOU '68 (H Oavro-
XuTn Kupiopxio TOu) SiooncVTai, noouv v o loxouv KQI oio ornv E^ouoio) KOI (])TavovTaq ornv OiKoXoyio r o u
TO xeipTepo: Sev unoKOioTOVTai on XXouq, peyaX- nopvroq.
Tepouq, eupTepouq vpouq. Ooouv v a loxouv wq v- OXKXnpn ourti n iSeoXoyiKii ypappti opveiroi wq
Ijoi, noei v a loxei o vpoq oav VVOIO. STO Spnav oreipo KOI nepiopioriK r w v ovBpwnivwv Spoornpiorii-
Kupiopxei TO Xoq. AvTioToixeq OKiljeiq Sev 9a ene- Twv KOt r n q EXEuGepioq rouq r o v Op9oXoyiop. Aev ei-
KTa9ope pnopov v o yivouv KQI y i o Tnv nupnviKti voi ruxoio XXwore nou Xoi ot ((jtXooo^iKoi KOI noXiri-
evpyeio. Koi eKnpownoi aurtiq r n q roewq ovrXov (})IXOOO(})IK
EneiSri Xomv o Kopoq paq SieupvEToi TExvoXoyi- UXIK an r n v avop9oXoyioriKti ' A n w AvoroXii KOI Ku-
K, eneiSti oe Xiyo 9a TO^iSeoupe Ka9npepiva oe X- piwq rtq IvSieq, nou o AvopGoXoyiopq anorXeoe ou-
Xouq nXavnxeq, n Op9oXoyiKn EnicTTtipn TOU oiipepo no- Xv KOt noXiTiKii np^n (nopSetypo n pn Pia r o u Ma-
ei vo eK(t)p?;ei TOV Kopo TOU otipepa. Flaei v o eK(})p- Xrpo FKavri).
l,e\v Kopo nou avripeTtonifJei TeXeiwq vo unap^ioK O AvopGoXoyiopq Se 0a npnei vo nape^nvnBei wq
npoPXtipoTO e^onioq Tnq TexvoXoyiKiiq e^Xi^nC- Avon- ron npoq r o nopXoyo KOI r n v au0aipeoia. o npnei
Spaorn Xomv npoPXXei n avyKn yio pio va Enicnn- vo eKXn(|)0ei wq n avoyKoio npon0eon yto r n v eKpe-
poXoyia, nou 9a XPei uniljq Tnq Tiq veq ouTq vvoiEq. TXXeuon r o u reportou IJJUXIKO KOI nveuporiKo nXo-
Mia va EnioTnpoXoyio, nou 9a EK^pf^ei TO Ziipepo rou r o u ovOpdinou, nou o Op9oXoyiopq euvoxioe pe
KOI TO Apio, npnei v o eivoi avoyKacniKa peTonoinp- rtq e^avrXnriKq r o u SioSiKooieq KOI r n v pvnon o-
vn, OKpo KOI XeKTiK. AuTiiv Tnv ovyKn KoXeiToi vo noiooSiinoTE 9oewq nou Sev pnopei vo anoSeix0ei pe r n
npooyyei o Avop9oXoyiopq, oupPXXovTaq cnn Sn- orevti api9pnriKti anSei^n- Aurti n peronoinon r n q Eni-
pioupyia ouTiiq Tnq Naq Enioriipnq, Kpanjjvraq an TOV oriipnq KOt r o u rpnou r o u OKnTeo9at Ka9iorarai ovo-
npoKrox r o u Op9oXoYiopo opiopvo onpeia nou e- yKoio, o r n peronoinon TOU onpepivo Kopou. Ev n E-
^aKoXou9ov v a loxouv, Karappinrovraq evreXdiq XXo niortipn Sev aKoXou9tioei r o v aupiov Kopo, KivSuveei
KOI peTanoiJvraq opiopva r p i r o . vo nepi9wpionotn0ei, va avrtKoraoraOei, ornv noXiriKii
O Op9oXoyiopq, (1)IXOOO<1)IK, eK(l)p?;ei uXiKq ox- rnq Kupiopxio, an XXeq pop(})q OKijjewq.
oeiq nou Sinovroi on pio oiSnp avayKoirnra rouX-

E n A m m m m E m m m
MEPOE A'*:H EHANAZTAZH
TOV XprjGTO K. AvayvajOTOv
H SiaXeKTiKti Ktvei Ttq tSeq on r n v e^yepon npoq
rnv enavoraon. TeXiKq OKonq rnq e^eypoewq eivot n rnv aneXeu0pwon on r i q uXiKq Koronioeiq r n q aori-
enovcrraon. AvriOrwq n Koivwvia r n q a({)0oviaq ouvrn- Kiiq KOivwvioq. H enavoraon xet nepinoei o r n Xti0n.
pei iowq r n v apcpioPiirnon K O I r n v e^yepon, oXX Sev H oxoXti r n q <tpayK(t)oprnq ((ipovei n n enavoraon -
(})9avei nor ornv enavoraon. Ka n KpiriKii r n q Koivw- Xn^e. 'Eyive no^ ev ovpari r o u npoXerapirou KOI
viaq r n q a(!)9oviaq, r n v onoio enexeipqoe n cJXoXti r q q o n q xwpeq r q q AvaroXmtiq Eupwnnq eneKprnoe KOI -
OpoyKctJOprnq, npoona9ei v o oupPiPoet r o KOIVWVIK <)epe o r o npypara rnv apiorep. AXX n apiorep au-
SeSopva Poet r n q ovoXoewq r o u K. Marx pe r o i|juxi- r t i , nap r o rt StoOrei KOI o r n Aon toxup epeioparo,
K SeSopva r n q iJ)UxavaXoewq r o u S. Freud. (p. H . rouXxtorov ornv nepioxii r n q iSeoXoyiaq, Sev aio0ve-
Marcuse, 'Eptaq K O I noXixicrjiQ, 1955). Aev ene^epy- r o i ao(t)aXtiq, ytari (t)oPeirat r n v ovrenavcrraon r n q o-
f^erai r n v enavoraon, oXX r n v aneXeuOpwon on rtq
*To MEPOE B (H ANTEnANAETAEH) 9a SnpooisuOsi aro e-
Koranioeiq r o u yevernoiou evoxiKTOu K O I ouyxpvwq
nfjevo Tsxoq.

NEA KOINQNIOAOriA 29
OTiKtic; T^Etc;. H avTenavaoraori yia Tr|v apiarepa 6a l i - riKriq roewq enavaororei q r^q r w v Siovooupvwv. 0 a
Tav ua Kivriija, iSeoXoviK, nveupaTiK r) C|)IXOOO<})IK, e^6yep9ei KOI Go eno voor orq oei Knoioq XXoq, o onoioq
n.X- O unap^iapc;, TO onoio 9a napei r n v nvepovia on Sev iKOvonoieirai pe n q nopoxq, n.x- o noiqrqq q o
To xpia Tnq apiOTepq. 0 a Tnq npei n q npwTo|3ouXieq, Siovoopevoq.
TO oKiinTpa KOI Tqv nv^oia KOI 0a Tpa(3n?ei TOV Kopo H Intelligentia Sev eivoi KOBXOU OTO nepiGwpio. Ena-
\ia,\U npoq TO pXXov. ' O o o KQI OV ^oiveTOi ooreio, vaororei, Siri O epyrqq, o onoioq aypooe ouroKiunro
OUT n opioTepo 5ev TO ovopdtjei enavoraon, oXX o- KOI KPei (3Xreq, Sev aoxoXeiroi Xyou xop'v Ka0Xou
vrenovaoraon, n onoia 0a r n q act)aip6oei r q v Enavora- pe r q v noinon. Ae Siagf^ei nor. H Siavqoq enavaoro-
on poo on r o xpia rnq. rei KOI 0a r o u onoei r o KecjjXi, nwq o ' H ^ o i o r o q -
H eiKvo r q q enavaoroewq, r q v onoio KoXXiepyei q cjnaoe r o KecjjXi r o u Aiq, yia v a yevvn0ei q ABqv, q
apiorep, eivoi pouoeioKq. AXX poToionovei. FIoo 0a 9ea r o u nveparoq. Mio yeXoioypacljia SEIXVE r o v Op-
Kparqoei pio ^e0u)piaopvq eiKva rqq enavaoroewq, q eSpo r n q XiXiiq Z. AXXivTE vo EKOcJiEvSovi^Ei r o K(t)a-
onoia ouvrqpeirai pe Xa r o yiOTpoo^ia r o u peooiwvi- Xaio r o u K. Marx OTO KE(f)Xi r o u xP'onavoSnpoKprn
Ko oxoXaoriKiopou; H enovorooq Sev y've ore Xq- avnnXou TOU <t>pi, o onoioq apuvpevoq r o u nerooe
^e. Fiverai SiopKwq KOI npKeiroi vo yivei oro pXXov. H TO 'AnavTQ r o u veo9wpiorii {t)iXoo(t)ou J . Maritain. O
E^yEpon npoeroipjei r q v enavoraon- Aev r q v evro- 0wpiopq eivoi q <t)iXooo<l)ia r o u wp TOU AKivrq, o
(jJiJei oure rqq iliXXei r a pvqpouva. Mnopei o Kopoq onoioq qrav o Kupirepoq eKnpownoq r n q oxoXaoTiKiiq
vo Tp(;)erai pe KXXUPO; Aev eivai Suvar, OKpq KOI OV (t)iXooo(|)iaq r o u peoaiwvoq. O i xP'oriavoi r n q Aoewq
qrav ourq q npayporiKq enovorooq. AXX Sev ei vai - ripov r n v nopSoon Tnq oxoXooriKiiq (l)iXooo(()iaq, ornv
Toi. ' O n w q 0a ovonruxOei KOTwrpw, q apiorep pXnei onoio orqpit;Erai KOI O VO0wpiopq. AXX oxoXaoriKq
r a npypara ovnoSa. Ovop^ei enavoraoq aur, r o EVOI KOI O pap^iopq KOI pXiora pEoaiwviKo rnou. O
onoio eivai avrenavoroon, KQI (t)o|3eirai r n v ovrenav- oXoKXnpwnopq r o u poq EnovoOpei o r o peooiwvo. Ka
orooq, n onoia pwq npKeiroi vo XOei wq enavoraon- onwoSqnore Sev oSeei npoq r n v enovorooq, oXX
T o o(l)aXpa r n q opiorepq eivoi n nepipvei r n v Enav- npoq r q v ovrenovoraoq. Ao(j)aXwq q Siavqoq Kare-
o r a o q xi on r q v Siovnoq, oXX an rouq epyreq, |3aivei KTW o r o Xo, oXX q yepq Siavqoq, xi auroi oi
poXovri o eionynTiiq ouTiiq r n q Gewpiaq Sev n r a v epy- eniSeppiKoi 6npooioypa(J)oi KOI oi Xoyorxveq, oi onoioi
rnq, oXX Siovoopevoq- AXX oi ouv0r|Keq XXa^ov, - orpareovrai o n q iSeoXoyieq eni OKonw Siopiopo KOI
nwq nopaTqpei KOI O H . Marcuse, ( C o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n KoroXiiiljewq pioq 0oewq, vovn nivoKiou (})aKiiq! O i nio
a n d Revolt, 1974): H eniKprnoq pioq pq enavooron- KoBapoi an r n v r^n TWV Siovooupvwv eivoi oi (})Oirq-
Kqq n pXXov avTenavaoTariKiiq ouveiSqoewq orqv rq. A u r o i Sev nepipvouv Sooiporo KOI SOKOXO oupgi-
nXeioi|>q(t)ia rqq epyoriKriq roewq eivai oXocpvepq. Au- PJ^ovToi. AnoreXov r n v epnpoo0o(})uXaKii r n q enava-
r onpaivei n oi epyreq Sev eivai nor enavaorTEq oroewq. H T^q rouq Sieupverai ouvexwq, yiveToi pa-
iowq Sev eivoi OTE ovrenovacn-req. ApKovrai o n q ^Kii K O I paxqriKq. T a Kprq gePaiwq KaroXoPaivouu
Koivwvmeq nopoxq K O I onepnoXov n q oropiKq KOI r o v KivSuvo KOI nepiopi^ouv r o v opiBp r w v eioayop-
noXiTiKcq eXeuBepieq. Touq Swoav xPqpoTa v o ayop- vwv o r a KpariK novenioriipia. loxei, nwq eivai yvw-
oouv auTOKivqro. O epyrnq KUKXocjJopei enoxopevoq.... OT, o KXeiorq opiGpq (numer us clausus), yia vo e-
Tl XXo 0Xei; N o KOiproi o r a nonouXo..., r i XXo 0- Xyxovroi oi evrq KQI oi eKrq r w v reixwv. 0 a npene
Xei O epyrqq; AXXa rre Sev xei Kavvo Xyo v a Kpei va KoropynBov oi (t)paypoi KOI vo onouSfjei noioq 0-
enavoraon. O i aouppiPooroi KVOUV r q v enavoraon- Xei. TTe r a KporiK naveniorqpio Ba pererpnovro oe
Koi auroi Sev eivai epyreq, oXX Siovoopevoi. T i XXo eXeBepa. T w p a r o Kproq eioyei eXeyxpevo opiBp
9Xei O epyrqq; Ayon KOI r n pp(!)waq; Aev anoKXeie- cj)oiTqTwv Ka rouq unoxeroi per r o npoq TWV onou-
r o i , oXX orqv nXeio(|jn4)ia r n q q epyariKti r^n ovnp- Swv SooipoTo, opyopioBieq KOI nivKia (J)aKqq. Touq
Xeroi r n pp(})won. T i vo r q v Kpei; Eivai movq vo pop- orXvei o r a OponXaio K O I ornv flXareia KXauBpwvoq
(pwQei; A v ^qriioei vo pop(l)w0ei, 0a npei vo unoKor- vo (})wv^ouv pe r o x ^ v i n BXouv SouXei KOI rouq
o r a r o noiSeioq, n.x- iSeoXoyio. O i KOivwviKq nopoxq KoroppoKtijvei. 'AXXo pwq eivoi n noiSeio KOI OXXO q
nivouv TOO orouq epyreq. K o i oi Ke^aXoiOKpario SouXei, repov eKrepov. A v oXX^ouv r o n o v e n i o r i i -
rouq Swoe xPnpoTO vo oyopooouv ,TI eni0upov. O i pia, 0a noXXonXaoiaoGei o apiBpq r w v (jjoiTqrwv. M i a
peTapop(J)woeiq rqq Ke^aXoiOKporiaq eivoi novnpq. To peyXn pepiSo r q q Koivwvioq, nepinou TO ev r p i r o v r w v
oupcjjpov Tnq enipXXei va SiSei x p q p a r a orouq epyo^- peXwv rnq, n nepioorepo (t>WTiopvn KQI n nepioorepo
pevouq, yio vo KaravoXwvouv nepioorepo ayaO KOI npooSeuriKii KOI KOT reKpiipio ove^prnrq. Ba anoreXei
va enou^vouv r n v napoywyq. A v r i vo Kparei r q v epyo- Tqv r^n r w v Siovooupvwv pe epnpooBo^uXoKii rouq
riKii r^n e^oOXiwpvq, XPnpoToSorei r n v KpomXq K O I (jjoirnrq. Auroi xi pvo Ba apcjjioPqnioouv r o Koreorq-
n q ovoeiq rqq. Ayop^Jouv oi epyo^pevoi ouroKivqro; pvo, oXX Bo e^eyEpOov, 0a enavaorartioouv KOI Ba
T o x p q p o r a (()eyouv on r o xp'o rouq KOI eniorpctiouv ro avarpi|Jouv.
orouq Ke(t)aXaioxouq, oi onoioi eivai oi iSioKTiireq r w v
powv r q q napoywyqq. ' 0 , T I SiSei q KeclJoXaioKporia H ap(t)ioPiirnon yevv r n v e^yepon. K o i q E^yEpoq
o r o v epyrq pe r o opicrrep xpi, r o u r o naipvei pe r o npoETOipJJei r q v Enavoraon. O i Siovoopevoi eivoi q
Se^i rqq. K o i o epyrqq naipvei r o ouroKivqro, enoxei- nXov euaioBqrq r^n- Aurq |3Xnei r n v Koranieon KOI
r o i KOI Kpei PXreq! KaX nepv. AKpq KOI OV Sev rnv oXXorpiwoq. 'Exei rqv oppq vo epeuv KOI ua Siog-
pnopei vo Kivq0ei, TOUXXIOTOV Se ppxeroi, AXX Sev i^Ei, va ijjxvei KOI VO nXnp0(t)0peirai, vo paBoivei, vo ou-
pnopov v o enavaorarqoouv oi epyreq. A v r i r n q epyo- ^inrei KOI VO SiaSiSei n q iSsq. MeyXq q onoaroXq rqq.
An n q iSeq nqy?;Ei q enavoracTq, yiori aurq peroSi-

30 NEA KOINQNIOAOriA
Sovxai eiq Xouq. ' Onwc; XEYE O ApioroTXric; (MET TQ ^q, q Xeypevq Tiers tat, q onoia nepieXpPove rouq a-
(tJuaiK, apxn), novTEq avGpwnoi TOU EISEVGI opyovToi oroq, epnpouq, enoyyeXporieq KOI eXeGepouq enoy-
(t)oEi. H EnavoToori 5EV EIVGI nXov noXiTiKii, GXXO yeXporieq (SiKqypouq, larpoq KOI ouyypa(|)eiq), oXX
pop0a)TiK!i KGi noXiTioTiKii. floXiTiKti EIVOI f] ovTenova- KOI rouq KaXXiepyqrq rqq yqq, enaveorrqoe evavriov
aToor). H noXmariKr) nporiyEiToi xriq noXiTiKnc; EnovGOTo- rqq eXw eo anXurqq povopxioq r o u AoSoPiKOu I Z T '
OEWc; KGi 5ioTr|peiTai wc; SiopKiic; EnavciOTGori, OKpri KOI ev ovpori r w v opxwv rqq eXeuGepioq, rqq lorqroq KOI
pET Trjv onoTuxia ti Trju cnoXiBwori pioc; noXiTrnrjc; Ena- rqq oSeXcJjoovqq. K o i Korqpyqoe r o npovpia r w v So
vGOTooEwq. T o 5uo pEyXa nopaSEiypoTG eivai TO Kivn- XXwv npovopioxwv r^ewv, r w v euyevibv KOI TOU KXT]-
pa TJV oo<t)ioTcJjv crrnv opxaia Anva KQI O SiacpojTiopc;, pou. T o oiKovopiK rnq foXXiaq eixav (jjGoei rre o r o
0 onoioc; npOEToipaoe Tnv foXXiKn Enavoraon. SUVE- pn nepairpw. O i peroppuGpioeiq TWV unoupytv Turgot
ncijq npJTO EnavooTOTov oi ISC;. ISEEC; eivoi oi yvwpEc;, KOI Necker npooKpouoov ornv avriSpaon rnq ouXiiq
01 ani|jic; KOI OI GEOEIC;. H EnavaoTaon yivETai poo KOI r w v euyevwv. O PooiXeq oneiXopevoq on xpsw-
ornv Koivjvio, n onoio Eivoi pero^ rnc; (J)o8jq KOI TOU Konia ouveKXeoe n q fevmq T^eiq (Etats Gnraux),
nvEupoTOc; n paXXov envu) on r n v (t)on KOI KTJ on SnXaSti rouq avnnpoownouq KOI TWV rpitv r^ewv, yto
TO nvEpa. A E V paq Ev6ia(t)pouv oi i6q KOG' eauTq, oi v a eyKpivouu vEq ([topoXoyiEq. Ot feviKq T^eiq ou-
onoiEq KoXXiEpyovrai crrnv nEpioxn TOU nvepoToq, oX- vtiXGov o n q BepoaXXieq Kexwptopvwq, oXX o PooiXeq
X n EniSpaon TWV iSedjv o r n v E^Xi^n xnq Koivwviaq. O i Sei^e 4)UXpTnra npoq rouq avrmpootbnouq rnq rpirnq
iSsq ouxq eivoi an4iEiq, yvwpEq KOI GoEiq, oi onoiEq roewq, oi onoioi r n v enopvq eKXeoav rouq ovrinpo-
yoviponoiov r q v aXXoyn r n q KOivwvioq. otbnouq r w v euyevwv KQI r o u KXqpou v a oupnp^ouv
H aXXoyn sivoi o OTxoq r q q snavaoToewq. T w p a orqv iSio oiGouoo. AUT eoqpaive Karpyqoq rqq Sio-
TO poxoipi (t)GaoE OTO KKQXO. H EnovoTOon 5EV Eivoi Kpioewq r w v Tpitijv r^ewv. K o i eneiSq q nXeio4in<l>ia r w v
pETOppGpion, aXX Koopoyovio oXXaynq. ' O X o n T- euyevwv qpvqGq, oi avrmpownoi rnq rpirqq roewq o r o
noTE, ouTq eivoi o Xyoq r n q EnovooTOEwq, o onoioq vopa r o u FaXXiKO 'EGvouq eKqpu^ov eauroq wq E-
loxEi onovToxo rnq ynq- EXeuGepia l i Gvaxoq, einav GvoouvXeuoq. H r p i r q r^q qrav q nXeioi|)q(l)ia vovn
oi EXXqveq Tn peyXn eKeivn o n y p n r n q enavooxoewq rwv So XXwv r^ewv. O PooiXeq Sev aveyviijpiae rqv
Tqq ave^opxnoioq, n onoio Sev ({)EpE pvo xnv EXsuGepio eGvoouvXEuoq KOI KXeioe r q v oiGouoo r w v ouveSpi-
xnq EXXSoq, oXX XXo^e pSnv Xq r n v noXniKii ye- oewv. AXX Ol avrmpownoi r o u 'EGvouq KorXoPav
wypa(})ia rnq BoXKovmiiq. O Kopoq npnei va oXX^ei, pio oiGouoa r w v ovoKrpwv, n onoio expnoipeue wq
Sixi O 0eq xei neGvei. H niorn OTO 6 e Snpioupyei 0(l)aipiOTqpio r w v OUXIKWV KOI Swoav r o v nepi(j)npo
OTouq ovGpibnouq Koprepio KOI oioioSo^io. A v o eq ' OpKo r o u Z<l)aipiornpiou. O ovoPpoopq r o u Xao e^-
enonreei TOV Kopo, nepirreei q enovoTOoq rqq oX- onaoe r n v 14 louXiou 1789. To pioqr (t)popio r q q Ba-
Xoyqq. Ev Toroiq, nwq eine o Fr. Nietzsche, o eq cn-iXXqq, o r o onoio qrav (|)uXaKiopvoi oi noXiriKoi KOT-
eivol veKpq!. Tre npnei vo neGvei KOI O PooiXeq, o SiKoi, neoe KOI KoreSa^ioGn. OXKXnpo r o noXoi KO-
onoioq eivoi o eKnpownoq TOU eo eni Tnq ynq- H Pa- Georiljq Korppeuoe. H EGvoouvXeuon ouvro^e o-
oiXoKTOvio oKoXouGei r n GeoKTOvio. O i AGnvoioi oxn- VToypo, crro onoio KOT r o npruno r q q ApepiKqq npo-
OGV oyoXpoxo oxouq TupovvoKTvouq AppSio KOI Api- ra^e r n v AiaKr|pu^r| xtov AiKaiu>paT(jjv TO A v 9 p d ) -
OToyeiTOVG. T a r p i a xapoKTqpiOTiK Tqq enovocjxoewq noi) K O I Tou rToXixri.
eivol n Pn^n pe xo napeXGv, n npocJjqTeio TOU pXXo- H FoXXiKii enavoraoq enePePoiwoe r q pq^q pe r o
VToq KOI q oyKpouoq oro nopv. napeXGv. O i a o r o i ^qrooav eXeuGepieq Kivqoewq,
H pq^q pe TO napeXGv GepeXiwvei TO oirqpo r q q oX- (l)povqpTwv K Q I Xyou. K o i KorpGwoav vo ovorp-
Xoyqq. H oioioSo^io rqq niorewq Sev rop^ei TO PooiXeio i|jouv va novioxupo onoXuropxiK KoGeorwq, r o onoio,
TOU eo. Ev pwq o eq eivoi veKpq, r n v aioioSo^io yio va enipepoijoouv r n v pii^n Touq npoq TO napeXGv,
SioSxeTGi n anoioioSo^io, q onoia anoreXei r o GeppoKii- ovpaoav naXoi KoGeorcbq (ancient rgime). AXX n e-
nio r o u pnSeviopo. O pnSeviopq r w v a^icJjv anoreXei novoroon orpctJerai KOI npoq r o pXXov. Xei v a o-
rqv onapxn Tqq pq^ewq pe r o napeXGv, q onoio ouvexi- varpijjei r o napeXGv, oXX crrq Goq r o u v a oiKoSopq-
Jerai orqv e^yepoq KOI oXoKXqpwveroi orqv enovoTO- oei pio va r^q npayprwv, r n v onoio aperoi an r o
on- H enavoraon Sio^pei an r n v e^yepoq KOT r o pXXov. K O I eneiSii r o pXXov eivai oparo, q enov-
n o u n i opxi^ei an r n v iSo, evw n e^yepon ovePoivei o r o o q r o npo(})nreei. To KaXrepo nopSeiypo npo<])n-
on r n v epneipio npoq r n v iSo. H eXeuGepio KOI n lo- reiaq r o u pXXovroq poq npoocppei o OpopnGeq, o eu-
rnq eivol ornv opxn Xwv r w v enovooroewv. H SIKOIO- epyrqq rqq avGpwnrnroq. Aurq enaveorrnoe KOT
ovn eniPXXei r n ovGeon, n onoia Sev eivoi ovooroXq, rou Kprouq r o u Aiq, o onoioq n r a v o n a n i p r w v e-
oXX perpiaopq rqq eXeuGepiaq KOI rqq lorqroq. Tiq i - wv. Koi KXeijje on r o v ' OXupno r o nup, r o onoio npo-
Seq r o u J . J . Rousseau ( D u c o n t r a t s o c i a l , 1762) eniKa- o(l)epe wq Swpo orouq avGpjnouq, Siri pxpi rre rouq
XeiTOi O AouSoPiKoq de Saint Juste yio r q v Gavrwoq l i r o v yvworo. H u p KOT r o v HpKXeiro eivoi o Xyoq,
rou PaoiXwq AouSoPiKou E T ' , r o v onoio oSqynoav ro nvepa. To nup pxerai on r o pXXov K O I (Jjpvei
OTO iKpiwpa. H PooiXeio r w p o Gewpeirai yKXqpa. Ka o orouq avGpwnouq r n v oXXayti. AXX o Zeuq e^wpyioGn
PooiXeq npnei vo oSnynei o r n Xoipnrpo. O pooiXeq KOI enpibpnoe r o v enovoordrn. Aira^e rouq So unqp-
pwq nrav o eKnpownoq r o u eo eni rqq yqq. Ooiq req r o u , r o Kpdroq KOI r q Bia, v a r o v ouXXdPouv KOI VO
eq; AnGove o eq. T o Ynproro O v eivai o voq r o v e^opioouv orov KQKOOO. EKei aXuoooSepvoq un-
eq rnq GpnoKeioq r n q Xoymnq, TWV (JJIXOO^WV KOI (jJEpE o euEpyrqq rqq ovGpwnrqroq, EVJ voq yunoErq
TWV SiKqypwv rqq foXXiKqq enavaoroewq. H r p i r q r- rou TOipnoXoyooE TO qnap, pxpiq rou onoGdvei. A u r a

NEA KOINQNIOAOriA 31
naGe o oraaiaaTiic; Kara TOU KpoTouc; TOU Aiq. AXka o ^n Tnq rvolte KQI rqq rvolution, oi onoiEq pwq KOT-
AioxXoq (Flpopn^; Oup^poq) ovoYY/VXsi TI OI ri- y o v r o i on r n v i5ia pi^o. H n p w r n EVVOEI Tnv E^yspon,
ppec; TOU Aiq eivoi peTpripvec; KOI TI KnoTe 6a Xri evw n Erepn r n v enavoraon- Epwrre n eivai n OT-
ri PaoiXeia TOU EnovaoTaTT) npopr|6u)c;. on; Sron eivoi n PiKpii enavoraon l i pXXov pia ony-
To nov 6a Kpi6ri orri oYKpouon TOU napvToq. H E- pn r n q pn oXoKXnpwpvnq enavaoroewq, n.x. n oron
novaoToori 6EV EIVQI ouTonia, r\o an8u6vTai OTO rou NiKQ OTOV IrmSpopo r n q KwvoravnvounXewq.
pXXov. EnoYYXXETOi va OXX^EI TO napEX6v KOI VO (pk- Flwq Xeye o Hevo(l)wv (EXXtiviK, F ' 1)! H pev 5n A6ri-
pei TO pXXov poa OTO nopv. E5a) yivEToi oyKpouon, vnoi oroiq orwq ereXernoev. Qpoia nXi r a eXXnvi-
n onoia pETpxETOi Tn Pio. O pXoc; Tnq Pioq cnr\v Enava- K! Zron eivoi n pepiKii K O I pn Ka6oXiKn enavoraon
oTaon eivoi onpovTiKq. H Pio Eivai TO EpyoXEio Tnq aX- on npooipio, n npwrn eKtiXwon r n q enavaoroewq.
Xoyiiq. Xjpiq Pio 5E yivETOi EnovoTaon. AXX Tn Pio KupioXeKrei ouvnwq o r o vonXo r p n p a r a , rav orooi-
Xpnoiponoiov eE, ioou o pn5Eviopq KOI n E^yEpon ai])' l^ovv KQT r n q apxnq r o u Kprouq. Kor r o v FIOIVIK
Evq KOI acj)' ETpou n avTenovoraon K O I o nXspoq. Kw5iKa noiviKonoiovrai r o oSiKnparo r n q oroewq KQI
EninXov n Pia sivo o vpoq Tnq (^oewq, o onoioq KU- rnq avnoroewq, evw npKeirai yio noXiriKq evpyeieq,
piopxEi Enionq OTOV Kopo Tnq il^uxnq. ' O T I xapOKTnpi^ei 01 onoieq napepPXXovroi o n q 5ia5iKaoieq rnq enovocn--
Tn pio Tnq enovooTOEwq, eivoi o Xyoq, 5nXa5n TO Xo- oewq r n q Pioq. Flpiv on r n oron unpxei n a v r i o r o o n ,
yiK ( n p . H . Marcuse, AoyiK K Q I E n a v a o x a a n , 1940). n onoia eivoi na6nriKn n evepynriKii. 'AXXo npypa ei-
H EnavoTQon eivai Xyoq KQI pio. EnovoTOon xwpiq vai n cnon epyooioq, n onoia onpaivei r n SioKonii Tnq
Xyo ouvTpipEToi. Troio ITOV TO Kivnpa TOU ZnpTOKOu epyooiaq oe vSei^n Siapoprupioq. H yeviKr) onepyio KQI
OTnv opxoio Pcbpn. O ZnpTOKoq yEvvnOeiq o r n OpKn, oi KaraXrnl)eiq KTipiwv evrooovroi o r o KXipo r w v ouvn-
aXX KOToypEvoq an Tn Noupi5ia KOI niBovcbq eE, EU- 6wv ouv5iKaXionKwv KivnTonoinoewv, oi onoieq Sev a-
yEvtbv yovjv, EXinoTKTnoE KQI 5ouXc6eiq yive povo- noPXnouv o r n v enavoraon r n q Pioq. T a o u v r d y p o r o
pxoq. E^nyeipe Touq povopxouq, 5nXa5n 5oXouq KO- per r n FaXXiKn Enavdoraon ovnyayov oe unproro vo-
TaSiKoopvouq n vo OKOTWOOUV l i vo OKOTU)6OV npoq po r n v a v r i o r a o n KOT r n q rupovviaq (FIS. A i a K i i p u ^ n
iljuxoycyia TCV Kupiwv KOI TOuq enpreive ioa SiKoitbpo- xtov AiKaicjiidxtv xou Avpwnou Ka xou FloXixn,
TQ pe TOuq Kpiouq KOI nponavTq eK5iKnon. EiSape r n 1793, a p B p o 35): ' O x o v n KuPpvnon napaPi?;ei xa
oxpoxi xwv 5oXwv v a eXeu6epwvei xouq 5oXouq KOI SiKoitijpoxa xou Xao, n enavoxoon anoxeXei yia xo
vo xouq 6i5ei yio unnpxeq xouq xouq noXoioq Kupiouq. Xo KOI yio K6e xpnpo xou xo lepxepo xwv SiKaiwp-
H eK5iKnon 6piapPeei, oXX Xeinei o Xyoq. K o i npy- xwv KOI xo nXov onopoixnxo xwv KonKvxwv.
paxi O ZnpxQKoq 5ixa^e vo OTOupwoouv va Pwpoio
H enavoxoon eivoi n navnyupiKii envoSoq xnq
noXiTn xpiv eKiKiioewq. AXX n OTpOTi TOU unoxwpei,
piaq. O l nveupaxiKoi v6pwnoi xqq npoXeioivouv xo -
yio v a 5iX0n cnn ZmeXio. Tov KaToSiwKei o Kpoooq,
Sa(l)oq. O Xoq (xo peyoXxepo l i piKpxepo xpnpa xou,
apxnyq TWV pwpaKwv Xeyedjvwv, KOI TOV VIK. A X X O
pio x^n va opoxayq nXtioq, nwq o orpoxq) e^e-
npwnv povopxoq ne6aivei on pXipo Knoiou pio6o(()-
yeiperoi, eneiSr) nioxeei n K o r a n a r w v r o i r o vpipo KOI
pou, O onoioq ovnKe cnqv i5ia r^n pe TOV SnpTOKO.
onopypanro SiKaiwpor r o u . KoroXei n q opxq r o u
H anouoio TOU Xyou 6EPEXIWVEI TO nopXoyo Tnq u- Kprouq, n q avriKa6iOT KOI Tipwpei rouq evxouq rqq
np^Ewq. To nopXoyo Tp(|)Ei r n v E^yEpon. H Enov- aSiKioq. Aev eivai enavoraon onoiaSiinore avarponn
OTaon xEi Tn XoyiKii Tnq. AKpn KOI n ovTEnovaoToon pioq noXiTiKiiq roewq. H enavoraon eKpnyvuroi pe r n
EniKoXEiTOi TO Xyo TOU Kprouq (raison d ' tat), EVW O oyKpouon So iSeoXoyiJV n P'aq iSeoXoyiaq KOI pioq
nXEpoq unoKOEi o r n SioXEKTiKii, nwq Xyei o Hp- ouronioq. H ouronio eivoi nvroTE xapvn- KspSi^Ei n i -
KXeiToq ( a n . 53). FlXepoq nvTwv pev noTnp, novTwv SeoXoyio. O Kovioprq r w v iSeoXoyiwv uiliwveroi per
5e PooiXeq. H Pio npoxwpei Pa6pn5v. O pn5eviopq r n v enavoraon- H enavoraon Sev eivai eivoi onXii pe-
eK6eii^ei r n pio yio r n Pio. T o nopXoyo Tp^ei r q v e^- rapp6pian, oXX piOKii avarponn. H perapp6pion ei-
yepon. O enovooTornpvoq v6pwnoq, yio vo (|)6OEI voi aXXoyn Sio xnq napaSeKxiiq oSo, evw n enavoxo-
OTnv e^yepon, onpaivei n 5ev iKOvonoieiTOi pe r n v on eivoi aXXoyii Sio xqq Pioq. ' Oxov enX6n n Piaia pe-
SioTeraypvn T^n Tnq piaq, r n v onoia enPoXe TO Kp- xaPoXii, Sioppnyvexoi xo u(|)ioxpevo vopiK Ka6eoxwq.
roq (povopxio KOi oXiyopxio) n n 6npoKparia wq ov6e- H enavoxoon eniPXXei xn Xnoii xnq KOI Snpioupyei
on r n q auTOpxioq KOI rnq ovopxioq. O ev e^eypoei v- vo SiKQio KOX xo o^iwpo: Enavoxoon eniKpoxiioaoo
pwnoq 5ev iKovonoieiroi pe ourv r o v rpno KOTOVO- Snpioupyei SiKaio. Ao(t)aX)q npKeixoi yio xo 6exiK Si-
piiq r n q Pioq ore pE r n 5ia(()uyn o r o (fipvnpa pETO^ Koio, SnXaSn yio xouq vpouq, xo 6ipa KOI rouq Xoinoq
rnq iSEoXoyioq KOI r n q ouronioq. BXnEi n unpxei Ko- KOVveq SiKoiou. AXX ouyxpvwq 6eriKonoiei KQI apxq
ranieon on r n v nXeup r o u Kprouq, oXX KOI OXXO- rou (jjuoiKO SiKoiou, OTO vopo r w v onoiwv yive n e-
r p i w o n on r n v nXeup r w v onXwv av6pwnwv. Tre navoroon- Tre pwq n enavoraon on nopvopn yi-
npoo<|)eyei o r n Pia r n q enavaoroewq, n onoio npoxw- vETOi vpipn, ooKei r o povonuiXio r n q vpipnq Pioq KOI
pei oroSiOK: pn5eviopq, e^yepon, enavoraon, avre- opyovwveTOi oe SipKeio- AXX Sev ovoyvwpi^ei nXov
novoraon KOI nXepoq, TO oxoro OT5IO r n q Pioq. TO SiKoiwpo npoq va enavoraon- Aur r o SiKoiwpo
SieKSmei n avrenavoroon-
H enavoraon, nwq eXx6n, 5ia(t)pei on r n v e^-
yepon. Qpaio r o eXXqviK! O i Eupwnoioi xvovroi pEro-

32 NEA KOINQNIOAOriA
Danil Bell AIE0NH PEYMATA
HmAmiMMoeAEmoiA
(anonaona an TO /Si^Aio TOU D. Bell, THE WINDING PASSAGE, ESSAYS AND
SOCIOLOGICAL JOURNEYS, 1960-1980, NEW YORK BASIC BOOKS HARPER,
1980, aeX. 144-164, {jsTa<ppaojjvo an TOV MeAsTrj MsAsTnouAo).

O poc; -T] \5ea- piaq vaq T^riq (Z.T.M.: KOivwvi- nou OOKOV enionq e^ouoia, eivot n anouoio peonq eu-
Ktiq T^nq) sivai pia aXriBivii YXwoooXoviKii KOI KOIVCJJ- 6vnq yto n q npoKTtKq unoGoetq. AUT TO xapoKrnpi-
vioXoYiKii oYXuori. Eivot TO opoXYapo 5uo evvoitv: Trjq OTtK em(5)pet yevtK vo XXo: o Stovoopevoq Sev xet
Ep(J)avior|q Evq vou KOIVJVIKO OTpojfjamc; KOI Triq o- Kopio peon yvjon, a(J)o pvo n entTmo epnetpio
pu|3j5ouq Kcjjpooriq pioq noXmoTiKtiq ovpnspicpopaq. TOU eniTpnet vo npet ouTtiv Tn yvwon. H KptTtKti TOU
Eivot oXiiGEio Tt, ouYXPvjq pE ir\n Tqq pETO- OTon npopxerot OKpiPwq on TO yeyovq Tt o Stovo-
PtoprixavtKtiq Kotvjvioq, vo vo enoYYEXpoTtK KOt TE- opevoq PpioKeTOi oe pio KoroToon Seoro KOt o n q
XVOKpOTtK KOlVJVtK OTpcbpO Ep(t)avia6r|KE KOTO Tri neptoorepeq nepinrwoetq, oe pio KOTOToon Knoiou
StopKEio TJV TEXeuToiJV SeKOETttijv, nponovTq OTouq o n ' ^w on Tnv npoypoxtKxnxo.
PtopnxavtKoq TopEiq (EKnoiEUori, UYeio, pEuvo, TEXVI- (...)
Kti, StoiKHori) KOt Tt O opiBpq TJV BoEwv epYooioq Auxti n on unocrrnpif^exot pe neptooxepn OKpn 5-
aufjtiriKE nEptooTEpo OTO Sripoto ropo. Eivot E^ioou vopn on xov F.A. Hayek. Sxo pGpo xou Ot Stovoo-
aXt^Eto n o p ' Xo nou TO npOYpaTO ESOJ Eivot nto o- pevot KOt o ZootoXtopq (The Intellectuals and Sociali-
aai^f] Tt noXtnoTtKq KOt noXtrtKq KptTtKq r o u no- sm, University of Chicago Law Review, vot^n 1949),
poSooiOKO KontToXtopo (nopo r o yeYOVq Tt Eivot nto ypcftet:
pETOppuGpioTiKq on EnovooroTtKq) YSVtKEBriKov o n q (...) H epnetpio xet Sei^et xt (....) n yvwon TWV Sto-
pop(t))pveq ro^Eiq KOt Epcftavii^ovTOt Tjpo KupiopXEq voopevwv KOToXtiyei vo yivet n KoreuGuuTtipio ypappti
OTO noXtnoTtKO neptoStKO. AUT nou Eivot XtyTEpo oo- Tnq noXtTtKtiq.
(t)q, Eivot n oxon ovopEOO o ' ouxq Ttq So vsq npoy- Kot pwq, eivat e^oou oXtiGeto xt ot Stovoopevot
poTtKrnTEq. Ot unooTnptKTq r n q toq r n q voq xo^nq untip^ov onpovxtKoi Ropeiq KOivwvtKtiq oxaBepxnxoq oe
GEojpov xt Stooxoupjvovxot xXEto. ZKnxopot, etStK- noXuptBpeq x^Peq, pe nevxoKGopo nopSetypo xnv
xEpo xov David T. Bazelon (nou psXxnoE Kupiwq xo KOI- PtKxwpiovti AyyXio.
vJvtKO oxpojpoxo) KOt XOV Irving Kristol (nou v6ia(t)p- (....)
0nKE Kupijq yto n q noXtxtoxtKq Kot noXtxtKq 6oEtq). ' O o o v a(!)op xnv tSo xnq voq x^nq, pe ,xt op-
Ae ouppEpifjopot xtq nenoitioetq xouq KOI 6a npoonoGti- (t)iPoXiEq auxti nponoxei, ytvav xooeptq onpoivouoeq
oj ej vo 5taypai|)j xo toxopiK XOJV SO OUTIIJV Tooe- toxoptKq oXXoyq.
jv KOt vo peXenioj wq npoq n ouvSovxot. 1. H npwxoKQeSpio xou 4>tXeXeu9eptopo: n npw-
H tSa xnq voq x^nq yevvixot, oxnv npoypoxtK- xn oXXoyti untipxe n oXoKXnpwxtKti e^octJvton K6e Se-
xnxo, on xnv npoKxoon xwv ovoXoewv TOU Joseph ?tq ti ovxtSpooxtKtiq ti npwxo^ootoxtKtiq emppotiq oxqv
Schumpeter KOt TOU F . A . Hayek yto Touq Stovoopevouq. nveupoxtKti Kotvxnxo. AeSopvou xt o Aexepoq FIo-
ZTO pyo TOU KontraXiopq, ZootoXtopq KOt Anpo- yKoptoq FlXepoq eixe ep(]jovto6ei oov voq SiKotoq n-
KpoTio O Schumpeter Pe^oiwoe n o KontToXtopq ou- Xepoq KOX xou (pootcjpo, Ol tSeoXoyieq xnq Se^iq, KO-
To-unovopeeToi npOTeivovroq vav Tpno Jwtiq eKXo- 6wq KOt ot npoowniKxnxeq xou nveupoxiKo KOI KOXXI-
ytKeupvo Kot pTpio, cnepopevo npwtopo. xexviKo Kopou nou uneponi^av xo SIKOI xnq PpBn-
Kov ovonOeuKxo oe Oon ovo^iomoxiaq. Evw n avxt-
AeSopvou n TO XpnpoTiOTtipto eivot vo nevixp SpooxiKii eniSpoon untipxe npoe^pxouoo ornv npono-
unoKOTaoToxo yto Tn Otipeuon TOU fKpooX (Z.T.M.: ou- XepiKii eupwnoiKii KouXxopo, Kovvoq on xouq onoXo-
yKpivEt eSj TO tSewSn TOU KontToXtopo pe TO iSewSn ynxq xnq Se^iq Se Sioxiipnoe o^iomoxio ti noXixiKti e-
Tnq npoPtopnxaviKtiq tnnoovnq, nou ot popovTtKoi o- niSpoon. (....)
vxiKanixoXtoxq entKoXovroi ouxv ot Stovoopevot u- 2. H ep^vion xwv pexo-PiopnxaviKwv o^iwv: xo xp-
niip^ov ot npwxot nou emxGnKOV KOX XOU ouoxtipoxoq. vio pex xo 1945 epcjjovionKov, oxiq SuxiKq x^peq, au-
riotoi eivot ot Stovoopevot; H nepieppovnxtKti Kcjjpoon x nou ovpooo pExa-PiopnxaviK xopoKxnpioxiK cn-ov
xou AoKO xou OuXXiyKxov ypa(l)tSeq eivot no- xexviK KOt cnov oiKovopiK xopo. Yn piov vvoio, ot
X crrevti, oXXo npopqOeet poXoxoxo OTOV Schumpeter pExo-PiopnxaviKq o^ieq PooionKov oe piov onxeio o-
vo onpeio eKKivnonq: Xovo KOt nto ({)OVEpti yto xov uXiop KOI Enionq oxqv o-
Ot Stovvoopevoi eivot Topo nou OOKOV e^ouoio ^lonoinon xnq noixnxoq ^wtiq nopoSEiypoxoq xapiv pE
Sta xou ypanxo KOI XOU npo<;)optKo Xyou KQI pio on- xo vSia(]jpov yto xo nEpi^XXov, xn pXuvon KOI XXO
Xpwon nou xouq StoxwpiJ^et on TOuq XXouq ovpwnouq noppoio 9paxa. Auxq oi o^ieq evioxuoav xo POOIK

NEA KOINQNIOAOriA 33
(|)iXeX8u6epioiJ nou Kupiopxei o i n SuTiKri noXixiKr) eScI) xXeopa KXipoKwx, nou enixpnsi oe poxnxmq peioi|;n-
KOI nevnvTG xpv\a. AXXa oi Sonmq nXsupc; rnq HSTO- (l)ieq vo opyovwvovxai nio anoxeXeopaxiK. (....)
PiopnXCviKnc; 8noxn<; KOI p6TaiJOp(t))OEi(; xnq enay- 4. H avxmoXixeuxiKi KouXxopo: n K(t)paon KQI n ^
yeXpaxiKtic; Soiitic; xnq Koiuwviaq - npopxovxai an xe- Sa aviKOuv oxov Lionel Trilling. Zxov npXoyo xoo
XvoXoyiKq KOI enioxnuoviKq aXXayq, nou ennpeJ^ouv "Beyond Culture" (1965), o Trilling eneotipave: KGe h
xov opyaviop xqq oiKovopiaq: n crrpaxnyiKii npioxoKO- oxopiKq xnq oyxpovnq Xoyoxexvioq Go Gewpiioei eno-
GeSpia xqq naiSeioq KOI xnq yvwonq, o voq KOI OVOVE)- ^iwq KoxoKxnpvn xqv ovxmoXixeuxiKii npGeon, xnv KG-
xiKq pXoq nou 5ia5papaxi^Ei n GswpnxiKn yvwon oxqv Gop ovoxpenxiKii npGeon, nou xapOKxnpit^ei xo po
psuva KOI oxnv ovonxu^n, nwq K O I oxqv noXixmii, n vxpva Keipeva. O Trilling, npnei vo xo nope, Sev KG-
ou^ovpevn onpaoio xwv enioxnpoviKwv Piopnxaviwv xKpive ouxiiv xnv npGeon. Ynnp^e vaq on xouq np(i)-
oxo SsxEpo pio xou EiKooxo aiwvo (yio nopSeiypo n xouq unooxnpiKxq xou povxepviopo KOI, u n ' ouxtiv xqw
nXsKxpoviKti, n nXnpo(t)optKn,...) KOI n ovnxu^n xnq iSixnxG, eixe unoXoyioei xqv aneXeuGepwxmii xou Sva-
SiovonxiKnq XExvoXoyiaq, nou onoxEXsi xo Kupiopxo pn. AXX, pe xo npoopa xwv xpvwv, eixe avaGewpiioa
XOpOKxnpioxiK ouxtiq xqq e^Xi^nq, KOX XOV i6io xpno opiopva on xo anoxeXopox xqq. ' O x o v o Herbert
ps xnv pnxciviKii xsxvoXoyio oxnv PiopnxaviKr) Koivwvio Marcuse (Sepoiwve oxo " A n essay on liberation" xi n x-
xou nopsXGvxoq. Xvn pexaSiSsi pia avxiKeipevmn aXnGsio nou Se yivexcn
(....) npooixii pe xn ouvnGiopvn epneipia, o Trilling pwxooe
3. H snovoxoon oxqv riaiSeia: Zxo xsXsuxoia ne- (p' vav xpno n o u xov ^cjjviof^e pXXov xov iSio): KOI
pinou oopvxo XPvio, 01 Hvwpveq OoXixeieq npaoav ov n xxvn Sev Xeye nvxoxe xnv oXnGeio n xnv KX-
xepn oXiiGeia KGI av Sev Seixve nvxoxe xo owox Sp-
on va ooxnpa eKnaiSsuonq SXIXIOXIK, O ' vo ooxn-
po; K o i av n xxvn pnopooe OKpa KOI va Snpioupyn-
pa XOYIK KI oxepo o ' vo ooxnpa po^K. ' O n o i o KOI
ei xo ipeSoq KOI va paq ouvnGioei o ' aux;
va eivai n yvwpn nou xei Koveiq yio xnv noixqxo xnq
eKnoiSeuonq xou nXnGuopo, Sev pnopei vo opvnGei xi H ovxinoXixeuxiKn npGeon nepiopijxav XXoxe o ' -
n eKnoieuon xei yivei K O I xo yeyovq eivai xapoKxq- vov nepiopiopvo apiGp ovGpwnwv KOI pywv. H KOXQ-
pioxiK pio an xiq nio onpovxmq Piopnxovieq xwv oxaon XXa^e oiipepa, nwq o Trilling unoypppioe. ESw
Hvwpvwv OoXixeiwv nepioorepo on xo pio xwv v- KOI xpivxa xpvio, xo riavenioxnpio ep(!)avi?;xav oav
wv nepvov on xo navsnioxiipio KOI voq peyXoq o- pio noXixvn ouvxnpnxiopo. Aiyoi vGpwnoi Go xnv xa-
piGpq oxpwv epyJ^ovxai oxnv SKnoiSsuon (nspinou 3,2 poKxnpiJ^ov xoi onpepa. M i a noooxiKti Sia(j)opa ep^ovi-
SKOXopppio), on xouq onoiouq ypw oxouq 600.000 oxnKe oxn oxon pexa^ xnq avxinoXixeuxiKiiq KOUXXO-
oxnv avwxepn eKnaiSeuon. poq KOI xnq KOivwvioq.
(....) H Sia(])op pnopei va pexa(t)paoGei noX onX oe a-
Aev eivai eSw o KOxXXnXoq x ^ p o q Y'Q va ou^nxii- piGpnxiKoq pouq noX nepiooxepoi an XXouq ei-
ooupe yio xqv eniSpooq n o u onoSiSoupe oxnv noveni- voi ouxoi n o u uioGexov xo ovxmoXixeuxiK npypoppa.
arnpiOKii eKnaiSeuon- AXX oi KOivwvioXyoi xviJ^ov n- Mexo^ xou 1925 KOI onpepa, pio onpavxiKr) opSo ou-
vxoxe XI xa xopo nou xouv OKoXouGnoei ovwxepeq yKpoxiiGnKe, xnq onoioq xa pXn Gewpov xi n iSo xqq
onouSq eivai, oxo ovoX xouq, nio (t)iXeXe9epa vo- ovxinoXixeuxiKtiq iSeoXoyioq evvoeixai on pvq xnq. Au-
vxi pn oiKovopiKwv f^nxnpxwv KQI nio ove^pxnxo o n q xti n opSa xapoKxnpii^iexai xt pvo on xo ou^ovpevo
eKXoyiKq xouq eniXoyq. 'AXXo yeyovq e^ioou onpa- epoq xnq, oXX KOI on xnv oXova KOI nto loxupii ou-
voxti xnq. Mnopope Vo xn Betupnoupe x^n- Qq xxoio.
vxiK, n ovnxu^n xnq eKnaiSeuonq xei enionq vo ano-

34 NEA KOINQNIOAOriA
auTti r| T^n Z,ei EawxEpiKc; ouyKpouoEK; KQI avan(()Eu- oXiijn, r n v evioxuon xnq eKnoiSeuonq K.Xn. (....)
KTEc; avTi^aoEiQ, aXXa xa pXri xqq poipfjovxai Enionq 0 xpixoq nopywv, nou nreroi r w v rexvoXoyiKwv e-
Koivq nponoGoEiq KOI oupcjJpovxa KOI pio o^ioonpsi- novooroewv nou ovoorrwoov n q eniKOivwvieq KOI n q
(jxn onoxEXsopaxiKxnxo opyavwonq, oxo onpsio paXi- ouyKOivwvieq, eivoi n oXXnXe^prnon oXovo KOI nio
oxo vo XEIXOUPYOV OOV BEopq. orevr) nou Kupiopxei orqv KOivwvia KOI nou Kvei n q
FiG xov Trilling, n ovoSoq piaq ovxmoXixEuxiKiiq oXuoiSwrq ovriSpoeiq va pnv eivoi nio roniKq, oXX
KOuXxopaq, xn oxiypn nou oi cfiopEiq xnq EIVOI xwpo ap- eGvmq (....)
KETo noXudpiBpoi yia v o oxnpcTioouv pio x^n, EXEI TXoq, SeSopvou n n oXXnXe^prnon eivai Xo KOI
uo npoPXnpoxa: xo npwxo, Eivai o i oxoEiq avanEoa nio lOxupii oe pia omovopia nou Xenoupyei oe noyK-
oxnv ovxmoXnEuxiKii KouXxopo KOI xn pEOoio xo^n- opio KXipoKo, r o PooiK oiKovopiK f^nTiiparo (....) Sev
(....) To SexEpo KOI iocoq xo nio onpovxiK yio xov pnopov va yivouv ovriKeipevo Sianpoypreuonq nap
Trilling, nou BELopei xiq ovBpiunioxiKq onouSq KOI xnv pvo pero^ e9viKwv Kparwv KOI n oiKovopiKii noXiriKii
XoyoxExvio oov xo KOX' ecoxnv nEio xnq nveupoxmnq rnq xwpoq ooKei KecJjoXaiwSn eniSpoon nvw o r n v noXi-
f^jriq eivoi n oxon xnq ovxmoXixEuxiKtiq KouXxoupaq riKn T^n-
pe xouq iSiouq xnq xouq TopEiq KOI XO i5io xnq xo iSovi-
Tourxpovo pe aurq n q SopiKq oXXoyq, o oy-
Ko, iSioixepo pe xn Svopn xnq vo Snpioupynei evo vo
Xpovoq KaniroXiopq pETapopctiwGnKe Xyw rnq yeviKeu-
Kovtfioppiop.
onq r o u nSoviopo (Z.T.M.: evvoei r n v npooKXXnon
(....)
ora uXiK aya9 KOI o n q uXiormq a^ieq) nou Kvei r n
fjwti r w v ovBpwnwv v a opyavjveroi ypw on ne^q
H vo xo^n onoxeXeixoi on xopo nou (t)9aaav
pXXov nap ovwrepeq o^ieq. flop r o yeyovq n o i
oxo Kpo xnq XoyiKnq xnq povxpvoq KouXxopoq. Zo-
oyxpoveq vopiponoinoeiq npopxovrai on aur nou K-
Popoi K O I OTpoxupvoi, nwq eivoi noXXoi ovpeo
norE n r a v pio avnnoXireuriKn KOuXropo, n KannoXi-
xouq, n OTnv p5a, ncjq ioujq eivoi XXoi, avxmpoow-
OTiKii pnxovn omeiononiGnKe our r o oruX KouXropaq
neouv vo noXixioxm (t)aivpevo nou ovxiKoxonxpi^ei
KOI r o perrpEil)E OE KorovaXwriK oyoG. Xwpiq r o v n-
Tnv KOxoPoppcoon XJV nopoSooioKjv o^icijv XJV 5u-
Soviop, Kivnronoinpvo on xn poOKti KaxovXwon, n
xiKjv KOivJviJV. Aev eivoi pio vo KOIVJVIKI x^n, u-
iSio n Sopii xwv epnopiKjv KOI PiopnxoviKwv emxeipii-
n xo npiopa XJV KOIVJVIKWV Sopcijv. Eivoi n KOxXn^n
oewv 6a Koxppee. TeXiK, eKei eivoi nou PpioKexoi n
piaq KOuXxoupoq nou xeXei un oyxuon.
SeoXoyiKn avxicfiaon xou KonixaXiopo: xovxoq xoei xiq
O Chantecler nioTeue njq xo xpayoSi xou KOve xov opxiKq r o u vopiponoiiioeiq, uiornoe yio Xoyopiaop
tiXio v ' ovoxXXei. H vo x^n xei pio ovxiSpaon ap- rou n q vopiponoinoeiq piaq avri-Ke(()aXaiOKpariKriq
Kex poio vovxi xnq SopiKiiq pexopp^jonq xou Kont- KouXropaq, npoKEipvou v a E^ao<|)aXioei xn ouvxeia
ToXiopo. EKnXtiooEi xo yeyovq TI OI KpiTiKq Tqq TWV iSiwv r o u r w v oiKOvopiKwv 6eopwv.
vaq T^nq Tnq ano5i5ouv pio nappoio e^ouoia.
01 orevoi Seopoi nou unpxouv pero^ SiovonnKwv
O oyxpovoq KoniToXiopq peTapop(t)cij9nKE KTJ a-
Sopwv, KOIVWVIKO ouornpoToq KOI KouXropaq KOI nou
n r n v EniSpoon So EISJV napayvrwv. To n p w r o Eivai
Swoov oxov KoniroXiop r n ouvoxn TOU, ornv aoriKn
n EvSuvpwon r o u pXou r o u Kprouq KOI O XO KOI nio
rou (fon, X9nKav. M i a noX SiocfioperiKn popejjti KOi-
onocJjaoioriKq pXoq nou SiaSpaparijEi o r n SioxEipion,
vwvioq e^oirioq xnq KOivwvioXoymnq xnq Sopnq, xou
ov XI o r n SiEBuvon, r n q oiKovopioq (....). Aur r a TE-
vopiKo KOeoxwroq rnq enixeipnonq, r n q evSuvpwonq
XEuroio EPSopnvronvTE xpvio eiSav rooepiq peyXeq
xnq KpaxiKnq e^ouoioq wq ouxvopnq Suvpewq KOI XOU
oXXoyq nou oSiiynoav o r n v enKroon r n q e^ouoioq r o u
nSoviopo xnq KOuXxopaq nepipvei oKpn v o xnq
Kprouq:
Swooupe vopo. Auxti 1 Pop(t)n Koivwviaq Sev eivoi
npov r n q voq r^nq- Koi n vo ro^n 5E 9a eivoi,
H n p w r n , eivol oi anairnoeiq rqq puvoq. (....) noX nepioorepo, n nY^oia rnq. ' O r o v iljxvoupe v o
H Serepn aXXoyii, eivoi n ovnru^n TWV KOIVWVIKWV oxeSiooupe r o xpTn Tnq Koivwvmiiq oXXaynq, npnei
unnpeoijv KQI n o^non r w v Sanavwv nou onoppo^w- vo npoo^oupe vo pnv pnepSilioupe r n v enicpveia pe r o
v r o i on r n v npvoia, r n v lorpiKO^appoKeuriKn nepi- Pa9i peparo nou r n v Kareu9vouv.
A I E 0 N H PEYMATA

GYNmmDALiwmjj
TOV ArijjfjTpq F. Kap/JOKAia
npacl)aTa nave o ZouriSq Gunar Mydral, a(J)nvo- Nations", eivoi e^ioou oopwriKn KOI noXuevauopoTmr
v r a q vav EvronwoiaK yKO Sripoaieupvric; epyaoiac; Kd9e Xoynq epyaXeio evvoioXoymd, pe9o5oXoyiKc
nou nepixei xouXaxiOTo 6uo eniK Koppano. To vo yio GewpnTm nou ^enepvove TQ pia evq onoiouStinon
TOUC; pnxcfviopouc; Siaiivtonc; Tnc; ((JTixeiac; oe AoioTiKq pepovwpvou KXOU xPnoiponoiovToi KOI crrnv ena
XiJjpec; KOI To oXXo, ypoppvo vtophepo, onc; opxc; Tnc ywymri KOI r n v anoywymn Siepyooia xcJpiq npoKardXr
SeKoeTioc; t o u '40, yio TIC; oxoeic; XeuKwv KGI popcuv ijjn KOI unoToyn oe ypoTO n rexvo^eTixiopoq. A i a ^ a
OTnv ApepiKii. rioXXa pnopouv vo 5I5OXTOV OI vexepoi peTiK 5e yiverai vo e^eTocrrei o XaPupiv9w6nq KKXo
on TOV Mydral. K o i cno Koopd TexviK ppoc; Tnc; pe- Tnq (])TWX6iaq, apa9eiGq, unepyewnTmrnraq, oiKoXoy
BoSoXoyiKiic; diepyooioc; aXX, Kpio, o r n yeviKrepn n- Kiiq xeiporepeipnq, ao())UKTiKnq aormonoinonq Ka0wq KOI
6iKO-(t)iXooo(l)iKn TonoBTnon KOI ovTonKpion oe neipo- dXXore Kpio, aXXore oupnXqpwpoTiKd, o Xyoq e^wre
opoc; KOI nioeic; nou nepiKXeiei n XPHPCiTooTnpvn - piKwv noXiTiKwv nopoyvTwv.
peuvG oe euoioOnTO OpoTO.
TToio euoioOnTO Opo liTGV KOI eivoi TO OUVOXIK Z r n v nepinrwon TOU vypmou npoPXiiparoq ornv A
nXypo oxoewv popwv KGI XeuKcbv cmc; H.FI.A. on TO pepmn O Myrdal 5e icjrd^ei vo SnXcboei n n peioveKri
1619 nou anoPiPcrrnKav oi nptToi 5)5eKO A(t)piKovoi Kii 9on r o u papou nXn9uopo oe Kd6e 5eiKrn npooap
OKXPOI on pio OXXavSmn (JipeyTG OTO Jemestown poyiiq KOI KivnTiKrnraq o(t)eiXerai o r n v npOKardXni|>n
Tnc; Bipyivioc;. KOI n q iOKpioeiq: o popoq opi^erai oov Karibrepoq e
unopxnq KOI OKOXOUGOV OI Kd6e eiSouq onoKXeiopoi G
Tn pOKpid nepioSo Tnc; 6eopo9eTnpvnc; ouXeioc; o-
n r o OTi|3o rnq ionq iKpionq. H avepyio KOI apop(t)w
KoXoOnoe n e^ioou niKpn nepiooc; TOU 6eopo9eTnpvou
oid, pe Xo r o noGoXoymd rouq enoKXouOo, evuvo
poToiOTiKO xwpiopo KGToXuTiKd nponyopevG yiG
piijvouv r o GpvnriK oreperuno on r n pepi r w v npo
onoiaSnnore eiSiKoiTepn oxeTiKii Siepevnon-
KGTeiXnppvwv KGI 5ioiwvi^ouv r q v Karoroan
O Myrdal npooKXnnKe OTIC; H.FI.A. TO 1937 an TO
orpnonq.
Carnegie Institute' yio vo peXenioei TO Nypmo ITp-
pXnpo. EiKOOi KGI nXov xpviG vtjpiTepa npaypoTo- Aur yp(J)TnKav oe peuva nou xPIparoSrnoe n
noiTGv n peydXn 5npoypa(t)iKn ^ooc;, oe pmp 5id- XeuKii Koivrnro KOI nou Kpioq 5Krnq r o u l i r o v noXi r
ornpo, Supiou nepinou eKOToppupitV popwv on TOV XeuKti KOivrnro KOI pciXioro r o eim eKeivo rpiipa rqq
oypoTm vTO oj\q oormonoinpvec; |3peieq KGI |3opeio- nou an5i5e peTa<l)uomq oxeSv lirnreq ornv vvoia
GvoToXmc; nepioxc; nou n ovan^euKTn epnXoKii pe Apepmti. Aq pnv unoripnBei our. O i nepioorepoi, pe
Siocfiopec; pop(j)c; anoKXivouooc; oupnepi<I)opdc; e^oi- r n OKi|>n oe peXXovrmq emxopnynoeiq KOI ouv5opouq
Tiac; TOU onoKXeiopo on TOuq vpipouq iaXouc; e- 6a KorXnyov oe vo 5ia(t)operiK npXoyo KOI eniXoyo
noyyeXpoTmtic; onooxXnonq KOI KoivwviKnc; anoKOTO- o r o reXm Keipevo.
crroonc; o^avov Tnv opoTxnTO Tnc; oov npopXnpoTi- O Myrdal eurxnoe va 5ei n q nporoeiq r o u va uXo
Ktiq opSoq. noiovroi 25 nepinou xpvia apyrepo an r o vopo yia
Civil Rights r w v Kvvevru KOI T^^VOOV nou en(t)epe o-
H Xoymti Tnq eKXoyiiq evq pn Apepmovo oe pio e- nwoSiinore KQI n napXXqXn Kivnronoinon r w v vypwv
noxn nou TOuXdxicnov TO Flovenicmipio TOU Smoyou pe- orov noXiriK crriPo KOI nou anorXeoe r n v onopxn P'oq
ooupovooe KOI OTOV epeuvnrm KOI crro BewpHTm TO- evrunwoiOKtiq KaXurpei|>nq rnq ouXXoyiKiiq pop(|)wriKiiq
po^ liTGV TI ceteris paribus voq ^voq^ 9a l i r o v Xiy- enoYyeXpariKriq KOI eicsonpanKiiq Touq KOTcrraonq.
repo enippentiq oe o^ioXoymq anoKXoeiq.
AeKonvre nepinou xPvio apyrepo r o Ppa|3eio N-
T o epeuvnTm ppoq Tnq epyaoioq nou ouvrvioe o pneX r n q oiKovopoXoyioq ivrov orov Myrdal, r o v oXo-
Myrdal eivai vo oponpo noXuenixeipnotGKnq npoon- KXnpwpvo KOIVWVIK emonipova. Aiyo apyrepo, pio
Geioq nou oi eniSe^iTnTcq nepinou 150 (eKorv nevn- on rouq Kpiouq Pon9oq r o u crro Aoiarm Appo, n
VTG) eniornpvcuv KGI epeuvnTtv pXnouv TO np|3Xnpa o2;uyq r o u 'AXga MpvroX noipve r o 5IK rnq N-
an Kd9e SUVOTI ywvio: n loropio TCUV vypwv OTqv A- pneX yiG n q ouveio^opq r n q o r p v uneon r n q
pepmii" n av0p)no|3ioXoyia Tnq vypmnq ([)uXiiq- Teen Eipiivnq.'^
npownmrnToq KOI eu(t)uiaq' ovdXuon anoypocfjmwv 5e-
5opvcjjv SeiypoToXnnrmq enioKonnoeiq, oupnepi(J)opibv Ynoi:HMEini:Eiz
KOI crrdoewv i|JuxiGTpmq nepinTwoioXoymq peXTeq- a- 1. ETO Fountation Directory, Srj Koorj Hussel Sage Founda
vXuon oTepeoTnwv KOI iSeoXoyiibv oe XeuKouq cJxeTiK tion, 1967, ro Carnegie Institute xei rrj SKarq 6aq, ae
pe papouq- eyKXnpoTiKTnTO' o pXoq TWV vypwv voXo 3.138 opyavioijuiv nou xouv an $ 1 eKaroppupio KOI
ornv |3iOTexvia, yewpyio, iSiwrmq enixeipiioeiq, eKnoi- navw, pe KecpaXaio $ 295 eKaroppupia. npwro avaippsra
euon KOI KuPpvnon' pioGoXoymq 5ia<|)opq- poTOiori- ro iSpupa FORD pe $ 2,3 SiasKaropppia.
Kii vopo9eaia KOI noXX dXXo. 2. ETO rpripa KoivwvioXoyiaq rou nou noMoi napopoial^ouv pe
rp XaSeAPpyn rrjq enoxnq rou Weber KOI rn Eoppwq rq
H npooyyion TOU Myrdal crrnv dXXn Kpia, Tpiropn enoxnq TOU Durkheim eixav npo0ara nepaoei t) ijrav QK-
epyaoia TOU, Asian Drama; A n inquiry into the poverty of pa Ol William Thomas, Florian Znianecki, Robert Ezra Park,

36 NEA KOINQNIOAOriA
Thorstein Veblen, George Herbert Mead, Clifford Shaw, H sbet, Contemporary Social Problems, 4ri Koari, N. Y. Har-
enry Mckay, Louis Wirth, Ernest Burgess, Harold Lasswell coupt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1974, aeX. 459-508.
KOI aXXoi. 6. BiPXio TOU Myrdal ara ayyXiKa:
3. r\a TOV Evo oav KOIVOJVIK runo Kawq KOI TOV Tpiro ae Objectivity in Social Research
apxiK SuaSiKq ox'eaeiq 'exei ypaipsi Se^iorexviK o KXOOI- Asian Drama: An Inquiry into the Poverty of Nations
Kq KoivwvioXyoq George Simmel, 1858-1918. BXne "The Challenge to Affluence
Sociology of George Simmel", pera^paan ora ayrXiK an Beyond the Welfare State
Kurt H. Wolff, Free Press, 1950, aeX. 402-408 KOI Ke0aXaio Value in Social Theory
4 Economie Theory and Underdeveloped Regions.
4. XpnpaTooTijOriKe an ro Twentieth Century Fund. An International Economy, Problems and Prospects
5. F<a pia ypiJYopn enioKnnon rou dparoq pXne Thomas F. The Political Element in the Development of Economie
Pettigrew, "Race Relations in the United States: A Sociologi- Theory
cal Perspective" oro fiijiXio TOU Talcott Parsons, American An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern
Sociology: Perspectives, Problems, Methods. N. Y. Basic Bo- Democracy
oks 1968, aeX. 258-271. Eniarjq an TOV Pettigrew ro Ks0a- The Challenge of World Poverty: A World Anti-poverty
Xai rou aro pi^Mo rwv Robert K. Merton KOI Robert Ni- Program in Outline.

YpacpKJTiKn*
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iacpnpion

oyiou xpixpwvo^ 31,


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8080363 ariva
'EKoarj 1985, oeA. 232. ExoXiaojjvri avGoAoyia 170 noinpTUv, ypapijvjv an 9 0
an TOuq mo Siaaqpovq Kiv^ouq noirjTq, aro taarqpa rpitv x'-^'^'^wv xp^^^-
EKTerapvri eioaywyri ara xapaKT^piariK Tqq Kivi^iKnq KXaoiKqq noiriaqq. Bioypa^ii^q
Ka ene^rjY^poTiKq orjpeidjoeiq. laropiKq nepiXritpeiq oe oxori pe rq iaoxn Ka rqv
Kupiapxia TWV ia^paiv Suvaoreuhv arriv Kiva Siapoov rwv aiwvu)v.
AIE0NH PEYMATA
MOP(PEI THEKOimMmmHE*
TOU BaoiXri KapanooTXq

n o i a eivai r| oup|5oXii Triq av6p(i)nivr|q ponq o r n vo unoKaTOcrrnoei r n (t)uoiKq Sioipeoq TWV OTOixeiwv.
5iapp(t)C)jori TOU KOIVJVIKO eivoi, noio ri oupiJETOxri Tqq Sp<l)wva pe TO GeTiKiop, pvo ov e^ouSerpwve Koveiq
OTq ouyKpTqoq OUTO nou en^ovi^JeToi wq KOIVWVIK opioTiK Tqv Toq TOU v o enonTeei OUVOXIK nvw oe
npoYPOTiK; Tt eivoi TO npoypoTiK orqv KOivwvia, noo auT nou e^er^ei, eKSnXtbvovToq pio avenirpenrn np-
npoypoTiK eivoi, nwq TO KOIVWVIK unoKeipEvo TO opi- Geon unoKeipeviKtiq TOU Sioyooqq, unqpxe eXniSo va
puv Tqv i5io OTiyiiii nou opi^ovToi on OUT, noio, T- ouXXPei r n v eiSonoi TOU oXnGeia.
Xoq, SuvopiKn yevviroi on Tnv ovriBeon avpeoa OTqv AuTii n ovriXnilJn Go un(t)epe iSioiTepo ov SexTOv
npoypoTiKrnTO KOI nq ^ovTOOiOKq nopoOTosiq Tqq, nXqypo OTO onpeio OKpiPwq nou x^pi^ei opeTKXnTo TTI
ovpeoo OTqv ovTonoiqoq r q q KOivwviKqq f^wqq KOI r n v OKiljq on TO ovriKeipev Tqq, xopi^ovToq reXiK pia
i5io r n v KOivwviKii t^wq nou opveiTOi vo ovTonoiqei; To op())iPoXq ave^opTqoia OTO Serepo. Ka SoKipoTqKe
vo 5lpWTWpOOTE ^OV OlipepO nvw OTO C^nTlipaTO OUT npypon eKei: TO xaopoTO pxioov vo ^oivovTOi nwq
KOI pXiOTO PE pio VTOon X ^ p i q iowq nponyopevo, Ei- Sev n r a v oyecJjpwTo, oi To^ivopnoeiq xovov r q v o^iom-
XVEi non Eivoi n onoyoqTEUoq on Tiq pE^oveq Gew- OTio Touq. Xwpiq opctJiPoXia, q KoGoXiKeuoq TOU Konna-
pieq, Tqv oypwxq ouorqiiOTiKq OKi|jq, TOV KopnTO o- XiOTiKo Tpnou nopoywynq KOI n ouvoKXouGn Sixucjn
VTiKeipeviop. Aeixvei nwq o GeriKiopq o n q KOivwvmq TWV opyavwTiKwv, I|JUXIKJV KOI noXmoTiKwv TOU opxwv
enioTiipeq xei oSnyqGei oe oo|3ap o5i^o5o, yeyovq oe Xeq n q o^oipeq rnq KoivwviKiiq KOI npoowniKiiq
nou evGoppvei oXXwore OKpoieq ovTJpponeq Toeiq, ^wnq qrav oi ano(l)aoiOTiKoi icnopiKoi nopyovTeq nou
puoTiKioTiKq KOI popoXioTiKq. Evwmov TTOiou eiSouq wGnoov OTqv evonoiqoq KOI ouyxwveuoq TWV Z^qrqpoTwv
EKqXJOEwv Suoniorioq onvovTi OTOV EniornpoviK X- nou e^erJjouv oi KoivwviKq enionipeq. Evonoinoq Suo-
yo, onoPoivei liaiTEpo XEnr oo KOI eniPegXqpvo TO SiKpnn pev OTO prpo nou npoxwpooe poo on ou-
KoGqKOV vo iOTunwBei TO KOTOOTOTIK pioq evaXXoKTi- vexeiq Sia())opiopoq, poo on r n v eptjjvion vwv KOI-
Kiiq enioTqpoviKO-(J)iXooo(t)iKqq Gewpqoqq TWV KOIVWVI- VWVIKWV unoouvXwv KOi pepiKorqrwv, ovoyvwpioipq, -
KWV (t)aivopvwv nou Go eivoi TOUTXPOVO eKTq on pwq, o r o prpo nou oi pepiKrnreq aurq reivov vo Sia-
Gewpqoq KOI enp^oon, KoGwq n 'So nou Go r n v epnv- XuGov, va eniKoivwviioouv ocpevq pera^ rouq KOI O-
ei Go eivoi oKpi^wq eKeivn r n q noXTponnq enpPaonq <J)erpou pe r o KOGXOU. ApKooov our y i a v a npOKoX-
TOU ovGpwnou prov KOIVWVIK TOU Kopo. oouv ovooTrwon o r q GeriKioriKq avriXqijjq: ov r o ovri-
f i o vo opxioei pPoio vo yiveroi opoTii q Kpioq o n q Keipevo ouyxovTOv, avri r o SeuTEpEovra vo npooap-
KOivwviKq enionipeq, xpeiorqKe vo ovoSmXwGov op- r w v r o i o r o npwrEovro, ore K a r ' iSiov pGoSoi
KeTq (I)opq o GeTiKiOTiKq opGoXoyiopq KOI q TeyKrq pnopooav vo e(()app^ovrai o ' our, ore OKpn pno-
oiTioKpoTio. ' E T O I , <|)6aoope K O I nXi OTO onpeio, TO O- pooe va e^aKoXouGqoei oXwPqrq q roo nXqGwpiKn
VTiKEipEVO Tnq enioTipnq vo nopouoi^eTOi wq pf^o (Jioi- onq unooxoeiq r n q epneipiKii avXuon oe noooriKoq -
vopvwv, eKei nou avayevTov vo npoPXXEi wq ooTn- pouq. Twpa o oiKovopiKq vGpwnoq cJ)aivETai vo SICP
po yEyovTwv. ' OXo opxi^ouv on Tqv wpo nou KOTOX- oxi^EToi on r n v eniGupia r n q KoivwviKiiq nXiipwonq, o
EToi TO povonoyq TOU ysyovToq. To GETIKIOTIK nve- i|juxoXoyiKq ovGpwnoq va unKeiroi o r n v nio oXo-
pa, npypoTi, 5ev Go pnopooe vo 2;qoei ov Sev ioxue TO KXnpwriKii KQI onpooSKqrq KOivwviKonoinoq, o KOI-
n TO yeyovq eivoi IKOV VO onoKoXilJei ipso facto r n vwviKq vGpwnoq va pqv pnopei vo eniSiw^ei rqw
(t)on TWV npooSiopiopwv TOU KoGwq K O I Tnv iSiairep- npayprwoti r o u nap pvo npoo^eyovraq oe OIKOVO-
Tnr TOuq oe oxon pe Touq npooSiopiopoq XXwv ye- piKq npoKTiKq. O i naXiq, XoPupivGwSeiq npoonGeieq
yovTWv. AUT nrav KOI TO KXeiSi yio Tqv ovnTU^n Tnq yio oiKoSpnoq povrXwv pvouv perewpeq q ^eKi-
To^ivopqTiKiiq XoyiKiiq nou ^exwpiJJei, ovTinopoGTei KOI vov, pe Xiyrepq ouronenoiGnon, yio vav epnXouriop
ouoxeTi?;ei, OTnpiypvq OTO oxqpoT Tqq, oo eivoi OU- rouq Paoiopvo o r n v evowprwon, un noooriKii vvoia,
OIOOTIK o^exjpiOTO q ouoxeTiopvo, nXnv pwq pe rp- rwv napayvrwv onpooSiopioriaq KOI ruxairnraq. Ken
no pq To^ivopnTiK. Me pio {t)Twx ouyKoXuppvn au- o u n i q ouvexqq npoonoGeio vo perarponov oi oorG-
Goipeoio, TO oiKOvopiK, TO KOIVWVIK, TO ilJuxoXoyiK, pnroi nopyovreq oe oraGpiopvouq KQI ouvenwq npo-
npoiKifJovTOV pe xapaKrnpionK K O I eiSiKOq vpouq PXi|Jipouq pe r n popcljq Knoioq peropXnniq, Se Seixva
nou unoTiGeToi TI KuPepvooov Tqv e^Xi^q TOuq, evw Xiyrepo an r q v opxiKq apqxavio rouq r o PGoq roo
nopXXnXa KaTooTpwvovTOv ovrioToixeq peGoSoXoyieq pqyparoq n o u xouv unoorei o GeriKiopq K O I O
npoopiopveq vo ecJjoppooTov onoKXeioTiK yio TO KoG- EpnEipiopq.
vo. AvTiGeTO, q iSo rqq evrqrq TOuq GewpqGqKe v-
* AnonaaiJa an TO Mopcpq Tqq Kowa)viKi)q Apaoriq (@p-
Sei^n GewpqTiKiiq oSuvopioq, KOTOOKeoopa ooGp yio
Xio, Ariva, 1974), oa. 9-15.

40 NEA KOINQNIOAOriA
AXX TO iSio 5onioToi npnei v a OTaoiae anvovTi
OTTIV anvTTiori nou enixsipei vo Swoei OTO nppXnpo
OUT n npo(})aTn KOI yepTn on Tnv ^oi|>n n o u ouvo-
Seei KoBe OJOTIK eyxeipnpa ^iXoXovio yio Tn 5i-eni-
orniioviKn peoSoXovio. flop TIC; enippouc; opoiPoiec;
unoxwpnoeic; TOUC;, OI 5i(|)opoi KX5OI nou KOXOVTOI VO
oupnp^ouv nopopvouv oveXooTiKoi, pe SioBoeic; p-
XioTo KOTOKTnTiKc; O voc; onvovTi OTOV XXO. Z r n v
ouoia, OTO nXoioio OUTOU TOU OUPPQTIKOU peBoSoXoyi-
Ko veo-eKXeKTiopo, oi KXOI ovToycvif^ovTai peTO^
TOUC;, eniSicbKovTaq o KoBvac; un TO povSo TOU SioX-
you v a KoXipei Tiq eXXeii|)eiq TOU: TO povTXo n.x-, Tnq
oiKovopiKiiq oupnepi(t)opq 9a nepiXPouv Tnv ifiuxoXo-
yiKii vvoio Tnq npoo5oKiaq, acfio pwq npiv xouv u-
noPiPoei Tn SuvopiKii, Tnv evepynTiKii Touq Sicnoon,
yio v o Tiq KOTOOTiioouv anXwq nopapTpouq TWV OIKO-
vopiKwv npoPXi|>ewv TO povTXo KOivwviKnq oupnepi-
(Ijopq 6a xpnoiponoiiioouv Tnv vvoio Tnq ovToXXaynq
oe pio opiTO ono-oiKovopiKonoinpvn SKoxn, yio vo
cnnpi^ouv Tiq e^nvioeiq TOuq oxeTiK pe Tiq KoivwviKq
oxoeiq. Me enipXeio onoTpneroi TO evSexpevo vo 5-
veio vo 6i^ei ix) 5avei<:;pevn KOTnyopioKii opti' TOi,
evw 6a npene v a npoxwpnoei ano^aoicniK n ovovw-
on TWV KQTnyopiwv KOI n Xn enicnnpoXoyiKn avoecJj-
pnon, onoKaioTOToi voq Tovoq, KOI TO xetpTepo, e-
ninXaoToq nXoupoXiopq nou OTO 36oq Kp^ei eKeivo
nou noT 5ev eyKOTXeiilje Tnv KOivwviKti OKi|jn: Tnv T-
KopTeoiovq KOI Pepnepiovq SioPePaitboeiq y i o Tnv op-
on TOU ovToywviopo.
oXoyiKTnTO TOU VOlipOTOq TOTOU.
XpeifJeTai Xomv va OK6(t)Tope KOI nXi an Tnv Me So Xyio, o^eiXoupe vo OKect)Tope enipovo n-
opxn K O I pe vouq pouq. ZuyKpoTnpvo oe a5ia(t)aveiq, vw OTnv vwon TOU unoKeipvou pe TO ovTiKeipevo. K o i
oupnXoKeq oXTnreq poo cnnv lOTopiKii TOuq e^Xi^n, TO TOUTXPOVO vo Kvoupe vo Pnpo npoq Tnv enovoov-
KOIVWVIK (j)aivpeva 5ev pnopov, anXwq eneiSii eivai 5eon Tnq (t)iXooo(})iaq pe Tiq Koivwvmq enioTiipeq, 5ivo-
ouyKpoTnpvo, vo unoyopeoouv TOuq Tpnouq Tnq eni- VToq TXoq OTOuq ioroypoq nou yevv,o enicnnpovi-
onnpovmnq TOuq ovTipeTwnionq. flopopvouv eKei PouP opq, npoeiSonoiwvToq TI KTI TTOio 6a oiipoive TO T-
Koi oSianpooTo, oo SiornpeiToi TO 5oq TOU K O ' e- Xoq Tnq emoTiipnq. 'OXo OUT naipvouv Tn 0on Touq
auT npypQToq, oo ano(|)eyeTai n ouoiooriKn ovTipe- OTO npypoppa piaq voq KpniKiiq KoivwvioXoyioq, pn-
Twnion TOU npopXnpoToq ir\q oxonq peTo^ unoKeip- ^iKXeunq opKeT yio vo oijjooiwei OTqv npoonBeia
vou KOI ovTiKeipvou pe TO v a e^aXei(t)eTai npoKTiK TO ov6eonq TWV peyXnq KXipoKoq Siepyooiwv (Siopp-
npciiTO. T l enneXei pwq poo OTn oxon ouTii TO uno- (])won TO^iKiiq 5opiiq, KoivwviKiiq vopiponoinonq, oxoe-
Keipevo; ' Apoye SKTq on TO VO SianoTiii^ei Tnv un e^- wv loxoq KXn.) KQI eKeivwv nou XopPvouv xwpo poo
Toon Xn pe Tiq yvwcniKq KOTnyopieq KOI Tqv npo6eTiK- OTO noXnTuxo Tnq KOnpepiviiq ^wiiq (opiopoi TOU
TqT TOU, eKTq on Tqv eniXoyn TOU (|)aivopvou poo npaypoTiKO on TO KOIVWVIK unoKeipevo, oupPoXiKii
on Tn oKOTeivti Kivnon Tnq Xnq KOI Tnv KOToxwpnon TOU Xyou KOI TWV xeipovopiwv, oupPoeiq nou Sinouv
TOU cno ovTiKeipevo Tnq ovpwnivnq 5ivoioq, KoGopi- Tn 5i-av0pwmvn eniKoivwvio K O I ouviiKeq KOTpynonq
Z,e\q KOI OUTI Tn ooTOoii TOU; N O n noyiSo TOU KOI avTiKOTOTooiiq TOuq on XXeq, oupPoXmq e^wTe-
unoKeipeviopo nou xei noei n i5ia n eTiKioTiKii Xoyi- piKeoeiq TWV ovoyKwv KXn.).
Kii ojq OTOTO poo yio vo enovXei KOveiq oe ouTii - Ec Sev 6a ovoXPw Tnv unnpTnon rToiwv ouvo-
neiTo on Tnv KOpnn nepmXvnon nou oiyoupo TOV XiKwv OTxwv TO nppXnpo pwq Tqq Sponq, pe TO O-
nepipvei OTO x ^ p o Tnq Ko6apnq unoKeipeviKiiq eppn- noio aoxoXeiTQi eiSiKTepo n epyaoia ouTii, KOTxei a-
veiaq. 'Qcne n SnpioupyiKii KoivwviKii OKi|)n eivoi KO- vap(l)iPoXa Koipia 6on poo OTOuq eupTepouq ouToq
TOiKoopvn vo SiXe^ei ovpeoo OTO npypo KOI Tnv npooavoToXiopoq. flpypoTi, TO va avixveuTov oi poi
eppnveio, v a avTipeTwnioei 5ia pioq vo TToio a5uow- yveonq x a i oi pop(t)q eKSiiXwonq Tqq ovpwnivnq Sp-
nnTO SiXnppo; onq OTO KOIVWVIK neSio, onoTeXei nponeon yto vo
ZKonq Tnq epyooioq ouTiiq eivoi OKpiPwq vo oup- peXeTnei TO (iJtiTnpa Tnq ouyKpTqonq TOU KOIVWVIKO
PXXei cnnv ano5uvpwon Tqq m o nvw nXwonq. o eivai an Tnv evonoinnKii-SioXeKTiKii oKoni cnqv onoio
npnei Xomv vo empeivoupe cnnv lOTopiKii, unep-OTopi- avact)pnKa pXiq. Aev pnopei va yivei Xyoq yio TO
Kti ioppcpwon TWV KOIVWVIKWV oxoewv, xwpiq pwq KOIVWVIK eivai pe pouq evoXXoKTiKOq oe eKeivouq TOU
vo KOTOOTtiooupe TO OTopo onXoq (t)opeiq Suvpewv ovTiKeipeviopo: ocnnpo, Xenoupyieq, Sopti, ov
KOI ovoyKoiOTiiTwv, vo epyocnope npoq Tnv KOTeuv- Sev xei nponynei pio eniOTopvn Siepevnon TOU OV-
on Tnq ovXuonq TOU votipoToq nou oi v6pwnoi ivouv pwnivou Spov poo cnnv KOivwvio.
OTiq SpooTnpiTnTq Touq, xwpiq vo enavonouope OTiq Ol KivSuvoi nou nopopoveouv r q v npooneio ouTii

NEA KOINQNIOAOriA 41
givai oo(3apoi. Eivai npcxa TO np|3Xripa TOU ifuxoXoYi- yia Tqv unp|3aon Tqq, KaBwq XXwoTe KOI q o5uvqpf|
opou, nou npoKUHTEi Eu9q pXic; E^oyyeiXEi KOVEiq TTJV oXXoTpiwTiKii naXivSeuoq npoq Tnv onoSoxn Tnq.
npGEori va ^EXjpioEi poo OTTIV ovOpwnivri Spaon, OK- ZuvSepvo pe TO nppXnpo Tnq i|)UxoXoyioTiKnq n a
pr| KOI Yia avaXuTiKoc; KOI pvo Xyouc;, TO IJJUXIK on pKKXionq eivoi KOI eKeivo TOU unoKeipeviopo-OTopi-
TO KOIVIVIK OToixEio. M E Hoio vvoio ptq; M E auTtiv opo. r i o i o , oXnBeio, Bo eivoi TO 5pwv unoKeipevo Tqc
TriQ SionTioriq TOU I|)UX1KO on TO KOIVJVIK nou au- o^iwoqq; Me Tnv uioBTnon Tnq vvoiaq TOU KOIVWVIKOL
VTEXEITOI OTTI 6iapKEia Tqq KoivojviKonoiqoriq TOU ar- eouTO ovTipeTwniJeToi TOUTXPOVO n oneiXq Tqq ouvei-
pou, Tqq SioxTEUoqq 5qXa5q Tqq EniBupioq TOU poa OE SqoioKpoTioq oo K O I TOU OTopiopo- TO (Jjopo OUTC
q5q ucfiiaTapEveq Koivjvmq unoSoxq. To KOIVJVIK U- ooPei oe KBe npoonBeio npooSiopiopo Tqq avBpwni-
napxEi KiXaq EKEI, SEIO KOI npooxqpoTiopvo yia vo vqq Spoqq nou 5e BXei va nopopeivei OTO yeviK
unoSexTEi TO IJJUXIK SuvapiK Tqq eni9upiaq, vo TO pop- nXoioio Tnq lOTOpiKiiq np^nq TWV ouXXoyiKwv <l)opw\
(})onoiqoEi, KOI on r q OTiypq EKEivq va nai|ji vo Eivoi nou eni^qT va SioouvSoei EowTepiK Tqv lOTOpiKq ou-
npooxqpoTiopvo KOI va pETOTponEi OE KTI sXXEinTiK Tii np^n P Tqv KaBqpepivq, avwvupq KOI OKpwTqpia-
KQI pEuoT, OE KTI nou 5EV pnopsi nXov va Eivai OVT- opvn 5poq TWV OTpwv, vo 6ei nwq uclJoivexai n pio p-
TqTO. Enopvjq, q Spoq, nponoBTOVTaq vo PooiK oa OTqv XXq. To vo piX pPoio KOveiq yto eouT Teiva
iJjuxiK nupqvo a<po xwpiq rqv eniupia (yio OUTO- auTpoTO iowq, KOI pe Poq Touq ouveippoq nou e-
npaypTJoq, yio KOTKTqoq Tqq TauTTqToq, yio evvq- KXOVTOI on Tn X^n, vo Snpioupyqoei Tqv eo(t)oXpvii
oq TOU Kopou KXn.) SEV pnopEi vo unpxei onoTEXsi evTnwoq TI ava(})peTOi KOT' ovyKq OTqv ouTO-ouva-
OKpi(3jq TOV Tpno pE TOV onoio o nupqvoq ouTq ovoi- 5qoq, oe pio 6v5ooTpo(})ii Tqq SiavoqTiKiiq XeiToupyiaq
YETOi npoq TO SioBoipo KOIVJVIK poo, pE TO onoio QOTOO O eouTq pnopei vo opiorei wq eniyvwon TIIQ
KOI pvo Eivoi SuvoTq q EnixEipqoq iKavonoiqonq Tnq - KOivwviKiiq TOUTTqToq, TOU KOIVWVIKO eivoi TOU uno-
niBupioq. Yn r q v vvoio auTii, o Spwv vBpjnoq 5EV Keipvou, OUOIOOTIK wq pio ovoxwpqoq Tqq ouveiSqoiiq
eivai onXjq vo I)JUXOXOYIK unoKeipEvo, nwq 5EV eivai on TOV eouT Tqq. K o i Bo eivoi TOUTXPOVO pio eniyvi^
onXwq EKTEXEOTqq TWV EniTaywv nou STIBEV p())UTeo- on, XiyTepo l i nepiooTepo Siouyiiq, TOU pn opioTiK
VTOi EVTq TOU an Tnv KOIVWVIK npooSiopiopvq un- vTonioipou, TOU pn epnpypoTou OUTO TOU eivor Bo &
oraoii TOU. To l^uxIK, poXovTi oSiovnTO ^w on Tnv VOI eiKvo, (JjavTOOTiKii nopoToon poo oe vo XOOTIK
KoivwviKii TOU popcljq, unpxEi PE TO vo npooSiEi OTq KOI o5ia(t)avii KOIVWVIK Kopo, nou nXovTOi yio uo
pop(t)q TOU ouTii, OTiq np^Eiq pE n q onoieq aneXeuBepw- nopxei TO ovayKoio epeiopoTO oTn Spon, onoTeXd
vovToi, pio liaiTepn noiTnTO KOI Kupiwq pio iSioirepn VToq roi xi TO iSewSeq Tppo Tqq oXX KOI pio f^wTiMJ
vTOon. Tqq ouvBqKq. ' AXXwoTe, nwq 6a Sope, TO TI O eauT^
AvTi Tnq eniBupioq Bo Bewpqow wq npwTopxmn nqyq opifjeToi nvTO oe oxon pe TOV XXO, poa o r o nXypo
Tqq Spoqq Tqv KoivwviKq o^iwoq, unooTnpii!]ovTaq TI Tnq ovBpwnivnq oXXnXSpoonO xsi OKon vo npo<t)uX
TO unoKeipevo 5EV EniBupEi onXwq OUT nou TOU XEinEi, ^ei an Tnv avBpwnoXoyiKii ouoioKpOTio (nou ovopwTi-
oXX OUT nou xEi Tnv oioBnon TI TOU ovqKEi K O I TO TOI yia Tnv EOJTepn U(l)q TOU eauTo) OTqv onoio 6a Koi
onoio xei onoXoei poo OTnv KoivwviKq fjwq, pio f^wq Xnye pio oTopiOTiKii ewpnon TOU BpoToq. FeviKTepo
unoToypvq OTiq opxq TOU onoKXeiopou KOI Tqq OTpq- pe evSi(t)Epe vo ene^epyooTw Tqv vvoio piaq oTopiK
oqq, pouq onoppOTOuq yio vo eivoi auT nou eivoi. TqToq e^unopxnq KOivwviKiiq, n onoio, Siopoou Tnq
Z r q v pvnon nou OUVOVT n o^iwon TWV onoKXeiopvwv wonq, ouTiiq Tqq octipoyiopvqq on Tq pepiKTqTO KO
vo KOTopYnBei o onoKXEiopq TOuq, onovT q pvqoq OTOpiKTqTO K({)paoqq Tqq pq-iKOvonoinonq, PpioKei Sp-
on ppouq Touq vo OVEXBOV Tqv npoypoTiKTqTO nwq po vo nepoei poa OTq ouXXoyiKq npo^q (oTiq OIKOVO
Tnv opi^ouv OI opvnTq TOuq. An EKei nny^ei n ooiyo- piKq n.x. SieKSiKiioeiq), peTQTpnovTq Tnv on n p ^
OTq nXq yio opiop Tnq npoypoTiKTqToq, o aywvaq Twv-unoKeipvwv oe np^nyo-Ta-unoKeipEva.

42 NEA KOINQNIOAOriA
APXEIO
oimjEPUMEjmm
Kommom
AHMOS0ENHZ
AANIHAIAHE
KEVTpiKiiq EXXSoq KOI Sivei SioX^eiq, pe OKon vo o-
(})unvioei TO eviK oioBnpo, op(})wva pe n q ovyKeq
TOU EXXnviopo, yio ouToyvwoio KOI KoivwviKii KOI OI-
KovopiKii ovnTu^n-
McT TO 1929, opxi^ei vo enioKnTeTOi Tnv EXXSo
ouxvTepo KGI TO 1931 eyKoBioTOTai oTnv ABiivo povi-
pwq, yia vo a(t)ooiwBei ouoTnpoTiKTepo OTO o v o y e w n -
H Z Q H K A I T O E P f O T O Y . O Anpooevnc; AavinXinq
oiOK nveupoTiK TOU pyo. ISpei KOI oTnv EXXSo TO
YEVViiBriKE OTO npOKni Tr|<; KonnaSoKioq TO 1 8 8 9 . An-
ZvSeopo TWV NeoeXXiivwv, nou n Spon TOU pwq a-
(l)0iToq TOU OXOXEI'OU TTIC; iSioiTEpriq noTpiSoq TOU, ^ o h n -
voKnxETOi on Tn AiKTOTOpio Tnq 4nq AuyooTou. H o-
OE oTEpo OTTIV KJvoTovTivonoXri OTTI MEyoXri TOU F-
ntixnoii TOU pwq OTOuq veoviKoq KKXouq TWV TeXeu-
vouc; ZxoXn KOI OTO OOcuiioviK riavEnioTriijio, o n ' -
Toiwv eTJV TOU MeoonoXpou Eivoi pEyoXn, an Tnv -
nou EXOPE TOV TITXO TOU 5i5aKTOpoq TO 1913. EuvEpyo-
KpO AE^I pXpl Tnv Kpo AplOTEp.
OTTiKE p 5ia(t)opE(; E(l)niJEpi5C;, EXXqviKc; K G I
rioXlTETnKe OTO AypOTIK KOI EpyaTIK KppO TOU
ToupK(l)a)VEq.
AX^ovSpou nanovaoTooiou KOI SiSo^e Tn NeoXoio TOU.
ZuvExioE TIC; onouSq TOU OTTI AuTiKii Eupwnri OTTIV
EXpETia, OTTI fEpiJGvio KOI OTTIV AuoTpia nou ono- To 1934 e^Swoe TO nepi^npo PiPXio TOU NeoeXXn-
5aoE vopiKo, (})iXoooc!)ia, noXiTiKq EnioTnpec;, KOIVWVIO- viKT) Koivwvio KOI OiKovopio, n o u onoTeXei TO KUPIT-
Xoyio, oiKOvopiKG KOI noiSoyiyiKci KGI yvjpioE Sioon- po pyo TOU AnpooBvn AavinXiSn, aXX ouyxpvwq
pouc; oTOxooTEc; Tnc; nEpiSou 1 9 1 3 - 1 9 2 2 , nou f^noE oov KOI vo on TO onouSoiTepG, ov xi TO onouSoiTepo,
OonnTiic;. oyypappo noXniKiiq, KOivwviKnq, oiKOvopiKtiq, noXiTi-
' H5n KGTG Tn SlOpKElO TCUV OnOuSJV TOU, GpXlOE VO cniKiiq KGI nveupoTiKiiq ovXuonq TOU eBviKO nepiexop-
SiSoKEi OE 'EXXnvEc; ^onnTq li PETOVOOTEC;- n 5i6a- vou Tnq vvoioq Noq EXXnviopq, Tnv onoio KoBiepw-
OKoXio TOU EXE TO i5lO EXXnVOKEVXpiK nEpiEXpEVO KGI vei O AovinXiSnq. To PiPXio OUT, TOV KOTcnnoe, pe Tn
TOV i5io oKon eBviKiic; ouToyvioioc; nou ouvavTopE peyXn TOU enippoti, AOKOXO XWV TWV peToyevoTe-
KOI OTO ouyypocJjiK TOU pyo. OonnTiiq OKpn, TO 1 9 2 1 , pwv EXXiivwv KoivwvioXywv KOI yeviK AOKOXO TOU
ipuoE TO ZvSeopo TWV NEOEXXTIVWV, nou eixE wc; 'EBvouq. To PipXio OUT o(l)iepjveTai cnn No TEVE
OKon Tnv ovoXuon TWV npopXnpTwv TOU Nou EXXn- KOI TToieq, oi napOTnpnoeiq ouTq, eivai ocjjiepwpveq
viopo KOI rr\v ovo^nTnon TWV opcv XOECJJV TOU. OTn No feve. E^eTJ^ouv Tn yveon K G I Sioppcliwon
To 1925, OTO r i o p i o i , KOTpBwoe vo EVBOUOIOOEI TOV TWV nponoBoewv Tnq veoeXXnviKiiq Koivwvioq KGI OI-
GUTOE^pioTo EKei EXEuBpio BEvif^Xo, O onoioc; TOU 5ii- Kovopiaq KOI nio yeviK TWV nopoyvTwv Tnq nveupoTi-
XWOE TI, EV npOUV VETEpOq, Bo OE OKoXouBoOO. Kiiq KOI uXiKiiq JJwiiq TOU Nou EXXnviopo. ZTO (^wq TWV
SuvSBqKE EKei OTnv i5ia npio5o \ie TO f i o v v r i 4^uxcipn, yeyovTwv oXKXnpwv oiojvwv Seixvouv Tnv npooSiopi-
pE TOV onoio EixE oov KOIV nopovopooTri TO SqpoTiKi- OTiKti yio Tnv OTopiKti KGI opoSiKii poq e^Xi^n eni-
op. STO r i o p i o i EKSISEI, TO 1 9 2 6 , pe So (fiiXouc; TOU Tn Spoon Tnq iSippuBpnq yewypact)iKiiq KGI lOTopiKiiq paq
No Owvii OTO nXoioio TOU SuvSopou TWV NeoeXXii- ovTTnToq. K i Toi, ^eKo6apif;ovTaq ouveiSnT KOI KOBO-
vwv Tnv onoio ypocpei pe povoTOviK ooTnpa- o Fla- pii^ovToq Tnv lepti npoypoTiKTnTO, TO So(t)oq Tnq pvoq
yKoXoc; onoyopeei Tnv KUKXo(|)opia Tnq poo OTnv EXXa- ynq, TOV KKXO KGI Tnv oKTiva Tnq eBviKiiq poq evp-
So. Tnv KSoon Tnq e(t)npepiSaq TOU SiOKnrei oe Xiyo, yeioq, KOTeuBvouv Tn Spon poq KOI ouvpa poq npoe-
Xyw eXXeii|jewq oiKovopiKti)v powv. Toip^ouv yio Tnv nPwiKti, Tn pvn ovBpwmvn ovTipe-
Twnion TWV nenpwjjsvwv paq- evvow Tnv oSiKonn, e-
O Seopq TOU pe Tnv EXXaSo eivoi nveupoTiKq, aX-
owTepiKii K I e^wTepmti, nXn peTo^ eXeuBepioq KOI a-
Xo xei noXiTiK OKon, ev eupeio evvoia: enioKnTeToi,
voyKoiTnTaq, eKeivn ioo-ioo, nou Kvei TOV vBpwno va
(l)oiTnTnq OKpo, 5ia(l)opeq nXeiq Tnq PpEiaq Kupiwq KOI

NEA KOINNIOAOriA 43
piJcavEi uoa oiriv apeiXiKxri npaynaTiKTriTa oav KU- (t)op xo onpeio xnq yveonq xou Nou EXXnviopo: oxo
piopxoc; ouveiriTc; KQI XI OOV a|3ouXo Qvyta xnc; onpeio aux o peyXoq oxoxooxtiq yiverai PtoXoyiKre-
loxopioc;. poq- K6e v6pwnoq eivot ourvopoq, xet Snpioupynei
OI lAEEZ T O Y . O Aripoo0vn(; AavinXiSriq (1889-1972), pwq an r n v vwon So ovpwnwv KOI o n q (t)XPeq r o u
KOivwvioXyoc;, lOxopiKq, lOxopiKq xou nveupoxoc; KOI KUKXo(t)opei r o oipo Touq. H KXnpovopiKrnra eivot pto
jr\q xxvr)(;, vopiKq, (})iXoo(I)0(;, oiKovopoXyoc;, KOI ne- peyXn Svopn xat ooKei repona eniSpoon OTOV npo-
pioTaaiOKO noXixiKq, Kaiepwvei pio evioia ouXXri4>n oovoroXiop evq avpwnou, ornv npoKeipvn nepinrw-
xnc KOivuiviKiii; npoypoxiKxrixac;, nou npooopoio^ei pe on evq 'E6vouq. Y n ' our r o npiopa npnet Koveiq vo
Quxtiv xou M A X WEBER, oov ac|)opa xr|v noXuSiooxoxri peXerrjoei r n 9ewpia xou Nou EXXnviopo KOI yeviKxe-
e^nynon xwv KOIVWVIKWV (t)aivopvwv, nXr)Oia^i pwq po xou pyou xou A. AavinXiSn-
xr| pxa(J)uoiKri sppnvao xou H . KavXXnouXou, oov H rewypa(t)iKti Ovxxnxa xou Nou EXXnviopo a-
act)opa xr|v ron 6ipuvr|ari<; xnq eOviKtiq nEpnxouoioq noxeXei Ka9opa PioXoyiK napyovxo xnq iSiopop(|)iaq
xou Nou EXXnviopo, nou onoxEXEi xo ovxiKEpEVO xnq KOt xnq onpepivtiq Soptiq KOI nopeiaq. O AovinXiSnq, -
pEXxnq XOU. nwq O iSioq ovo^pei ornv apxii r o u oxeriKO Ke^aXoiou
r i i o npoypoxioxiiq on xov O. KovEXXnouXo, nou rou, Koivoropei o r o ouvunoXoyiop, pe Kupiopxm pei-
sv5ia(])pExai Kupiwq yio xo nvEpo KOI xnv loxopiKii xou ^ovo rpno, r o u yewypacjimo nopoyovroq, oxnv loxopi-
Kivnon, o A. AovinXiSnq SEV 9a pnopooe va EVxaxOfii Kti e^Xi^n KQI oxnv xeXiKti KorooKeuii evq 9vouq, nou
oe iSEOKpoxiKO nXoioio. Eivai voq oxoxooxiiq ouxvo- t,ei o ' va ouyKeKpipvo xwpo- AnoKXeiei pwq e^ opxiiq
poq, Evioioq KOI n pnvEuon xou pyou xou Eivoi npwx- Tn povoppeio KOI r o v Kpo Ka9opioxiKiop, yioxi oxiq
xunn, oXoKXnpwxiKti KOI EupnpoTiKii. O PooiKq xou oxoEiq xnq (I)oewq oxouq avpwnouq, n <pi)or] Sev eivot
OKonq Eivat vo SiEpEUvfioEi xo pEydXo y^/ar/xnq onpEpi- nvxoxe xo evepynxiK KQI O vpwnoq pvo xo nonxi-
vnq E9viKnq KoxooxaoEwq, va EvxonioEi SnXoSn xa oixia K. Ynpxei pexo^ xouq pto oXXnXeniSpoon pxooq KOI
xnq iSiopop^ioq xnq pxpi oiipEpo nopEaq xou EXXnvi- nio noX XOU eninSou eKoxoxe noXixiopo'.
opo. H pGoSq xou 6a pnopooe vo xapa'<xnpio9Ei
Me noinxiKxoxo xpno KOI Poi (J)uoioyvwoia o A.
ilJUXOVoXuxiKr): EpEuva Xouq xouq KXnpovopiKOq nopo-
AovinXiSnq nepiypcpei xnv i|;uxti rnq eXXnviKtiq ovrrn-
yovxEq KXipa, yewypac^iKii 9on KOI yevma yewYpa(t)i-
raq, nou nopyei TOV iSipupo xapaKrtipo r o u 'EXXn-
KX) ovxxnxa KXn. KOI oxn ouvxEio Xouq xouq noi-
vo. AvoXovroq r n onpooia, r n v euprepn, r n v noXirmii,
Smoq xpoupaxiopoq xou Nou EXXnviopo, SnXoSii
rnv KOlVWVlKti, r n v n o X i n o r m i i , r q v nveupariKii onpooia
xnv loxopiKii TOU Qvxxnxo. H oyKXion xnq EniSpooEwq
KOI xnq oXXnXEniSpoEwq xwv So ouxwv nopoyvxwv rou tiXtou, rnq 9Xaooaq, r w v oreXeiwxwv eXXnvmwv
ouvioxo, KOX xo AovinXiSn, xn onpepivii eXXnviKT) vnoiwv KOt oKxwv, o A. AovinXiSnq ouv9xei oux nou o
npaypaTiKTnTO. Moxxpo TKVXI anoKXeoe, yto xn Smi xou noxpiSo,
Bo9i IvSia. H Ba9t EXXSa anoxeXei KOX' e^oxtiv
H npwrn e6viKii aXX KOI eniornpovrnr) npoo(l)opa
Siovonxmti oXXni|Jn TOU A . AavinXiSn, nou r n v nepiyp-
rou AovinXiSn eivoi n eionyoyE r o v po Noq EXXnvi-
<pE\e rpno Xoym oXX KOI noinriK, Xupm ouxv,
opq, TOU onoiou n KOivoropio yKEiroi o r o aa<pr\-
noXuStororo oXX KOI evioio, eniornpoviK aXX KOI e-
XWpiop pETO^ r n q Naq KOI rnq OaXaiaq EXXnvmiiq I-
pnonopvo pe Pa9i oynn npoq o u n i v r n pero^uoiKii
oropioq. H flaXoia EXXnvmii loropia nepiXopPvei r n v
unoroon rnq eXXnvmiiq ovrrnraq nepioorepo, nop
Apxairnro, r o BuE^ovno KOI r n v ToupKOKpario' n No
yio r a eKorore KOivwviKO-noXirma eni(})aivpev rnq.
eivoi r o e6viK nopv, eivot SnXoSti nepiooTEpo n oy-
Xpovn unoroon ptaq Sioxpovmiiq ovrrnraq, rou EXXn- O oyxpovoq 'EXXnvaq r n (ttovraoio r o u rqv o^eiXei
viopo, wq oiwvtaq nvEupormiiq unap^Ewq. O A. Aovin- orouq nXareiq opi^ovxeq nou ovoiyovxai ypw r o u ' xnv
XiSnq Eivot O enioriipwv nou ^exwpioe r n v reXeuraio, r n nveupoxmxnxo xou ornv Ka9apti KOI Siauyti orpoctJOi-
onpepivti (^aor\q SioxpoviKiiq ovrrnraq- xnv Ka6pi- pa nou r o v nepiPXXei KOI r n v oioioSo^ia r o u orov tiXio
oe wq ove^pxnrn, x ^ p i o n i KOI ooctiwq Sio^opn Xwv nou r o v (|)WTi2^ei aSiXeinro, r n v KUKXo9upia r o u orov
TWV nponyoupvwv, oXKXnpou rou nponyopevou i- EuperpXnro KOip KOI r n v ron rou yto (jjuyti o r n orev-
oropmo napeX9vroq TOU EXXnviopo. r n r o TWV nXouronopoYwymwv nnycbv.
'Erot Xotnv o AavtnXiSnq enireXei vo eiSoq Eniorn- O A. AovinXiSnq oupnXnpwvei r n rewypo<t)iKti Ovr-
povmo Koopoyoviopo: o Noq EXXnviopq eivat pio r n r a pe r n v loropmti. Zrnv npaypariKrnro ovaXei r n
va ovTrnro, pe Smti r o u yveon, KOI ouyKeKpipva xa- SiaXeKTiKii pero^ r n q fewypo^ioq KQI r n q loropiaq, nou
poKxnpioxiK, nou Sev anoreXei ypoppiKn ouvxeia r w v eixe oov anorXeopo xn onpepivii npoypoxmxnxa xou
nponyoupvwv loropiwv r o u EXXnviKo xwpou. O KO- EXXnviKO E9vouq.
opoyoviopq aurq, n 6ewpia rnq aurvopnq unp^ewq Zxnv loxopmti Ovxxnxa, oxo Ke(l)Xaio SnXoSti xou
rou Nou EXXnviopo, enirpnet r n Siapp(t)won ptaq re- pvou oXoKXnpwpvou un popetttiv ouyypppoxoq p-
Xeiwq 5i(j)opnq noXiriKiiq, noijtn nou npoKoXei pijo- you xou NeoeXXnviKti Koivwvio KOI OiKovopio, ouyyp-
onooxiKq KOI avapop(})wTiKq npo9aeiq. O Noq EXXn- (t)et xn fveon xou Nou EXXnviopo, nou anoxeXei xn
viopq xet Smq xou ovyKeq, SIK XOU npopXiipaxo, oyxpovn loropiKti <l)an r n q nopeiaq r o u EXXnvmo 'E-
Smq xou npoonxmq. MoKpi Xotnv on K9e oxeipa 9vouq. H yveon aurti ouvreXeirai KOT nveuparm
opxatoXoyio, on K6E ononpooavaxoXioxiKii Pufjovxt- rpno OTOV Tauyero, orov YorepoPu^ovTtv Muorp,
voXoyio. o r o nvepa r o u Fewpyiou Fepioro nXii9wvoq (1355-
0 a pnopooe o A. AovinXiSnq av Kivtioei unotjjieq 1452) KOt r w v poGnrwv r o u . Kuocltopeirai PPoio o Noq
nepi OoXpepoytepiopo, av Sev nxov oa(l)tiq, oov o- EXXnviopq tiSn KOT rouq reXeuroiouq oiwveq nptv on

44 NEA KOINQNIOAOriA
TTIV nTtor) Triq KcvoTavrivounXewc;, KOT TTIV nspioSo
Tnq Buf;avTivnq napaKMq, aXXa n oK8i|)n TOU fepiOTO
YoviponoieiTGi an Tnv opxyovn eXXnviKti nopSoon,
Tnv noYovioTiKn, Tnv eXXnvioTiKti, Tn peooijviKti, Tn
SioxpoviKii O nXtijv ovoJ^nT Tnv noYovionKn n-
VTwq KOI n oJJeu^n auTii Tnq (t))nopvnq OKi|)nq TOU
ovTiGeTou npoq TO ovoToXiTiKo nvepa noGnTiKTnToq
KOI poipoXaTpioq TOU nXtiGwvoq pe TO aipo nou Tpxei
OTiq novpxoieq (t)X|3eq TOU EXXnviKo TouyeTou, yevv
TO nveupoTiK oiKoSpnpo, wq noXniKii iSeoXoyio KOI
jq eviKii ouveiSnon, TO No EXXnviop.
ETO MuoTp, peToBTovToq TO Kvrpo |3pouq TOU
EXXnviopo SuTiKTepo KOI o n q opxoieq TOU KoniSeq, o
fepioTq npoonoei vo 9oei n q Poeiq yio vo peTopop-
(}))9ov TO TeXeuToio eSa(})iK unoXeippoTO rnq vSo^nq
BuJJovnviiq AuTOKpOTopioq, nou yio TOV AovinXiSn l i r o v
nepiooTepo pio noXue9viKn KOI Ka9op OVOTOXIKT] Se-
onoTeio, oe vo oyxpovo eXXoSiK eSocJjiK, eXXnvi-
K nveupoTiK KpToq, nou 6 0 Pooifjeroi ornv opxoio
nveupoTiKii nopSoon KOI oe opiopveq npOKTiKq Sioi-
KnnKq opxq, nXoTwviKiiq nvnuq epnveoewq. OoT
Se SBnKe eniKoipTepo pa9npo noioTiKcjjv ISOVIKWV
OTOV EXXnviop^. O FepiOTq enioreue nwq o veoXXn-
viKq Kopoq, yio vo pnopoei vo ?^noei, o(t)eiXei vo Xeu-
Tepw9ei o n ' Xo TO eiSwXo, nou TOU eixe eni|3Xei o no-
Xiq ovoToXinKoq noXmopq^.
O NeonXoTwviopq TOU fepioro avTirx9nKe o ' -
vov napapop(t)wpvo KOI KorXXnXo npoooppoopvo
o n q ovyKeq rnq ovoroXiKiiq |3uJ]avrivnq Seonoreioq o-
piororeXiop. H pvn f^wvrovti Svopn TOU Bufjovriou l i -
r o v r o EXXnviK 'EBvoq, nou ocjjovif^rav KTW on r o
|3poq rnq rXeioq anoouv9oewq rnq Bu^^ovnvtiq Auro-
Kparopioq. 'Opwq, O nXarwviopq, l i o NeonXorwvi-
opq l i r o v Kiipuypo xi pvov E9VIK, nwq eiSape, po
KOI av9pwnioriK, lirov NeoeXXnviopq KQI ouvpa
Oupoviopq*.
O A. AovinXiSnq ronoBerei r o v f epior orov nupiivo
rnq iSioq r n q yveonq TOU Nou EXXnviopo: eivoi o
nveuporiKq KoroXrnq, onvovn o ' vav Rwvoravrivo
I B ' flaXaioXyo, nou anoreXei, ovri9eTa, rov reXeuroio
unepoonioni r n q flXnq. 'Opwq, raurxpovo, o Kwv- nXii9wv, anoreXei r n v n p w r n avri9ern npoq r n v eioPoXii
orovrivoq Apoyronq eivoi KOI O npwroq ' EXXnvoq |3a- rnq AvaroXiiq o r n v EXXSo Kivnon r o u EXXnviopo" Sev
oiXiq r o u Buf^avriou, ov KOI reXeuroioq auroKpropq Teivei va naXivop9woei, oTe KOV VO pipnOei pepmwq r n v
rou, yiori orcfierai oro Muorp KOI yiori ^eKivei on eioPoXii rnq EXXSaq ornv AvaroXii, nou npoyparonoi-
Kei yia vo nei ornv KwvorovnvonoXn' n np^n TOU noe o M . AX^avSpoq, oXX GXei pio EXXSo ourvopn
o u n i iowq unoSnXwvei r n perornion r o u Kvrpou P- nveuporiK, ourpKn omovopiK KOI op9oXoyiopvn
pouq r o u EXXnviopo npoq Suopq, yiari o floXaioXyoq SioiKnriK. f i ' aur o A. AovinXiSnq e^upvei rov flXii-
^eKivei on TO Muorp, an Kei ovrXei r n v e^ouoio r o u , 9wva, nou p9pwoe rov n p w r o eXXnviK noXiriK Xyo
yia va peroPei ornv FlXn, nou npoona9ei vo owoei - orov xwpo rnq noXoiq EXXSaq.
vo M9o, r o p9o rnq BaoiXeouooq KOI reXiK pu9o-
Mer r n (})uyii r o u nXn9wva KOI rnq oxoXiiq r o u , r n q
noieiroi, pe r n pueioropnporiKii rnq n r w o n , o iSioq.
Xeyopvnq oxoXiiq r o u Muorp, ornv IraXio, n EXXSa
O oupoviopq rou flXiiGwva ep^ureeroi ovriGero aKoXou9ei r n poipo rnq KTW an pio vo popcftti ovoro-
orn Aon, nou peroPoivei o f . f epiorq KOI yiverai r o XiKtiq Seonoreiaq, r n v roupKOKporia. O AovinXiSnq e^o-
npofjpi yio r n AuriKii Avoyvvnon. poiwvei oe roXpnp Pa9p, oXX pe orpvraxra eniorn-
H ovXuon r o u A. AovinXiSn SiOKarxeroi on KOX- poviK enixeipiiporo rnv reXeuraia <^aar\q Bu^avriviiq
n i o r o 9oupoop, xwpiq pwq ixvoq oupnXyporoq e9vi- AuroKporopioq pe rqv 09wpaviKn, r n v onoia 9ewpei va
Kiiq Korwreprnroq, npoq r n vopiponoi KOivwviKonoXi- eiSoq noXiriKiiq r n q ouvxeioq, oov a(})op r o noXiriK
riKii nopeio rnq AuriKiiq Eupwnnq. H nopopovii r o u EX- oornpo KOI n q noXireiOKq Sopq, aXX KOI O ' XO TO
Xnviopo KTW on ovoroXiTiKO SeonoriK oxnporo nvepa aoKiioewq e^ouoioq. Aur o(l)eiXerai, eKTq r o u -
(Bu?JovTivii AuroKporopio KOI ToupKopovio) npOKXeoe Xou yeworponwriKo Ka9opiKiopo, KOI ornv emPiwon
rnv Ko9iiXwon r w v ?^WTIKWV Suvpewv: o f . fepiorq TOU BuJ^avrivo SiomnriKO pnxaviopo poo ornv iSio

NEA KOINQNIOAOriA 45
BIBAIA nOY A nPOTEINOYME
r. EAN0OYAHZ:
To ne6a|jvo AiKp
E. 0AKINOY:
H peyaAn npaoivr)
M. nOAENAKH: Aou
B. PAIX:
H avAuon T O U x o p c i K T i p a

M.KONTOAEON:
Ta eine ( ( x T Q ,

n. XANTKE:
H wpa Tt]q aK(]eivf\q aioenon<;
ANOOAOriA ZYrXPONHZ
EPnriKHz noiHZHZ
A F I T O T E A O Y Z 7 e E Z S A A O N I K l l
Tqv 06)iJav\Kri AoTOKpaTopia. HpojTeuovTa KQI KaSopi- 'EBvouq poq K O I TOU KXnpoSTnoe Tn ouyKeKpipvn
OTiK pXo o' auTii Tqv opaXq 6ia5oxq, nou yivETOi popcfiq TOU wq POOIK KTTOpo Tnq eBviKiiq ouvoxnq KOI
nvw OTiq OTXTSc; KQI OTO owpoTO TWV unspaoniOTwv ouyKpoTtioewq. O A. AovinXiSnq pof^i pe TOV K . Kapa|3i-
Tnc; nXnc;, 5ia5papaTi?Jei n OpBo^n EKKXnoia, OTnv So, nou ooxoXiiBnKe eiSiKTepo KOI nio ouoTnpoTiK, pe
onoia o Mwpe6 B" o flopnTnc; acjinvei, snau^vovTOc; TO KoivoTiK (t)oivpevo, onoTeXei TOV KOT' ecoxnv eni-
Tqq pXioTO, Xq Tq pqoKeuTiKq, SiKOOTiKq K O I sKnoi- OTqpoviK ovoXuTn Tnq veoeXXqviKiiq KOivwviKnq
SsuTmn e^ouoio eni TWV paY'Swv, xi pvo TWV EXXn- ouyKpTnonq.
vwv, oXX Xwv TWV op9o6^wv XpioTiovwv. H KOToywyn TWV EXXnviKwv KoivoTiiTwv ovyexoi,
H oXXnXenipoon oXX KOI oi f^wnpq ovTiBoeiq pe- KOT TOV A. AovinXiSn, TOO OTnv noXneiOKT) lOTopio
To^u Tnq pq eXXqviKqq Op95o^qq EKnXqoioq KOI TOU Tqq EXXSoq pe npwTq opxq TO opxoio ' A O T U KQI pe Te-
veoywnTOU Nou EXXqviopo, Tovifjei, KOT TOV Aoviq- XiK 5iapop(J)WTiK nopyovTo Tnv ToupKOKpoTio, oo
Xi5q, Tiq TepooTieq 5io(()opq (t)iXooo(t>iaq Tqq Jwqq peTO^i) KOI OTiq ouyKeKpipveq yewoiKovopiKq ouvBnKeq. H EX-
Touq. O l qiKopqoKeuTiKq opxq KOI TO XO ooTqpo XSo, e^onioq Tnq eowTepiKqq yewypacJiiKqq Tqq KOTOTpq-
ovTipeTwnionq TOU KoBqpepivo Kopou 5ia(|)pei TOO oewq, nopyei nvTOTe SioiKnTmq nepiijjpeieq piKpiiq
peTo^ Touq, woTe onoTeXei o^ionepiepyo (jjOivpevo, e- KXipoKoq: oi nXeiq-Kprn OTnv ApxoiTnTO, oi KoivTn-
^nyopevo pvo on Tq paKpo|3iTqTO Tqq oup(3iwoqq Teq n o u onoTeXov ev eupeio evvoio Tn ouvxeia Touq q
EXXqviopo-EKKXqoioq, q aXXqXeni6paoq peTO^ TOU TO nio npo(J)aTo ovTioroix TOuq. O A. AoviqXiSqq o-
'EBvouq KOI TOU eKKXqoiooTiKO oiKOopqpoToq. Fl- oxoXeiTOi eupTOTO pe TO nvepo, Tq ((iiXooo^ia nou
vTwq q 5ia(l)op ouTq Bo eniPiwoei wq lOXupTorn eow- Sieine Tqv KoivoTiKii opyvwoq, ouTqv Tqv EXXqvmq
TepiKii ovTicfioon Tqq iSioouyKpooioq TOU Nou EXXqvi- Gemeinscliaft: pvipq KOI onXuTn eBviKT) opoi|juxia, ou-
opo, nou TOV xwpi^ei qBiK oe So KOTeuBvoeiq- pio, TOxBoviopq, npoTepoiTnTO TOU KOIVO oupefipovToq -
npoq TOV opxoK noyoviop KOI pio npoq r q Xpicniovi- vovTi TOU OTopiKo, eXeuBepio pxpi TWV opiwv Tnq e-
Kq peTOclJuoiKq. Eivoi pio KOTqyopio, nou Beonifjei o Ao- XeuGepioq TOU ouvovBpwnou, ouva6X(f)won, Swpev ep-
viqXiSqq KOI nou e^nyei noXXq avTi(j)oeiq TOU EXXnvi- yaoia yio TO Koivw(|)eXn pyo, eivoi pepm on TQ npw-
opo, KOT TOV 20 OKpq oiwvo. Toyevti KOI Sopm uXm Tqq.
H KoivTqTO, TO oqpovTiKTepo KOT TOV AoviqXi- Ol KoivTnTeq Spooav wq napyovreq loxuponoiq-
5q noXiTiK Snpiopynpo TOU NeoeXXnviopo eivoi TO onq KOI ovnTU^nq TOU eBvmo oioBnpoToq, eBvmonoin-
KOT' ecoxnv KOIVWVIK nopoywyo Tnq nepiSou Tnq oqq KOI eyKXipoTiopo rnq OpBSo^nq EKKXnoiaq ornv
ToupKOKpOTioq, nou o(J)pyioe Tnv KOIVWVIKT) e^Xi^n TOU eXXnvmn npaypoTiKTnTO KOI Siowoqq TOU eXXqvmo

NEA KOINQNIOAOriA 47
noXiTiopou, aXXa KQI napaYWYiic vwv noXmoriKwv nouXou va Ku^epviioouv l i orw va ouvevvonSov noXi-
ayawv. riK pe r o v EXXnvm Xo.
O oupoviopq r o u NeoXXnva, KOT TOV AavinXiSn,
H XXeiiliri piaq ap(I)iKTUOviaq, nou 9a vwve Tiq Koiv-
nou onoKXeiei on r q v EXXnvmii Koivwvmii KOI noXirmn
TnTsq o vav gvepynnKa KOIV 89VIK OKon KOI oe
l,uir] r n v unoroKTiKii nei9apxia, evw enirpnei pvo r n v
KOivo e9viKa iSoviK, ovonXnpwGnKe, TOUXXIOTO OTO
noparaKTiKti, xei wq onorXeopa loxupraro aioBiipora
pnoKeuTiK KQI r|9iK enineSo, on Tnv EKKXqoio, pe
looTipioq, unoKeipeviKrnroq, (t)iXoSo^iaq, oynnq yia
Tnv onoia oi oxoeiq TOU opyavwpvou oe KoivTnTeq
r n ou^iirnon, oSuvapio nXripouq o^ooiwoewq o r o Kpan-
'E9vouq uniip^ov vTOveq, OTevq K O I KOTOXUTIK
K iSewSeq, iSeoXiop, nveupormii ourovopia KOI oynn
opoiPoieq.
yio r n v SiKpion o r o Snpoio |3io.
H nayavioTiKn nioTq TOU A . AavinXiSn OTnv au9evTi-
r i w q oupPi|3?;erai o aropmiopq pe r o v Koivoriop;
KTnTo TOU nnyoiou eXXnvmo noXniopo KOI Tnq ov-
nwq enrpei|je o npwroq o r o Serepo vo enifjnoei KOI pd-
yKnq eniOTpo(!)nq o ' auTv, peT Tiq ^evopoveiq nveupo-
Xiora v o KoroXii^ei vo eni|3Xn9ei wq r o KOT' ecoxnv eX-
TiKq nepinXovnoeiq TWV veoeXXiivwv OTOXOOTWV, ocjiei-
XnviK KOIVWVIK oornpo; O K . Kapa(3iSaq 9a anovro-
XeTOi OTnv nioTn TOU TI onoTeXei TOV KupiTepo ouvSe-
oe nwq n EXXnvmii Koivrnra, uneparopm KOIVWVIK
TiK lOT TOU EXXnviKO ' E9vouq, lOXupTepo on oiov-
(jjaivpevo. Spa KOI Kiveirai noXirm KQI omovopm wq
SnnoTe XXo, cfiuXeTiK, noXiTiK n omovopiK napyo-
npowno iSiwrmo Smoiou vovn r w v iSiwrwv. O A.
VTO. Ol av9pwnoi TWV SnpoTiKwv TpoyouSiwv yp^ei
AovinXiSnq anavr, x ^ p i q v o Sia(})pei on r a nXoioia
O AovinXiSnq, XoTpeouv Tn Oon, Tqv norpiSo, Tnv oi-
rnq e^nvnoewq r o u K . Kapo^iSo, nwq n veoeXXnvmii o-
Koyveio KOI Tn yuvoiKO KOI Xouv vo f^noouv, v o xa-
cjjooiwon o r n v iSo r o u ouvXou eivoi vo (Jiuom eKX-
pov. r r OUT noXeouv OKpo KOI pe TO Xpo yio v o
Xiopa r o u eyw. A u r o p x m i i ouroeKSiiXwon KI xi ouro-
pnv ne6oivouv. Eivoi popovrmoi KI xouv noX Xupiop.
npvnon. F i ' our Sev onoKXeiei r o v aropmiop, ane-
(...) K o i pwq eniCJnTov Tn Spon, 9XOUV VO ^OUV, Sev
vovriaq r o v ovanroaei. E^ ou KOI n oSuvopio r o u Ne-
evvoov vo Touq onoonoei Koveiq on ToTn Tn t^wn, o-
oXXnva nou noXireeroi (...) v o npooopr Tnv norpiSa
Te pnopov, on ct)avTaoio K I OV xouv, v o opopoTif^o-
TOU o r o rop r o u (...). AXXoipovo pwq o r n v noTpiSa,
vToi XXn KoXTepn*. F i ' OUT KOI O iSioq o AovinXiSnq
ov ouvexoipioBei pe XXov. NoiwOei xov eour r o u nfx>-
eivol SnpoTiKq, KOivoTmq, eXXnvmq, pe Tnv opxyovn
Sopvo, r n q opveiroi KBe uirnpeoio, onooperat an
vvoio TOU pou, noyovioTiKq pe Tnv avTi9eoKpaTiKn
rnv noXiriKii K O I ncprei oe pio a9upia, nou pnopei va
vvoio Tnq X^nQ. viToemq nou, xovToq |Bpe0ei, nwq o
r o v Xiwoei, nwq o epwrmq nvoq r o v ruxo epwreup-
Nietsciie OTO TeXm OTSIO evq ^eBupoopvou XpiOTio-
vo (...)^. O A . AavinXiSnq unovvoei paye r n v KXaooiidi
viopo, npene v ' ovoinTiioei KOivopyieq nqyq TOU
oupnepi(t)Op r w v NeoeXXiivwv noXirmwv, on r o v X .
pXXovToq^ KOI Tiq avaKXuil)e, nwq o peyXoq ouy-
Tpmonn pxpi TOV K . KopapovXii; Flvrwq n opoirnro
YpO(})aq TOU ZopOTOoxpo, OTOV KXOOOIK noyoviop,
eivoi rouroXoymn.
ornv nio Sioxpovmn pwq eXXnvmr) TOU SioToon.
H nXaormii npoSiBeon anoreXei r n v r p i r n |3aoiKn
O e9vmq xopoKTiipoq nou opcfiwva pe TOV A . Ao- ypappii r o u e9viKo xapoKTiipo, KOT r o v AavinXiSn.
vinXiSn e^opTTOi on'ro nvepa evq noXmopo opi- O NeoXXnvoq, noiSi Tnq nXiXouornq Meooyeiou, eiv<B
opvou KOI pijwpvou o ' vo opiopvo Sa(t)oq, oe pio O v9pwnoq TWV aio9iioewv, nou oSnyeirai nponovrq
opiopvn lOTopio, unKeiToi oe loropmq peTo|3oXq. O an r n v pooii TOU. K O I nopoKrw; H SiavonnKrnxa
AovinXiSnq evTonif^ei Tpeiq Kpteq ypoppq OTOV e9viK rou, O iSeoXiopq r o u opveiroi Ka9e r i nou Sev eivoi a-
XOpoKTiipo TWV NeoeXXiivwv; r n v nveupoTiKTnTO, TOV vnXnnr, nou Sev yiverai pio iSa Xoymii ti pio <pp\i
OTopiKiop KOI Tnv nXaoTiKti npo5i9ean. aioGnni KOt ato9noiaKii (...). Ayon r n f^wii K I eivot npo-
AieuKoXvovToq, wq eniornpovmti pooq, TOV O . Ko- onXwpvoq orov Kopo, r o v opar KQI Ka9optopvo.
veXXnouXo, n o u nioreei oKpSovTo nwq n poipo TOU Ft' our KOt Kupiapxei n oioBnoiOKii eKStiXwon r o u e-
EXXnviopo eivol o noXmopq KOI wq eK TOTOU O ' E X - 9viKo tSeoXiopo, nou anoKXeiei r n v KOivwvmti oroe-
Xnv nyrnq npnei v o eivoi KOT' opxnv KOI Kupiwq nveu- prnTO, pe anorXeopo o 'EXXnvoq vo peraPXXeroi pe
poTiKq nyTnq. o A . AovinXiSnq nioTeei nwq o 'EXXn- rnv iSio euKoXio o n yewpy oe pnopo K O I
voq xpnoiponoiei TO nvepo TOU SuoavXoya npoq Tn avTiarp(j)wq'.
owpoTiKii TOU Svopn, Tnv onoio nepictjpovei wq nop-
O NeoeXXnvmq Meooiwvoq eivot n nepioSoq eKeivii
yovTO npoSou, opp^ouoo pXXov oe oXo|3iKoq l i oe
o r n v onoia npnet v ' ava!^nxn9ov xa yeveoioupy o i n a
ooioTiKoq Xooq.
rnq eXXnvmiiq KOivwviKtiq KOI noXixiKtiq KOKoSaipoviaQ,
Tov 'EXXnvo SioKpivei anepipioxn <l)iXopa6eia KOI oov a(l)op xnv eu9vn xnq loropmiiq e^Xi^nq- H 09w-
nveupaTiKTnTo nXooio oe av9pwniop, OUT TOU - povmii auroKporopia npoKuilJe on r o v eKPui^ovnviop
pwq TO xopOKTnpiOTiK unoKoXXiepyovToi ti SiooTp- rwv AvaroXiTwv, nou SioSxrnKe r o Bu^vrio, nou ano-
(l)ovTai pe anorXeopo v a nopouaii^ovrai r o c|)aivpeva rXeoe r o v e^ovoToXiop r o u EXXnviopo oe vo noXue
TOU ypaiKuXiopo, SqXaSii ruxoSiWKriopq, epooirexvi- GviK nXaioio.
opq, rerpaneporoovn KOI SoXionoinon, (pTr\va KOI Seu- T a Kpio xopOKrnpiorm r n q ToupKOKparioq eivat n
TepeovTO nopoywyo r n q nveuporiKrnroq. To nveupa- nXtipnq KOI oXoKXnpwrmti ou9aipeaio r n q e^ouoiaq, noo
rm nppXnpo r o u Nou EXXnviopo eivai n SiooTpo(t)ii untipxe r o Poomrepo epnSio yia r n v ovnru^n napa-
xnq nveupariKrnrq r o u ouriiq KOI o A . AovinXiSnq poq ywyiKwv enevSoewv KOI r n v opaXti aormonoinon TW
napxEi r n |3on yio vo Karovoiiooupe r n v aSuvopio n- BoXKOviwv KOI r n q Monq AvoroXiiq pe anorXeopo p w
yerwv r o u nveupormo o v o o r i i p a r o q r o u O . KoveXX- KOlVWVlKti e^Xi^n reXeiwq avri9eTn npoq o u n i v r n q Eo-

48 NEA KOINQNIOAOriA
pcnaKtic; Auonc;' n wc; EK TOTOU nXqpric; XXn|)r| KpcTi- KpToq Tqq OpGoSo^ioq, KpToq pe nXiipn, poo (t)uom
KTiq vopinTHTOc;- n enior|lionoir|ori Tqq XriOTEioq KGI Triq OTO OGwpoviK nXaioio, e^ouoio KGI moioSooio.
nEipGTeioq- q EKOTpcmwTiKonoiqoq Tqq KaSqpepivqq Ol enioTnpovmq ovoXoeiq KGI OI GEwpisq TOU A .
^jqq, nou EnE^EpE rnv nXtpn epnpijjon Tnq KaXXiEpyn- AovinXi5n XI pvo GvXoPov TO onpovrmTOTo pyo
oijinq Ynq KGI TOV OIKOVOPIK popoop xnq unoiGpou- n Tqq ouToyvwoioq TOU ' EGvouq, npooSiSovTq TOU npwTO
E^nXwon TOU GoiGTiKo Tpnou Jjiuiiq pxpi TO KVTPO pio ouyKEKpipvn TOUTTnTG, ouTiiq TOU Nou EXXnvi-
Tqq Eupwnnq, o ' XEq n q EupwnaKq 5nXa5n nEpioxq opo, GXX KOI onoTXEOOv Tq Poq yio vo oXKXqpo
nou EXEYXOVTGV on Tnv Owpovmn AuroKpoTopio' n KOivwvioXoyiK, lOTopiK KGI noXiTiK pEpa; XXoi o n '
evSuVGHWOn TOU PEOGIWVIKO OxiopGTOq AvGToXtiq KOI Touq ouyYpa(})Eiq nou EnqpEorqKov an TOV A . Aovin-
Aoqq- O nXqpnq pEoaiwviKq KOI noXmoTiKq OKOTGSI- XiSn OTp0qKOv npoq pETO^uoiKTEpeq KOTeuGvoeiq,
opq TWV un Tqv owpaviKti Kupiapyin Xaw\'. ouyKpGTwvToq Kupiwq TG nGmo KOI nveuporm OTOixeio
O AvGToXiTiKoq <t>ou6oXiopoq nou KupiupxnoE un TOU pyou TOU, XXoi npoq npoKTiKTepeq. 'OXoi n-
Tqv pop(t)q TOU Buf^Gvnvo AEonoTiopo, ornv npwTGp- VTwq oTpeilJov Tiq KoGop ovTmeipevmq ovaXoeiq TOU
XiKr) ooiGTonoinoq Tqq AvGToXiKqq Eupwnnq, un TO no- ouornp eniOTnpovmo AaviqXi6q npoq vo ouyKeKpip-
XUBVIK BuCjavno, EvSuvopwveTGi Twpo, wq oBwpaviKq vo 5ov yiyveoGoi.
OOUXTOVIOUC, nou onoKXeiEi jx] SnpioupyiG vvopwv nap5eiypG o A. ToKwvoq, poGqTqq KOI orevq ())i-
(|)Ou6aXiKwv OXOEWV, Tnv nop^n P'aq opiOTOKpoTioq Xoq TOU, nou SierXeoe Ynoupyq TWV AmTOTopmtijv
KXnpovopmnq KGI yevma Xnq EKeivnq r q q KOivwvmqq KuPepviioewv Tqq E n r a e r i o q 1967-1974 K G I o onoioq
ouyKpoTqoEwq nou ornv Aon Snpiopynoe Tqv vvoio npoPXXei TO loropm 6ov Tnq necpwTiopvnq Aecjno-
Tnq vopipTnraq. Teioq, an r n v onoio nwq onSei^e o AoviqXiSqq Sev n-
AvToToixa (j)aivpEvo onioBoSppnonq nopornpo- pooe o Noq EXXqviopq. Zrqv anouoio Tnq lOTOpmiiq
VTOl KQI OTnv OlKOVOpio, TOV KpiO XOpOKTnplOTlK EI- ouTiiq <))anq onoSiSei o A . ToKwvoq Tqv ouoiooTmq a-
voi n avTinopaywymn ouoowpeucjn nXoTOu KOI n KXO- vunop^io AqpoKpoTiaq o r q v EXXSo pxpi oqpepo.' Qq
nr) ornv onoio ouppeTxei KGI TO i5io TO enionpo KpToq. Xoq npoTEivsi r n v EnovpGwon Tnq lOTopmtiq auTiiq X-
AuTq oi oiKovopmq Sopeq napooinopo, KXoniiq KGI XEiijjqq, PE r n v EyKoGiSpuon ne^wnopevou SiKTOTOpmo
GvnnapoywymTnTGq cmoTeXov (t)GivpevG nou enipiw- KoGeoTWTOq, TO onoio pwq TeXm KOTOpyei xq Aqpo-
vouv, oe Kupiopxm poXiOTo Pop, OTiq omovopieq TWV KpoTio nio pif^m o n ' oo onooKonei, oxo poKpiv pX-
xwpwv nou f^noov un TOV oOwpovm f;uy KOI per Xov, vo xnv eyKoGiSpoei.

Tnv onoxwpnon TWV TopKwv. EniSpoeiq xei PPoio o AoviqXiSqq, npooSeuxmq o


AnoTeXopGTG o r n veoeXXqvmq eBvmq iSioouyKpooio iSioq, KOI oxnv opioxep. OapSeiypo o KoGnynTiiq B.
eivGi Ol nponoBeoeiq rqq KGKqq Xenoupyioq TWV 5qpo- <J>iXioq, nou xei ypiliei TOV npXoyo TOU enoveKSoG-
KpOTmwv Geopwv KOI q ovunop^io piaq onpavTmnq no- VToq TO 1986 PipXiou TOU NeoeXXnvmii Koivwvio KGI
XiTiKnq KXqpovopiq, q nveupoTmti, qGiKii KOI uXmq y- Omovopia, nou napoSxexoi xi o A . AovinXiSqq eivoi
pvio, q XXeiijjq KGe opxovTmqq oywyqq, aXX enionq n yio Xouq xouq oyxpovouq ' EXXqveq KOivwvioXyouq, o
poipoXoTpeio, n Koxunoijjio npoq pio exGpmn nvTOTe AooKoXoq.
KpoTiKii e^ouoio, TO (t)aivpevo TOU pouo(t)eTio, r n q 5w-
po5oKiaq KGI TOU p n o x r a i q ' " KOI yevm n XXeiiJjn Tnq o-
nopaiTnTnq yio Tnv eyKoGiSpuoq evq uyioq SnpoKpoTi- VnOSHMEIQIEIZ
Ko noXiTepoToq KOivwvmqq KOI nveupoTmnq npooTO- 1. ArmoaOvq AauinXiSri, NeoeXXqvmq Koivwvia KQI OIKO-
pioq KOI unoSopnq. vopia, Anva, Na Zuvopa, 1986, asX. 2.
2 IBID, O. 81.
KOIVWVIK nopoywyo auTiiq Tnq eXXnvmiiq lOTopmtiq 3. IBID, a 82
<t)aewq eivoi oi KXe^roppoTwXoi KOI OI neipaTq, 5nXa5q 4. IBID, a 84
01 AvTpTeq, qpwnoinpvoi cnq ouvEiSqoq TOU Xao wq 5. IBID, a 146.
enavocrraTnpvoi evavriov TOU KOTaKTqrq unSouXor ei- 6. KapX Aj3iT, To Nqpa Tqq loropiaq, Aqva, Fvwaq,
voi 01 KOTf;apnon5eq KOI OI OovapidjTeq, oi euvoope- 1985, PASSIM.
voi, nou Tnv KOlVWVlKti Touq Gon Tqv ^eiXov K O T ' O- 7. NsosXhqviKq Koivwvia KOI OiKovopia, Aqva, Na Zvo-
pa, 1986, o. 174
noKXeiOTiKTnTa OTO ZOUXTVO, ev avTiGoei pe rouq 5u-
8 IBID, a 175
TiKoq $eou5pxeq TWV onoiwv n noXiTmii loxq niiya^e
9. IBID, a. 177.
on KeKTqpevo KOI anapoPiooTo on TOV AVWTOTO ' Ap-
10. Eivai xapaKTqpioTiK TI OI X^eiq nou SK^pa^ouv Tiq ox-
XOVTO KOIVWVIK SiKOiwpaTo- eivGi, TXoq oi EKKXnoio- aeiq TO noAirq ps TO KpToq, OTq oqpspivq EXXaSa, xov o-
OTiKoi AeonTeq, n o u ouyKpoTooav TO EKKXqoiacnm wpavmq npoXeOq.

N a K o i v a j v i o X o y i a : x o n p i o 5 i K K B e O K e n x i a e -

v o u ' E X X r j v a

V J

NEA KOINNIOAOriA 49
AHMOZ0ENHE AANIHAIAHZ

H KOINOTHTA TOY nOAITEM(


O NsoeXXnviopq SEV anoTsXei evTqra $vXeTiKi). rqv eKXa^oupe oov KTI TO apxma unoKeipevm KOI iSia-
'Onwq Xoi oi naXaioi KOI vsrspoi Xaoi, rai KI aurq (ov OTOV KOva an TO nXqdoq rwv pupiaSwv, nou nq
npaoe an nXrjoq Siaaraupwoeiq, nou orqv loropio a- evwvouv KOI nq ouyKparov oi evmoi Seapoi. AKpa
noreXouvE rov Kavva KI XI rqv e^aipsaq. Kara ouv- KOI rav SianiOTwvoupe, nwq opiopva arofja eivai oi
neia eivai KI o vsoeXXqviKq Xaq, nwq K ' oi aXXoi, ro npwTOi aurqq Sqpioupyoi KOI (popeiq.
rsXiK anorXeona noXunoKiXwv (puXermwv peravaare- ffpKeirai yia pia eKSqXwoq KOivo noXniapou, nou
oFwv. evwoewv. SiaXuoewv KOI auyxwvsaewv. Ka Sev oov arfjo0aipa opaSmq, oav opyavm ouvoXo a^iwv
pnopooe va eivai SiacpoperiK. uneparopmwv, Kadiepwpvwv an rqv napaSooq aiw-
Erq Meayeio, nou yewoiKovopma sivai Sejjvq pe r- vwv, unapxei noX npiv an ra aropa KOI Siapopepwve-
aeq evSxwpeq KOI anoreXei rq Siaoraupwoq rowv rai uorepoyeviq an rqv e^Xi^q oe a^ia unoKeipevmq
peuparwv, eivai aSuvaro va unapxei fiioq loropmq Si- evauveiSqrq.
Xwq opi^ipo (puXwv KOI Xawv. '0,TI aXXwore ovopoou- Erqv apxq unapxQuv nepioSoi ar/jwv q opaSwv,
pe Xa noXiTiopvo KOI noXiriop eivai yevma ouvneia nou napxouv q napaSxovrat, anXoorepa Sivouv q
noXXanXqq avraXXayqq q eniKoivwviaq. AKpa KI aurq naipvouv neira nepioSoi yevewv, nou Sev apKOvrai va
O apxaioq eXXqvmq noXiriopq, nou orqv OKpq rou na- Sxouvrai naOqrma ,ri rouq napxouv, pa evvoov va
pouoiaae povaSmq evrqra KI' ayvrqra, ovanruoo- TO acpopoiwvouv oupcpwva /je rq Smq rouq unoraoq.
rave, nwq Xyei vaq an rouq KaXrepoq rou yvw- Eexwpiarq eivai q oqpaoia, nou xei q yXwoaa. 'Oxi
oreq KOI Xarpeiq, pvo ecpoov eixe rq Svapq va a<po- jjovaxa wq va oioSqnore opyavo enmoivwviaq orqv
poiwvei ^va oroixeia. Na yiari acprjvoujje KOT ppoq nveupariKq aurq aXXqXoSieioSuoq arpwv KOI opaSwv
rov aoa(pq KOI ye/jro puoriKiap po rqq paroaq q (pu- an Tq pia yevea orqv aXXq, an TOV va aiwva OTOV
Xrjq KOI npoTipope rov nio auyKSKpipvo rqq evrqraq, aXXo, aXXa KOI wq KTI nou eivai nvepa KOI ouvpa
nou ewpoupe napaywyo rou noXmopo KOI XI napa- Ypappa, ouoia KOI auvapa cpppa KOI nou yi' aur cpop-
yovra aurou. Tiroia tj vsoeXXrjviKij 0vTr]ra xei va IJpei KOI (poppperai. EmlSaXXerai ouvenwq, va pi^oufje
nepiexpevo nvevpariK. '0,TI anoreXei njv npaypa- pia paria orq oxermq nXeupa rqq yXwoamqq e^Xi^qq KI
TiKij rrjq ovaia eivai rj 6Xr]ai] TJV NeoeXAijviov v' a- av OKjja TO orev nXaioio rou dparq paq Sev enirp-
viJKovv a' va KOIV avvoXo. nei va npoo^oupe Xa ra nopiapara rqq peuvaq, yia
Ka q OXqoq aurq eivai pia qdiKij Suvapq, nou e^ou- va viwooupe KoXrepa rov Kupiapxo KOI Sqpioupym p-
Serepwvei rov ronmiop KOI yecpupwvei ra Siiorapeva- Xo TOU KOIVO auro noXiriano.
nou eni ToupKOKpariaq, oXKXqpouq aiwveq npo rqq Mera^ rwv ^vwv X^ewv rqq NeoeXXqvmqq, nwq
Sqpioupyiaq TOU veoeXAqvmo Kprouq, Kadpi(e rouq Sianiorwvei yeppavq eXXqviorqq, unpxouv 273 oXafir
jjeXXovriKouq rou noXireq, x<^PK ^ci XjSei unipq ra ye- Kqq Karaywyqq axermq pe rq yewpyia, 500 TOupKmq q
wypacpiK, noXiTiK q omovopiK avopa, nou paa apaponepamq axermq pe (pura, XouXoSia, apwijara,
(ooav auToi, nou xei auvaonioei ypw an rouq EXXq- praXXa, OIKIOKI) (wq rpcpipa K ' enayyXparo. Enioqq
vcpwvouq Xouq rouq AX/3av0wvouq, BXaxcpwvouq, nXqOoq X^eiq oxeri^peveq pe ro epnpio, rq piopqxa-
ZXal3(pwvouq, ToupK<pwvouq KQI aXXouq ^evcpwvouq via, rq vauriXia, rqv omoSopiKq, rqv averq (wq, rqv
rouq acpopoiwpvouq an rqv EXXqvmq Meayeio, rouq KoXXirexvia KOI rqv rexvrnq npoSo eivai iraXmqq KOTO-
y/jioe pe auroouveiSqoq eXXqvmq KOI Touq per/SaXe ae ywyqq. Ynpxouv nepinrwoeiq nou oi npwreq Xeq -
nepq(pavouq evouoicvSeiq epyareq TOU NeoeXXqviopo. xouv vopo eXXqvm, evw ra npoi'vra rouq ovpara i-
Eivai noX xapaKrqpiOTiKij q naparqpqaq, nou Kave raXiK. Ol X^eiq aurq, nou eivai paprupeq rqq ^evmqq
ro veoToupKiK Kopnaro 'Evwaq KOI HpoSoq ara Karaywyqq rwv SqXoupvwv oroixeiwv, Sivouv oe pi-
1901, rav, npoanaOwvraq va Sqpioupyqaei an ro xoq Kpoypacpia rqv emva rqq uXmqq napoKpqq rou NeoeX-
TOU avevmo oOwpaviopo ro ropKmo voq, auva- Xqviopo. AnoreXov pwq ouvpa KOI piav anSei^q
VTOuoe ae KOE ywvia rqq auroKparopiaq rqv eXXqvmq yia rq Svapq rou nveupormo nepiexopvou rou veoeX-
TOrq KOivrqra rwv deXqaewv. MeyaXo ppoq rou Xqvmo noXiriopo, nou SiarqpqqKE Sia poou rwv ai-
nXqOuapo rqq MoKeSoviaq an anoipq KCTaywyqq eivai wvwv poa arqv eXXqvmq napaSooq KOI nou pnpeoe
Ke aXXo napa 'EXXqveq, ypa^e rre pia eyKKXioq V' a4>opoiii)aei ra ^evma oroixeia.
veoTOupKiKi). Ka pwq xei ouveiSqaq eXXqvmq KOI 9e-
napa rqv eiopoq Tawv KOI rowv ^vwv oroixeiwv
onoiei TOV EXXqviap. XiXiaSeq eivai Keivoi, nou duaia-
q EXXqvmq Sev xaoe ro omeiov nvepa KOI rouq oi-
l^ouv Xq rouq rqv nepiouoia, TO eKaroppupia rouq yia
Keiouq rnouq- anevavriaq pnpeoe va ra Siarqpqoei KOI
TOV HaveXXqviop.
Tqv KOivrqra Torq rwv OeXqaewv Sev npnet va HNeosXXnviKii Kotvwvia KOI omovopia, Aijva, Na Evvopa, 1986

50 NEA KOINQNIOAOriA
(OYAH, E0NOI, nOAITIIMOI)^
va Ta 6iaiJOp(pwoi napanpa. ArxapaXXaxja ntc; oi
'EXXrjveq iaTqpnaavs TOV EXXrjviofJ rouq KOI Sev yi-
vav iiriTe EXafioi jjqre AXjiavoi i) TovpKoi.
'ETOI napa Tq jjeyaXq napoKpq, napa TO Bu(avTio,
napa TOV e^avaroXiop KOI rouq (ocpepoq aicbveq rqq
ooXeiaq per rqv 'AXcuoq, peive aSiKOnq q napaSo-
oq TO eXXqviKO noXinoiJOV.
Aev qaav pvo oocpoi TWV reXevTaiwv aiwvwv TOV
Bv^avriou, nwq o Fepiorq KOI O Bqoaapiwv, nov orq-
pi(rave orqv narpio naiSeia KOI (pwvq, yia va Sianqpv-
^ovv rqv navapxaiq opoXoyia: 'EXXqveq eapv. Ka
orovq aiwveq, nou OKoXovqoav, nappeive q opoXoyia
Tovrq Koivq niorq Xwv rwv Siavoovpvwv.
Eivai xapaKrqpiariKq pepiKq oxeriKq nXqpo<popieq,
nov paq Sivovv oi ^voi, nou nepiqyqdqKOv eni ToupKO-
Kpariaq nq eXXqviKq enapxieq. Ava<ppw pia povaxa,
noXv runiKi), an ra verepa xpvia. Zro yaXXo orpa-
rqy, nov oro 1787 nruxe va KaraXa/Sei rqv KepKupa
ev ovpari rou NanoXovroq, vaq nanaq KepKupaioq
npocpepe jjia OSooeia KOI rou Kove rqv OKXouq
wvwv Tqq OKXajiiq, rqq (prwxeiaq KI apa9iaq KOI nio
npoaipwvqoq: FaXXoi, 9a Ppeire oe rora ra vqoia va
yeviK TOU ^eneapo evq oXoKXqpov Xao.
Xa apa9q onq eniorqpeq KOI onq rxveq, nou So^a(ouv
O veoeXXqviKq noXmopq Sev qrav KOI Sev eivai
ra 9vq' pa va pqv TOV nepKppoveire yia roro' pnopei
napa ro nvepa piaq napaSooqq: va nvepa nqyaio,
va yivei naXiv ,ri qrav pia (popa- Siap^ovraq ro 0i/3Xio
nou paq (pavepwverai (wvrav orq (wq, TOV SqXaSq
TOTO pa9eTe va rov exripare!
SieioSei KOI Siapopcpwvei rqv apopcpq npwrq Xq. Ta
O Xaq Sev eoKecpTrove SiacpoperiK, KI XI pvo
xapoKTqpioTiK rou 9a r' ava(qrqooupe xi roo ora
ora Ecpravqoa, q rre orov aiwva rqq eupwna'iKqq ypai-
pyo rqq veoeXXqvmqq cpiXoXoyiaq, nov eivai OKpa OTO
Kopaviaq, nou eixe peraSo9ei KOI orqv EXXaSa.
npwro rqq oraSio, ore rqq eniorqpqq, nov Sev npaoe
H SiKoiq avriSpaoq rwv vwv yevewv KOT rou ap- Tqv nepioSo rqq naiSmqq apwareiaq, oo onq Xamq
xaiopo xei ouxv nape^qyqaei KOI vnoripqoei rq pey- 9pqoKeuriKq So^aoieq KI avriXqipeiq yia rq (wq KOI rov
Xq oqpaoia, nou xei ro nvepa piaq aSiKOnqq napa- Kopo, ora qOq KOI ra ipa rou Xao, onq eKSqXwaeiq
Sooqq aiwvwv. To nvepa roro avriri9eTai oe Ka9e ap- rqq laropiaq rou, ora noXirma, KOIVWVIK KOI omovopi-
xai'ap q laropiop, nou eivai eKSqXwaq pwpavriKi) KOI K TOV Sqpiovpyqpara, orq yXwooa TOV KOI ara pya
rexvqrq avaSpopq q Koracpuyq an ro napv npoq TO rqq Xa'mqq rxvqq, an ra Sqporma rpayoSia KOI ra
napeX9v. Ka yi' aur oqpaivei rq cpvomq iaa ioa eni- napap9ia ioape rq Xa'mq apxiTeKrovmq q SiOKOopqri-
jiiwoq rou napeX9vToq oro napv KOI xopoKrqpi^ei rqv Ki), rouq XaKOq xopoq q rq pouomq. Ma ro Sa(poq
e^Xi^q Ka9e peyaXov noXiriapo. yia pia rroia ava(qrqoq Sev xei OKpq avaoKa(pei Pa-
H SiapKeia rorq evq aroixeiou Ka9apia nveupari- 9ia KOI nXari oo npene, ore KOI pnopoae v' ava-
KO, nou oyxpovoq paq yewypacpoq KOI yvworqq rqq OKOcpei an va Xa, nou (ei oKpa an anoipq nvevpa-
Naq EXXSaq rqv e^qyei pe rqv aSiKonq enevpyeia rmq, av xi aro nai9po, navra poa oe napayKeq KOI
yewipuxiKWV napayvrwv, anoreXei rqv Kivqrqpia Sva- KoXPeq q oe ^va q ^evi(ovra pyapa. Fi' aur Se paq
pq rqq veoeXXqvmqq e9vTqTaq KOI peTafiaXXei ro voq enirpnei 9riKq naparqpqaeiq pe Knoio yevmrepo K-
oe KOivrqra noXmopo. poq K' evSiaippov.
rioioq eivai Xomv o noXiriapq, nou anoreXei rq /3a- EKeivo nou pnopooe va npoayei ro 9pa paq eSw,
oq rqq KOivrqraq rorqq; 9a eivai naXi ro noX noX va nepiopio9ope a' va
AoKoXa pnopope va TOV avriXqcpope oav va o- povaxa ropa, ara Sqporma rpayoSia, nov oxerm ei-
voXo TWV uXiKwv aya9wv rou oqpepivo paq rexvmo vai nepioorepo peXerqpva KOI Kpivovrai yevma wq TO
noXmopo. Ki OKpq SuoKoXrepa oav pop<pq avwre- nio Ka9apa Sqpiovpyqpara rqq veoeXXqvmqq Xa'mqq
pqq nvevpariKqq q KaXXirexvmqq (wijq pe opiopvo e- poaq, K' neira va npoo^oupe ^av ra Xiya Keiva
viaio pu9p. 'OXa TOTO eivai avq KOI Kopnoi, nou xapaKrqpiorma, nou npofiXXavv vrova, yiari Se poia-
Sev ennpnerai va (qrqooupe poa orqv epqpia rwv ai- (ovv pijre ra Pv(avTiva pqre r' apxaia KXaoama.

NEA KOINQNIOAOnA
K' sivai TOTQ, nwq T' ava<ppaiis KOI napanavw VTivonoXq, Tq PaaiXiSa TWV nXewv, KOI nq nqyq TOU
OTO K0aAaio nepi e^eXXr)vioiJOu, q ovenicpvXaxTq av x' OTqv AvoToXq, evw TO aXXo eivai pi(wpvo orqv EXXa-
KOI navTO xopovpevri, KOTcpaari Tqq (wqq KI ' o yepToq Sa. To Pu(avTiv nvepa Sev ^pei napa Tqv Texvqrq e-
aywvia (pjioq TOU Oavarov. Oi avOpwnoi TWV qpoTiKwv vTqTa TWV opoS^wv, TO eXXqvm Tqv opyavmq evrq-
Tpayoviwv Aarpeuovv Tq <paq, Tqv naTpia, Tqv OIKO- To TWV opoevwv. To npwro, aveQvm KOI aveSa(pm,
yveia KOI Tq yuvaiKa KOI Xouv va (qoouv, va xapovv. ayvoei rqv FlarpiSa, evw TO Serepo, evm KOI pi(wp-
vo aro narpio Satpoq, Sev ucpiorarai Si'xwq rqv Flarpi-
n' auT naAeuovv oKpa KOI pe TO Xapo yia va pqv Sa. EKei Kupiapxei o Kaoaponaniopq oav anapao-
neOaivovv. Eivai pwpavTiKoi K' xouv noX Avpiop. O Xeurq ra^q, nou eniPXXerai avwev KOI nepiopi(ei rqv
eowTepiKq Tovq Kopoq eivai nvevpoTiKq pa K ' aioq- eniorqpovmq OKipq KOI rqv noXirmq evpyeia. Avn'era
TiKq, Si'xwq paoq peTacpuoiK. AvnOeoKpaTiKoi, evav- eSw unapxei Ki'vqoq SqpoKparmq KOI naXq eXeepwv
6pwni(ouv Tq 0oq KOI rouq Oeoq, Aaikoi SqpoKpoTiKoi, Suvpewv.
xouv Tq Siipa rqq AeuTepiaq KOI TO piooq rqq Tvpav-
Erq pu(avTivq napaSooq Spa va nvepa unepe^e-
viaq. Ka pwq Sev xouv TO aioOqpa nwq eivai Aurepoi,
Xiypvo pa KI aprqpiooKXqpwpvo nia KOI Siarqpqpvo
nwq Sev xouv KOI Tqv aSoXq y a p d KOI yaXqvq eKeivwv
pe Kno KOI pxo paa oe (pppeq apxa(ouoeq, Konou
nou anoXaPaivouv. 'Exouv npoSiaeoq TpayiKij KOI pe-
paXiora KOI KXaomq, nou KOI roreq xouv navra rq
XayxoXouv. BXnouv Tq (wq xi pvo ecpqpepq, pa KOI
SuoKaptpia loropmwv Xeiipavwv. Erq veoeXXqvmq napa-
yeparq Xiipq, TOV epwTiK Touq nOo aveKnXqpwTO, TOV
Sooq (ei KOI Kiveirai, pXaorpi rqq naXiaq pi(aq, va
epwTiK TOuq nvo aiwvio, TO Xapo aSuawnqTO. Ka -
nvepa Koivopyio KI ave^Xixro, nou rpiperai an rq
pwq eni(qTouv Tq Spaoq, OXouv va (ouv, Sev evvoouv
pva yq KI aywvi(erai vo ppei rq Smq rou rq (pppa.
va Touq anoonaoei KOveiq an TOvrq Tq (wq, oTe pno-
Apxaioipaveia orq pia nepinrwaq KI avayvvqoq orqv
pov, aq (pavTooia KI av xovv, va opapaTi(ovTai aXXq
aXXq. EKei pia yepaapvq avaroXirmq ouoia pe paoKO
KaXTepq.
poupiaq apxa'mqq, eSw ovoia veoeXXqvmq pe (puoioyvw-
TToio eivai oe yevmq ypappq TO nvevpa, nou npo- pia, nou Sev nq^e OKpq.
fiaXXei an TO SqpoTiK TpayoSta, av TO napovpe wq
H Pu(avTivq napaSooq eivai va reppa. O Soypari-
evSeixTiK yia Tq veoeXXqvmq napaSooq. Ma napaXXq-
opq rqq a nviyei poipaia ro Parepo pqoKeurm ai-
Xa q pa(i p' avTi) (ei KI aXXq napaSooq, q /3u(avTivq,
aqpa KOI a EK(puXi(ei ae eoXaymq aocpiareieq rq
nou xei KI ' auTij TO SIK rqq ^exwpiar nvepa.
pqoKevrmq oKipq, a Kvei orev KOI oreipo ro puori-
KaOopioape napanavw TI x(TpaKTqpi(i KOI TOTO TO Kiap KI aSvarq rq (piXooo(pia. /\ev pnopei va eivai na-
nvepa: AqSia KI pvqoq rqq (wqq, yeparqq voxeq qSo- pa Tupavvmq arq OKipq KOI OTO aioOqpa. EvreXwq a-
vq. MaToiTqra TWV navrwv KOI KOTacpuyq OTqv aiwvia vrierq q veoeXXqvmq napaSooq eivai pia a(perqpia pe
(wq. eoKpanopq, anoXuTapx'opq KI aveOviopq. KeKTqpveq Suvpeiq. O vpoq rqq (wqq a rqv avayK-

52 NEA KOINHNIOAOriA
(ei va ^(psvYi an ra Synara xai TOuq Tvnovq, nov Oa KOivopyieq eOviKq yXwaoeq. Ot Xaoi viwdave TOV eour
Triv Kparovoov oro rpna, KOI va (qT rrjV Ktvqoq KOI rouq oXova KOI mo ^vo npoq rqv aveOvmq yXwooa rqq
rri XevTEpia yia va pnopei v' avanrvooTai VETO KOI va EKKXqoiaq KOI rqq auXqq, rqv rexvqrr) ypacpopvq rwv
rpajia pnpoq. Xoyiwv, KOI (qrooav, nou Kt' nwq pnopooav, rq St-
0a eivai neyaXq nXavri va cpavraoovpe, nwq avrq Ki) rouq rq (wvTOvq yXwooa.
01 Svo napaSoeiq unapxovv orqv npaypariKTqra rai H oOwpaviKq Kuptapxia eoqpaive Kt an' aurq rqv a-
^exwpiopveq q jjia an rqv aXXq, nwq nq xoune eK6- noipq eppovq orq Pu(avrtvq napSooq. 'Onwq o loXa-
oei eSw. ptopq avayvihpi^e povaxa va Xa ntorwv opoS^wv
Ka Ol 6vo aunliiovve aSiKona eni atwveq paKpoq, Kt ayvoooe roo rqv ropKiKq KI apafiiKq oo rqv aX-
aXXqXopaxovrai KI ' oXXqXoenqpea^ovrat. H KOivovpyia PaviKq KOI KoupSiKi) edvrqra q yXwooa, rot KOI ro
(wq, avayKOonvq va ^ervXiyerai, eioopp oXoeva poa eKKXqotaoriK Kproq enpetve an auvTqpqriKrqro KI
onq KOvcfiaXiaopveq naXiq cpppeq, nq yepi^ei pe rqv auroouvrijpqoq oro aveOviK rou ISOVIK KOI orqv ave-
ovoia rqq KOI opiyei p' aurq roi, nov paq Kvei avxva dviKq rou ypacpopvq KOI KoravTqoe va epnSio arqv
rqv evTnwoq nwq Sev pnopei ma KOvvaq va rqv ^exw- avanru^q rqq eOviKqq (wvravqq yXwooaq.
pioei an 'Kei x^PK rq /3Xipei. H ovp/Siwoq KOI OV- O e^eXXqviopq K' e^eOvtopq rqq EKKXqoiaq Sev q-
(pavaq aurq, ovvneia rov e^edviopov K' e^eXXqviopov rav oe noXXa oqpet'a apKer toxupq, yia va pnopei va
rqq EKKXqoiaq Kat TOV eKeoKpartopov K' e^avaroXi- e^ouSerepwoei rq /3u(avrivij avaroXiriKq napaSooq KOt
opov rov 'EBvovq, anoreXei rqv ovoia TWV npoPXqpa- nponavrwv ro avriXa'iK KOI avOeXXqvm rqq nvepa.
TWV TOU veoeXXqvtKo noXtrtopo. Tqv nto xcpoKrqpi- MepiKoi Siareivovrai, nwq q eKnoXirtoriKq eniSpaoq
ortKt) rqq eKSqXwoq rqv xovpe naXt aro yXwootK Tqq AvaroXiKqq EKKXqoiaq xet ouvreXaei orov e^eXXq-
(qrqpa. vtop rwv EXPwv KOI aXXwv aXXoedvwv opdoS^wv
Zrq Auoq, oav apxi(e q Avayvvqoq, aKOodqKe na- npwro rqq j3u(avrtvi)q KOI orepa rqq owpaviKqq OUTO-
vro vaq, noXu ovp/SoXtKq yta rqv avoSo rwv eOvwv, Kparopiaq. AUT pnopei v' aXqeet, pa oe nepiopiop-
ujjvoq npoq rqv euyXwria rqq xvSaiaq XaiKijq yXwooaq: vo PaBp KOI oav anorXeopo ppeoo KOI poipaio ptaq
Nobilior est vulgaris: tum quia prima fust humano generi
usitata, tum quia totus orbis ipsa perfruittur... tum quia
naturalis est nobis, cum illa potius artificialis existat. 'E-
rot eKijpurre o Avrqq (1265-1321), nou xd)pi(e rqv EK-
KXqaia an rqv TloXtreia, nwq ^xwpt(e KOt ra vq,
KOt tjeXe va xouv pa(i pe rqv noXtrtKi) rouq ave^aprq-
oia Kat rqv nveupariKt) KOI cptXoXoytKi).
O 'EKxapr (1260-1327), nou o puartKtapq rou qrav
vaq pqoKeurtKq Oupoviopq, nwq Kt o Oupoviopq
rou vaq eOvtopq, ypatpe ra nio avTinpoowneuriK rou
pyo arq pqrpiKi) rou, orqv evrnq EeppaviKq, KI XI
orqv unepeOviKi) AartviKq. O Chaucer (1340-1400) Kt o
oyxpovoq rou Wiclef (qrooav va enipaXouv orqv Ay-
yXio KOVT onq aXXeq peToppuOpioeiq, pa(i pe rqv eOvi-
Ki) EKKXqoia KOI rqv eOviKi) yXwooa. Ot AoXXapSoi, ar
periKoi rou IA ' aiwva, Xave unoxpewTiKij rq SiSaoKo-
Xia rqq pqrpiKqq yXwooaq ae Xouq, avSpeq Kat
ywaiKeq.
H OpqoKeuriKq MerappBpioq orq Feppavia, nou I-
TOV pia popcpq nveupariKijq avayvvqaqq K ' edviKqq acp-
nvtoqq, avoarqXwoe KOI rqv edviKq yXwooa. Flapa rqv
anaypeuoq TOU 1369, nou Sev acpqve Kovva va ypa0et
yeppavtori yto para tepa, pertppaoe o AoBqpoq rqv
Ayia Fpacpq orq FeppavtKi) (1522-1534).
H XaKq yXwooa eKroni(ovTaq roi rqv aveOvmi)
ypocpopvq, rq AanviKq rqq EKKXqoiaq KOI rqq AuXqq,
pixve ro (ppayp, nou x^JP'^e ro Xa an nq avwrepq
rou T^eiq Kat auvapa /SoqOoae TO vq va ^exwpi(ouv
avapera^ rouq KOI V ' anoxrov ouveiSqaq rou eauro
rouq. Aur Sev epnSi(e cpvoiK rqv KaOoXiKi) EKKXqoia,
nou per ro xcjpiop rqq an rqv noXtreia Siarqpooe
TOV aveviK KOI unepeviK rqq xapoKTijpa, va enipvei
orq AartviKq Kat va rqv eni/3aXXet oe Xeq nq KoOoXiKq
XiJJpeq wq enioqpq eKKXqotaoriKq yXwooa.
Erqv AvaroXq nqpave ra npypara aXXo Sppo
SiacpoperiK. K' eSw pe rqv anoavOeoq rou Bu^avriou
eixav apxioei va oxqpari(ouvToi KOivopyio Ovq KOI

NEA KOINQNIOAOriA 53
noXiTiKriq, nov reive aXAov. H noXniKt) rqq EKKXqoiaq Ma povaxa rora wq e^qyqoq rwv So napapopcpw-
Ssv vnqpxe nor ouveiSqT eOvmioriKq eXXqvmq. Tinore oewv, nou avacppape, anoreXovve ro noX SmaioXoyieq
Sev qrav TOO ^vo oro xpioriavm KOI yvqaio avaroXi- vorepoyeveiq. O npooSiopiariKq rouq pwq napaywv
K iSavm rqq, oo q arevq iSa va e^eXXqvioei TOTO q vnqpxe q naXia, noX naXia, oup0iwaq KOI ouvvcpavaq
Keivo an TO Ovq rqq voTioavoToXmqq Evpibnqq, nov TWV So napaSaewv, rqq eXXqvmqq KOI rqq Pv(avnvqq.
aXXujOTe yevma KOorpqoe noX orqv edvmq rqq a<p- H oworq e^qyqoq npojiaXXei pvq rqq an rq peXrq
nvioq. Av IJ' Xa TOTO q EKKXqoia xTnqae noXXq KBe nXeupaq rou yXwooiKo (qrqparoq, nou Sev pnopei
(popq, npoq cpeXoq TO EXXqviopo, eOvmiormq Toeiq va paq anaoxoXqoei eSw nepioorepo, pa nou euruxwq
jjoa OTOq EXapOq TWV BQXKOVI'WV KOI moq 'Apa/Seq eivai apKera peXerqpvo.
Tqq Evpiaq KOI FlaXaiorivqq, TO Kave TOTO pe Tqv np- H Pv(ovTivq napaSooq yevmrepa, ro einape noXXq
Beaq va ovyKpaTijoei TO avedvm peoaiwvm KoOeorwq, (popq, xei xopoKrqpa peoaiwvm KOI avaroXirmo,, xei
SqXaSq an nvepa ovvTqpqrm, avTiSpaoTiK KI XI pe nvevpa BeoKparm KOI (peouSapxiK. Oi (pppeq rqq, -
OKon va eniPXei rou e^eXXqviop, nov 9a IJTOV pia oo KOU(paXiaopveq KI av eivai, Siarqpov navra KTI a-
npooSevTiKi) avarponq TOV eKKXqaiaormo KOeoTWToq. n ro nvepa rqq avaroXirmqq BeoKpariaq KOI (peouSap-
H lOTopia eivai yepTq an papTvpieq, nwq q AVOTO- xiaq. Ma KI aSeieq av qoav an KBe nepiexpevo, naXi
Xmq OpOoSo^ia nov pnopooe eixe SievKoXvei rqv e- napapvouv, wq rnoi, mavoi va (poppapouv avaXoya
dvmq xeipacprqoq TWV OuyaTpwv EKKXqaiwv. Fi' avT rqv EnXaorq KI aoxqpnarq OKpa Xq rqq veoeXXqvr
Sev eivai nepjSoXmoi ore oi XXqveq loropmoi, nov Tqv Kqq npayparmrqraq.
KOTqyopov, nwq Se BXqoe va e^eXXqvioei rovq ^ev- 'ETOI xoupe napapopipwoeiq xi povaxa rqq yewypa-
$wvovq TOUXXIOTOV no eixav acpopoiwBei an TOV (pmqq q yXwoomqq, pa KOI rqq nvevparmqq npayparm-
EXXqviap, oTe oi EXafioi, nov anoSiSouv arq yXwooi- rqraq rou NeoeXXqviopo, ovva0eiq nwq oi Siacpopeq -
Kq avmavrqTo Tqq eKKXqoiaoTmqq ypacpopvqq TO TI ipeiq evq KOI rou iSiov avrmeipvov. H icrropia aXXware
Ol oXafimoi Xaoi OKpa K ' ^w an Tq Smq rovq eBvo- rwv napapop(p(boewv rqq eBvmqq yXibooaq eivai ovvapa
AoyiKii (wvq pnpeoav va Siarqpqoovv rq (wvTOvq Tovq Koi icnopia rwv nepinereiwv rou eBvmo nveparoq.
eBvmq yXwooa, av KOI (qoave aiwveq KTW an Tqv 'Onwq q ouoia rqq (wvrovqq yXwaoaq paa orouq
nvepoTmq KqSepovia rqq EKKXqoiaq KOI (poirooav OTO naXioq rnovq veKpq ypapparmijq KOI veKpo ouvra-
oxoXeia rqq. KTIKO, roi KOI q veapq nveuparmq (wq rou dvouq a-
H KaTonoXpqoq Tqq SqpoTiKqq, OT paq SISOKEI vamaaerai KOI 6iapop0wveTai poa onq /3u(avrtvq KI
oqpepa q e^Xi^q Xwv TWV ^ev(pwvwv nXqdopwv TOU avaroXirmeq BeoKparmq KOI oxoXaormq (pppeq, nou
EXXqviapo, eixe wq ouvneia va nepiopioei rq SiaSooq aSma eixe aywvioBei va onaaei q yevea rov Fepiirro.
rqq NeoeXXqvmqq KOI va peiwaei rqv a^opoiwrmq Tqq To KOKrexvo Kpapa, nov yevvirai roi, 17 piXTiJ, eivai
evpyeia. H ypacpopvq ovaSemveTOi rai ^vami) ap- KOIV (paivpevo roo arq yXwooa oo KOI arqv nveu-
paxoq Xwv TWV ^vwv (WVTOVWV yXwoawv orov aywva parmq (wq KOt rov noXiriop, nwq KOI q SiyXwaoia ei-
TOuq KOT Tqq EXXqvmqq OKpa KOI paa orqv nepioxq vai vaq SuaSiapq an anoipq noXmopo.
auTwv TWV eXXqvmwv xoJpwv KOI nio noX onq napoi- Fia va neioBope, Sev xoupe napa va pi^oupe pia
Ki'eq Tqq Aiaonopq, KOI SiaipeSei oKXqpa TOvq narpic- paria crro iSavma, arovq OKonoq, onq aiperqpieq, orouq
Teq, nou nepipvave an' avrq KOI Tqv apxamq rqq aiyXq OToBpoq KOI OTO noBopevo reppa, q cno npocona,
TO avn'BeTO. ora pyava KOI ara poa rov ayiva rwv So
Ta (paivpeva TOTO eivai apKera yia va enifiefiaiw- nopara^ewv.
oovv KI an yXwoomq anoipq Tqv naparqpqoq, nou K- O Sqpormiopq Sev eivai povaxa vaq ayibvaq crre-
vape KI an aXXeq acpoppq. H jiu^avTivq napaSooq, - vq yia rqv enmparqaq pepmcbv yXwoomiuv rnwv q KOI
nwq pnpSetpe Tq yecjypacpiKq SioTnwaq Tqq (wvTovqq oXnXqpqq rqq Aqpormqq, pa va Kivqpa yevmrepo, e-
veoeXXqvmqq noTpiSaq eKlSia^ovToq KOI napapopcpwvo- BviK, avdpibnivo. O Sqpormiopq ^eKiva an pia npay-
vToq paa oe naXiq ipppeq aveBvmq Tqv npaypoTm- pariKrqTO (wvravq KOI oyxpovq, rq veoeXXqvmq, nou
rqro rou eBvmo eSa0ouq, roi epnSiae KOI rqv opaXq rq (ei KBe ppa, rq viwBei KOI rqv ayon, nwq vaq
avamu^q KOI Siappcpwaq rqq (wvravqq veoeXXqvmqq avBpwnoq uyiqq rq (wq rou, KOI BXei va rq Xeurepwaei
yXwooaq eKPiaT,ovTaq pe TOV iSio rpno KOI napapop- an ra Seopa, nou epno6i(ouv rqv avanru^q rqq, Seop,
(pwvovToq poa onq naXiq loropmq (pppeq evq K- nov xet eniPaXei o jiu(avTiviopq, xi pvo cnqv EK-
opou aveOviKO rq yXwooiKi) npaypanKTqra rov KXqoia q oro oxoXeio, aXXa KOI OTO Kproq KOI cnqv
'EBvouq. KOivwvia. O SripoTiKiapq eivat pta enavaaraaq, ytari
H avapcpiopqrqrq aiyXq rwv apxaiwv rpi^wv KOI T- enavacnaoq anoreXei KBE Kivqpa rqq (wqq evavriov
nwv KOI q aneXniarmq (pnoxeio rqq Smqq paq oyxpovqq TWV ouvBqKcuv, nou Sev enirpnovv, TO Xurep rqq
ooiaq, neira q aSuvapia evq aSo^ou napvroq va ^erXiypa.
SieKSmei KTI an rq S^a evq nXooiou napeXBvroq, Aev anoSiSouv niara KOI oXoKXqpwpva rqv aXqBivq
nou Sev eivai ^vo, rXoq oi npoaSoKi'eq paq an pia ni- rou ipoq, pa (pavepihvouv KTI an ra xnpaKrqpicrrma
Bavq avaorqXwaq rou Bu(avriou q ava0iwoq rou eXXq- rov roo 01 ouvrqpqriKoi, nou Sev naipav va TOV noXe-
viKo Baparoq, oi nXaveq K ' evBappvoeiq rwv KOXWV pov Kat va rov rauri(ouv pe oBeia, paaovia, avapxia
pa pwpavriKwv cPiXeXXqvwv KOI ra oveiponoXqpara TWV KOI oooiaXiop ij Koppovtop, oo KOI 01 pi(oonacni-
Neo-oupaviorwv, Xa rora ra avopoioyevq oroixeia Sev Koi, nou nicneouv nwq Ba rov eni^aXei povaxa o Xaq,
naipav va enqpea(ouv rq oKipq KQI ro aioOqpa TWV q epyana, q q Sixraropia TOU npoXerapiTOu. O Sqpori-
veoeXXqvmwv napayvrwv. Kiopq ouoiacjTma Sev eivat napa q KoBumepqpvq KOI

54 NEA KOINQNIOAOriA
yi' auT noX iSippuOiiri SKSijAwon piac; Enavaaraaqq, viKt) napaSooq anevavriaq, oo KOI av Svvapibvei aSia-
nov q Aaq rqv sixe xavei pero^u rov IA' KOI rov IA ' Kona, Sev pnopei, roi nov rqv nEpiO(piyyovv oi rvnoi
oiihva. rqq npcbrqq, va Kiveirai KOI V ' avamuooerai Aevrepa, xa-
H AqporiKq Ei'vai yAwooa EVIKT), qrav pwq poipaio vei ouxv rov oiKeio (pvoiK rqq pvOp KOI
va KaravrqoEi Ka oq/joia EpyariKwv SiEKiKqoEWV, a- napapopcpwverai.
(pov Ol aoroi orqv EAAaSa Sev pnopoavE vaxeipocperq- Fvibpiopa xopoKrqpioriK orqv loropiKi) paq npo-
ov eyKoipwq an rq peoaiwvmq napaSooq, ovre OIKO- owniKrqra o SvaSiapq aurq, onoreAei ro fiaaiK np-
vopiK KOI KOIVWVIK, ovre pqoKevriK KOI nvevpariK. PAqpa rou veoeAAqvmov noAiriopov. napovoia(ei x' p-
Ol ouveneiq KOI eiAiKpiveiq ovn'naAoi rov SqporiKi- vo nq (pvomq oe Kde e^Ai^q noAiriapo avriOoeiq A.x-
opov Sev napovoia(ovrai povaxa wq onaSoi rqq rexvq- ro noAi KOI ro vo, rq oraoiprqra KQI rqv Ki'vqoq, rq
rqq ypacpopvqq- Ei'vai ovvapa Enipovoi apvvropeq rwv pop(pq KOI rqv ouoia, pa KI va nAqOoq AAa (paivpeva,
peoaiwviKwv paq napaSaewv KI aypunvoi (ppovpoi evq nou pnopope va ra ovvoipiooupe oav avriOoeiq pera^
Kodeordiroq, nov nvevpariK I3v(avrivi(ei KI av oKpa AvaroAqq KOI Aoqq, Bv^avriov K' EAAaSaq. K' eSib
oiKovopiKo eivai ovayKoopvo va xeipovopei oav aoriKq ioa iaa xoupe rqv e^qyqoq, yiOTi o eXAqviKq Aaq,
Ke$aAaioKparia q vo ov(qra yia rqv aniOavq EKAoyi- nap rqv nAaoriKi) rou npoSiaeaq KOI iKovrqro, Sev
Kevoq rqq napoywyqq. pnpeoe anpa va ixei a' Aeq nq EKSqAtbaeiq rijq
H e^Ai^q rwv Svo reAeuraiwv aidjvwv Sei'xvei, nwq q (ojijq TOV Hnoia PaOvrepq evnjra pvOpov, nov va
Pv(avrivq napaSooq, oo KI av aSuvanXei oAova, Sev eivat vrexvrj KI XI povaxa nijyaia Kt ave^AtxTtj
naei va (ei aav va Kodeorcbq nvevpariK. H veoeAAq- AaiKij, ij (svtKt] Hl aveSaipiKt).

B I B A I O K P I T I K H

r i a p a Triv Kpiori TOU Pi|3Xiou PooiXiKwv oxoewv, TWV nopoSo- ne mo owor va anoKXn9ov oi -
nou Kupiopxsi OTTIV nvEupoTiKr] oiOKwv e^ouoiwv KOI Tnq 9eoKpa- poi r o u rirXou. KOIVOTIKTI KOivwvio
ZfjiX] poq TTIV TeXeuToio Sierio, r\ Tiaq. fpoppvo pe ooctniveio, ope- ei vai n K O T ' ecoxnv KOIVWVIKI op-
KoivcDvioXovio xei encocfieXriei o- ornro KOl Sioyeio, r o |3ipXio ou- yvwon r n q unai9pou, Paoiopvn
n TTIV peTa(t)poori KOI Koori pe- r anoreXei r n v opxn rnq peXrnq oe Seopoq Koivnq Koroywynq,
YoXwv KXOOIKWV pywv Eupwnoi- rnq SuriKoeupwnoKriq KOivwviKTiq ouyyveioq l i aSeX(t)onoiiaq. H e-
ijjv K O I ApepiKOVJV ouyypo(t))v. e^Xi^nq' anoreXei a n o p o i r n r n raipiKTi KOivwvia eivoi r o npov
0 a ouyKpoTTiooupe eci) pio 5eKa- npon9eon yia Tnv Korovnon - rou KamroXiopo nou Kupiopxei
5a, nou onoTeXei ouyxPvwc; K O I XI pvo r n q Aonq, aXX KQI rnq onoKXeioriK r o oupcppov K O I -
pio nXipri lOTopio Tqq Koivwviaq EXXSoq, yiori Seixvei OKpiPwq n q nou oiaSiinore KOIVWVIKI oxon
TTiq SuTiKTiq KOI nou 9a no- reporieq Siacfiopq r w v oroSiwv npooXopPvei aurparo r n p o p ^ n
p o u o i o o o u p e XI KOT oeip rnq SuriKiiq e^Xi^nq an r o SIK oiKovopmnq ouvoXXoynq n e^p-
onouSoiTTiToq r\, paq. rnonq. Koivonopq KOI KoniroXi-
oXX KOT TTIV oeip nou vopi- Qoo KOl r o Ke(|)Xaio r o u opq eivoi Xomv, So o u o n i p a r a
t^oupe TI npnei va 5io|3aoTOv. M o p ^ oxeSv, 9ewpeiTai Pon Tnq SioXeKTiK avTi9era- n ovnru^n
Apxif^oupe Xoinv, pe Tnv np- oyxpovnq KoivwviKiiq OKijjnq r o TOU Serepou npaypaTonoii9nK6
o(t)aTn (1987) Koon, an Tiq eK- KXOOIK r o u F. TNNIES "GE- eiq Ppoq r o u npwrou. AE^x^sx va
oeiq KXPoq, TOU KXQOIKOU p- MEINSCHAFT U N D GESEL- onpeiwGei n ornv EXXSa KOIVO-
you TOU M A R C B L O C H H Oeou- L S C H A F T " , nou per6(;)paoe o r a riKq 9ewpieq ovnru^e o K.
SoXiKTi Koivwvio, oe pia KoXn pe- eXXnviK O MavwXnq MopKKnq KopoPiSoq.
Tcfipoon TOU Mnpnn AuKOSn. un r o v rirXo Koivrnro KOI Koi- AKpiPwq aurnv r n v Koraorpo-
To pyo auT xei So nruxq: pia vwvia, o n q eKSoeiq Avayvwori- <?r\i rnv peranoinon rou Koivon-
lOTOpiKli KOl pio KOlVWVloXoyiKTl. Sn (1986). To PiPXio our KoGuor- opo on r o v KomraXiop e^er-
nopouoiC^ei KOT' opxnv TO IOTO- pnoe eKar nepinou xpvia vo p- ,E\o ypappvo ouXXoyiK pyo
piK nXoioio Tnq e^Xi^nC Tnq A- 6ei orov eXXnviK x ^ p o . H per- H perPaon on r o v OeouSoXi-
onq, peT Tiq TeXeuToieq voppov- <l)paon xei noXXq orXeieq KOI 9a op o r o v KaniroXiop, perocljpa-
5iKq eioPoXq TOU eKTOu aiw- onwnoei ni9avwq rov ovayvworn opvo on r o v IToXo FpePevirn,
vo, nwq 5iapop(t)w9nKe oe pio on r o u vo oXoKXnpwoei r n peX- onq eKSoeiq 0epXto. FIopou-
nayionoinpvn KOI OToipn oxeTi- rn auro r o u roo 9epeXiwSouq oi^ovToi eSw pe ouornporiK rp-
K lOTopiKii pop(t)n. KoTniv, e^eT- pyou. Aq eXniooupe n 9o enixei- no ot 9ewpieq yto r n v loropiKii ou-
^ei Tnv KoivwvioXoyia OUTO TOU Pn9ei pio enovKSoon r o u PtPXiou n i MerPoon, oe vo nepieKTiK
OKivnTOU Kopou nou SiQTnpn- nio enipeXnpyn yXwooma. T o p- KOt une9uvo pipXio.
GnKe yyixToq oxeSv pxpi Tnv yo aur r o u TNNIES KoGiepwvei
To rXoq rnq OeouSaXiKtiq e-
avoyvvnon- Eivoi o Kopoq TWV r n epeXiwSn SiKpion pero^ rnq
noxtiq onpoSernKe e^XXou on
mnoTwv KQI TOU KwSiKO Tipiiq, Tnq KOivoriKTiq KOivwvioq KOI r n q eroi-
rnv e^ao9vnan r w v roniKwv e-
oXXnXeyynq Tnq yeviq, TWV piKiiq KOivwvioq nwq 9a npe-
^ouoiwv Kat r n v evSuvpwon Tnq

NEA KOINQNIOAOriA 55
VIJOVOINUNIOyi V3N 99

o i n o oAda o i Amrigidn Ami -DMOduD U IDM Di3^idMD U 'bnogpyM 3D n o i llftl3MD UlD IsAligO D3<t)DdA
nXoi UiliiU^Di(|)riDigD A U I ari IDM bnoMii3do(t)Dig puD AmAoriLiiDiu3 -Ano n o i osg noyyp ^3 UMIOD^
DiXniius 3r1 i3di3XiL[3 UriodgDA Afnidi UXoisririno Ui srl ' o i n o oAd3 W -pdisD l i l AUinD p SrinO^DlDlDM
-D AI AinY -AmipriLiXD AcyiMiiiy 010 iDi3|2iyD(l)DD53 nou DiUioMidg 01 DA DlA 'pMUADriliO pi3MdD IDA
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bDri b3d
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01 pi3y3ri Uino iDiLiOMiumoodu -lyou Oi IDM norioiyDiiuDM n o i OA
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nOl U^^QIUDAD MlriOAOMlO-OMlA
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bogpyyg bUd3io3[sj bUi Didoio
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OMiiDria3AU oMidgXs DAS O Uriyoi
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3rl ADonsiDoriUg a o i pyDMoog
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DlA iDi3X3gDdDu ooiy^i^ n o i bi3(l)
DA DlA pMiyn D l AnoXdpun mgg n o i DidoiDj A U I bDiAO(t)pdA u o 31
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lOASrioumc]) n o u DiDrioDdsurino "91 '^'YV. " O l o i y ^ i ^ Diu orilKjjid nouo 'bUumdn3 bUi odrnX sgpM
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bDdO(t)DAD D13rlLlO pMldl3Uri3 oriD IDlAO^JpAdSA -3iDv ^UA3y3 UDDd(|)pi3ri '9861
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APAHN

H EAAHNIKH KOINQNIA MOPOZTA ZTO NEO KOZMO


Z i i p e p a , n o u noXXc; n o p o noXXc; ijjeiq r n q K O i v w v i a , Xyw x n q xexvoXoymtiq e^Xi^nq, Xyw x n q o i -
eXXnviKnq ^wiic; o n o n v E o u v x n v ooiJn x n q o p i o x i K i i q n o - K o v o p m i i q o X o K X i i p w o n q , Xyw i o w q p i o q peyXnq IOTO-
p O K y n q , xiGsToi ym x q v eXXnvmr) KOivwvia SpopoxiKO p i K i i q Tonq x o u OoXixiopo p o q , Teivei v a ^enepoei Tnv
KOl o p e o o x o nppXnMO x n q eniPicuonq. O eXXnviKq n X o v n T i K t i KXipoKO l i TOUXXIOTO OTqv npooexn ne-
KoivcjjviKq o p y o v i o p q (J)aivExai v o oBuvoxEi v o ppEi S I - vTnKOVToeTia v a oXoKXnpwGei o ' o u T i i v , n noXiTmti
K x o u EowTEpiK pu9p, SiKt XOU iSioixEpn xouxxqxo, ovTiGeTO KiveiTOi pe Ptiparo n o u (jjoivovrai Kpwq n a -
5iK TOU Tpno opyvionq KOI XEiTOupyiaq" noponoEi, XoioKoppaxiK KOt n a p w x n p v a , enipvovToq oe npoPXti-
X o m v , npooKoXXjpEvoq OTOV v a v n OTOV XXO nXo, p o T o n o u xouv tiSn yivet SeuTepoyevti, x p n o t p o n o i w v T o q
OKoXouojvTaq TO v o n x o XXo npxuno, oonJExai p i o yXwooa n o u Sev eKct)p(^ei nXov TO v o ouvoioGtipa-
x n v p i o l i T n v XXn ISEOXOVIO KOI npoonoEi v o OUVTO- To, n q veq iSeq.
vioTEi p XXouq, ^vouq puBpoq, unoTOOopEvoq TOi TepoTieq avTi(])oeiq SiOKOTxouv Tnv o v G p w n i v n
OE p i o EKOOIO, XI p v o v OTpOTIJXIKOnoXlTlKli, oXX KOI K O i v w v i a : Xipoi KQI Xoipoi, nXepoi, peoaiwvmo Tnou
ilJUXiKti SouXEio. nXnyq, o ' v o v Kopo n o u PoSiJei oXoTOXJq n p o q TO
' O X o OUT TO (fioivpEvo SEV EVOI n o p OUpTTTCJjpOTa S i o r n p o , pE nXo Tnv n X n p o c t t o p m i i , Tiq vsq pop<})q E-
Tnq PoTOTnq K p i o n q TOUTTnToq p i o q Koivcjjvioq n o u vpyEioq, aXX K u p i w q Tn v a OKi|jn- " O o o i pnopoouv
SEV xEi oupcJJUJviioEi OXETIK pE x n v i 5 i a x n q x n 0on v o n p o o a p p o o T o v o ' o u T i i v , o o i pnopoouv v o Tnv o-
KOI, nponovTq, 5EV xsi oup(t)iXiw6Ei p ' o u T i i v . Mioq (t)opoiwaouv n p i v KOV o u T i i EKSnXwGEi Kupiopxm o o v
K O i v w v i o q Tnq o n o i o q TO OUOTOTIK EQVOXOYIK, n o X i - opETKXnToq lOTopmq vpoq. Ga EniPiwoouv o o v !^w-
XIOXIK, YWYPa(|)iKa SEV xouv KOTopOcboEi v o OVVTE- VTOV KTTOpo, OOV Sqpioupymq povSEq OUTO TOU
dovv o' Evioio oibpo, onoKTiLvToq Koivoq puGpoq EKnXnKTiKo Koivopyiou Kopou, n o u KOvvoq TpiToq
^ w i i q KOl KOivq oKonoSEoieq E^Xi^nq- FlayKoptoq OXEpoq SEV Ga pnopoei v o e p n o S i o e i .
' O o o onX OTnv noXunXoKTnT TOU (JJOIVTOV STOV Kopo ouTv, n EXXSa Ga npnei v o ^tioet. M -
To n p p X n p o p i o q EXXnvoKEVxpiKiiq XoEwq OTiq opxq XiOTQ, y t o v o napoSo^oXoyiiooupE, p v o v o ' v a v T-
TOU OIJVO p o q , TOV p i o oeip OTOxooTtov o n ' XEq Toiov Kopo Go Eivot SUVOTV n EXXSa v o ^tioei.
Tiq iSEoXoyiEq, o n ' Xsq Tiq nopOT^Eiq n p o o n o o - Ev o x o o n p e p i v Kopo n EXXSo (Jtoivexoi pex
o o v v o Scjjoouv p i o yeviKti KOI TeXeitUTiKii onvTnon OTO xnv enonoiio x o u MeyXou AXe^vSpou, x o Goupoio
n y i o o n T n v i S p u o n TOU eXXnvmo KpTouq, TO eXXnvioxiK Kopo xwv oxoxooxmwv npooappoywv
1 8 3 0 e p w T n p o , TOU n npnei v o e i v o i n e X X n v m t i KOI- KOl xtq xeXeuxoieq Pu^ovxtvq EKXpijJEiq v o (JjUxofJwEi,
v i o v i o K O I Ol o n o p p o u o e q noXiTmoKoivwvmq SioSmo- pe pvn x n q Suvoxxnxo v o puGonotei x i q peyXeq x n q
oiEq- TOO (jjoiveTOi v o p e T o n o i e i r o i o i i p e p o TO sAXqviK tixxeq, pe pvn Tnq n n y t i pnveuonq Tiq peyXeq x n q KO-
nppXripo, p o o o ' v a v Kopo n o u Sev p n o p e i v o o- xaaxpo({)q' a v , o x o o n p e p i v Kopo, x o peyXo Koxp-
YvonBei w q n X a i o i o , p o a oe p i o noyKopia KOtvTnTa, G w p o x o u EXXnviopo eivot xt K o x ^ e p e v o eniPiwoei
n o u onoKT oXovo KOI n i o Kupiopxmoq y i o Xeq o- x o u q OKoxeivoq oiwveq x n q SouXeiaq, v o eXeuGepwGei x o
ve^oipTwq n q yiapBC, puBpoq K O I Suvopmq. H 9ea- 1 8 2 1 , v o ^enepoei, pe cJioPepoq OKpwxnptaopoq, xtq
poTiKT) e^Xi^n x n q x e x v o X o y i o q S i e B v o n o i n o e Tnv v v o i o Kaxaaxpo(t)iKq o u y K u p i e q , o a u p i o v q Kopoq x n q T p i r n q
Tnq K O i v w v i o q : o t i p e p a o avOpwnoq, xi o ' E X X n v a q l i o XiXieTioq n o u pxerai. Go eivat TO n p w T o KOTXXqXo
P w o o q l i O A p e p m o v q , irTnoe OTO O e y y p r o t i p e p a - n X o i o i o y i a v o opxioei n EXXSo v o ovanTooexoi ^e-
Xoi ot vGpwnoi, Tnq A o i a q KOI x n q AcjjpiKiiq KOI Tnq Eu- (})eyovxoq o n x o (l)aXo KKXO XWV peyXwv u n a p ^ i a -
p w n n q PXnouv Tnv iSia OTiypti, T n v iSto e K n o p n t i , o n Kwv epwxnpoxmwv.
Tn Sopu(t)opiKn TnXepoon- ' E T O I , TO VO piXpe o t i p e p a
' Evoq Kopoq o o v KI OUXV n o u o o apuSp, x o o
y t a T n v eXXnviKti K o t v w v i o , nwq n p i v eiKoot t i Tpi-
oa(t)wq S i o ^ a i v e x o t o x o v opii^ovxa x o u So xiXtSeq, -
VTO pXiq x p v i a Tnv evvoooapE, o a v OXETIK SqXo-
v o q Kopoq oiKOupevmq, eipnvmq, evonoinpvoq o n
Sii ouTvopn ovTTnTO, (J)avTJ;Ei OQV E n a p x i a K t i avTiXn-
x n v x e x v o X o y i a KOI x n v a OKiJtn, Go eivat x o KoxXXqXo
ilin TOU SEKXOU evxou o i w v a .
nXaioio y t o x^P^Q n o u uoxepov oe omovopm, oxpaxi-
H v v o i o x n q npoSou, nwq opit^exoi o n x n t>iXo- wTiK, PiopnxaviK, yevm UXIK peyGn, peyaXoupyov
oocfiia x n q l o x o p i o q , u n t i p x e o n q apxq x n q a p i G p n x m t i - pwq o e nveupaxmoq, KoXXnexviKoq, eniornpovmoq,
onKxnoe yewpExpiK puGp pEx x o AExepo OoyK- i|)Uxmoq opif^ovTeq, SqXaSii oe noiTijreq. M i o TToio
o p i o n X e p o - o t i p e p a xeivei v a y i v e i SvvapiKi). Knoxe n x w p o e i v a i n EXXSo. H n i o euvo'mii o u y K U p i a unpxei
K O i v w v i a n p o x w p o o e pe opyoq puGpoq KOI n n o X t x m t i pnpooT Tnq, o o v u n o p K T t i SuvoTTnTO. A u T t i eivot n
pe y p t i y o p o u q , pe anoxXeopa n Sexepn v o eivot o u x v n p o y p o T i K t i eXXnviKii npKXnon. H e X X n v m t i K o i v w v i a -
noX n p w x o n o p t o K i i , pi^oonooxmii t i KOI e n a v o o x a x i K i i , xei 4)uxm KOt n G m o etfiSto, Kpuppva o n q nopoKOTaGii-
o ' v o KOIVWVIK n X o i o i o nou e^eXiooxav o v x o u q o i - Keq TWV o i w v w v .
tbveq Ki KOve Tiq xoXpnpq noXixmq Kavoxopieq vo n p t v KOV oXoKXnpuiGei, n eXXnvmti K O i v w v i a Go np-
(Jtoivovxai n t o npoxwpnpveq a n x n v e n o x i i x o u q . Stipe- nei v o oupPXXei oTnv nayKopio oXoKXtipwon.
p, ctioivexoi v a o u p P a i v e i OKpiPwq x o avxiGexo: evw n

M.H.M.
EKAOTIKO TErONOS
ZYrKPITIKH ErKYKAOnAIAEIA
M A P E I Z M O I . K O M M O Y N I I M O I

K A I A Y T I K H K O I N Q N I A

I ouvepvaoia TGV K a e w v nAflAZHIH Kai K O P A H I

'H LYrKPITIKH E r K Y K A O n A I A E I A K6i5eTai u a r e p a d n [ i i a


EKaeria peuvcjv. KuKXo(j>opT rauTxpova aifj fEpfiavia, 'AyY^'i*^
HHA. 700 Kopu(|)atoi niaTr||ioveq O A O I K A O H r H T E I A Y T I K Q N
n A N E n i l T H M I Q N a n a v T o u v a KaTovTdEg pcoTf||iaTa. I T I ^ 5.000
a e A i 5 e g [leydAou a x r u i a x o g T J V 10 T|iCJV xfjg AXT]viKf)q K5oar|g p p i -
a K o u j i e Tig dnJJ/Eig Xcov T ) V Y V C A J O T C J V [ l a p ^ i a T C J v , a r l g n o k g d v T i -
TTapaTiGevTai o i dnijjEig T J V YVCA)aTTpcjv 5 U T I K J V auYYpa<|)a)v.

0iAoao<|>ia - ' l a T o p ' i a - 0pr|aKia - ' E K n a i S e u a r j - K o i v w v i o A o Y i a -


AiKaioavri - O l K O V o j i i a - iTpaTiCAjTiKd ^T]Tf||iaTa - BioXoY'ia - O u a i K f ) -
AYOTexva - M^uxoXcYia evai o i To^iTg Y ^ ^ "^ouq TToioug o i [lap^ioTg
KQI o i uTiKoi niaTTiiioveg TrapaOTOuv Tig d n ^ e i g T o u g . T TepdoTio
auT pYo e l v a i dnapaiTT]TO Y ^ C I Kd9e [jop<|)Cjfivo dvOpcjiro K Q I iSia-
T e p a Y ^ a n o i o v Tti9u|it v d n p o x c j p i ] a e i a auaTr||iaTiKT^ peuva. X T
TXog TOU KdGe ^T^TfijiaTog r r a p a T i G e T a i TTXf|pT|g pipXioYpa<|>ia pYcjv,
jiap^iaTJv, 5uTiKJv K Q I yz^iKo. acjv daxoXouvTai \i npopXf||iaTa
nou axexi^ovTai [l T auYKeKpijievo apGpo Tfjg' LYTKPmKHS
ErKYKAOIIAIAEIAE. i T f j v XXiiviKfj |ieTd(}>paaTi, ^idSa eiSiKJV G e c j -
pei TQ Kei^ieva T O U auYKCKpijivou KdGe <j)opd niarq^oviKou icXdSou.

T I M H : 10 TOMOI 25.000 (Mexp^xo%q)


30.000 (M (>KoXi(;)