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NOTE:

To use these slides effectively in your


studying, you should have your text
See chapters 2 and 4
open and the course outline available as in the textbook.
you review the slides so that you can
refer to the corresponding figures and
text.

Figure numbers are given on each slide.

Macromolecules

Usually made of chains of simpler


molecules called subunits

Different kinds of macromolecules have


different kinds of subunits

Four kinds of macromolecules

Carbohydrates
Lipids (fats)
Proteins
Nucleic acids
Carbohydrates: subunits = simple sugars

Figure 2.12

Polysaccharide = chain of simple sugars

Figure 2.13

Functions of carbohydrates

Can be broken down for energy

Glycogen stored in muscle and liver

Structural components of cells

Lipids (fats)

Three types:

Triglycerides

Phospholipids

Steroids
Lipids triglycerides: subunits = fatty acids
Fatty acids attached to 3C glycerol backbone

Figure 2.14

Lipids -- phospholipids

Figure 2.15

Lipids steroids
Many hormones are steroids

Figure 2.16

Functions of lipids

Triglycerides can be broken down for


energy
Stored in adipose (fat) tissue

Phospholipids = structural components


of cell membrane
Cell to cell signaling by steroid
hormones

Proteins: subunits = amino acids

Basic structure of all amino acids:

amino group Figure 2.17

Carboxyl (acid group)

central carbon

R group: different amino acids have different


R groups

Amino acids are joined together by peptide bonds to form


a chain.
Protein structure Figure 2.18a, b, c and d

1st level = primary structure = order of amino


acids in the chain

2nd level = secondary structure = folding into


coils or pleats

3rd level = tertiary structure = folding of whole


chain

4th level = quarternary structure = two or more


amino acid chains associate with each other

Order of amino acids determines folding

Folding determines 3-D shape

3-D shape determines function

Functions of proteins

Catalysis carry out chemical reactions


needed by cells
Structural components of cells and tissues
Signaling between cells
Hormones

Can be broken down for energy


Catalysis making reactions happen
quickly in the cell
Enzyme
Substrate(s) Product(s)

Figure 4.4

Pathways = chains of reactions Figure 4.8

Example how cells harvest energy from glucose


Energy-
Glucose CO2 + H2O + ATP carrying
molecule
(CO2 = carbon dioxide)

ATP has high-energy covalent bonds between


phosphate groups

Figure 4.6

Energy in ATP is used for other reactions in the cell

Figure 4.7

Enzyme
Substrate(s) Product(s)
ATP ADP + P

A few cell structures:

Cell membrane

Cytoplasm

Mitochondrion

Mitochondrial
membrane
How cells make ATP 3 linked pathways

Glycolysis in cytoplasm of cell

Glucose (6 C) 2 pyruvic acid (3 C each) + 2 ATP

Citric acid cycle in mitochondria (organelles)

2 pyruvic acid (3 C each) 6 CO2 + 2 ATP +


high energy electrons

Electron transport in mitochondrial membranes

high energy electrons + O2 H2O + 3234 ATP


Figure 4.5

Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins can all be used for


energy.

Broken down by enzymes and pieces fed into


glycolysis and citric acid cycle at different points.

Figure 4.9

Nucleic acids: subunits = nucleotides

Phosphate group

Sugar
Figure 2.20
Base

Two kinds of nucleic acids = RNA and DNA


Figure 2.21
DNA double-stranded RNA single-stranded
Sugar = deoxyribose Sugar = ribose
Bases = Bases =
Adenine (A) Adenine (A)
Thymine (T) Uracil (U)
Cytosine (C) Cytosine (C)
Guanine (G) Guanine (G)
Functions: Function:
genetic machinery for
information to protein synthesis
daughter cells
directs protein
synthesis in cell

The DNA double helix Figure 4.10

Base-pairing rules:
A pairs with T
G pairs with C

Strands held together by weak hydrogen bonds

DNA replication:
Copying DNA for
cell division.
Double helix opens up.
Enzyme uses base pairing rules to make new
strands:
A (new) opposite T (old)
Figure
T (new) opposite A (old)
4.11
C (new) opposite G (old)
G (new) opposite C (old)

http://student.ccbcmd.edu/biotutorials/dna/dnareppr.html
A few more cell structures:
Nuclear membrane Nucleus

Cell membrane

Ribosome DNA

Cytoplasm

Protein synthesis
directed by DNA
uses three kinds of RNA:

Messenger RNAs (mRNAs) carry


information from genes (DNA) in
nucleus to ribosome (organelle)
Ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) combine
with proteins to form structure of
ribosome
Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) line up amino acids
according to instructions in mRNA so they
can be linked together into protein

Protein synthesis = two processes

Transcription copying information


(genetic code) from DNA into
messenger RNA (mRNA)

Translation using coded information


in mRNA to create protein
Genetic code
Codons (words) are three nucleotides long

Each codon specifies either


an amino acid or
a punctuation signal (start or stop)

Gene = a sentence giving instructions for a protein:


start signal
enough codons for every amino acid in the protein,
in the order in which those amino acids occur in the
protein
stop signal

Second letter of codon


UUU UCU UAU UGU U
phe tyr cys
UUC UCC UAC UGC C
U ser
UUA UCA UAA stop UGA stop A
leu
UUG UCG UAG stop UGG trp G
First letter of codon

Third letter of codon

CUU CCU CAU CGU U


his
CUC CCC CAC CGC C
C leu pro arg
CUA CCA CAA CGA A
gln
CUG CCG CAG CGG G
AUU ACU AAU AGU U
asn ser
AUC ilu ACC AAC AGC C
A thr
AUA ACA AAA AGA A
lys arg
AUG met ACG AAG AGG G
GUU GCU GAU GGU U
asp
GUC GCC GAC GGC C
G val ala gly
GUA GCA GAA GGA A
glu
GUG GCG GAG GGG G

Transcription:
DNA helix opens up.
Enzyme uses base pairing rules to make an RNA
copy of the gene.
Puts U opposite A instead of T.

Figure 4.12
Translation: Figures 4.13 and 4.14

Carried out by mRNA, ribosomes, tRNAs, and


enzymes acting together.
mRNA leaves nucleus, goes to cytoplasm, binds
a ribosome.
tRNAs bring in amino acids to be joined together
into protein.

tRNAs use base-pairing rules to match tRNA


anti-codons to codons in mRNA

Enzymes join the amino acids together.