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SEAKEEPING;:
Rough "Veather
:1;:
"~ ,
'11!1
t
'I'
f..... Senior Principal Scientific Officer
Admiralty Research Establishment
Haslar. Gosport. Hampshire
~
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)
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ELLIS HORWOODLIMITED
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Publishers . Chichester
j'Xl~~m\i.:;~,_,__ .',_ _
Sleigh. M.A. Mkrobes In the Sea
i JOHN WILEY & SONS
New York Chichester nrislnnc Toronto
First published in 1989 by ,
ELLIS tiORWOODLIMITED
1).
Market Cross House, Cooper Street.
.
:(
.,:"
Th~ publishds colophon is Teproduad from lama Gillison's drawing of the ancient Market Cross.
Chiihestu.
~~
DWribuwns:
Australia and New Zealand:
JACARANDA WILEY LIMITED
Canada:
JOHN WILEY & SONS CANADA UMITED
Table of contents
Europe amiAfria::
JOHN WILEY & SONS LIMITED
Indian Subcontinera
.j,
WILEY EASTERN LIMITED
~~ 1 Seakeeping .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1.Title
2.9 Conformal transformations 52
623.8'171
2.10 Viscosity 58
Ubnry of Congress Card I',). 8~ 2.11 Lifting surface characteristics 59
ISBN 07458<)2303 (Ellis Horwood Limited)'
\i;"=
ISBN 0470Z12322 (Halsted Press)
iH
;;'t
3 Regular waves ',' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
COPYRIGHT NOnCE
All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval svstem, or
transmitted, in any form or bv allY means. electronic. mechanical.photocopying. recording or otherwise.
if 3.4
3.5
3.6
Wave slope
Regular wave characteristics
Particle orbits
,
"
': 72
.~~:..::'73
74
:;;l'.
withoutthe permission of Ellis Horwood Limited.MarketCrossHouse. Cooper Street. Chichester. West 3.7 Pressure fluctuations under a wave ' 86
Sussex.England.
6 Table of contents
Table of contents
7
3.9 Energy transmission and group velocity .................. 89
11.5 Measurements of local hydrodynamicproperties 218
<,
1> 4 Ocean waves '" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
12 Rolldamping 223
U Fourier analysis 97
12.3 Eddy roll damping : 225
4.4 The wave energy spectrum '. 99 12A Skin friction roll damping 228
.
10
9.4 Excitations in regular waves
Hydrostatic coefficients. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
, " 181
191
16.1 Model experiment scaling.......................... 286
~~
19 Added resistance aad involuntary speed loss in waves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
Index .............................................. 483
19.2 Simple theory for added resistance in regular head waves 398
~
19.6 Speed loss 406
.,.
22 Seakeeping criteria and voluntary speed loss in rough weather . . . . . . . . 437
For
Acknowledgements
Sonya, Abigailand Tobin
.
1'
I have been engaged in research on seakeeping since 1968. During that time I bave
4;:
been helped by many colleagues both within the Admiralty Research Establishment
and outside. In particular I would like to pay tribute to the outstanding contributions
of Mrs P. R. Loader, Dr R. N. Andrew and Me W. B. Marshfield. Without their
constant support, advice and inspiration over the years this book would probably
never have been written.
Gosport A. R. 1. M. Lloyd
~ January 1988
"
<,
.
..
..
r r
, t"
.f
I.,
14 Notation Notation 15
energy spectru"! formula; CI (i =1.6) ith force or moment due to unit kN/metre
ith force or moment due to jth or e., roll moment applied by passive kN metres/radian'
.
..
{"
unit velocity kN metresf(metreJsecond)
or c,.
tank due to unit roll displacement
passive tank displaceIlJent leN metresfradian
kN/( radian/second) coefficient:
or tank moment due to unit roll dis
kn metres/(radianlsecond) placement
!
b l b2 , b3 fixed stabiliser fincontroller coef ,seconds. ; en passive tank stiffnesscoefficient: leN metres/radian
ficients seconds2
Jl tank moment due to unit tank
bit (i=1,6) ith force or moment due to pas kN/(radian/second) angle
sive tank angle velocity or D drag force; leN
kN metres/(radianlsecond) parameter in wave spreading
s; (i = 1,6)
~II
passive tank moment due to ith kN metres/(metrelseco~) formula;
... ' velocity or draught metres
metres
waves j
Cwt forward waterplane area coeffi GMs solid metacentric height metres
cient
16 Notation
i. Notation
I 18 Notation
Notation 19
OJ
R scale ratio L./L m ;
resistance w width metres
kN
RN Reynoldsnumber w(z) complexpotential function rnetresvsecond
r radial coordinate: $= + hl'z in z plane
metres Taylor wake fraction
WT
"'.'i number of positlve questionnaire
answers X.Y force per unit mass in x and y metres/second"
r, nth ship response directions
various x.y
r cartesian coordinate system metres
relative local vertical motion metres
between ship and sea surface
XI (i =1,6) ith displacement of centre of gra metres or radians
5(00) energyspectral ordinate vity relative to moving origin 0
metres:!/(radian/second)
XUI amplitude of lth peak or trough metres
or initial value of x in decaying
.till iTletres
radians2/ ( radian/second)
oscillation
Sed standard error of the differences various
halfseparation ofsourceand sink ZI'Z~ eddymaking rolldamping
S metres functions
in a doublet;
girth coordinate;
z complexvariablex + iy; metres
metres
displacement of fluid surface metres
~. Laplacetransform operator
~.
I
lUi = 1,6) ith peak (positive) motiondispla radians
cement leads maximum wave
depression at 0 by 0; radians radians
20 Notation Notation. 21
'. passive tank motion phase: tank radians Unlessotherwise shownin the table of notation the following suffixes are used:
metres
or
1
J.
, f
0
OH
H
h
I
forward
group; forward path
open loop
time historyor run time; feedback path
histogrambin
interference
'"
T
nns acceleration
time constant:
metres/second
or
radians/second
seconds
il
l
t .
.
L
LA
M
m
lift: experiment tank length; beach
lateral acceleration
measured from midships
measuredvalue: model value
IjI stream function metresvsecond r halfseparation of wires. struts or potentiometer strings; reservoir; root
;:,;>.
22 Notation
!!
. ""\
...;.
l
S
r)
s)
relativemotion
ship value; starboard
absolute vertical motion
1
season season ,
stag stagnation I
stall stall
T experiment tank J
~
TH waveperiod and height
t passive tank; tip
U
v
ship speed
voltage
I A note on units
!
w waves; wavemaking; wind;waterplane
Z zero crossing
'. z value in complexz plane
~ value in complex~ plane Systeme Internationale (51) units are used throughout this book. Tonnes are
ex waveslope adopted as the unit of masswithkilonewtons (kN) as the correspondingunit of force
~ waveamplitude whichwillacceleratea unit massat one metre/second", Metres and seconds are used
X wavedirection as the units of length and time. Following commonpractice,ship speeds are givenin
<,
o regular amplitude; modal value knots or nautical milesper hour.
1/3 significant value Appropriate units are quoted for all equations since this serves to remind the
undamped natural frequency or period reader of the physical realityexpressedbythe equations.The reader may. however,
average; complex conjugate substitutehisown unitsprovidingtheseare basedon a rationalsystemin whicha unit
localvalue; nondimensional value force is defined as one which imparts unit acceleration to a unit mass. Thus, for
oscillating part example,a pressureequation quoted here in kilonewtons per square metre is equally
...' .
validinpounds (force)per squarefoot (whenthe unitof massis the slug)or poundals
per square foot (if the massunit is the pound).
.4.
."
.,7
1
Seakeeping
There are three things which are too wonderful for file. yea. four which I
.
knownot:
the wayof an eagle in the air;
the wayof a serpent on a rock;
the wayof a ship in the midstof the sea;
and the wayof a man with a maid.
..
(
Proverbs Chapter 30 verses 1819
In the daysof sailshipswereverymuchmoredependenton theweatherthan they
are today.Squarerigged sailingvessels couldnotsaildirectlyinto the windand were
strictly limitedin their abilityto gowherethe masterwanted. In severeconditions it '"
wasnecessary to shorten sail and even to rideout a storm under bare poles. Manya
shipwaslost becauseshe wasdriven ashore under suchcircumstances.
t
I Economic pressures often demanded that the ship's master spread as much
1'
canvas as he dared inorder to makethe bestspeed.Thisisnowhere moregraphically
I illustrated than in the stories of the clipper 'races' from China to Europe in the
i
t_
nineteenth century. The first ship home with the newly harvested tea crop could
demand a premium price for her cargo. Speed wasof the essence and these ships
i sprouted all sorts of additional sails to make the most of every breath of wind
!,. available.
A heavily laden overcanvassed shipmusthavebeen an unpleasant homefor the
sailors and passengers in rough weather. With the lee gunwhale submerged. the
decks continuallyawash.deckhouses dampand cold.lifemusthavebeen miserable. t
Yetevenin these circumstances the crewwould be expectedto continue to navigate
I andsteer the ship and to go aloftin order to shortensailor spreadadditional canvas,
l as the master demanded.
~
(
~
However. the real problemsof seakeeping onlycame to be recognised with the
{r. demise of sail and the advent of steamas the primemotive power. Now, for the first
time.shipscouldsteam directlyinto the windand sea witha consequentincreaseof
pitch and heavemotions. The damagingeffectsof shippingheavyseas over the bow allbeen added to the navalarchitect's armouryofweapons:seakeepingperformance
began to be experienced. The punishing effects of high speed in rough weatherwere predictionshould now be a routinein any ship designoffice.
... ....; not fully understoodand at least one ship (HMSCobra in 1901) is believedto have Unfortunatelythese developments have not been accompanied by muchreadily
been lost after her hull broke in two after slamming in roughweather. obtainable literature on the subjectoutsidethe specialist papers and publications of
At the same time the steadyingeffectsof tall mastsand a good spread of canvas the learned societies and researchinstitutes. The time therefore seems ripe for the
were lost and the new steam ships were found to roll heavily. It is ironic that this publication of a standard text on seakeeping covering all essential aspects in some
beneficial effect of sails has only recently been rediscovered with the emerging detail.
technology of windassisted propulsion for lowpowered merchantships. Although the underlying physical principles of seakeepingtheory are not gener
At about this time William Froude, an eminent Victorian engineer. proposed to ally difficult to understand, the intimate details are mathematically complicated. It
build what would become the world's first model towingtank at Torquay in Great follows that calculations of ship motions and related phenomena require access to
Britain. He had recentlydevelopedscaling laws for predicting the resistance ofships suitable computer programs and computers. No real progresscan be made without
from tests on models and he intended to use the tank for the required scale model them. Fortunatelymanysuitableprograms are availablejn educational.researchand
experiments. The British Admiralty accepted Froude's proposal on the condition designestablishments as wellascomputerbureauxthroughout the world". The PAT
that he alsousedthe tank to investigate ways of reducing the rollingmotionof ships. 86 suite of seakeeping computer programs (available at the Admiralty Research
In due course towing tanks were built in manydifferent countries. These were Establishment at Haslar in the United Kingdom) was used for the examples of ship
~.
often fitted withwavemakerswhichallowed the behaviourof modelshipsinwaves to motion calculations presented in thisbook.
be studied at leisure and provided. for the first time. a technique for refining a full No book can hope to cover sucha complex subject completely. Indeed such an
scale design to ensure adequate performance in rough weather. These model undertaking would be inappropriate for all but the most specialised readers. This
experimentswere usuallyconfined to tests in regular head or following waves with book is therefore intended for the practising (and practical) navalarchitect and the
c; occasional tests at zero speed in beam waves. Tests at other headings or in more , student. It ishoped that others on the fringes of the profession will alsofind the book
realistic irregular waves were impossible because of the long narrow shape of the useful.
towingtanks and the simplicity of the wavemakers. t
These early model experimentsallowedsomelimiteddevelopmentsin the study r
of seakeepingbut theycould not be usedto predictthe actualperformanceof shipsat
sea because no techniquefor relatingthe behaviourof the modelin the regularwaves
!
;:, of the laboratoryto the behaviour of the ship in the chaoticenvironmentof the real
oceanwasavailable. This situation prevailedfor sixtyyearsor more and the studyof
I
seakeeping remainedin effectivelimbountil the publication of a landmarkpaper by i,
St Denisand Pierson in 1953. Thisshowed. for the firsttime, how thisproblemcould I
be solved using the techniques of spectral analysis borrowed from the field of
electromagnetic communications.
At about the same time theoretical methodsof predictingthe behaviourof ships i
in regular waves were being developed. The breakthrough came with Ursell's
(l949a.b) theory for predicting the characteristics of the flow around a circular
cylinder oscillating in a free surface. Classical transformation techniques allowed
these resultsto be applied to a widerangeof shapesof shiplike crosssection and the
I
1
i
&
fundamentals of modem ship motion theory were born.
These developments some fony years ago provided the basic tools required to ,i
1
r' for the first time to predict the rough weather performance of a ship at the design
,.
f
~
stage and to allow seakeeping to take its rightful place in the designprocess.
Since that time seakeeping has remained an active field of research, but
,a
~
...>
2 o
Fluid dynamics
2.1 INTRODUCTION
Manyaspectsof the behaviourof shipsin roughweather depend on the general laws
.
of fluid flow. The study of the waves on the sea surface. the resulting responses to
them and detailed considerations of the flow around appendages such as roll
stabiliser fins are all based on the classical equations of fluid dynamics which were
firstexpounded by the great mathematicians of the eighteenthcentury. An extensive
knowledge of fluid dynamics is not required for an understanding of seakeeping
theory: nevertheless. a basic knowledge of certain aspectsof the subject is needed
and this chapter is intended to give the necessary grounding. Readers requiring a Fig. 2.1  Frame of reference for twodimensional ftows.
more detailed treatment of the subject are referred to O'Neill and Chorlton (1986).
At the time when the basic axioms were first established the results had little
practical application, and remained only of academic interest until the advent of property of fluid in the directionnormalto the xy plane. For convenience the fluid is ...
flight and powered ships in the late nineteenth century. Even then the practical assumed to have a constant depth d metrest.
application of this rigorous early work was often hampered by the impossibility of
solving the resulting equations for any but the simplest of cases. It was usually
necessary to pretend that the fluid was 'ideal'; that is. it had no viscosity or surface
2.2 EULER'S EQUATIONS OF MOTION FOR AN INVISCID FLUID
tensionand wasincompressible (i.e. the densityremainsconstantat alltimes).These
rather limiting assumptions resulted in predictions of fluid flow which were some Euler developed the basicequationsof motion for fluid particlesby considering the
times at variance with the observationsof experiments. forceson a smallrectangularblockof fluid. For present purposeshisderivation may
Fortunately for the student of seakeeping. the neglect of viscosity. surface be simplified by considering only twodimensional flow: in this case the block has
tension and compressibility in these equations allows goodtheoreticalpredictionsof sidesof length Ox. oy and d metres and has itscentre at a point (x, y) in the xy plane
manykindsof fluidflow whichare important inthe determinationofthe behaviourof as shown in Fig. 2.2. Ox and oy are at first supposed to be small but finite.
ships in rough weather. This is not to say that water does not have viscosity. surface In general the properties of the fluid which are of interest (pressure. density,
tension or compressibility; rather that these qualitiesapparentlyhavelittle effect on velocity. acceleration etc) willvary throughout the xy plane but will have specific ".f
the fluid flows concerned. So relatively simplesolutionsto many relevant problems valuesatthe point (x.y). Supposethat the pressureat the point (x.y) is PkN/metre::.
are possibleusingthe classical equations of fluid dynamics describedin the following A possiblevariationof pressurein the x directionisshownin Fig.2.3. Obviously this
sections. )01
T The usc of the word 'depth' docs not necessarily imply that the ry plane is horizontal.
Fluid flows are. in general. threedimensional and those associated with the
"':'';="'""''''''''*'''';'''"'';C~'';'''"~.>'''ii,.,~,." ..,,:z,s;.'':='"''''O"'''~''''''''';' ny;' 1<;0 W'I ~' f "'ioWa'*",*",' fV~,.,~.<~ ., " ',,:.....8imc 'M ....<' I
~~_"',,,..,...~~.~~~,,.""'...~~. ,&., ;;::',.1:<+...,,* ....N ! :;:S; .. ~j ,'f"~~t<::'"~~......"..~~~~,.,<.,,,."*",,,..,. ~""''_'0"t"'~'m<'~",""7,'~,", ...~
30 F1uid dynamics {Ch.2 Sec. 2.2] Euler's equations of motion for an inviscid fluid 31
~
If
. witl result in different pressures on the end faces of the block and give rise to a
'pressure force' in the x direction. Other possible forces might be externally applied
(such as gravity) or due to friction as adjacent fluid overtakes or is overtaken by the
'<i
. ,
block under consideration. If the fluid is assumed inviscid (that is. it has no viscosity)
there can be no frictional forces and the only forces which can exist are therefore due
to pressure differences or are applied externally.
If the dimension ox is small the variation of pressure in the x direction may be
ri~
I~"
~'
approximated by the straight line of slope'
t .)y
as shown in Fig. 2.3. Then the pressures at the centres of each end face of the block
shown in Fig. 2.2 are approximately
\.
ap Ox ,
p  kN metre on the side nearest to the origin
ax 2
y
ap Ox ,
p + 2 kN/metre on the side furthest from the origin
c Fig. 2.2 Euler's equations of motion: forces acting on a particle in the x direction. ax
These expressions are approximate because the pressure variation in the x
direction will not if! general be linear. We introduce a further approximation by
assuming that the average pressure over each end face is the same as the pressure at
the centre of each end face. These approximations will improve as the block
, dimension ox is reduced and eventually become exact if the block size becomes
'" infinitesimal.
Since the end faces have an area ox d metres? the net pressure force in the x
direction is approximately
The volume of the block is Ox oy d metres'. If the mass density of the fluid is p
TIT tonnes/metre' the mass of fluid in the block is p Ox oy d tonnes. So if X is the
externally applied force per unit mass the resulting force in the x direction is
,.. tx
Xp Ox oy d kN
.,. Fig. ~.3  Variation of pressure in ther direction .
and the total force (pressure plus external) is
ap
 ax Ox oy d + Xp ox oy d kN
32 Fluid dynamics [eh.2 Sec. 2.31 Equation of continuity j)
These forces result in an acceleration uof the fluid block in the x direction. From Substitutingequation (2.6) in equation (2.2) we obtain Euler's equation of motion
Newton's second law for the.\' dircl:lion:
These equations. as we have seen. are approximate for finite dimensionsof the
l ap . ,
fluid blockbut becomeexact if the blockdimensionsare madeinfinitesimal. They are
X   = u metres/second" (2.2)
pox
u = u(x. y. r) metreslsecond neither created nor destroyed. Consider the small rectangular volume shown in
Fig. 2.4. Again the centre is at (x. y). the sides are of length Ox. oy metres and the
I: fluid is d metres deep. Note. however. that in contrast to the moving block of fluid
so that the total differential of u is ~
usedto derive Euler's equations. this volumeremainsstationary relativeto the axes.
In physical terms it may be imaginedas a wireframework and weare concerned with
au au au . the rate of fluid flow through its open faces.
du =  d:c + dy +  dt metres/second (2.3) '14.
ax ay ar If the velocitycomponentsof the fluid at the centre of the frameworkare again u
t..
and u metres/second and the massdensityat that point is p tonnesl metre", the mass
of fluid flowing in the x direction through the centre of the frame is approximately
The component uof the acceleration in the x direction is
PU oy d tonnes/second, Again this result is only generally exact if the volume is
infinitesimal so that the valueof pu at itscentre is the same as the average valueof pu
.
= du au d:c au dy au , 0
over the area oy d. The product pu will in generalvaryover the entire flow regimeand
ax dt + oy dt + ar
u =  metres/second (2.4)
dt have different valuesat the two end facesof the framework. Following the approach
used for pressure variations in the derivation of Euler's equations. the mass flow in
but the x direction through the face nearest the origin is approximately
d:c
u =  u = 
dy
metres/second (2.5) ~~)Ox)
ax 2 oy d tonneslsecond .into the framework
dt' dr ( pu  +
f
o(pu) ax)
i.
so that ~ d s: sI d out of the framework
:t ( pu +  ax uy
2
tonne secon .
through the opposite face ~
~
. au au au ~
u = u ax + u ay + at metresseccnd" (2.6) Hence the net mass flow into the framework through these two faces is
0. x ., changes. In this case the rate of increaseof the massof fluid insidethe frameworkis
(ap/at) ox oy d tonnes/second and this must balance the net mass flow through the
""', ; faces into the framework. Hence
"
~~ Ox oy d =  e~:) + a~;) Ox oy d tonnes/second
('.!Ua~';I~)i\YC:::>
Q! ( ~).,y (X~y) C:::>''aX2
" u +a(\Ju ) ap
at
= _ (a(pu) + a(pu))
ax ay
tonnesfrnetre' second) (2.8)
. which is valid for both real and ideal fluids. If the densityisconstant (i.e. the fluid is
incompressible) this reduces to
au au
ax + ay = 0 seccnds " ' (2.9)
0,
IS )( &
/~~J) )
t
i
.r'"
A 1/ ~ ~~ ~ ;1A CIl
a1
~s
;;
c:
o
YL
' /
/ /
.
t;1:...
<J)
Is
<p
~
.
lVCOSIl
......:. Slope=Cl'l> =u
ax
~
Section at AA
"
11"
Fig. 2.5  Velocitypotential in a twodimensional fluid flow.
~
<I>+o<t>
~ a<t>
= <t>+ a<t>
ax ax+
ay oy or (~ sin 6 + ~; cos 8) + r 08 (~~ cos 6  ~; sin 6) ',(
a<t> a<t> ,
'= <t> + a<t>
ar or + a<t>
a6 06 metres'1second = ar or + a6 06 metresvsecond
a<t> ax + a<t> by = aa4> or + 3<t>6 66 metresvsecond or(1< sin e + u cos 6) + r 06 (u cos 8 u sin 8)
ax ay r a
= ~~ or + ~: 08 metresssecond
Now
~
Separating radial and tangential components we obtain for the radial velocity
Ox = r oe cos 6 + or sin 6 metres
so = alP
ar metres'1second . . away from t he ongm
posmve ;. (2.11a)
38 Fluid dynamics [Ch.2 Sec. 2.5] Integration of Euler's equationsof m.otion: Bernoulli'sequation 39
and for the tangential velocity if p is assumed to be constant (i.e. the fluid is incompressible). Equation (2.16) may
nowbe integrated to give
'"\' ..
Ue = u cos e u sin e
= ;1 a</l
a9 metres'1second . . antic
posmve . IockWIse
. (2.J1b) q~ a4>
+Q+p = F<(y. r) '1 d'
metresrseconc (2. 17a)
2 ar p
x = an ,
;~~
ax metres/second (2.12a)
where F; is not a function of y. Since the leftharrd sides of equations (2.17a) and
(2.17b) are the same. it isclear that the functions F, and F; mustbe identicaland have
y = ay
an metres/second
, (2.12b) the same values at all positionsand that they are therefore functions only of time.
, Hencethe integrated formof Euler's equationsof motionfor an inviscid incompres
sible fluid is .
Partial differentiation of equations (2.10) gives
2 aq, p
au _ a~4> au i..+ __ Q+_ = F(t) metresvsecomf (2.18)
ay  axay = ax second I
(2.13) 2 at p
, .
". Now equation (2.10) shows that the velocities are functionsonly of the deriva
Substituting the 'x' equations (2.10a). (2.12a) and (2.13) into Euler's equation of tivesof the velocity potential and not of the potential functionitself. It follows that
motion for the x.direction (equation (2.7a we obtain any arbitrary constant may be subtracted from the potential function without
affecting the velocities. The quantity
an 1 ap au au a.!4>

ax p ax = U +u
ax ax +axar
 metres/second 2 (2.14)
Now
I: F(r) dt metresilsecond
.. "
.....
au a 2' )
ax  ax
u (u 2
metres/second (2.15b) q,' = <1> I~ F{t) dr metresvsecond
and equation (2.14) may be written without affecting the velocities in any way. Then
2 P)
a (u.! u 3<!>
++{1+ = 0 metres/second' (2.16) aq,' = aq, _ F(r) dr metresssecond
at at
ax 2 2 al P
40 Fluid dynamics [Ch.2 Sec. 2.1] The stream function 41
q2 a<t>
+11+P = 0 metres'1second' (2.19)
2 at p
If the flow is steady (i.e. no variations with time) equation (2.18) reduces to
q2 P = F metresvsecond
11+ ' ,
(2.20) y
R ...
2 p
where F is now an arbitrary constant. If there is no external applied force the force
','= f (u dy v dxl
potential 11 is constant and the equation reduces to the well knownfonn >
Fig. 2.7 Definitionof tile stream function.
U oy d metresvsecond
where PSta g is another arbitrary constant. If the fluid is brought to rest at some point
so that q =0, the pressure willbe in the positive x direction and
"
P = PSta g kN/metre2 u Ox d metresvsecond
and PS ta g is known as the stagnation pressure. in the positive y direction. So the total volume flow across the line OS.R is
.l.,
no fluid is created or destroyed in the space between the two lines (i.e. the equation 2.8 SOME SIMPLE FLOWS
of continuity (2.9) is satisfied) the value of Ijf will be unchanged. Ijf is therefore a
'\
. ,
function only of the positionof R and is independent of the path of integration. Ijf is
2.8.1 Uniformstream
called the stream function, y axis as shown in Fig. 2.8. The velocities everywhere are given by
but
dljl =
Oljf
ax dr + aljf
ay y
d 'd
metresrsecon
..
USinx
, .
..... ~ u~.,
so the velocities are
R
;
aljl y
u = ay metres/second (2.24a)
oljl
v = a; metres/second (2.24b) Fig. 2.8  Uniform stream in the ;:y plane.
Referringto equations (2.10) wesee that the stream function isrelated to the velocity
'"
h_
potential by u = U sin X metres/second
v = U cos X metres/second
aljl _ o<jl
ay  ax metres/second (2.25a)
and the stream function at any point R is, from equation (2.23)
ax = metres/second (2.25b)
ay
From equation (2.10)
" In the polar coordinates defined in Fig. 2.6 the stream function is related to the
tangential and radial velocities by a<jl
,
tJ = U cos X = ay metres/second
'""
Ue = ~; metres/second  (2.26a) and the potential function is therefore
ur = ; ae metres/second (2.26b)
ing that it represents a valid flow of an ideal fluid. Fig. 2.9 shows streamlines and
equipotential contours for a uniform stream derived from equations (2.27) and
(2.28).
,j>,.
r
2.8.2 Sources and sinks
Fig. 2.10 illustrates a point source at the origin in the xy plane. The source may be
visualised as a narrow tube with porous wallsextending over the depth of the fluid.
Fluidiscreated within the tube at a rate md metresvsecond and the source strength is
said to be m metresvsecond. At some radial distance r metres the fluid recently
created by the source is flowing outwards at a rate md metresvsecond across a
cylindrical boundary of circumference 2lTr metres and depth d metres. The radial
velocityistherefore
md m
u, =  
2lTrd  2lTT metres/second
. mx aej> aljf
u :; U, SID a = 
2lTT2
= ax = 
ay metres/second
I I >\It 1_ I
x
= ur cos a = my
= aej> aljf
=   'Il'\'
u 
2lTr ay axmetres/second
'*
Integrating, we obtain the stream function for a point source at the origin:
y
Ijf
m
=  tan  I 
(y) =
m (lTl2  0)
metresvsecond (2.29)
Fig.2.10 Pointsourceat the originin the r.y plane.
2lT x 211'
Ijf := _ m tanI
2lT
(l)x = m(lTl2  0) metresvsecond
2lT
(2.31)
m .{ 2 m ,
<l> = 2lT '
log, v (x + y) = 211' log, r metresvsecond (2.30) '~
ej> = _!!!. log, y(x 2 + y2) =  m log, r metresvsecond (2.32)
2IT 2IT
Streamlinesand equipotential contours for a point sourceare shown in Fig. 2.11. ~
As expected, the streamlines radiate outwardsfrom the sourceand the equipotential Note that the equation of continuity is violated at the source (or sink) but is valid
Now
tanI a.tan I b = tan 1 1 +ab
(ab)
and the stream function is
m
= tan _I ( 2ys ) metresssecond
'11 21T x 2 + y2 _ S2
Fig. 2.11  Streamlines and equipotential contours for a point source at the origin in the xy
plane. '11 = _!!!..
221' ( x 2 +2ys
y2 _ $2
) metresvsecond
My _
'11= M cos e metressseeond (2.33)
21T y(x 2 + y2)  21TT'
4> = Mx _ M sin e
" 211' y(x 2 +y 2 )  2m: metresesecend (2.34)
The combination of a source and a sink at the origin is called a doublet or a dipole.
Fig. 2.13 shows the streamlines and equipotential contours associated with a dipole
y
aligned with the x axis. These are all circles centred on the y and x axes respectively.
The centres of the circles are at (0. M12ir1V) and (Ml2iTcjl. 0).
In a similar way it can be shown that the stream and potential functions for a
Fig. 2.12  Combination of a source and a sink on the x axis.
dipole aligned with the y axis are given by
The stream function is then
'11 = Mx _ Msin9
221' y(x 2 + y2)  z;: metresvsecond (2.35)
III = !!!.. tan " ' (_Y_) _!!!.. tan" ' (...1) metresvsecond cjl = My _ Mcos e
21T x +s 21T X $
211' y(x 2 +y2)   211'r metresssecond (2.36)
.1.
..;~,,~,~~~~ . . , 't*"l """f ,s,'OP...
j ' ';:")"Q~.j;W" ~,,,,,~,':;,,", l~'
~!\"Bf~_k!? .
'._.W~,~, ,,.";.,.~,,,,, '!f. .% ~, :<t ::>t:w~~_." '"''~3"""",~."""...""~,.,."._.".,,. .,.,,.....,~,,~~_~
I
48 Fluid dynamics [Ch.2 Sec. 2.81 come sun~lI: alll'" S
/'
,
...  .... " .....
,
$ =
M cos (m9)
"71r'"
metresvsecond m = 1.2.3.... (2.40)
If m = 1 the multipoles become the dipoles a:l e,' ::.' "~.:,, '<'~~ '. ... >: ..
examples of streamlines and equipotential contours lOr va;,c..r:; .. __v __ ..
,
, .A
r
,."
....~
~.:~ "I'''~'
,

",/
_ ... ~~
" ....  y
 ./
,.
'.'
Fig. 2.13  Flow patterns associated with dipole aligned with s: axis: . streamlines:
   equipotential. .A;
I
L.
m2 (QUADRUPOLE)
M cos (me) metresvsecond m = 1.2,3, .. (2.37)
= 2lTT'"
1jf
t Fig. 2.14  Multipoles:  streamlines;    equipotentials,
M sin (me) metresvsecond m = 1,2.3, ... (2.38)
$ = 2nr'"
1jf = Uy metresvsecond
These may be combined with a doublet to give from the set of streamlines defined in equation (2.41), we find it reduces to
'" = Uy
My
2IT(x:' + y ')
,
metresvsecond (2.41)
y =0 metres (2.43)
.I. Mx , or
'I' = Ux + 2IT (x+y
' ') metresvsecond (2.42)
x 2 + y2 = M metres! (2.44)
and these functions are plotted in Fig. 2.15. 2ITU
Equation (2.43) is the x axisand equation (2.44) is the equation of a circle of radius
'1' INCREASING
..
I I I I I
a = ~(2~U) metres (2.45)
and we can see that equations (2.41) and (2.42) represent the flow around a circular
cylinder in a uniform stream. For simplicity only streamlines and equipotential
contours outside the circle are shown in the illustration of the flow in Fig. 2.15. The
velocitiesare obtained by differentiating equation (2.41) or (2.42):
2
a", _ 0$ _ U _ M ( x  y2 ,) metres/second (2.46)
u = ay  ax  2IT (x 2 + y2).
ax = ay   .. ...
 a",
tJ  a$ _ Mxy metres/second (2.47)

At the points A:(  r. 0) and B:{r. 0) the velocities are zero. and these points at
the front and rear of the cylinderare caIledstagnation points. As explained in section
2.5 the pressure is then equal to the stagnation pressure of the fluid.
At C:(O.  r) and D:(O.r) on the top and bottom of the cylinderthe velocitiesare
u = 2U metres/second
tJ =0 metres/second
Fig. 2.15  Potentiaillow around a circular cylinder in a uniform stream.
So the velocity at these points is twice the freestream velocity and. as would be
expected. parallel to the x axis. The pressure at these points is a minimum given by
Now we have seen that the lines on which the stream function is a constant are equation (2.21):
streamlines. Since in steady flow the fluid flows along these lines. anyone of them
could be replaced by a solid boundary of the same shape without altering the
characteristics of the rest of the flow. If we choose the particular streamline P = Pstag  2pU2 kN/metre2 .
,
.v. I..;,I..
_f"",*,,,,,,~,",~,,):;"0"'>''''~''~~~''''''''~''''~''~~~>M;~~~;';':,.,v;' " ".' ,.,&.(_",~ . .
~~r:r~""'~'''1''''''~''''ii\l.i''''j(4 d0 .. , y ..... 4'4;,,<;:;9..,c;2~i*~. >~'"""'''''~'"O':''~'~';'~~,~~~",<,""",,,,,,~~,, .
I' , ,_.". 'M_,j,"'''''... ,." 'w..;.
t " ..
A powerful additional technique allows a wide range of further flow patterns to The velocities u: and u: are obtained by differentiating the complex potential
be derived from these basicsynthesisedsolutions.The method involves mappingthe
function: .
streamlines and equipotential contours of a known flow into the streamlines and
equipotential contours of the required flow using some suitable mapping function.
In order to exploit the method we redefine the xy plane of our known flow dw(z)
d =
a ($. + 1'1'.)
a . a$..
= a aljl.
+ I a' metres/second
solutions (for example. the flow around the cylinder in the uniform stream) as the z x' x x
complex plane z such that J
z = x+iy metres or
(2.53)
stream functions to give = u.  io: metres/second
w(z) = w(x + iy) =: $: + i'l': metresvsecond (see equations (2.10) and (2.24. '.,..
Suppose that we require to find the flow pattern (i.e. the streamlines and the
This often results in a considerable algebraic simplification. For example. the equipotential contours) around some arbitrary shape which is defined in another
complex potential functions of the elementary flows already considered are simply complex plane ~ such that
(a) uniform stream at an angle 1. to the y axis
~ = XBl + ixBJ metres
~
w(z) = Uz sin l.  iUz cos 1. metresvsecond (2.48)
1 (see Fig. 2.16). .
(b) source at the origin
I
 
~ Plane
w(z) = ~IOg., [z] metresvsecond (2.49)
II
ZPlane
_......
(c) sink at the origin
i x.,
i x
~ ix.,
(d) doublet aligned with the x axis at the origin
.~
....
iy
M
= 2 , d
.11
w(z) metresrsecon (2.51) Fig. 2.16 _ Mapping a shape in the z plane into another shape in the; plane.
1[Z
54 Fluid dynamics [Cb.2 Sec. 2.9] Conformal transformations 55
Then we need to find a mapping function streamlines in the z plane must map into streamlines in the ~ plane. By a similar
argument equipotential contours in the z plane must also map into equipotential
~ = f(z) metres contours in the ~plane.
The velocitiesin the ~ plane are obtained by differentiatingthe complexpotential
and its inverse with respect to ~:
W(~) = W(XB2 + IXB3) / where the coefficients an, at and a3 are real. Choosing different values for these
= w(z) into the flow around a wide variety of shapes in the ~ plane. We shall meet this
= ljlz + i'l'z metresvsecond mappingfunction again in Chapter 11where we shall see that it is used to obtain the
Then then required to haveparticular valuesto ensure that the mapped shape in the ~ plane
approximates to the required hull crosssection. However, for the time being let us
Comparing equations (2.54) with equations (2.25) it is evident that the complex ~ = z+~z
potential w(z) calculated in the z plane must also represent some valid fluidflow in
the ~ plane. alZ
Consider the value of the complex potential on any streamline (including the = Z+JZI2
surface of the body) in the z plane. Sincethe stream function isconstant everywhere
along a streamline the complex potential must be of the form
On the surface of the cylinderwe have
w(z) = real number + i x constant
z = ia e i9 metres
Since w(z) has the same value at corresponding points in the ~ plane it isclear thatthe
i = ia ei9 metres
,.,",~."~,.....4oJ;.:;~.,.,,,"~,,"~,,:,, ..;,,;:;,,,",,,~~<~"~ '''"'':...''';'.;':;'..<:,,,,,,,,~...,~~,~~~...,~:
56 .'
Fluid dynamics [Ch.2 ~ . Sec.2.9J Confonnal transformations 57
Increasing
Izi = a metres
.
i I I II : :: : :: :' : ; ! I I
.=a I: l \' . _: .1 I I
:: :t~t
JJ~l :: : 1 :
I : J J.
where ).
~
J : : .:
; ;i t i :
I( M) ~~:~
~1:: ; ~ tJ~"""'~+!
I: ;.
a = "2zrU metres (equation (2.45
and the circular cylinder maps into an ellipse whose equation is ; A.' 0 8' ~I=O
f~,~! ~+!
} !; t~:~~~~_
ia
; = ia eie ial e
+~
a
1 : ~: i :: ttS=~ ~ ! ::
and whose major and minor axes are
I: ! : : ; : : I: !~ ~ ~ :
,.
a+ at a at metres. Fig. 2.17 PotentialDow around an elliptical cylinder in a uni(onn stream.
a a
Fig. 2.17 shows the streamlines and equipotential contours obtained from this
mapping function for the particular case of ZU Z
_ 3z ( a ) (2.57) .'
: 3z Z _ az 1  zz metres/second
a::
at metres
3 The front and rear stagnation points A r and B, on the circular cylinder map into the
corresponding points ~ and B~ on the ellipitical cylinder (Fig. 2.17). Putting z a =
The major and minor axes are then in equation (2.57) yields Ut;  iUt; = 0 metres/second. so that these points are also
stagnation points in the ~ plane. Similarly the points C, and Dr on the circular
4a 2a cylinder. which experience the maximum velocity 2U metres/second in the z plane.
3 . metres map into the corresponding points Ct; and Dt; on the elliptical cylinder. Putting
3 =
z ia metres in equation (2.57) and equating real and imaginary parts gives
The velocities are obtained from equations (2.53) and (2.55): 3U
U = 2'" metres/second ....
dz dw(z)
~iu~ = dl: ~ u = 0 metres/second
,,,'
for the velocities at <; and D~. The velocities at any point in the ~ plane may be found
=z 2_
Z2
  M)
d ( Uz+
by thismethod.
at dz 2lTZ
58
2.10 VISCOSITY
Fluid dynamics
~
~;;;:
~.
"':<
;
Sec. 2.11] LiCtingsurface characteristics
parallel and normal to the local body surface.) At the transition point eddies will
begin to grow in the boundary layer and the velocity distribution changes to the
lurbu[entprofile also shown in Fig. 2.19.
59
and is responsible for the existence of the 'boundary layer'. a thin layer of slow ;,0
The shear stress applied by one layer of fluid moving over another is given by
moving fluid immediately adjacent to the body surface. t
Consider the flow around the body shown in Fig. 2.18. Immediately behind the i
1 t = ILw du
dy
kN/metre 2 (2.58)
Fall~n~_
pres/"
.r:"
./~
Rising pressure
~
j~
where p.", is the coefficient of viscosity. At the surface this appears as a frictional force
on the body. Clearly the force applied to the body by the turbulent boundary layer is
~(l
~. much greater than that applied by the laminar boundary layer.
/ uV Outside the boundary layer the velocity gradient is very small and the viscous
,'0
/ ,/1
iu r
!lU len!
forces are negligible. So potential flow methods can be applied provided that the
/ V
tL TranSition
boundary layer is relatively thin. This is generally true over the forward portion of
the body where there is a favourable (falling) pressure gradient. This helps to
f Laminar Boundary layer minimise the growth of the boundary layer and keeps the flow firmly attached to the
.,
Stagnation point
separates
body surface. However, the pressure gradient beyond the maximum diameter of the
. body is adverse (rising) which tends to slow the flow and leads to a rapid thickening of.
the boundary layer. At some stage the velocity gradient at the surface may become
Fig.2.18 Growthand separationof boundarylayer(boundarylayerthickness exaggerated). zero as shown in Fig. 2.18. Beyond this point flow reversal occurs and the boundary
layer is said to separate. Largescale eddies which are not predicted by potential flow
methods will then occur. Predictions of forces based on potential flow may then be in
front stagnation point the boundary layer will be laminar with a smooth well ordered
error.
structure and the velocity profile shown in Fig. 2.19. (x and yare here taken as
Flow separation may occur whenever there is an adverse pressure gradient on
bodies with tapering tails. The more rapid the taper, the more likely is separation. In
1.0 I I I I I I particular, separation is virtually guaranteed at any discontinuity or sharp corner on
r. ~II. the body surface.
,)
0.8
yt~
~
t
0.4
0.2
,
i.
$
Ship hulls are usually fitted with appendages such as rudders, propeller shaft brackets
and roIl stabiliser fins. These can influence the behaviourof the ship in rough weather
and we shall require a method of estimating the forces developed by them. These
forces may be estimated using potential flow methods based on the techniques
described above, but results of adequate accuracy can be obtained using the simple
empirical formulae given below.
~_.
Consider the typical lifting surface appendage shown mounted on the hull in Fig
2.20. The geometry of the surface is conveniently defined by the root and tip chords
c, and e, and the outreach b. The mean chord is 0
1.0
c = cr+c, metres
Fig. 2.19 Laminar and turbulentvelocityprofiles. 2
like that shown in Fig. 2.20. For these sections there is no lift at zero incidenceand
A b ;i 'such a surface.
~
.,
:$
. ,
~.
t.
" High aspect
~ IS ratio
.~
J ..
c
'y
't
:t ..e
Ii:
Stall r
L u
.~
1
~i
"
.~
:5
~
Incidence angle a
A = be = ~(c,. + c.) metres' (2.59) ~ For small angles of incidence the lift coefficient increases more or less linearly
~:J with the angle of incidence and we may write the lift coefficient as
The aspect ratio, defining the general proponions of the surface. is ~
'3
1 _ del. IX (2.63)
2b 4b Cl.  dIX
a== (2.60) t
C c,.+c, .!
\ where dCL/dcx is the lift curve slope. , .
When the surface is at an angle of incidence IX to the incidentflow itwillgenerate a The slope of the curve diminishes as the angle of incidence is increased and
lift force L and a drag force D. These forces are respectively normal and parallel to maximum lift occurs at the stall angle cx.'all' The;lift curve slope increases with the
the direction of the incidentflow. aspect ratio, but surfaces of high aspect ratio stall earlier and more abruptly than' ,.;
For a given angIe of incidence and planfonn shape the lift and drag are found to those of low aspect ratio. The lift characteristicsof symmetricalsections are only
beproportional tothe square ofthe forward speed and thepianform area. So the lift weaklydependent onthe section shape.
and drag may be expressedin nondimensional terms as
,
62 Fluid dynamics
Whicker andFehlner (1958) tested a variety of lifting surfaces oflow aspect ratio
such as are typically employed on ships and derived an empirical formula for the lift
[Ch.2
I
"
:::
'$
..~
,"
Sec.2.11} Liftingsurface characteristics
direction) becomes zero. The drag force is then very large and acts normID to the
plane of the surface. For this case Hoerner (1965) gives
63
i
(2.64)
da
1"., '
., ..
',ji;
.~
';L
5. i i i l i t
: 4
...c:
,j
"'
:;; I
.;
'6
i.i.
s:
J
"..
1
D
go 2
..:;
iii j
>
u
,,,
~
~
:~
.
o 4
I
6
,
8
I
10
I
12
:~
i
$
~
Fig. 2.22 Liftcurveslope. (After Whicker and Fehlner(1958).) ~;;
'~
$}
illustrations of the surface planfonns associatedwith various aspect ratios. Clearly ~:':'?
~
the lift curveslope increasesdramaticallywithincreasing aspect ratio: in other words
longslender liftingsurfaces (likea glider'swings) are muchmore effectivethan short
stubbv surfaces.
whicker and Fehlner also reported the stall an~les foundfor their liftingsurfaces.
These are given approximately by
If the angle of incidence approaches90 degreesthe lift force (normal to the flow
~
~
1
~ Sec. 3.2] The potentialfunction 65
~.'
~,
(
~
r
r
3 ~.
.
!
l
'! ""
3.1 INTRODUcrION
The waves whichinfluencethe behaviour of ships at sea are generally irregular and ~I
more or less random in nature. No two waves have exactly the same height and they ).
travel across the surface at different speeds and in different directions. Techniques Fig. 3.1 Regularwaves.
for coping with the chaotic nature of the real sea surfaceare described in Chapter 4,
but it is first necessaryto discuss the characteristics of ideal regular waves. T the wave period: the time interval between successive crests (or troughs)
Such waves never occur in the real ocean environment although they can be passinga fixed point
produced in laboratory towingtanks and form the basisof manyseakeeping model a: the instantaneous waveslope: the gradient of the surface profile (in radians)
experiments. Of equal importance is the fact that the theory of irregular waves is lXo the maximumwaveslope (in radians)
based on the assumption that they can be represented by 'superposing' or adding HI,, the wave steepness.
( a4
oy y_d
= 0 metres/second
velocity potentialgiven by equation (3.1). The only force applied externally to any
t
fluid particle is gravity. Hence, from equation (2.12),
x =an=0ax metres/second"
Since the pressure everywhere along the contour and the depth yp are both
,;...~.~.,,,,<&,,,,~.~~..~
..~.~;~""''''~..,"~.."'''''''''''.~..~'''"~,~...~~..:..._'''~" ..~ ......'''~~. . .~ ~ _ .
z:e $tQU_& ~. ;.,_.;:;,_a:s.~:W~W:K,*,.!i;:.,\ l!A ..$ q:: ?O:C. SQ . lII'lS'~ eo "'''''''''''''''~'''''~'~.~~..,.._ ..__. >.~._' .... ""'~";'"'<'''''''''''''.''~A'"._''''''''''~'''"_'''''''''Y"<'' w_"'F"""w'~"'" w',
68 Regular waves [eh.3 Sec. 3.3] Pressure contours and the surfaceprofile 69
(a) for water depth greater than about half the wavelength
willbe a constant on the contour at any giventime r.It maybe added to the potential ~
without affecting the velocities in any way(sincethey are functions of the potential
gradients and not of the potential itself).So we maydefine a newvelocity potential cosh[k(d  Yp}] _ sinh[k(d  Yp)J cosh[k(d Yp)] sinh[k(d  yp)]_ (_ k )
"
~,
so that (b) for water depth lessthan about 0.03 timesthe wavelength .j.
!
"
a$' a<l> P ~
cosh[k(d  Yp)J == 1.0, cosh[k(d yp}]_.!.
at =at + P gyP metresvsecond" ,j
J sinh(kd)  kd (3.7)
cosh(kd)
i
~ ;.
and equation (3.3) becomes !
~_.
sinh[k(d Yp)] k(d ) sinh[k(d Yp)J d yP
j
cosh(kd) yp , sinh(kd) d
a<l>' 1
1.. +  g ~ =0 metresvseconrf
2
2 al
il
l
tanh(kd) == kd
and the prime may now of course be omitted. So the constant pressure contour in deep water is given by
~
If wenowassumethat the velocity issmall(tantamount to assuming that the wave
amplitude 1;0 is small compared with the wavelength)we may neglect q2 so that the ~p = 1;0 exp(  kyp) sin (lex  <Ill) metres (3.8)
depressionof the constant pressure surfaceis
and in shallow water by
1(a<l metres
~P=g at Y_Y.+!;,. ~P =1;0 sin (lex  <Ill) metres (3.9)
or, since ~p is small, As an illustration of these equations Fig. 3.3 shows typical pressure contours
beneath a regularwaveof length 100metres in three differentdepthsof water. These
resultshave been obtained by setting l= 0 in equations (3.5), (3.8) and (3.9).
In very shallow water (d = 2 metres) equation (3.9) appliesand the amplitudeof ~
_!(a<l metres
~Pg al yay.
(3.4) the pressure contour is everywhere the same. In deeper water (d =20 metres)
equation (3.5) is appropriate and the amplitude decreases as the bottom is
approached. In very deep water (d = 100 metres) equation (3.8) applies and the ~"
Substituting the expression for the velocity potential (equation (3.1) yields the amplitude of the pressure contour then becomes very smallat the bottom.
equation for the constant pressure contour at depth j, metres: The surface profile is one of these constant pressurecontours (with the pressure
equal to the atmosphericpressure). It is obtained by setting
cosh[k(dyp)] sin (kxWl) metres
~p =1;0 cosh(kd) (3.5)
Yp=O metres
70 Regular waves [Ch.3 Sec. 3.3] Pressure contoursand the surface profile 71
Au 00
l!'P
\/ \ n V\T
i I
~i VV1/"'\1
:' ii . ; I
I~O.25
1 I
'./ .' ./ 1 ' , ' / ,j"
I I
' I
I
:
'
I
I
x.
., I <: I I
1 \/ V 1 r:
I (1.5
r.1d
KX,
". II
' N !i
\
I
,
I 10.75
;.
I
1 I
'_l
I
I I J
i
I I, I ! 1.0 t, t,
ll1lplh2m Depth 10m Depth 100m
resultingsine wave of amplitudeL:tl metresand period Tseconds isalso illustrated in the surface elevation. Fig. 3.5 shows the surfaceprofileand the corresponding wave
)..r
and the term 10: 1/ 00 (seconds)may nowbe recognised as a phase 'lag' which governs
the temporal location of the sine waveon the taxis.
~
~
3.4 WAVE SLOPE
,~
It is sometimesconvenient to quantifythe effectsof the waves in termsof their slope
rather than their elevation or depression below the mean level. The slope of the
pressure contours may beobtained bydifferentiatingequations (3.5). (3.8) and (3.9)
as appropriate.
For any depth yp
III
. ____,__1
F ,. . . /
)
.Joe!
,., }.
;.;
Figs 3.7 and 3.8 show how the wave period and celerity vary with wavelength for
various water depths. As might have been expected, long waves have very low
~s
frequencies and vice versa. As if to compensate for this the celerity increases with
I wave length: for example, the celerity of a 1000 metre wave is almost 40 metres!
second (over 75 knots) in deep water compared with only about 4 metres/second
f~
(about 8 knots) fora 10 metre wave. This dependency of celerity on wavelength
distinguishes surface waves from some other forms of wave motion (notably
electromagnetic radiation) and we shall see that it is responsible for some peculiar
properties of waves on the sea surface.
In shallow water the wave celerity is reduced and the 1000 metre wave's deep
.~. water celerity is almost halved in water of 50 metres depth. In very shallow water the
celerity becomes independent of wavelength and depends only on the water depth:
c=Y(gd)
"
v =ocP
oy
= Vo cos (10:  rot) metres/second (3.23)
~;= [~:1.0 =~u ~~ t.o =i[~:f 1.0 where the velocity amplitudes are
(see equation (304. Substituting equation (3.1) forthe velocity potential we obtain
the relationship between the wavefrequency and the wave number for regular waves g~ cosh[k (d  y)} metres/second
of small amplitude ~, in water of any (constant) depth d: Un = ro cosh (kd)
(3.24)
CJ) =y[gk tanh (kd)] radians/second (3.20) gkr.c, sinh[k(d  Y)\ metres/second
Vo =ro cosh (kd)
(3.25)
Combining equations (3.12) and (3.20) gives for the celerity
These relationships may again be simplified for the two special cases of deep and
shallow water. For deep water
c= ~(~ tanh (kd)) metres/second (3.21)
Uo =Uo =CJX;o exp (  Icy) metres/second (3.26)
Combining equations (3.5)(3.21) in various ways leads to a multitude of relation
and for shallow water
ships between wave frequency, period, number, length and celerity, and these are
listed for easy reference in Table 3.1. The deep water approximations are usually
considered adequate for most practical ournoses. Uo =ror.o; Vo =oX;ok(d  y) metres/second (3.27)
,.~",.,.~: ..",.".". ~"""""""'"'~~~"".~'t;"""'''~~'_~"'''''''''''''''''''~~"~~..~,,:J:a.~f_''''~''''::'X>'~=."W~,_~.,~
Celerltv (metrell.eoondl
Wave frequency [radlens 'second]
~
0

0 U1
N
N
. "N ,.
. <.
. '!:If>!.'
lit
'"
II>
:n 0 :I
".
:n 0
'!"
'!"
.... ...:E
< ;J"if ....:.." i
i 1
00 Ill.
~ :l
... ."".
I I <
..
~
<
n
::J
U)
S
3~
~
~
,>,ffi"
I
::; co ~
I
n
n

Ii !!t E .so :I
::I. ;;;
e, '"
n
".
~
~
::J
f! ~i~
8 ..
1
8 N
8 i
8 Q.
U
~
111 0 N
0
3 3 3 3
8 8
0
211 211
Cll T
T T
211 211
T
Cll Cll
211 211
.
k
y[gk tanh(kd) y(gk)
211A
2c
c I1g
s:
Table J.t (COntinued)'
Quantity In terms
or
Any depth Peep water
(d>O.S)")
Shallow water
(d<O.03)") 1
Uo
t
T
r '(2fT8) Y
 2fT )
t
J
'>0,/ T exp( A
~[A Sinhe~d) COShe~d)] I
j
c
1
d
~oCJ> (d  y)
Vo
d
Vo k
~ V(gk) sinh[k(d 
y(sinh(kd) cosh(kd)
y)J ~ V(gk) exp(  ky) ~ ~(5) (d~y)
~ V(2I1'g) COShefT(d y)
~~e~g) ex p( ~"y) 2~~ ~(5) (dy)
A
[.e e
y Asmh T
fTd
) cosh T
fTd
)]
Xo (roly)
~oexp g' ~ ~(5)
T ~;; ~(5)
~cosh[k(d  y))
k ~ exp( ky)
sinh(kd)
T
)
Table 3.1 (continued)
Xo
~o coshe1T(d).. y})
x Y) ~oA.
~o exp ( 21T
)..
.hCT
sin
1Td
)
211
c ~ exp( c~Y)
:Q
2y
Yo ro ro )
~o exp ( g ~
ij"
~
T ~ exp( ~Y) m
~ sinh(k(d  y)
k ~ exp( ky)
sinh (kd)
~ sinhe11 (~y)
x ~ exp(  ~1TY)
.heT
sm
11d
) ~
P
w
C ~exp( ~~y)
=, ut :; : . It 1'( ii1tri'eWS!!t!!e"'5rt=ytjP'=htU!!'l'P!!f1li:*~M~e
Table 3.1 (continued)
,, s.
~
~I, 14 0 ro 2ro
~ gT
I
I
T 411
Ig.
~(;k)
It
b
Ir k ~ (;k tanh(kd) ( 1 + sin~~:kd) a
,
~[~~ tanhe~d)]
1
W I + 41Ti ] /gl
x
x sinh(4~d)
VB11
[
c c
c 2
~
~
~(8:)
t
~'
r d
e
I
I
l!i$5;A,Il'SI:J:l5.(iK<'..4e,. 1_ _ ,~~,..,.,.;'"'~~!.~.~.... A ,","",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,~_~=~~,_,~,,,,_,",,"~~"""'_~h'_"_'_"""" , '>hV'~_~'~~"_~ ,,~_" "'_",~
'1 '.~.""""''''''~lt~n, 'fT",.>~,",~_j1""'I"'"w",,''''''''
Fig. 3.9 illustrates these formulae for shallow and deep water as well as for the 2.0 2.5 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 0 0.5 1.0
rrn
0.5 1.0 1.5
I Y I
0
general case. The vertical velocityis alwayszero at the sea bed (since the bottom is
assumed to be impervious) and the motion is therefore purely horizontal at this
i i I I
n 0 ,

~
;
Ij ~_.
water the horizontal velocity amplitude is constant but it generally increases with v. u.
jLJ
height above the sea bed and assumes an exponential variation in very deep water.
Followingour physicalinterpretation of the characteristicsof the waveprofilewe 0.5
sba1l now adopt the same techniques for examining the geometry of the structure of
the flow at a particular location by fixing x and y and allowingtime to proceed. Since
the waveamplitude is assumedto be small the velocityamplitudes givenby equations , 0.75
(3.24) and (3.25) must also be small and it follows that a particle of water oscillating Depth
2m
about some point (x, y) will never stray very far from that point. The path of the
panicle can therefore be calculated approximately by assuming that it is always I I I I , I I I U I I I I 1.0
subject to the velocities calculated for the point (x. y). With this assumption the
particle's trajectory is obtained by integrating equations (3.22) and (3.23) to give ..'
Fig.3.9 Orbitalvelocity amplitudes; ), = 100 m, ~ =1m.
where Llx and 6.y are the deviationsof the particle from its datum position (x. y) and
the amplitudes of its displacementsare Depth 10 m
;
_ ~ _gk~ sinh[k(d  y)) =~ sin~[k(d  y)] metres (3.31) =
Yo  00  (J)2 cosh(kd) smh(kd) I
i
.L
I
I
Bottom
nwrmTTIT
Again the deep and shallow water approximations may be applied. In deep water Fig.3.10 Orbitshapesundera 100 metrewave.
and in shallow water Seabed is approached. At the bottom the particlesmerelyoscillateto and fro with no
vertical displacement as the wave passes overhead. The major (horizontal) axes of
the orbits decrease as the water depth increasesuntil the orbits becomecircularwhen
xo=t. yo=~(dy) metres (3.33) the water is very deep. In this case the orbit radius decreasesvery rapidly(exponen
tially)with depth belowthe surface: at half the sea depth the radius is onlyabout 4% .
....
of its surface value. Fig. 3.11 shows the relationship between the profileof a deep
Equations (3.28) and (3.29) represent an elliptical orbit with major (horizontal) axis water wave and the circular orbit of a particle at the surface.
2ro and minor (vertical) axis 2yo' Individual particles of water under a wave will
therefore follow elliptical paths as shown in Fig. 3.10. At the surface (y = 0) the
minor axis is alwaystwice the waveamplitude but the orbits become flattened as the
86 Regularwaves (Ch.3 Sec. 3.8] Energy or a regular wave 87
c
Pressure amplitude fIcN.metre.l)
~
o 10 o 10
I
f~\~~ ~~~~/t
I 11 I / 1 1"'1 125
0.5
 cosh[k(d y)J .
?=  p~ StO (kx (Or) kN/metre2 (3.34)
cosh(kd)
,/:&\1'
(3.35)
Fig. 3.12 shows the variation of the pressure amplitude beneath a 100metre long
wave for three different depths. In very shallow water the pressure amplitude is
constant and everywhere equal to the hydrostatic pressure associated with the
surface wave amplitude. In deeper water the pressure amplitude decreases with
y
depth and becomesnegligible at the bottom in very deep water.
the total kinetic energy of the fluid in one wave length betweenthe surfaceand the
Considernowa smallelement of fluid beneath a wave asshownin Fig. 3.14. The Substituting equations (3.22}(3.25) in equation (3.38) gives
Zy' .,
y!. .1 which leads to the remarkable result that the averageenergyper square metre of sea
i(
v surface is independent of the wave frequency and depends only on the wave )....
amplitude:
Bonom
E =pg~ joules/metre: (3.41)
2
Fig. 3.14 Kinenc energy in a wave.
massof the element per unit widthof the wave is p Ox oy and it has a total velocity q 3.9 ENERGYTRANSMISSION AND GROUP VELOCITY
given by
The energy associated with a sequence of regular waves is transmitted along the
direction of their propagation. The rate of energy transmission can be found by
q== u= + v"' (3.38) considering the energy flux acrossthe planeAA in Fig.3.15.We beginbycalculating ...
the rate at which the fluid on the leftof a small elementof height oy isdoingwork on
So the kineticenergy of the particleis the fluid on the right of the element.
Since the element is small the pressure and velocity acting on its face may be ;../
1PqZ hI oy joules per metre width ofwave regardedas constant (at a giventime)and the forceexerted by the fluid on the left is
oy
P kN per metre width of the element. The work done by the fluid on the left J,;
Ifwe nowallowOx and oy to become infinitesimally smallwemayintegrate to obtain uP oy joules per second per metre width. If we nowallow oy to becomeinfinitesimal
the total rate of transmission of energyacross the planeAA isobtained byintegrating
90 Regular waves [eh.3 Sec. 3.9] Energy transmission and group velocity 91
The rate of transmission of energy evidently fluctuates with time but we are
concerned with its mean value. Over a long period of time (or an integral number of
A waveperiods) the mean value of sin2 (kx  rot) ishnd the mean value of sin (lex  oot)
x is zero. So the mean rate of energy transmission is
E=p~c
4
(1 + . 2kd )
smh(2kd)
joules/(metre second) (3.43)
.L d
by
Now the total energy is given by equation (3.41) and this energy is transmitted at a
u mean velocity given by
y T
Bottom .lG=!=~(1
E 2 + sinh2kd
(2kd)) metres/second (3.44a)
AI" ,_::.~ ,,:, , ........
Fig.3,15  Energy transmission in a wave. This relationship is plotted in Fig. 3.16. In deep water
over the depth of the fluid. Neglectingthe small contribution due to the portion of
fluid above the undisturbed surface level (y =0), the rate of transmissionof energy is 1.0. t I a:::::::tJ iii iii i
Using equations (3.22) and (3.35) we find that the energy is transmitted at a rate 0.6
(.)
2 2
~
.  pg @ sin (1ex  rot)Jd cosh2[k(d _ y)J dy 0.4
E ro cosh2(kd) 0
2kd
sinh (2kd) =0
and ~
c
Uo = 2 metres/second (3.44b)
4
In shallow water
Ocean waves .
2kd
1.0
sinh (2kd)
and
"
Uo = c metres/second (3.44c)
4.1 WAVE GENERATION
For deep water we may interpret this result by considering the progressionof a As explained in the previouschapter, a knowledge of the characteristics of regular
group of regular waves down a laboratory tank. If the energy associatedwith each wavesis an important assetto the navalarchitect. However,suchwavesdo not occur
wave length is joules/metre the amplitude of the waves is. from equation 3.40. in the real ocean environmentand this chapter is concernedwith the characteristics r
~ = ~(~)
the action of the natural wind. Other wave generation mechanisms exist but are of
metres (3.45) little practical importanceexcept in specialcircumstances.
The mechanismbywhichwinddriven wavesare formed is not wholly understood
or of particular interest to the average reader of this book. Suffice it to say that a
Each individual wave within the group is propagating forward at a velocity c steady wind blowing over an open stretch of calmwater willcreate rippleswhichwill
metresfsecond but the energy is only propagatingat cJ2 metres/second. So after one travel acrossthe suiface in more or lessthe same directionas the wind(see Fig. 4.1).
wave period each wave will have moved forward one wave length, taking half its
associated energy with it. It foIlows that half the energy of each wave must be left
behind to be added to the energybrought forward by the next wave. In this waythe Wind
total energy per square metre within the group is kept constant. o c> o
At the leading edge of the group the first wave wiIl be propagating into calm ~ ~
water. So this orderly exchangeof energyfromwaveto waveisinterrupted and after III CIlm OUr/1CI Ibl Ripples Ie) SmAil wav
one wave period the energy of the leading wave is halved. The wave amplitude is
reduced and this processcontinues as the leadingedge of the wavetrain propagates
downthe tank at the wave celerity. o
The leadingedge of the group proper (definedas the positionof the firstwave of
full amplitude given by equation (3.45 propagates down the tank at UG metres! ~
second and this velocity is called the group velocity. Individual waves within the
group propagate at the wave celerity c. which in deep water is twice the group
velocity(see equation (3.44b. ld) RiDola develoD on growing WIVes .>'
system will be achieved. 'Such wave systems are rare becausethe required steady I
conditions do not often presistfor longenoughand the fetch may be limitedby the
V\ /
localgeography.
If the windceases to blow. the wavesystem it has created willgradually decay.
Since wave breaking is a relatively powerful decay mechanism, the short steep
V
waves, which are more likely to break, decay first, leaving the longer waves to be
dissipated by the relatively weak forces of viscosity. This decay process may last
severaldays.duringwhich these fast moving longwaves maytravelseveralthousand T,
kilometeres and be recognised at some distant location as a swell, Swells are
generallyof longperiodand comparatively regular.Locally generatedwavesystems ~ (metres) Negative amplitude
may therefore be contaminatedby swells generatedelsewhere. These swells will of
course bear no relationship to the localwind. .
Fig. 4.2 Typical wave recood: analysis of peaks aftdtroughs.
4.2 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF TIME msTORIES OF IRREGULAR trough above the mean level gives a negative ampli
WAVES tude; otherwise amplitudes are always positive)
wave height H. (metres) the vertical distance from a trough to a succeeding
Whatever the complexities of local geography and the vagaries of the wind. an peak or viceversa(always positive)
observer at sea will see a confused(and confusing) pattern of ever changing wave
wave period Tp (seconds) the time between two successive peaks
crests and troughs travelling in different directions. For many years this apparent
wave period Tz (seconds) the time between two successive upward or down
chaos (and the resulting unpredictable nature of ship motions) providedan insur
wardzero crossings.
mountableobstacletoprogress in the field of seakeeping. However,in recent years
considerable progress has been made in the application of statistical methods to These individual measurements are unique to the particularpart of the record
quantifythe characteristics of the waves on the sea surface,and these methodsform chosenfor analysis and are of littleuseforcharacterising the wholetimehistory. Soit
one of thefoundations of the modern science of seakeeping. is customary to describe the general characteristics of the completetime historyin
Fig. 4.2 shows part of a typical record of wave elevation obtained from a wave terms of the mean values of thesequantities:
sensingdevice in the ocean. As expected. the record is irregularin nature and no
coherent pattern is obvious, It is customary to define four basicmeasurements: ~. mean valueof manymeasurements of (metres) s.
H. mean valueof manymeasurements of H. (metres)
wave amplitude!;. (metres) the vertical distance from the mean water level to a Tp .: mean valueof manymeasurements of Tp ( seconds)
peak or a trough (a peak belowthe mean level or a
_." __,_.... \.,~_'_"''O,,..AA_,,''''. __.;1.<r'"' ..,.... ; ' _ _" .. _"",_~p.,.;".",......".~'~"k.~''t. "~Y'if'M;'Y .>.
)f"8~"" "'r V*,*"'i?')l'~;:;,.."",,,,,,:.,<~ 1' if n I ?Y e,'
~~~~~'T;~~L;' .. S t. ',> e. ,A4,," 4.,A'1_~"~~_""~,<:,,,,,~_,,,,,.,.~~.%~"4"",,,,,_,.,,",>~_~,,,,
 , "~_"_"'~r~__"_"v""
L(1;" ;)~
R ./~ = 2.0 ;.0 metres 11=1
N
metres (4.2)
In addition to the statistical measures associated with peaks. troughs and zero
crossings there exists another class (Ifmeasurements used to quantify the characteris Gu = standard deviation Of root mean square (rms)
tics of an irregular wave record. Here the time history is sampled at discrete (short) depression relative to the mean
.4
intervals of time to obtain successive measurements of the surface depression 1;"
relative to some arbitrary datum as shown in Fig. 4.3. For a typical irregular wave
= Vmn metres (4.3)
record an appropriate time interval would be 0.5 or 1.0 second.
In passing it should be noted that a sensible analysis using either of these
techniques requires a wave record containing at least 100 pairs of peaks and troughs.
Such a record will be typically of about 2{}...30 minutes duration. Shorter records run
the risk of yielding unreliable results because they may. by chance. be unusually
severe or unusually moderate. The record illustrated in Figs 4.2 and 4.3 would
therefore not be of adequate length for analysis.
Very long records of. say. several hours should also be avoided. This is because it
is quite likely that real changes in the wave statistics would occur in this time due to
changes in the wind speed or the arrival of swells from distant storms. \0_
. :; (metres)
~(t) = ~+ LA" cos (w"t) + B" sin (w"t)
III
metres (4.4)
;i.
Fig.4.3 Typical wave record: analysis at successive time intervals. where the frequencies are given by
y
These measurements enable three important quantities to be derived:' 00" = 2T71n (n = 1,2.3... ,.CXl) radiansfsecond (4:5)
Ii
0;
frequency 00". These frequencies have been chosen(equation (4.5 so that one cycle Q;
or period of the lowest frequency rot corresponds to the length TH of the record. S.
Similarly the record length corresponds to two cyclesof the secondsine wave, three ;;{
of the third and so on. The interval between the frequencies is
.~ . ..,.,~".;;i.:'"'f~;M";,,,,,,,,,,~,,,;""'A,y,,"=.,...,,,.:;..,,,.~,,&..$_~ ~,,,,,O';'"_.>_'"""*,,,.,;.i;~""44~''''\''1
'1':'" ',,"C' 'If?" ""(.~'AH*W';h?":\r'"$'V'if'~':f.:11 'H'V,;'> If"j '''''''~~ 'iF 'e' .r.
X?tieHf,,'if:WC"I',,'
~7'''~'''';fl~~~~~% a;;<;U!!!"'..\R~f A.,W,,":;;; tSW:."""%!"\~'~"f=0'>."7M<>"""'~~'~'~~""""""""'':"1\"""""'_:''''',.~v .......~~o,.nf';<"."1'i..,..,'.,~__..,.~.",.." ....."""1(i
~ 31 I
Cl). = Cl).. ~ radians/second
(a) I I i
..8
and
~.
'6
2
    " " "  ~'I
,..
~
.. r'
.E
..
;;
l\(J) ':__~J = 1
c.o.. = +"2
(0.. radians/second
'j
;;j'
0
' c::::I I
t'\
I I , ,
..
I
,..
I , I I
..
I
_
n t=:f
__
~
there will be only one component frequency (0.. in the range (0. to c.o... Actually a real
irregular wavewouldaJsocontain componentsat otherfrequencies within this range.
but the Fourier analysis technique does not identify them explicitly. Instead their 3, i , , ,
effects arc amalgamated in the single frequency identified by the Fourier analysis. (b)
The wave amplitude spectral density ordinate corresponding to this frequency (0.. is ~
given by
8.. 2.= f~
~
'6
.
.......
pg~O)l\(J)
Fig. 4.5  Waveenc:rgy spectra: (a) typicalspectrumfrom Fourier analysisof irregular wave
A wave energyspectrum corresponding to any irregular wave time history can be time history; (b) typica1liDe spectrum correspondingto time: historysynthesised by summing
derived in this way and a typical example is shown in Fig. 4.5(a). The spectrum is sine waves.
discontinuous and consists of a series of rectangles of width l\(J). The area of each
rectangle is proportional to the energy attributed to that frequency band and
represented by the corresponding singlesine wave component. frequencies. Clearly components corresponding to large spectral ordinates must be
If the wave energy spectrum is known it is possible to reverse this process and included but little will be lost by omitting very high and very low frequencies if their
generate a corresponding time history by adding a large number of component sine contributions to the spectrum are small.
waves accordingto equation (4.8). In this casethe sine waveamplitudes are obtained The use of a limited number of component sine waves may give an apparently
by rearranging equation (4.12) to give . acceptable time history but it should be remembered that the energy spectrum
actuallybeing realised is not the original spectrum but a seriesof infinitelyhighspikes
of infinitesimalwidth at each of the chosen frequencies as shown in Fig. 4.S(b). The .
1;..0 = V[2Sr,O,,0<0)J metres (4.13)
synthesised time history contains no energy at frequencies between those chosen for
the synthesis.
. It is also necessary to specify the phase angles Ell and these should be chosen at
random. An infinitenumber of choicesis possible and each willgive a different time
history. Nevertheless. all the time histories will have the same wave energy 4.5 SPECTRAL MOMENTS ~
spectrum. One possible choice would be the phase angles corresponding to the The definition of variance given in equation (4.2) can be written as
original wave time history from which the spectrum was derived: Only in this case
will the synthesised time history be identical to the original time history. . .v
In principle an infinite number of sine wave components are required but
1110
1
=T JTK ~(I)zdJ
0 metres' (4.14)
acceptable results can be obtained with a limited number. The form of the wave H
energy spectrum can be used as a guide to choosing an appropriate range of
102 Ocean waves [Ch.4 Sec. 4.5] Spectral moments 103
,,.,
if the time history has a zero mean and the number of observations is very large. A S~(W) ~~~' = w~Sc; (oi) metres~second2f(radian/second) (4.20)
time history represented by equation (4.8) therefore has a variance
w41;;~
S~eo) = 2"0;' = w~Sc; (w) metresssecond "!(radian/second)
m o ::: T1 '" cos (Wnt+S n))~ dt
ITH ( 2:1;;,,(, metres (4.15)
(4.21)
H () nl
mo::: 2:Sc;(w)&o
: : I"" w~
II
Sc;(w) deo metres2/second 2 (4.22)
,,I
and the variance of acceleration is
._'';1
..
I ..  
2nm" seton ds (4.26) T.
mt
,
,
.,
It can alsobeshown(Ochi and Bolton(1973)) that the meanperiodofthe peaksis
t (seconds)
la) T.",T,
and the mean zerocrossing period is
& = ~(l~) = ~(l:1nJ (4.29) H1f3 = 2.83Y17Zo metres if s = 1 (wide band spectrum) (4.31)
>t
and
and values of ~ lie in the range 0 to 1: = 0 corresponds to a very narrow banded
spectrum and & = I corresponds to a verywide bandedspectrum. H1f3 = 4.00Ymo metres if & = 0 (narrowband spectrum) (4.32)
It has been shown (Cartright and LonguetHiggins (1956)) that the significant
106 Ocean waves [Ch.4 Sec. 4.6] Idealisedwaveenergy spectra 107
ta)
The Bretschneider or met (twoparameter) wave energy spectrum formula. is
appropriate to open ocean waveconditions and is given by
~O
where
:0
~
c:
.,"o
.!!!
c:
I \ A = 172.75 ~
R2
metresvsecond" (4.34)
lG
'" (radianS/seconds)
'ti
~
~
B = 691
f4 second:" (4.35)
ii
..
]
v,'
(b)
Ii
l The 'two parameters' are the characteristicwaveheight HI and the average periodT
I (equation (4.26. Weshallsee that the characteristicwaveheightisoften assumed to
i
j be the same as the significant waveheight. 
., The spectral moments of the Bretschneiderspectrum are
mo = J: :sexp (~!)dro
,I (radians'seeoncl A Tn
(4.36) 
== 4B = O. 0625nr metres" L
Fig. 4.7 (a) Narrow and (b) wide band spectra.
Thus, as expected from the general appearance of Fig. 4.6(b), the significant wave
m2 == J Aexp (B)
1" ..
0 ~4 dro
Q)J
families of idealised wave spectra. Current practice is to use different formulae for Hence, from equation (4.36),
lOS Ocean waves [Ch.4 Sec.4.6} Idealised wave energy spectra 109..
r'
1
peak. whichmaybe obtained by differentiating equation (4.33)and settingthe result
HI = 4.00 VTlfo metres (4.39) to zero. It is found that .
and thecharacteristic wave height may be related to the area under the spectrum.
The mean zerocrossing period (equation (4.28 is
000 =
4
V1(48)
"'5 = 4.849
't radians/second (4.44) ~j"f
and the mean period of the peaks is (equation (4.27 1 To = 27T = 1.296T

= 
I.41T. seconds (4.45)
000
't:l
c
10
4 0
u
I Modal frequency
:%
=0
c
0 .
c
:c 8
i I I l15
!
N'
sec I .~
)
!
~
~"'
Qj
..
6
~ 3
Gi
Ii)
L I\h"~l0'~ ?: 4
:
J ..
'iii
:
j..
rJ.,' c
i 't:l
;; ~ eu
c
'20 2
;
~ ... 2
...
Q.
eu
. >
.....
a. ~ 0
2.0
> Frequency COl (radianS/second)
~
Fig. 4.9  Bretschneider waveenergyspectra; modal period 7'0 = 10seconds.
..
l
.~.
specified in terms of the characteristic wave height and the modal period. Fig. 4.10
!
, 6. iii iii I i I I
"
I ; To=10 sec
oI J < ,/ I
A~
~~
__
,
__
. I j =0
c
t o
u
:Jl 4
~JO~SWAP
I .s 2
exp [ 1(OOT
 o1
2y2 217
)2] (4.50) !
t ;;'
C = 3.3
where o 2.0
Frequency ,., (radianSisecond)
>,".,,'::"l$.t~""'.''~"._''''''''~:''''''''''';''''''''''"'''''''''';''''''~'';''~''h_'''''''''',_",.' __ ~;;~'",,j,,~,,~,_ ..,;r;~~~,,,,,;,,",,~~~...:w' * .K'i! ' ~'"~..~ '4: ... "i;ii'' "'Giil\' ,""""j,,_~.ciilt> . . ~.. 5?t R( v~
~~~'rl~~"~,M., W A%$At<
.. ;:S",@'4i%'4. "~~~~''''cJ~_,~
... ",~_.,~_\~",_
To=10 see
4.7 WAVESLOPESPECTRA
Whenconsidering the effectsof waves on the angularmotions of ships (pitch. roll.
yaw. ete.) it isoften convenient to express the energy ofthe wavesystemin termsofa
walle slopespectrum rather than the conventional wave amplitudespectrumalready ~
e
discussed. o
We haveseen in Chapter3 that theslopeof thesurface of a regularsinewave also ~
~
C
varies sinusoidally (equation (3.18)~,and that the wave slope amplitude is III
'6
~
(J)Z .002
k = metresI
g
~
.001
so that the waveslope amplitude of the nth component sine wavebecomes
0' {,_ ....'_ ,_ J
~.O
.1
~
01..0
(J)~~ radians
= g (4.52) t
!, Fig. 4.11  Waveslope spectra; significant waveheight 4 metres.
l>
The time historyof the slopeof an irregular wave isalsoan irregulartime history
and can be represented by the sum of an infinite numberof sine waves in a manner is very sharply peaked but the most striking comparison with the shapes of the
analogous to equation (4.8). The amplitudes of these wave slope components are corresponding wave amplitude spectra (Fig.4.10)is the muchgreater comparative
givenby equation (4.52).The wave slope irregulartime historyhas its own energy importance of highwave frequencies. Thiscorresponds withpractical observations:
spectrom and the waveslopespectralordinates are given by short highfrequency waves are.often very steep even though their amplitudes are
verysmall.
_ ~..o _ C(J(J)~ (J)~ .,. All the relationships derived for wave amplitude spectra (equations
S,,{(J)  2&0  2g2&> = gzS~((J) radians'rfradians/second) (4.53) (4.12){4.30 have analogous relationships for wave slope spectra. Thus, for
example. the variance of wave slopecan be obtainedby integrating the waveslope
" (see equation (4.12. spectrum.
, So the wave slope energy spectrum can be obtained by multiplying the wave
amplitude spectral ordinates by (iJ~/g2. The Bretschneider and JONSWAP wave ..i
slopespectra are 4.8 WAVE SPREADING
In idealconditions in the openoceanthe waves might all be expectedto travelin the
samedirection.However. these'longcrested'waves in which the infinitelylongwave ....
SB..((J) =~
(J)g exp ((J)~) radians2j(radiarusecond) (4.54) crests remain straight and parallel are never experienced outside the artificial
114 Ocean waves [Ch.4 Sec. 4.8] Wave spreading 115
where ~..;o is'now the amplitude of the component sine wave a ro riate to the nth
kequency and the jth irection. or ~ ip estgn purposes it is assume t at the
directional wave spectral orcjinates are related to the ordinates of the equivalent total Putting
~aveenergy s.!'e~rum S~(CJ) by
v' _ z;
1T
(VIL)
S~(CJ),v) = D COS'" ( 1T2 (V IL) ) S~~CJ
V max
max
we obtain
me~es2/(radianlsecond) per radian (4.57)
\" \
~
l
where D is a constant and m is a positive integer. Since t~e total wave energy is D COS"'(V') metres1'(radianlsecond)
assumed to be distributed
that" over'."
.__._.. ._., the.'range of directions
..... from ,:vm.~tov~~Itfollows
..... ._ 1f "rz
~
.~
.~
..... ~
116
f
Ocean waves [Ch.4 Sec. 4.8] Wavespreadibg 117
5;1,,,_ \)
1.3.5.7.... .m 11
D = ........;;;~;...=~ for m odd
Fig. 4.14 shows the spreading function D cos" (v') for various values of the
"!
: 2.0 i i i
20
i I
t"
1.5
10
~
UI
~ Primary wave direction
'" and
e';
<
'. D = _11_
;~~ 1
(4.59)
~~. 4V AlU
f'2 cos"'(v') dv'
0.5
II
 2v""",
for m ::: a
11 ;

4vmu
for m = 1
o
::: _1_ T
for m ::: 2 (4.60) Relal,vt! Head;n\! V >"
v......
Fig. t 14  Wave energy spectrum spreading functions.
In general
t
11
i
..~ Wavespreading 119
118 Ocean waves (Ch.4 Sec. 4.8]
spreading index; m =0represents uniform spreading with equal contributions to the O.167S:(..,1
waveenergy fromall directions. As m isincreased. the energybecomesprogressively
more concentrated around the primary wave direction v  p. = O. fi. nearly long
cre.sted sea can therefore be represented either by choosinga high value for m or a '. . /
~~. For ship design purposes the most common practice IS to us<:
m = 2 and V max = 90to represent short crested seas, and trialsevidence (Cummins
O.083S:(,.,)
and Bales C1980 suggests.. that t~osine squ~e~~_ ~prea_~Iing ~a..ppropria!~Jor
typicallyoccurring conditions in the open ocean. However. spreading angles as low
as 6Uoor as hi'ghas!20 mayfreque"ritly be founa.ror cosinesquared spreading with ~
V max = 90equation (4.57) becomes
Equations (4.57) and C4.60) are of little direct use in practical computations of
ship motions in short crested seas. These calculations (see Chapter 14) require the
spread wave spectrum to be represented by a discrete contribution from each of a
finite number of secondary wave directions within the range of the spreading. Each
contribution isessentiallya scaled. downversion of the total waveenergyspectrum as
shown in Fig. 4.15. If the secondary wave directionsare spacedat intervals of Bv the
appropriate waveenergy spectrum at each secondary direction is given by
Primary wave direction
: 'c: j ~ 14 5"
WS~(oo)
Fig. ~.15  Representation or directionalspectrumat discrete headingintervalsor 15";cosine
squaredspreadingover 90".
W = D cos" (" (v 
2vmax
p.) ov (4.62)
Table 4.1 lists the weighting factors for intervals of ov = 15" and various spreading
angles and indices.
Table 4.1 Weighting factors for calculations ofship motions inshort crested seas;
QV = 15 .,.
VIJ. m
(degrees) 0 1 2 5 10 20
VfI\.;Ill = t!:ir
60
~5
30
0.063
0.125
0.125
0
0.075
0.139
0
0.037
0.125
0
0.003
0.065
0
0
0.016
0
0
0.001
5
IS 0.125 0.181 0.213 0.248 0.230 0.146
0
15
0.125
0.125
0.196
0.181
0.2.50
0.213
0.368
0.248
0.508
0.230
0.710
0.146
Ocean wave statistics
30 0.125 0.139 0.125 0.065 0.016 0.001
45 0.125 0.075 0.037 0.003 0 0
60 0.063 0 0 0 0 0
v.... =90"
r
90 0.042 0 0 0 0 0
75 0.083 O.O~ 0.011 0 0 0
60 0.083 0.066 0.042 0.00& 0 0
45 0.083 0.093 0.083 0.043 0.011 0 5.1 INTRODUCTION
30 0:083 o.ns 0.125 0.119 0.080 0.027 Chapter 4 described how an idealised wave energy spectrum may be defined in terms
15 0.083 0.127 0.156 0.206 0.239 0.236 ~
0 0.083 0.131 0.167 0.245 0.338 0.473 of the significant wave height and various measures of the average wave period. This
15 0.083 0.127 0.156 0.206 0.239 0.236 allows representative spectra to be constructed for any point in the ocean provided
30 0.083 0.1lJ 0.125 0.119 0.080 0.027 that these quantities are known. Of course many different combinations of signifi
45 0.083 0.093 0.083 0.043 0.011 0
60 0.083 0.066 0.042 0.008 0 0 cant wave height and average period may occur at any particular point. For practical
75 0.083 O.O~ 0.011 0 0 0 ship design purposes we need to choose appropriate values for the sea areas and
90 0.042 0 0 0 0 0 seasons in which the ship is expected to operate.
v.... = 120" This chapter reviews the available sources of wave data.
120 0.031 0 0 0 0 0
105 0.063 0.019 0.005 0 0 0
90 0.063 0.038 0.018 0.002 0 0
75 0.063 0.054 0.039 0.010 0.C01 0 5.2 VISUAL OBSERVATIONS
60 0.063 0.069 0.063 0.033 0.008 0
45 0.063 0.081 0.086 0.073 o.oo 0.009 5.2.1 Sea state code
30 .0.063 0.091 0.107 0.124 0.115 0.073 The description of the mechanism of wave generation in Chapter 4 shows that there
15 0.063 0.096 0.120 0.167 0.209 0.241 can be no unique correlation between wind and wave height. Nevertheless, mariners
use is so well established and widespread in the seafaring community that naval
:~
5.2.2 Visual" observations of waveheight and period ~
With encouragement from oceanographers, sailors now often report sea conditions }
in more detail by estimating the 'average' wave height and period. Hogben and ~
Lumb (1967) compared these visual observations with values measured by wave
buoys and other suitable instruments and obtained the following approximate
~
relationships: {
R 1I3 = 1.06 Rom metres (5.1)
l, Fig. 5.1 Significant and observedwaveheights.
..
I
I I;:: 12
;; 12
'C
c
H1I3 = 1.68 (Fiomy ' 7S metres (5.4) 41 e
.S1
;
..
o
u
..!!
I Q.
a 8
~.., 8
T. = 0.82 (Tobs)II96 seconds (5.5) 1
e
'0;
.g
..
en
j o Q.
U ;;
If we asume the Bretschneider spectrum period relationships (equations (4.45 ~ 4 ~ 4
:E
Nordenstrom's period relationship can also be written as :e
c:
.,
'"
:!: L I I I ,
7;,= 1.16 (To bs )o.96 seconds (5.6) o ..
n
0 12 16 4 8 12 16
Observed period i alii [seconds) Observed period rOM (seconds)
These relationships are illustrated in Figs5.1 and 5.2. It may be concluded that
observers' estimates of average wave height correspond reasonably closely to the
significant wave height. Since the true mean wave height must by definition be less Fig. 5.2 Measuredand observed periods.
124 Ocean wave statistics [Ch.5 Sec. 5.3] Wave atlases 125
than the significant wave height. thisimplies that observers ignore the smaller waves .s:::
when making their estimates. E
'C
_... ..
0)
Average visual estimates of wave period apparently agree quite well with the ....
ID
modal period. but Hogben and Lumb found that individual estimates were often o w ::::::::!: ~ I .. ::::;:::! .I ::::::l:: ~
~
__ _ ::
!i
5.3 WAVE ATLASES
5.3.1 Visual observations
'"
'5
...
o
Co
>.
~~ ::::::=:=::::::
:; 8: . , _:::t=:..
i: i
: 1
I ,
8~ ..
1
1
__ _
, ......
,:
~~;;:~!
...
.:'. I
I . , , , _
=. 8: ... ,_.~;::=7
~ ~; ~::::
.
......
.
::
~
A very comprehensive atlas based on over 55 million visual observations from ships
~
: a; :::s:=. ,,:,. too! ,  '::::: .,. I _ ,.
.
.. .. II " " '"Z .. ,,, , Z oC
...
0\ ",I _sa &aQ1~" 11 ... &all . . .....,l~.,'
~
")~QII~
. ,_ ......
.........
~
~
I ::;t:::!: ~ I ....::;::::;::: :
~
Q,)
..1 .... _ .. , :: i ... , 1 , I
';
..
! ::::=!
,  ...  _ . , . , , : :
~
&.
w
o"""=' != ..... __........_
~ ~
%
104::2;. ) l
1"r
'0 ~
c..J
>
a:
I f ~ ..
WIll:
g~
01' .

:: .  ..... ~~:.

!
t
<U >.
<U tlll
0(
:)
e~ : .. _.. .. ~:s=::, ::; .:
i; ,.. ,
'
&
I t _ : : :  : :. . . ; . ;
:::;:: ~~~
~ ,..
..11 '0 I .s::: 0
c
a:
ell !! ... ..::xs:: 1 i E; . 1 I _ ~=:::::. :t: ~ I
:l
...
0
C
W
... ~ ~: "."!::X:ZI ':" ! s~ ~ :::::: II! f ~5"'" _"::::=I~ ~
,.'.....:.::: ,i ! ~: .,.,
I
ell

~: 
i: ... ,.,... ,,... I
I , _ _ ... : . : : :
~!
~ ;
..I
;l
::I::
c
;~
.........."'. 1
 ~ =
,
tf.
.....
._
Z:
~=
I
,
,
_..
,_....
~
,
r ..~
2:
..
.D
~.=
e ~
w I' ., ., ..... , . , 'I!
~o
~~ I I I ...
...
_ ... , .. ""'" rI
z..
:
lO I 
.... 
.... ;
~:::;
U
w
..
~
w
,..
.::: ~~~~%~iZ!!!!!Z!I
E:~%f~!Z!!!Z!!!Z ! :~%~~!Z!!l!!!!Z
10 
<
.~
..) .1..
& ::=:::::~;=:;:
~l.,u..l' ... ~U11 ~ ~
i _.. __ .:::::::::=~
.a" J
~
~
  .
......._ ::
~
Ct ..   
.~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . r :
..
;~ ~~::::::::::~::~~
0< _
.
~
o
.;:
~: ~::::~.
~~ :::::::::::::::1;
~; ._ !:::::: . ~
Fig.5.3Sea areas used by Hogben. Dacunha and QlIiver (986). (Reproduced by permission o
of British Maritime Technology Ltd.) Co =8: ..  :~:t:::::7 :; 8! . , .  ::::::= i
'0
C
~ ~;  ~:::::. T ; a; ,..... _....:::::::..T
~
;!,; .. , . _.~::;::
~ .!
T
. . ..  ,""
Io.t..  ..  I
..
U
unrealistic estimates of wave height to be eliminated from the data base. The >
unreliable visual estimates of the wave period were not used at all. Instead. wave
~
= '1' 1~ I I ~ '1'" .. .. 1
E:~~%*iZ!!!!!:::!~
~
period statistics were constructed from correlations with measured data. ~=~~%il!Z!!!!!!I a:~~~~!Z!Z!!Z!Z
Table 5.2 shows a typical set of data from Area 9 (west of the British Isles) in I ta) ..... :aa  ....u.u.n: t, ~I. :._ ~~,. ... ~~  ~,......,.
~,
~
winter. The dc:.ta are subdivided into different wave directions and are presented in II'l
Q,I
the form of scatter diagrams. giving the joint frequency of occurrence (in parts per 2i
thousand) of particular combinations of significant wave height and zerocrossing ~
126 Oceanwavestatistics
heights from all directions in the range 45 metres with periods in the range 910
seconds is 5811000 =0.058.
I
~
j
Sec.5.3} Waveatlases 127
~
of wavesof any period from the west havinga significant wave height falling in the Area 11 : North Sea
range 45 metres is 149/1000 = 0.149.
~
The probabilityof the significant waveheightexceeding a given levelis obtained
by summingall the observationsabove that level. For example, for wavesfrom the
west the probabilityof the significant wave heightexceeding 7 metres is , 'c:c"
} .,'o'""
"0
I
Fig. 5.4 shows the probabilityof exceeding specified significant waveheights for :a Sea of Japan
four different sea areas. Clearly Area 9 has one of the most severe wave environ 'o"
~
ments in the world, closely followed by the North Sea. The Gulf of Mexico is Q:
particularly benign.
A similar wave atlas based on visual observations for the North Pacific, with
particular emphasis on the seas around Japan, was published by Takaishi, Matsu
j Area 32 : Gulf of
Mexico
ii
moto and Ohmatsu (1980).
Wave statistics based on visual observations must always be considered less
reliable than direct measurementsof waveconditionsevenif the reliability has been
enhanced as describedabove. However,a moreseriouscriticism of visually observed
j
~
wave data lies in the fact that ships' mastersgenerallytry to avoidbad weather and i,
this is likely to introduce a fair weather bias into the results. So the publishedtables
are likely to underestimate the probabilityof extremelysevere weather conditions
simplybecauseships' masterswilltry to avoidstorms. It maybe argued that this bias
makes the statistics applicable to ships which have some freedom to avoid bad
1~
o 12
weather. Ships which must remain on station, such as warships and offshore
platforms, may well experience bad weather more frequently than these statistics
i Significant wave height ii, J (metres)
would imply.
5.3.2 Hindcasting
1 Fig. 5.4  Probability of exceeding significant wave heights. (After Hogben, Dacunha and
Olliver (1986)).
Bales, Lee and Voelker (1981) publisheda waveatlasfor the North Atlantic, North,
.' '1'~1""
 ,
~.,.:. .
128 Ocean wave statistics [eh.5 ~ec. 5.3} Wave atlases 129
Fig. S.S Sea areas in the North Atlantic. (After Bales. Lee ami Voelker (1981}).
)..
Table S.3  Annual wind speed and wave height statistics for the North Atlantic;
probabilities in pans per thousand. (After Bales. Lee and Voelker (1981
Fig. 5.6  Locations of NOAA wave bouys. (After GilhOUSCD tl ai. (1983)).
Wind speed (knots) ~
RII3 (m) 0 4 7 11 17 22 28 34 41 48 55 Total States. All of the buoys were deployed for at least three years and some have been in
continuous operation for as long as nine years. The buoys recorded information on
>24
air and sea temperature and atmospheric pressure as well as wind and waves. The
2024
waves were sampled every three hours and a wave spectrum derived from the
1620 + + + recorded time history. The significant wave height and mean zerocrossing period
1416 + + + + were derived using equations (4.32) and (4.28) and scatter diagrams similar to those
1214 + + + + + 1 + 1
shown in Table 5.2 prepared.
1012 + + + + + + 1 2 1 + 4
Many other measurements of wave conditions have of course been made for'
910 + + + + + 1 2 2 + + 6
specific purposes at various locations throughout the world. Typically these are
89 + + + + + 1 2 5 2 + + 11
relatively shortterm studies intended to provide data on the local environment for
78 + + + 1 1 2 5 8 1 + 18
use in research or specific projects such as ship seakeeping trials or the design of
67 + + 1 2 3 7 11 8 + + 32
offshore or harbour installations. Much of the data have been acquired by commer
56 + 1 1 5 7 14 21 3 + + 52 "
4S cial organisations who regard them as proprietary information not available to the
1 2 4 12 16 30 15 1 + 80
general public. However, in 1982 the United Kingdom Marine Information and
l4 2 4 10 28 37 43 2 + 125
23 5 12 26 66 67 10 + + + 187
Advisory Service (MIAS) published a catalogue listing the data sources open to .' ....
general use. Over 1350 entries were catalogued and their locations are shown inFig.  
12 17 34 69 23 16 + + 259
~1 41 5.7. The majority of the measurements have been made in the coastal waters around
68 92 24 + + 225
the British Isles and in the North Sea (see Fig. 5.8), but a significant quantity of data
,
+ Indicates less than one P~ per thousand. are also available for North American and Australian waters.
130 Ocean wave statistics lCh.5 Sec.5.3] Wave atlases 131
l00w sow
6O"N 1 I I.... O"E S"E
j6O"N
..
55'N
55"N
1)
~
_ ''.5
... ,
~i5
SOON I I .. 6'f ..  :;.. ~SO"N
100w sow S"E
ItfQIONAI. kU" IJilmSMISl.B JUfO .A.O.uteEIr1' COA.STS
Fig. 5.7 Availability of measured wavedata. (From Marine Information Advisory Service
Catalogue of Wave Data (1982).)
.~
1,1,..,
.
,0"'~'.~~'''_'_''''' c.,*';,;,;.o,;."j::y~di,
. .".... .
,~~~<:;.,~...,. ...~..,.~ ~ "t''''......,0.;'''',:"'''.,.~_,''''~",.,'''"'', ..?:'"''''''_".,,_,~~''''', ._~
, c"1~"
A varying force F is applied at the free end and we require to find the resulting
(varying) displacement x of the massrelative to itsundisturbed equilibriumposition.
Each of the three components of the systemabsorbs a proportion of the applied force
so that. at any instant of time. "
6
10
The springmass system We assume that the spring has no mass, contributes no damping and obeys
Hooke's law so that the spring force is directly proportional to the displacement x.
Similarly we assume that 'the dashpot has no mass an.d no stiffness and that the
dashpot force is directly proportional to the velocity i: Finally we assume that the
mass contributes only inertia top system so that the mass force is, directly
,i proportional to the acceleration i~ at any instant of time
<
6.1 INTRODUCTION
ax + bi: + ex= F leN (6.1)
We shall see in Chapter 8 that the behaviour of a ship in rough weather is e:
IFo
Hard
limit
I F
(kN)
,
;
I \ I 1 \ I \. r (seconds)
x
(metres)
z Displacement x (metres)
=
.....
.,
<.l
(a) Spring stiffness ( (seconds)
o
LL
T=0
"J
Fig. 6.3  Sinusoidal response to a sinusoidal force acting on a linear damped springmass
system.
'Relief valve'
i =XoW cos (rot + s) metres/second (6.4)
limit
i= xoW2 sin (rot+) metres/second (6.5)
We mightexpectthat the resultingmotionof the masswouldalsobesinusoidal and it Xo (aro 2 cos Ebro sin E+C cos &)=Fo leN
is indeed found that
Xo (  arol sin E + bro cos s + C sin s) = 0 kN
x = Xo sin (rot + e) metres (6.3)
After some reduction these two equationsyieldfor the motion amplitude
isa solutionof equations (6.1) and (6.2). Xois the motionamplitudein metresand is
a phase angle in radians. In other words a sinusoidally varying force applied to a
xo_ 1
linear damped springmasssystem will resultin a sinusoidally varying displacement (6.6)
Fa  Y/[(carol)2+b2ro2] metreslkN
at the samefrequency. In practicethe phaseangle&isfoundto be negative so that the
displacement sine wave lagsthe forcesinewaveas shownin Fig. 6.3. The maximum
(positive)displacementXo occursriro seconds after the maximum (positive) force Fa. and for the phase
,. . ., .
1.,. < ~. >'''_''.".,e,,,~ ___.>i'''''M;/ii;~1:r
:<m:,,,,=;,,,"=1'7'~''''''::;''=e'c,'' ~.
'''~I'" I
i
e
0;
Xu _ 1
Fu  c '1[(1 A2)2 + (2 TJ AYJ metreslkN (6.9)
1
C
I I ....
and 0
'\11
1
I2
A=(II
w.
 2TJ A ~ 0
(6.10)
I~I
tan s = 1  ".2 )...
f 150
f
b i 200'
(6.12)
Ii
I I
TJ = 2 Y(c a) o 
A=~
0'.
Fig. 6.4 shows the amplitude and phase responses for a secondorder linear
damped springmass system according to equations (6.9) and (6.10) for various Fig. 6.4  Responseof a secondorderlinear springmasssystem.
values of the decay coefficient TJ. At zero frequency the applied force is steady and
the damping and inertia have no effect because there is no velocity or acceleration.
The displacement is governed only by the spring stiffness:
(.to
) ).
1 (6.13)
Fo "'1.0 = 211C metresIkN
.to =_ metreslkN
I
...
Fo c 4
or 112TJ times the zerofrequency response. When there is no damping the amplitude
becomes infinite at the undamped natural frequency, as we have already seen.
At i\ = 1.0 the force due to the spring stiffness exactly balances the force due to the However. for finite damping the maximum amplitude occurs at a lower frequency.
inertia of the mass. The amplitude response is then called the damped naturalfrequency, given by"
138 The springmass system [Ch.6 Sec. 6.3] Free decay 139
or 1
Let us now suppose that the springmass system is deflected to some initial
displacement Xoo and then released. We require to examine the subsequent motion.
Since there is no applied force after the system is released, F= 0 and equation (6.1)
0>0 = (I). ',1(1 2T'\2) radians/second (6.15) becomes
 rj
and the maximum amplitude response is ai+bi+cx=O kN (6.17)
We might expect that the resulting oscillation would resemble a 'sine' wave with a
continually decreasing amplitude. In fact the response
x o) 1
( Fa max =21]c y(l 1]2) metreslkN (6.16)
When T'\ is small the damped and undamped natural frequencies are almost the same, x=xoo exp (~t) cos (OOdt) metres (6.18)
as shown in Table 6.1. For larger values of T'\ the differences become more
0 1.0 co co
c~ + a (~ (J)~) =0 kN/metre (6.19)
0.05 0.997 101c 10.0lle
0.10 0.990 s 5.031e and the time constant is given by
0.25 0.935 2Ie Z.07/e
0.50 0.707 lie 1.151e
0.707 0.0 0.707fe l.OOle 2a __1_ seconds (6.20)
r=b 1]00.
appreciable until the maximum response occurs at zero frequency when" exceeds Combining these two equations gives for the oscillation frequency
0.707. The system is said to be critically damped when T'\ =0.707.
At higher frequencies the amplitude response falls towards zero regardless of the
decay coefficient or the spring stiffness. Physically this corresponds to the situation
rod =00. '1(11'\2) radians/second (6.21)
where the oscillation is so rapid that the system has insufficient time to respond
appreciably. So the frequency of the decaying oscillation lies between the damped and
Fig. 6.4 also shows the phase response of the system. At very low frequencies the undamped natural frequencies (see equation (6.15. In practice, if 1'\ is small the
phase is nearly zero and the displacement x is almost in phase with the applied force differences are negligible.
F. In other words the system responds more or less instantaneously to the slowly Fig. 6.5 shows the free decay of a linear damped springmass system for various
varying force. As the frequency is increased, the displacement begins to lag behind values of the decay coefficient T'\. When T'\ =0 there is no damping and the oscillation
the force and the phase becomes negative. As might have been expected, the lag continues indefinitely with no loss of amplitude because there is no mechanism for
increases with damping, showing that a well damped system responds sluggishly to energy dissipation. As T'\ increases, the oscillations decay more rapidly until they
the applied force. The phase is always  90 at the undamped natural frequency effectively disappear after only a single cycle when T1 is greater than about 0.5.
regardless of the damping. At higher frequencies the lag increases still further and The free decay of an oscillation may be used to estimate the decay coefficient of
tends to 1800at infinite frequency. the system. If TJ is small the decaying oscillation frequency OOd is almost the same as
the undamped natural frequency 00., and free decays are often used to obtain an
~,... _,_,a_&",~.",~;.;:~~"""n
'!',.,',.
~~'t<?1~ ....,~ .... ..",..,,,_. '~'>"'('1~o/'~""'''"''"~'''''_''_'~'7>'''''''_~'Y
,
140 Thesprin~sy~m [eh.6 :1 Sec. 6.4] System with DO stiffness 141
j.
.t,
x~ f\ f\ f\ f\ f\ f\
\TV VVV we .,0 ~. ~ 100.(X:~I)
,
x~
).
x..
f\\TV
f\ f\
vL\v o
.~V ~ , .. ".""
C>
.1
.~
f\ C\ vC> .....~"=
\]V r tloO.l
.~V
'i
~
o
= t ",= ~ J:T
;;;
:T
Ilitl
~.,
~
~u
Fig. 6.6 Estimation of decay cocffic::ient.
~
~
{ 'C""
, 1
1
< and the decay coefficient is givenby J
1
Fig. 6.5 Decayof oscillationsin a linear damped springmasssystem.
, ".",~ ~
\, 1
l]=lo~
'tt
(;COl)

Xo(l+ 1)
(6.22)
Sa
1)2
System with no niffness 143
t
fc
~
4a
jji
;~
Massa
~ '"
.~ ~
j
Force F 0; 3a
~ jji
Qi
g
Displacement x ~
,
~I~ 2a
bi
""iii
varying displacement. Following the procedure used for the system with stiffness
0
leads to the amplitude response
50
xo_ a 1 ;;;
F  b 2 ro' y(l + ro/2) metresIkN (6.24) '"
'"c.
~
...
.:;:
.c;
1 150
tan = ro' (6.25)
~
l;
where the Dondimensionalfrequency is 200
I
0 2
lJ)0
aro
ro'=""b (6.26)
Fig. 6.8 Responseof a secondorderlinear systemwith no stiffness.
Fig. 6.8 shows the amplitude and phase response of the zerostiffness system
according to equations (6.24) and (6.25). The responses are quite different from
those of the springmass system. The absence of stiffness means that there is no
natural frequency and the amplitude rises steadily as the frequency approaches zero.
1~
Since this velocity continues indefinitely, the amplitude Xo is infinite at zero
frequency. In practice this ideal amplitude may not be achieved because of mechani
At zero frequency the steady force Fo is resisted only by the damping force bi: (since
cal constraints such as limits on the dashpot travel. I
the acceleration, after an initial transient, is zero) and the mass moves at a steady
The phase is  90" at zero frequency. In other words the displacement lags the
velocity given by
force by 90". This phase lag increases as the frequency increases and ten~to 180"
at infinite frequency. .
o
F metresfsecon d
.r. =b
, I" '~'''''''''~''~=~C;.;.''''";;'"'';k""",",,;,,, ;:,,,'=;>;.;;.~'<t';~'*'~~"';'~""N"_. ,_";,,,,,,,,.,,,~,,,~.~~"
'S; ~""I''"",,
7 *
:?
;"
.;,
t
.
'"
"
,~
7.1 HEADING
j ....
The ship's heading is defined with reference to the direction of propagation of the
waves. The convention chosen isshown in Figs7.1 and 7.2. The ship is assumed to be ! Head
,,=180
starboard side
2700
'\~"
JL = corresponds to beam waves with the waves approaching the ship from the
! JL = 180 corresponds to head waves with the waves travelling in the opposite
.i direction to the ship.
i
1~
..\ Quartering waves are defined as heading angles between 0" and 900 (or 270" and
360). Bow seas are defined as heading angles between 90 and 180" (or 180" and
t 270").
~ ..   
,
i~.j.   
146 Heading and encounter frequency [Ch.7 ..;.
... Sec.7.2J Encounter frequency 147
'"
.~
.,"'!.
Fig. 7.1 shows a ship heading at an angle p. relative to the direction of propagation
of a train of regular waves. The component velocity of the ship in the direction of
wave propagation is
~.I.
U cos p. metres/second
and the waves will overtake the ship with a relative velocity
T, = c I..
U cos p. seconds (7.1) ~ r ~
~
.,.",_...,,:~;;..>.~t.:;..::ilii.,,:e:ii:)&;:;.';;;;4 .
I ,.I~ ,<
\~~,"":'1'~"':'''''''''''::'' .'~"'=""':h"""!f~>J7'.,,,",,~/,~~,.,,.._~~_w.,,,".'"!:, .....,_,_,. ""~"_""'~"_/''''''''',,"_~A'p,'_~' ",,,,_~_~,_,,? _ ,,,,_~, "'_"="
, ,.""'''''''''~':'~~1",,t,''\t.",_... "., '1'"1"'
4tJgllqwing and .2~e~g ~ a given ,absolute) value of encounter he The relationship between encounter frequency and wave length may be further
. qucncy may be experienced intfiree different wave systems (if IIDe I < IDe max) as examined by rearranging equation (7.3) to give
(7.3) to give
and this is plotted in Fig. 7.4. The diagram may be used to find the wavelength
\ I >,
.;,
~ LSOO
looel = 0.2
\
radians/second
Table 7.1 Regular wave systems giving looel = 0.2 radians/second; ship speed 20
r:
Wave We w c A.
no. (rad/sec) (rad/sec) (m/sec) (m)
Wave no. 1 has crests about 0.75 kilometres apart, but its celerity isvery highand 0.3
it overtakes the ship with a relative velocityof nearly 47 knots. So the high celerity 0.5
compensates for the distant crests and results in the required encounter frequency. 1.0
Wave no. 2 is much shorter and slower and overtakes the ship witha relative velocity ~2.0 j
of only about 8.5 knots. However. the closercrests compensate for the lower relative 20
velocity and the wave again gives the required encounter frequency. Wave no. 3 is 20 10 o
very short and the celerity is only 8.8 metres/second. So the ship overtakes this wave Head
1~eas
Beam
seas
Followong
seas 
...
system with a relative velocity of about 3 knots, giving tbe required encounter U cosIt (metres/second)
frequency. Again the very low relative velocity compensates for the short wave
length. Wave no. 4 is a trivial result: negative wave frequencies have no physical
meaning.
5
Fig. 7.4 Encounter frequency and wave length; deep water.
150 Headingand encounterfrequency [Ch.7 t
."
f:
~
corresponding to any givenencounter frequency for a particularspeed and heading.
As already demonstrated, a particular encounter frequency is experienced at only
one wavelength (or wave frequency) in head or bow waves; but in following and
quartering waves up to three different 'Wave systems will yield the same absolute
encounterfrequency. Fig.7.4 alsodemonstratesanother peculiarproperty of regular
waves. In following and quartering wavesa widerange of wavelengths may produce
virtually the same encounterfrequency. For example, a ship steamingat 20 knots in
quartering waves (p. = 45) has a componentvelocity of about 7.0 metres/second. In
this condition all the wavelengths from about 50 metres to about 400metres yieldan
8
encounter frequency close to about 0.3 radians/second. We shall see in Chapter 13 l;
that this phenomenon can have profound implications for roll motionsin quartering
seas.
" Basic equations for ship motions
in regular waves
,
,...
~~
8.1 INTRODUCTION
Shipsdo not, in the normalcourseof events. experienceregular wavesat sea. So the
study of ship motions in regular waves appears at first sight to be an academic
exerciseof no practicalsignificance. Yet it isan essentialfirststep inthe calculationof
ship motions in a realistic irregular seaway; moreover, an appreciation of regular
wave motions will give the reader an insight which will prove invaluable in
.(
understanding the general nature of the motionsof ships in rough weather.
""'1''1
'"
X..
X,
b
.;
~I:t
"\4' ."
Fig.8.2 Axesand shipmotiondefinitions.
Fig.8.1 Typical path of a ship in waves. roll X4 radians: positivestarboard side down
r
pitch Xs radians: positive bow up
combination of the time histories of three lineart and three angular displacements.
These sixdisplacements are definedusingthe righthanded axissystemshown in Fig. M~~!~hiPs have po_fll~tarboard symmetryand so surge ,!lellve.llIl~pi.~ch~hich lie
8.2. in th~pla~_<?.f s~etry :areCiIreaverti~p!~~~or's~I!1~trlc motjgns. SWA~ ).
The axis system ~ h~jts origin fixedat E at the mean ware: level and regular ,/ and yaw are terlI1eIaterai plane or antisymmetric motions. The motions are often
waves propagate along the Er axis. A second axissystem ErE 1XE2Y also has its origin referred tolls 'degrees of f r e e d o m . ' . 
at E but is rotated through the heading'angle p: so that"El:El comC1d~\\'itll.tb!:tm~.<ln. ffj'lother righthanded set of axes GXBl XB2 XB3 is fixed in the ship and is used to
~ckofihe ship. ...._. _." .
define locations on (or in) the ship's structure. The originis at the (moving)centre of
. ApomfO:lying at the mean water level, moves along Er El at the mean speed of gravity G and the axes rotate as the ship rolls, pitches and yaws. Locations are
the ship, U metres/second. (This speed is approximately the same as the ship would defined as:
achieve at the same power in calm water. In head waves the speed Will be slightly
reduced and in followingwavesit may be increased.) The mean position of the ship's XBl metres: positive forward
centre of gravity Go lies verticallyabove 0 and is taken as the Q!.igin of a third ~is . XB2 metres: positive starboard
~ystem GoXl X 2X3' At any instant of time the position of the ship's centre of gravity G XB3 metres: positive down.
t = 1T
cos p. seconds
.i; = x) + X B2 .i4  xBI.i, metres/second downwards
om ii
= Xl + U kU :os ~)
oFI
XE I (t metres
/ = kN
oF2 = Om x; leN to starboard
forward
Then the wave depression at (Xl' X:!) in the moving frame of reference is
sr, om XB3 ii  om x BI i; oleN metres pitch moment bow up
oF6 om XBI i;  om XB2 xi leN metres yaw moment to starboard
1; = ~J sin (methi cos JL+ kx; sin JL) metres (8.1)
The forces and moments required to sustain the linear and angular accelerations
of the whole ship are obtained by allowing Om to approach zero and integrating over
the volume of the ship. Bearing in mind that, by definition of the centre of gravity,
8.3 GENERAL EQUAnONS FOR SHIP MOTIONS IN REGULAR WAVES
8.3.1 Basic equations of motion
The structure of the ship may be regarded as being composed of a large number of
very small masses om
tonnes. Fig. 8.3 shows one of these masses located at fXB1elm fXB2 elm = fX B3elm = 0
/8' we obtain
mx, = F; kN (i = 1, 3) \:
\';j
...,
(X B I, X B Z, X93) relative to the centre of gravity of the ship. [f the ship has linear
accelerations XI' X2 and xJ metres/second! and angular accelerations .r.r~ and x~
radians/second the mass Om will have linear accelerations
144 = J(X~2 +X~3) dm tonne metre about the .rB I axis
x; = Xl +X B3 is XB2 x6 rnetres/second forward Iss = f(X~l +X~3) elm tonne metre about the X B 2 axis
j
156 Basic equations for ship motions in regular waves [eh.8 Sec.8.3J General equationsfor ship motions in regular waves 157
166 = f(X~l + X~2) elm tonne metre about the Xa3 axis
where the coefficientsa" ali' etc are functionsof the wavelength(or wave frequency).
ship speed and hull form; a.; b, and c, are also functions of the heading angle.
Substituting equations (8.4) into the six equations (8.2) we obtain six general
linearised equations for smallamplitude motions in regular waves:
The product moments of inertia are defined by
b
A ij
= m rr a., (j = 1. 3; i = 1, 3; j = i)
For conventional ships the product moments of inertia are usually small and are
invariably neglected. The equations of motion then reduce to A'i = Iii + a;j (j = 4. 6; i = 4, 6; j = i)
,.
and the exciting forces and moments due to the wavesare
m X, == F, kN (i == 1, 3)
Ij;X, = F, kN metres (i == 4, 6) (8.2) FWi = a,~ + bj:, + cl, kN or kN metres (i = 1, 6) (8.6)
system (i.e. a particular wavelength) the F; would be expected to be functions of the Setting x I =X2 := 0 metres in equation (8.1) gives for the surface depression at 0
F; = F; {~.~. ~, (x, i x j(i j = 1, 6)} kN or kN metres (8.3) and the velocity and acceleration of the sea surface perceived by an observer on the
ship at 0 are
If the wave amplitude issmallcompared with the wave and ship lengths motions will ;.
also be small and we may use a Taylor series expansion to obtain a linear ~ = coJ;() cos (coJ) metres/second (8.8)
approximation to equations (8.3):
and ~ =  co~ ~) sin (wet) metres/second 2 (8.9) .,.
F.  ar L
I
I"b~'cr
.., T T .~ I , ~
6
Substituting equations (8.7)(8.9) in equation (8.6) we obtain
+ L: ( aijij  b'jij  CjjXj) leN or leN metres (i = 1, 6) (8.4)
=
jl Fwi = F'Nio sin (wet + y;) kN or kN metres (i 1, 6) (8.10)
158 Basicequations for ship motionsin regular waves [eh.8 Sec. 8.4] Coefficients in the equations of motion 159
b, Cll e .1
tan Yi = Ci  aiw~ (8.12) ;r. r:
6 <
2: (Aij xj + bi;Xj + cijx) =F sin (oi,t + Yi) kN or kN metres (i 1, 6) . \:
jI
will
(8.13)
;",
' ....
, x. j
I
I
I
r;;;;
I
e.
Motion
Solutions to these equations have the form
l
.
,~
.;1
... Time
" Fig. 8.4  Time histories of wave depression. exciting force and motion in regular waves.
and the model executes a sinusoidal heave motion. All other motions are restrained
and the forces necessaryto impose the heave oscillationare measured by transducers
at the ends of the struts and recorded on suitable apparatus. The aft transducer is
8.4 COEFFICIENTS IN THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION fitted with a swinginglink and this ensures that the longitudinalforce is measured in
~o(illt 11'\4!'I
The theoretical methods outlined in Chapter 9 are usually used to determine the its entirety by the forward transducer.
coefficientsin the equations of motion, but these quantities may also be determined The longitudinal force consistsof a steady force required to tow the model at the
by experiment. It is instructive to examine the techniquesinvolvedsince this throws constant speed U metres/second and an additional oscillatorycomponent due to the
some light on the physical meanings and characteristicsof each coefficient. oscillatory motions of the model. We may write for the oscillatory part
Fullscaleexperiments are impractical but experiments with models are a viable
alternative. The coefficients can be measured in forced oscillation experiments in FI = Fif = Fto sin (w.t) kN
which the forces and moments applied by the waves are replaced by forces and
moments applied by some suitable mechanism while the model is towed in calm where FlO is the force amplitude and the heave motion leads the force by 3 radians.
water. Fig. 8.5 showsa typicalexperiment rig in whichthe model is mounted on two For an arbitrary shaped hull form the transducerswillalsoexperience verticaland
verticalstruts spaced equally about the centre of gravity. If the struts are oscillated in
unison so that the strut motions S3. and S3f (positivedown) are the same,
__"~~"<_ ....
"",,,,~._~~_ .. "",."~ ..c<,_:,,,,, .,~",... , _ ..40_,_,,,~,,,~,,,,,,,,,",,,,~,~,,~,,,,=,_:_ """,,_,"~'"~A'",""""'" " ,,_a"q_&lo:.: .,..~;~~~
1,")''
,,,,.... ,,~~\.~"""N"~'C;,~~"""'"0*'<"'::,""',""'i',.
',",~~~"'<"~.''"':'>.""""'>'
""'' '. . .,. .'".w.~. 1 '.... I" """1:""1
/io<
160 Basicequationsfor ship motions in regular waves [Ch.8 Sec, 8.4J Coefficients in the equationsof motion 161
:'~
, !S~ Is. Ai3X3 + bax3 + Ci3X3 = FiO sin (wet) kN or kN metres (i = 1,6) (B.17)
and these may be recognised as the equations of motion of six secondorder linear
damped springmass systems with sinusoidal excitation (see equation (6.1)}. The
motion response of each system is given by equation (B. IS} and the amplitude and
phase response are, from equations (6.6) and (6.7),
X3I1 1
F;o = [v'c.c'"3  A we)2 + blJ W~] metreslkN or metres/(kN metre)
t (I = I, 6)
a
b,"3CJ)e )
tan f.i =  ( Ci3  A'"3CJ)~ (i.= 1.6) (8.19)
Combining these equations yields for the inphase and quadrature components of the .>
F4 = F + F4 f = F40 sin
4A (wot) kN metres
The components of the six applied forces and moments which are in phase with the
Fs = (F 3A  F3f ) x; = Fso sin (wet) kN metres
heave motion are therefore associated with the stiffness and inertia coefficients,
while the quadrature components are associated with damping.
F6 =  (F2A  Fu) Xr = F60 sin (wet) kN metres
The coefficients which are of most interest in the heave oscillation experiments
The motions of the model are related to these forces and moments by six
are a33' b33 and C33 which relate the heave motion to the applie~J!~ave Fig. 8.6 wee.
sh.Q.WSthe.PhSicaJ mecbanismmsponsl6Te1~tIiese=~~~1!1cieiits. At zero frequency
equations analogous to equations (8.13): the model has no heave velocity or acceleration and the heave force is related only to
the heave displacement through the coefficient C33 This arises because a stea'!}'
6 downward heav~(j~1l1~~~!!!~~..e~oduc~~~.9..~~tl;ii.tioniI..liisRla.ce.d.YQlume and a
2: (A~J+biiJ+cijxj)
jl
= FlO sin (wer) kN or kN metres (i = 1, 6) (8.16) /steady upward restoring force due to buoyancy A typical relationship between the
neave displacement and the force is shown in Fig. 8.7(a}. Provided that the heave ,.
displacement is small, this may be approximated by a straight line whose slope is C33
All the motions except heave are zero and C33 is specifically defined_~ the mclicmt of the..cuIYe..asit..passesJhmu~rigin.
ACIiignerlrequencies the inphase component of the applied heave force ...
includes a contribution from heave ineniaA 33 This is made up of contributiorislrom'
Xi = Xi = Ii = 0 for i *3
t~~ so called 'added mass' an as well as the real mass m of the ship. J'he former arises
v~'"5ecaus~. the accelerating hull cause,j.banges in ~~!l.uitl.Y~.Q~l~e~ a~iae:=.nt to its
Equations (8.16) then reduce to six much simpler equations surfaceas shown in Fig. 8.6(a). The additional force required to accelerate this water
162 Basicequations for sbip motions in regular waves [Ch.8 Sec.8A} Coefficient'! in the equationsDC motion 163
OA D
" , (al c
GI
u
.
\\ , ~
t! Fluid
,J.. ",,)
 ./
.......
'".
" o b"x,
f
Ib) ~ E+
':;0
Q.E
;.
E

Slope=O
Waves radiate
"'u
0;0
.,
outwards \(''J ,
t ....
.E
.,t
(b) Heave velocity
lx' ~
Venicall:'a'he motion
OC 33 X
:J
oj
leI
~;
JX, ~
(c) Heave disptacernent "::.;.;.o..~:.. ~
Add.tiona:
I t Lateral plane motion
displacement
as wellas the bullisincluded in the inertia coefficient and the ship behaves asthough
it has an increased mass. A JJ is sometimescalled the 'heave virtual mass'. heaveon pitch in the eillla.llims of motion (8.13) and they occurbecauselocalinertia,
Fig. 8.8 showsthe resUlts or some heave oscii"lation experiments bySmith (1967) d~andSilflness forces everywhere ;iiong the hull excitpm:1iingiif6'1'lretm"
on amodel of the Dutch FrieslandClassdestroyer. The added mass aJ3 is about the ~bout the centre atgravity. If the ship has fore and aft symmetrvli1ce a canoe, me f ./
same as the mass of the ship over much of the frequency range and rises to even moments ansin from the forces on t e orwar a 0 t e shi will almost exactly V
higher values at low frequencies. ba ance those arisingfrom the after half of the ship, and these 'cou lin coe cients
The heave damping bJ3 an~es becausethe oscillating s!!!p. generates ~~~_~icE,. . U ormoreort 0 ox ormsresl ua momentswil}remainwhich
radiate outward and dissipate energy as shown in Fig. 8.6(b). Energy is also may not be neg!igi b1e
aisslpated by friction but these effects are very small. Smith also measured bJ3 and For arbitrary shaped hull formsforcesand momentsin the other four degrees of
someresults are shown in Fig. 8.8. . freedom (surge, sway, roll and yaw) will also be required to sustain a pure heave
The pitch moment Fso sin (ooel) measured in the heave oscillation experiments
willyieldestimatesofthe coefficients ':5J' b5~and CoS3' These describethe influence of t They will be exactly zero at zero forward speed.
.._.... ~,,_ .. ~.~ ..
,~ ~
~~..."".~ftP""'''~'''~'.'''''''''''''''''''''' . _,.."",..,.__"""=,,,~'C' .yo '~~""~'~'"'''_~'.~'';,'it''''''''':''''''W .
164 Basic equations for ship motions in regular waves fCh.8 Sec. 8.4] Coefficients io the equations or motion 165
)
51
1'lJ
]
oJ"
i r
I
i i i
v.:) U ..J
i
Xs = Xso sin (oV+ &s) radians
4 1 where
I
Xso:= X
r
3
~ The analysis proceeds along lines exactly similar to those used in the heave oscillation
'" 2
experiment and yields estimates of the terms Ass, bss, css, 0S3, bS3 and ':S3' Ag~i!t all
the lateral plane forces and moments and associated coefficients are zero if the hull
1 has port/starboardsymmetry. .. .. .    . 
8 ! The pitch oscillations cause local vertical motions everywher~along the huY so
that eaCb~ionottlre1iull eXPeriences106lttnertia~damprng arlg...s~Jorces
o L !
n.c::
I
!
...
I
_
I
~.5
Il analogous to those experienced by the Whole model in the heave oscillation
experiment. These ~r~~~xerL!!!~ents about the centre of M.,avity and are
responsible for tlfecoefficients Q". b" ana
c,~. The local forces distributed over the
.,..
Frnqtu,ru:y "'. (tadl:IrI~~ :~lH:Olld) ) "'lwal<ll'lIIti'lltICCliliJf;.j,i;",c l~ "II Ihe 'Ifiel (',Ulul Ih" h,,11 ~llllhllllll:; rcstduul
~ heave forces associated with the coefficients aS3' bS3 and CS3 are usually small. Indeed
~
ytheL~o\ll~ be zero on a hUll_wit!!JQJ.e...qmLCs)1rnI1j~~i:Y iit~Wo.sp~
1 The pitch virtuatineitia coefficient Ass includes contributions from the so called
61 ( i i i i
J
added mass moment of inertia as well as the truc mass moment of inertia of thc ship's
"
""
~ 4
5!;
,
~
~
I
structure. This is analogous to the heave added mass already discussed. The true
mass moment of inertia may be expressed as
>
.& 2
where the longitudinal radius of gyration about a transverse axis through the centre
of gravity is usually in the range
I ! r I I I
o  ~ . . z.s
O.2L, < ks < a.1SL, metres
Frequency '''. (radians.second!
8
E
1.5
ih D
~
~
.,
~
2 ..
J::
oi1 =2
0.5
, ! ,  I t
0' .... '.. ! .'.. ! '
4.5 o  .  l.0
Frequency "'. (radianS/second)
1.5. i i i ,
0.3 ::::::
Ql
;::: 1.0
N'" '>C
~ 0.2 ....z...
~ i 0.5
~
'>:::: 0.1
.Q
o 2.0
0 0.5 1 1.5 '} 2.5 Fig. 8.10 Sway added mass and damping. (After Vugts (1968).)
Fig. 8.9 Pitch added moment of inertia and damping; Friesland Class destroyer.
Fig. 8.7(c). In other words the vertical plane excitation will have the same magnitude
(After Smith (1967).)
and direction t:.~g'![dl~ss>,Qf.lh.ejffr~.m.QR~ lateral plane ~ Sinceweare
" concerned only with small motions and our lineariSation requires die coefficients to
be determined from the slope at the origin, all such coefficients are zero.
~ third cate 0 . is alwa s zero re ardless of the ship's shape.
In most cases the coefficients are found to be nearly independent of the motion These are all stiffness coefficients associated with the ship's geographica ocanon
amplitudes used in the experiment and this justifies the assumption of linearity in the with respect to the origin GQ: N()forces or moments are required to sustain surge and
derivation of the equations of motion. Coefficients associated with roll motion, sway disp~~~~~rlts x,ynd ~ so that
however, are an exception to t!tisgeneral rule as shown in Fig. 8.11. lS()ILa.lli!~(:LIJ!~
mO'!!~I!.!..9i in~nia decx:eases and roll damping increases with roll amplitude. So the
!
I
assumption of linearity may not he justified in this case. ./ r C/I = c/2 = 0 (i = 1, 6)
In general, vertical lane forces and moments will always be re uired to sustain
motio . r ships with port/star oar symmetry. However, f Table 8.1 lists 60 coefficients (out of a total of 108) which are zero for a ship with
port/starboard symmetry. A further 12 coefficients are usually negligible and are
j
the relationship between the vertical pane excita Ion an t e ateral plane motion
for ships with lateral symmetry will have the symmetrical Ifshaped form shown in invariably neglected.
__",.,"';,d,~v~=~<,
>.~.=
II
~~'''"'''",*",.~'~'~'~'.''~''h'~'''''P':'~'''''.~.''1''1~"",~.'''fff~'"",,",'((.~~7';J,::':""""""'"
I
168 Basic equations for ship motions in regular waves [Ch.8 . Sec. 8.4] Coefficients in the equations of motion 169
Equivalent wave lengthlbeam ...18
f ' Table 8.1 Zero value terms in the equations of motion
t
0.6t j i i t i' i ; l
2 3 4 5 ,6
.~.o.os",
0.4
t 1
2
0) 0: S
0)
0: S
0)
0: Surge
Sway
'7,;,
3 S 0: 0: ()., Heave
~
~:; 1 Motionsj l OJ 0; 0) .; Roll Added inertia Q&.w
1 5 S 0: 0: 0: Pitch and damping bi}
0.2 6. ~X<o=0.15rad 6 0, 0; ~
0)  Yaw
OJ
01
0.
0:
0.
O.
OJ
0.
0.
0.
S'
Surge
Sway
Heave
Roll
Stiffnesseij
~ 0: Pitch,
0;. 0:
5 S 0:
0.03
I I .L: I I i 6 OJ 0) Yaw
is
Q
0>
N'
'>
'a.
e,
0.02 i
"
~.,
Surge Sway Heave Roll Pitch Yaw
FOTeuand momentsi
"
~ !
e 0.01 ~ Key: O. zero: S. small: 1. by position; 2. by symmetry; 3. for small motions.
i;~
<
i
o "
~,
pitch: aS3x3 + bS3X3 + CS3X3 + (Iss + ass) is + bssis + CSsXs
'''. v (8J2gl
2.0
i
it = FwSO sin (w,.! + y s) kN metres (8.27)
i
Fig. 8.11 Roll added mass moment of inertia and damping. (After Vugts (1968).) ,
:!l
yaw: a62x2 + b62X2+ a64,X.. + b64x.. + (I66 + a66) 'x6 + b66X6 + C66X6
== Fwf:A) siri (w,.! + Y6) kN metres (8.28)
{
This results in six much simpler equations for smallamplitude motions of a ship The vertical plane motion equations (heave and pitch) are coupled as we have
with lateral symmetry: already seen. In other words the hea~tion includeHenns dependent on pitch
so that heave is infiuenc~gl>)'Pi!!?!Ll!!!<i.Yice versa, However, the s~e equation~
surge: (m + au).i l + bux I = Fw l O sin (ulet + YI) kN (8.23) un.oypieaarurrndep~of.theOther.motions. The lateral plane inotions are also
coupled so that these motions are affected by each other. Th~Ec;:j~L.E0wever..t.E.0
couplt~gR~Jwe.enJ_h~.,Yenic_al.planemonons.andrbe.lareralplanejnoiians. So heave,
sway: (m + a:2) 'x2 + b:2xz + a2..'x.. + bz~..
pitch and ~Qtamt~db}'..e~n!SjntheJateralplane; ne!tJ1~L~
+ a:u.'x6 + bZ6X6 + C:u.X6 == Fw 20 sin (WeI + Y2) kN (8.24) or'ya\Vmotions affected by heave, pitch or surge. t This allows the
vertical and latera I
plane motions to be considered separately.  . 'j
heave: (m + a33)'x3 + bnX3 + C3JX3'
+ a3S'xS + b3SXs + C3SXS == Fw30 sin (WeI + Y3) kN (8,25)
..
9 
Strip theory
9.1 INTRODUCTION
Solving the equations of motion (8.23)(8.28) requires the evaluation of the
coefficientsand the excitationamplitudes and phases.These may be determined by ~
experiment but this method islaboriousand hardlypracticalfor routine calculations.
In any case, if experimental methods are used, it is much more appropriate to
measure ship motions directly as described in Chapter 16. Fig. 9.1  Representationof underwaterhullsectionshape by an infinitecyclinder.
Considerable effort has therefore been devoted to developing theoretical meth
ods of determining the coefficients and excitations to allow ship motions to be
calculated without recourse to experiment. Various authors, includingTasai (1959), Each strip has associated local hydrodynamic properties such as added mass,
Gerritsma and Beukelman (1967), Salvesen, Tuck and Faltinsen (1970) and damping and stiffnesswhichcontribute to the coefficients for the complete hullin the
Schmitke (1978), have made significant contributions. Their theories are generally equations of motion. Similarly the wave excitations experienced by the hull are
similar, differingonly in detail and mathematicalrigour.They are complicatedand a composed of contributions from all the strips.
complete description is beyond the scope of this book. This chapter is intended to Strip theory assumes that these local hydrodynamic properties are the same as
give an abbreviated presentation of the mainfeaturesof strip theory in general and is would be experienced if the strip were part of an infinitely long cylinder of the same
largely based on the methods proposed by Gerritsma and Beukelman. crosssectional shape asshown in Fig.9.1. In other words threedimensionaleffects,
All the theories assume that: such as mutual interference between the strips, flow leakage around the ends of the
ship and effects due to changes in the shape of the strip over the length OxB 1 , are
(a) The ship is slender (i.e. the length is muchgreater than the beam or the draught ignored.
and the beam is much less than the wave length). ~.
(b) The hull is rigid so that no flexure of the structure occurs. ,'
(c) The speed is moderate so there is no appreciable planinglift. ,11 1 i 9.2 STRIP MOTIONS
(d) The motions are small. .,,,, , i Let us firstsupposc that rhe ship is undergoing a generalised forced oscillationin all
(e) The ship hull sectionsare wallsided. ' "".,' ! degrees of freedom except surge. If thc pitch and yaw oscillations are small the
(f) The water depth is much greater than the wave length so that deep water wave motions of each strip winbe essentially ccnfincd to the plane of the strip. If the strip is
. approximations may be applied. located zg, metres forwardof the centre of gravitythe motionsof a point on the GXo1
(g) The presence of the hullhas no effect on the waves (the so calledFroudeKriloff axis will be
hypothesis).
The theories are grouped under the general headingof 'strip theory' sincethey all X2G = x! + XOI sin X6
I
172 Striptheilry [Ch.9 Sec. 9.3} Hydrodynamic coefficients 173
r
X3  XS1XS
!
,
ki=lCiGOGX~
X~ = x. radians to starboard (9.3)
i
~ lC)
Consider an observer stationed at some fixed point alongside the ExE I axis in Fig. i
8.2. The oscillating ship passes him at a steady velocity U metres/second. At some
instant of time a certain strip is opposite the observer and his perception of its lateral ~
velocity is given by the total differential of equation (9.1): .;:
t
., 0 (X::o
')
j Fig. 9.2  Velocities or a strip.
Dr = 'Xz + XSt 'X6.+.XS1X6 metres/second
I
Xzo =
 .,,'
''! local hydrodynamic properties of each strip. The velocities and acclerations of this
Now the distance XS t from the strip to the approaching centre of gravity is i" point are then
diminishing at the rate