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SEAKEEPING;:

Ship Behaviour. in:


Rough "Veather

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'11!1

A. R. J. M. LLOYD, B.Se. Ph.D.


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f..... Senior Principal Scientific Officer
Admiralty Research Establishment
Haslar. Gosport. Hampshire

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ELUS HORWOOD SERIES IN MARINE TECHNOLOGY

Series Editor: Professor JAMES PAFFETI

Lloyd.A.R.J,M. S"nkccplng: Shlp Dehn"i:),jr In r;Oul~h Weather .,


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Walker. G. & Render G.T. t'mlcn:'a:zr Power Plant
I ;J!,.
ELLiS HORWOOD SERIES IN iVIARINE SCIENCE

Series Editor: T. D. ALLAN. Instituteof Oceanograpic SCif;!1CtS. Wormley, Surrey


Allan. T.O.
Bowden. K.F.
Cracknell, A.P,
ROllinson. I.S.
~;cnrle. R.C.
Snteljjtr :-'\iw,,!ave Remote Sensing
Pt:ysieai O,'car;ogr:.;hy of Coastal Waters
Rcrnote Sen~in~ in Meteorology, OceanftJrlll'hy snd lI)'jrt/lo:::.~
S!tei\lte Ocellno~raphy
:'4~;r rer!;pI;'!~s ~l\ MariO(' Geology
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ELLIS HORWOODLIMITED

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Publishers . Chichester

Halsted Press: a division of


;,-kl~er. J.R. Marine Corroslnn in ()rr.~hore Structures

j'Xl~~-m\i.:;~,_,__ .'-,_ _
Sleigh. M.A. Mkrobes In the Sea
i JOHN WILEY & SONS
New York Chichester nrislnnc Toronto
First published in 1989 by ,

ELLIS tiORWOODLIMITED
1).
Market Cross House, Cooper Street.

Chichester, West Sussex, P0191EB, England

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Th~ publishds colophon is Teproduad from lama Gillison's drawing of the ancient Market Cross.
Chiihestu.
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DWribuwns:
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JACARANDA WILEY LIMITED

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Table of contents
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North and.Souzh Ameria: and 1M rest ofthe world:

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!t,. Acknowledgements 11
if
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JOHN WILEY & SONS (SEA) PTE LIMITED
Notation . _ 13
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Block B, Union Industrial Building, Singapore 2057


t~
~
A note on units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Indian Subcontinera
.j,
WILEY EASTERN LIMITED
~~ 1 Seakeeping .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

4835124 Amari Road

Daryaganj, New Delhi 110002. India


2 Fluid dynamics .. _ 28
2.1 Introduction 28
2.2 Euler's equations of motion for an inviscid fluid 29
2.3 Equation of continuity 33
2.4 The velocity potential 35
isss A..lW.M. LIoydlEllls Horwood Limited 2.5 Integration of Euler's equations of motion: Bernoulli's equation 38
llrilish Ubrary eatalogu!n& in PubUcation Data
2.6 Laplace's equation . _ 40
lloyd, A.RJ.M. 1941 2.7 The stream function ~ 41
Seakeeping.
2.8 Some simple flows 43
I. Ships, Hydrodynamics

1.Title
2.9 Conformal transformations 52
623.8'171
2.10 Viscosity 58
Ubnry of Congress Card I',). 8~ 2.11 Lifting surface characteristics 59
ISBN 0-7458-<)230-3 (Ellis Horwood Limited)'
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ISBN 0-470-Z1232-2 (Halsted Press)
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3 Regular waves ',' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Typeset ill Tunes by Ellis Horwood Limited


~ 3.1 Introduction 64
Printed in Great Britain by The Camelot Press. Southampton
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fl 3.2 The potential function ' 65
~ 3.3 Pressure contours and the surface profile " -. 66

COPYRIGHT NOnCE
All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval svstem, or
transmitted, in any form or bv allY means. electronic. mechanical.photocopying. recording or otherwise.
if 3.4
3.5
3.6
Wave slope
Regular wave characteristics
Particle orbits
,
"
': 72
-.~-~-:-.-.:-:-'-73-
74
:;;l'.
withoutthe permission of Ellis Horwood Limited.MarketCrossHouse. Cooper Street. Chichester. West 3.7 Pressure fluctuations under a wave ' 86
Sussex.England.

I 3.8 Energy of a regular wave 86


... _~~'~~'" ;~._Ft .. q .._, \ .... '"11 .ili, _'.,' ;...~~~, ....::::,~;.~.::;.-:::.~.,,~,,:," ..- ',",,"
'-'~"'~-:"r'~"~cre',,,,,,>

6 Table of contents
Table of contents
7
3.9 Energy transmission and group velocity .................. 89
11.5 Measurements of local hydrodynamicproperties 218

<,
1> 4 Ocean waves '" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
12 Rolldamping 223

4.1 Wave generation 93


12.1 Sources of roll damping 223

4.2 Statistical analysisof time historiesof irregular waves 94


12.2 Non-linear roll damping: equivalent linearisation . . . . . . . . . . . 223

U Fourier analysis 97
12.3 Eddy roll damping : 225

4.4 The wave energy spectrum '. 99 12A Skin friction roll damping 228

4.5 Spectral moments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. WI


12.5 Appendage roll damping 231

4.6 Idealised wave energy spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. 106


12.6 Total roll daml?ing 233

4.7 Wave slope spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .. 112

4.8 Wave spreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. 113


13 Ship motionsin regular waves : 234

13.1 Introduction '" .. 234

5 Ocean wave statistics 121


13.2 Transfer functions : ........................ 234

5.1 Introduction " 121


13.3 Vertical plane motions in regular head waves 235

.-? 5.2 Visual observations '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121


13.4 Vertical plane motions in regular following waves 240

5.3 Wave atlases '.' " 124


13.5 Vertical plane motions in regular oblique waves.......... 243.
13.6 Lateral plane motions in regular beam waves ~ 247

6 The spring-mass system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

13.7 Lateral plane motions in regular oblique waves ............. 252

6.1 Introduction...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

13.8 Absolute motions 253

6.2 Harmonic response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

13.9 Relative motions 257

6.3 Free decay '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

13.10 Velocities and accelerations 257

6.4 System with no stiffness 141

13.11 Lateral force estimator 259

7 Heading and encounter frequency 144


13.12 Non-linearities 262

7.1 Heading '.' 144

7.2 Encounter frequency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145


14 Ship motionsin irregular waves........................... 263

...... 14.1 The electronic filter analogy ........................ 263

8 Basicequations for ship motions in regular waves 151


14.2 The encountered wave spectrum ' 264

8.1 Introduction.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 151


14.3 The motion energy spectrum 266

8.2 Axes and ship motion definitions " 151


14.4 Alternative method of calculatingmotion statistics ......... 269

8.3 General equations for ship motions in regular waves. . . . . . . . .. 154


14.5 Effect of matching the wavespectrum and the transfer function.. 271

8.4 Coefficients in the equations of motion " . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 158


14.6 Motions in short crested waves....................... 272

14.7 Spectral calculations for non-linearmotion responses '. 275

9 Strip theory " 170

9.1 Introduction " 170


IS Seakeepingtrials 277

9.2 Strip motions 171


15.1 Full-scale trials 277

9.3 Hydrodynamiccoefficients, " 173


15.2 Wave measurements 279

.
10
9.4 Excitations in regular waves
Hydrostatic coefficients. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
, " 181

191

15.3 Ship motion measurements 279

15.4 Measurements of other seakeeping responses ............. 281

15.5 Run lengths and ship courses 282

10.1 Introduction................................... 191

~ 10.2 Vertical plane , 191


16 Modeltesting , 286

10.3 Lateral plane 192


16.1 Reasons for model seakeeping experiments '.' 286 .


16.1 Model experiment scaling.......................... 286

11 Local hydrodynamic properties 196


16.3 Open water model experiments 297

11.1 Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 196


16.4 Laboratory test facilities 297

11.2 Hydrodynamic properties of a heaving circular cylinder " 196


16.5 Wave makers and beaches 300

11.3 Lewis forms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206

. .: ,., ~ ... ~ ... ~. ... ., 1 ,


16.6 Instrumentation ...................... , .m

8 Table or contents Table of contents


9
if
16.8 Trimming and ballasting .. " 308
.:~
22.5 Criteria for speed loss
451
16.9 Testing in regular waves 312

16;10 Testing in irregular waves 318


~ 23 Operational effectiveness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
455
16.11 Tank wall interference 323
23.1 Introduction.................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
455 ~~
23.2 Sea area and season. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
455
i7 Probability formulae.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
327 23.3 Ship speed and course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
456
17.1 Introduction 327
23.4 Calculation of operational effectiveness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
457
17.2 Probability analysis 327

17.3 Histograms 327


24 The effect of bull size form on seakeeping .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
460
17.4 The probability density function 331
24.1 Introduction................................... 460

17.5 The Gaussian probability density function .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333


24.2 Parent hull form 461

17.6 The Rayleigh probability.density function 337


24.3 Effect of hull size: changing the size of the hull while keeping

17.7 Significant wave height and related statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339


the shape constant. 461

17.8 . Joint probabilities 342


24.4 Effect of hull shape 468

24.5 Summary..................................... 473

18 Roll stabilisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343

18.1 Motion reduction '.' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343


Bibliograpby : 475 t

18.2 Bilge keels 344

Glossary ............................................ 479

18.3 Active roll stabiliser fins 349

18.4 Passive tanks : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377


Nwnerical values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482

~~
19 Added resistance aad involuntary speed loss in waves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
Index .............................................. 483

19.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398

19.2 Simple theory for added resistance in regular head waves 398

19.3 Added resistance in irregular head waves 400

'19.4 Increase of resistance due to wind 401

19.5 Propeller characteristics 403

~
19.6 Speed loss 406

20 Slamming~ deck wetness and propeller emergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409


20.1 Introduction 409

20.2 Probability of occurrence 410

20.3 Slamming 413

20.4 Deck wetness 421

20.5 Freeboard exceedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422

20.6 ~ffect of bow shape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424

21 Effects of ship motions on passengersand crew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425

21.1 Introduction.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425

21.2 Motion sickness incidence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426


....,
21.3 Subjective motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429

21.4 Lateral force estimator and motion induced interruptions . . . . . . 433

.,.
22 Seakeeping criteria and voluntary speed loss in rough weather . . . . . . . . 437

22.1 Introduction......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437

22.2 Equipment criteria 439

22.3 Questionnaires 440

'n ..i Sneed loss in rough weather 449

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It:

For
Acknowledgements
Sonya, Abigailand Tobin

who nevercomplained in four and a half years

.
-1'

I have been engaged in research on seakeeping since 1968. During that time I bave
4;:
been helped by many colleagues both within the Admiralty Research Establishment
and outside. In particular I would like to pay tribute to the outstanding contributions
of Mrs P. R. Loader, Dr R. N. Andrew and Me W. B. Marshfield. Without their
constant support, advice and inspiration over the years this book would probably
never have been written.

Gosport A. R. 1. M. Lloyd
~ January 1988
"

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14 Notation Notation 15

a~ passive tank added mass coeffi kN metresf(radian/seeondt) e wave celerity; metresfsecond

cient stiffness coefficient; leN/metre

"'~ B parameter in Bretschneider wave seconds- ol fin chord metres

energy spectru"! formula; CI (i =1.6) ith force or moment due to unit kN/metre

beam; metres wave depression or


breadth; metres kN metresfmetre

Fourier coefficient metres Clj (i, j = 1.6) generalised stiffnesscoefficient; kN/metre

b appendage outreach; metres ith force or moment due to jth or


damping coefficient kN secondsfmetre unit displacement leN metres/metre
bl (i= 1.6) ith force or moment due to unit kN/(metreisecond) or
wavedepression velocity or kN/radian
kN metresf(metreJsecond) or
blj (i.j = 1.6) generalised damping coefficient: kNf(metre/second) kN metresfradian

ith force or moment due to jth or e., roll moment applied by passive kN metres/radian'

.
..
{"
unit velocity kN metresf(metreJsecond)
or c,.
tank due to unit roll displacement
passive tank displaceIlJent leN metresfradian
kN/( radian/second) coefficient:
or tank moment due to unit roll dis
kn metres/(radianlsecond) placement
!
b l b2 , b3 fixed stabiliser fincontroller coef -,seconds. ; en passive tank stiffnesscoefficient: leN metres/radian
ficients seconds2
Jl tank moment due to unit tank
bit (i=1,6) ith force or moment due to pas kN/(radian/second) angle
sive tank angle velocity or D drag force; leN
kN metres/(radianlsecond) parameter in wave spreading
s; (i = 1,6)
~II
passive tank moment due to ith kN metres/(metrelseco~) formula;
... ' velocity or draught metres

kN metresf(radianlsecond) d depth of water; metres

bn passive tank damping coefficient kN metres'(radiarssecond) I,


depth of experiment tank; metres

C parameter in lONSWAP wave propeller diameter , metres

energy spectrum formula E energy on one wave length; joules/metre width

confidence level effectiveness


parameter defining propeller F force; <, kN
operating point test function;
c: added resistance coefficient in kN/metre2
F (i =1.6)
freeboard
ith force or moment required to leN

metres

waves j

CB block coefficient sustain general oscillation or


Co drag coefficient leN metre
.,
~
CE drag coefficient for eddy-making FN Froude number
roll damping Fw ; (i= 1,6) ith force or moment due to waves leN
CF drag coefficient for skin friction on restrained ship or
C roll damping kN metres
CL lift coefficient ti f probability density function or metres>", radians:", etc.
Cp slamming pressure coefficient frequency distribution ordinate
CR beach reflection coefficient G forward path complex gain
C. swell-upcoefficient GMF fluid metacentric height metres

Cwt forward waterplane area coeffi GMs solid metacentric height metres

cient
16 Notation
i. Notation

Gm gain margin MIl motion-induced interruptions per


minutes-I
GZ roll-righting lever metres minute

g accelerationdue to gravity metressecond" MS[ motion sickness incidence:


per cent
H waveheight; metres percentageof passengers or crew

beam/draught ratio; who are seasick

feedback path complex gain m sourcestrength;


merresvsecond -t"
HI characteristicwaveheight metres wave-spreading index;

H I!3 significant waveheight metres mass


tonnes
h distance from pivot point [Q metres mu variance of displacement
metres'
centre of gravity; or
height metres radians"
1 mass momentof inertia tonne metres m2 varianceof velocity
metresvsecond
i;;(i=4,6) ith mass momentof inertia tonne metres" or
i;j (i, j = 4,6) cross-products of inertia tonne metres- radiansvsecond"
(i*j) m4 variance of acceleration
metresvsecond"
IL second momentof area of water metres" or
plane about transverse axis radiansvsecond"
IT second momentof area of water metres" mn nth moment of area of energy
metres2/secondn -t
plane about longitudinal axis spectrum
or
I '1(-1) radiansvsecond"
J propeller advancecoefficient N numberof observations;

KG overall gain setting numberof motioncycles:

KQ propeller torque coefficient )


numberofobservations per hour;
hours" !
Ku speed-dependentgain setting propeller revolutions per second
seconds:"
KT propeller thrust coefficient N c, number of ways in which r posi

K 1 , K2 , K 3 roll controllersensitivities -, seconds, seconds tiveanswerscanbeachieved from

KG distance from keel to centre of metres N questionnaires

gravity n dimension normal to passive tank


metres
k
k, (i
L
=4,6)
wavenumber;
ith radius of gyration
lift;
metres- 1
metres
kN
p
axis
pressure;
probability;
kN/metre2
length metres proportion of time;
LFE lateral force estimator metres/second power kW
M
doublet strength metresbsecond P y proportion of questionnaires
M; U=2,4)
ith localmomentum per unit tonne metres/second returninga positive responseto a
lengthof strip in calmwater per metre particularquestion
or P2m , q2nt coefficients to weight contribu
tonne metres- radians! tion of 2mth multipole
secondper metre Q kXB 1 cos J.L;
ML first moment of area of water metres> propeller torque kN metres
plane about transverse axis Q. passive tank parameter tonne metres
sc; (i= 2,4) ith local momentum per unit tonne metres/second per q total velocity; metres/second '""
length for stationary strip in metre passive tank coefficient of
waves or resistance; ~
tonne metres- radians! minimum number of votes in a
second per metre questionnaire to establish a
majorityopinion with a 95%con
fidence level

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I 18 Notation
Notation 19
OJ
R scale ratio L./L m ;
resistance w width metres
kN
RN Reynoldsnumber w(z) complexpotential function rnetresvsecond
r radial coordinate: $= + hl'z in z plane
metres Taylor wake fraction
WT
"'-.'i number of positlve questionnaire
answers X.Y force per unit mass in x and y metres/second"
r, nth ship response directions
various x.y
r cartesian coordinate system metres
relative local vertical motion metres
between ship and sea surface
XI (i =1,6) ith displacement of centre of gra metres or radians
5(00) energyspectral ordinate vity relative to moving origin 0
metres:!/(radian/second)
XUI amplitude of lth peak or trough metres
or initial value of x in decaying
.till iTletres
radians2/ ( radian/second)
oscillation
Sed standard error of the differences various
half-separation ofsourceand sink ZI'Z~ eddy-making roll-damping
S metres functions
in a doublet;
girth coordinate;
z complexvariablex + iy; metres
metres
displacement of fluid surface metres
~. Laplacetransform operator
~.

SM subjectivemotiort from stabilisertank datum level


SA; (i = 1.3) apparent accelerations in Earth metressecond!
fixed axes experienced by an
object on the deck
-;
SBi (i = 1.3) accelerations experienced in metresrsecond
body axes by an object on the
deck
SI (i = 1.3) ith local absolute motion displa metres (b) GREEK SYMBOLS
cement relative to 0 Symbol Meaning
T
Units
period; seconds
thrust <X angle of incidence: radians
1:: kN waveslope;
TH duration of time history seconds radians
t time;
I slope of pressure contour radians
seconds i
Student's lest function
l ~ slope of beach: radians
tJ
U
time of jth peak or trough
freestream velocity:
ship speed
seconds
metres/second
metres/second
I
I r"
fin depression angle
deadrise angle at keel
counting functional for nth ship
response . "
radians
radians

U.V fluid velocities in x and y


directions
metres/second
or knots
I y parameter in JONSWAP wave
energy spectrum formula:
U" Un radial and tangential velocity metres/second !
inclination of hull section at radians
components
v waterline
volumeof submerged and metres '(;(i = 1,6) ith peak wave force or moment radians
... emerged wedges: metres/second :--.
r.

leads maximum wave depression


relative windspeed , at 0 by)';-radians
voltage; volts
..... " disturbance
V
LU.tJ.y
volumeof displacement
deviationsof particle from datum
metres'
metres
w weighting function:
position beneath a wave
work done by whole ship in one kN metres li o boundary layer thickness metres
motion cycle

I
lUi = 1,6) ith peak (positive) motiondispla radians
cement leads maximum wave
depression at 0 by 0; radians radians
20 Notation Notation. 21

bandwith parameter: n force potential metres2/second2


phase radians CIl frequency; radians/second
radillml"CQn~
e, ith peak (positive) force or
. moment leads maximum positive
motion by e, radians
radians wllve frequency
.}'
Em phase margin degrees (c) SUFFIXES. SUPERSCRIPTS, ETC.

'. passive tank motion phase: tank radians Unlessotherwise shownin the table of notation the following suffixes are used:

angle leads roll motion by '1


radians fl Symbol Meaning
'z passivetank moment phase: tank radians A appendage; apparent; air
moment leads roll motion by '2 a aft; irregularamplitude or height; added; augmented
radians area sea area
r complexvariable XB2 + ixs J ; metres B axes fixed in hull; Bretschneider
~

depressionof watersurfacebelow metres "


t BK bilge keel
mean level ~ BL boundary layer
.j ,
~1/3
~1I11
significant wave amplitude
wave amplitude exceeded with
probability lin
metres
metres
~
!i
U
b
c
crit
bilge
calm water; fiq controller
critical value or criterion
.
11 propeller efficiency; "., D demanded angle; drag
decay coefficient '-i D mean draught
1
a angular coordinate radians '"
'.;t
d duct: decay
.)
A tuning factor 0) 00., ~
~.
ds deck submergence
A. wave length metres
1 . E Earth-fixedaxes; eddy
.~
J.I. primary wave direction radians
.
e encounter; effective
J.l.t fractional loss in metacentric F fin; skin friction; frame
height due to passive stabiliser FP measured from forward perpendicular
FS
tank
.1. finservo
J.Lw
v
p
c
Oil
viscosity
secondary wave direction
mass density
section area coefficient
nns displacement
tonnes'(metre second)
radians
tonneslmetre'

metres
or
1

J.
, f
0
OH
H
h
I
forward
group; forward path
open loop
time historyor run time; feedback path
histogrambin
interference
'"

radians suffix used to indicate degree of freedom or direction of motion


O'z nns velocity metres/second ~5- in input
or J JONSWAP
radians/second k keel: kinetic
0'..

T
nns acceleration

time constant:
metres/second
or
radians/second
seconds
il

l
t .
.
L
LA
M
m
lift: experiment tank length; beach
lateral acceleration
measured from midships
measuredvalue: model value

stabiliser tank angle: radians max


maximum
shear stress kN/metre2 n 11th observation or frequency
.,.
<p. cp' velocitypotential metresvsecond obs Visually observed

X angle of inclination of flow to y radians out


output

axis P propeller; wave probe; parent; peaks; port; pressure P; potential

IjI stream function metresvsecond r half-separation of wires. struts or potentiometer strings; reservoir; root

;:,;>.

~ .. ~...~"~l' ..~.~~-,;~~_ ..'c~ ~


'-,_"-'_"-,._...-;~~""""'o,...;~~,"',;::..,..-=~::.""~~.~.~,~\ '1' '/A''"f-c;.''',* =''''''',"''';,;,;j'' ".';>i".:'.~
.......,..,..~- ..

~,~""~"'!'I".~"'~''''''''''''''''~~'=~'"'''"""",""".,r<","_,.~"""",,,,,,,,-::,_,,,,,~~" ,.. ....,.. "'r

22 Notation
!!
. ""\
...;.
l
S
r)

s)
relativemotion
ship value; starboard
absolute vertical motion
1
season season ,

slam slamming "

stag stagnation I
stall stall
T experiment tank J
~
TH waveperiod and height
t passive tank; tip
U
v
ship speed
voltage
I A note on units
!
w waves; wavemaking; wind;waterplane
Z zero crossing
'. z value in complexz plane
~ value in complex~ plane Systeme Internationale (51) units are used throughout this book. Tonnes are
ex waveslope adopted as the unit of masswithkilonewtons (kN) as the correspondingunit of force
~ waveamplitude whichwillacceleratea unit massat one metre/second", Metres and seconds are used
X wavedirection as the units of length and time. Following commonpractice,ship speeds are givenin
<,
o regular amplitude; modal value knots or nautical milesper hour.
1/3 significant value Appropriate units are quoted for all equations since this serves to remind the
undamped natural frequency or period reader of the physical realityexpressedbythe equations.The reader may. however,
average; complex conjugate substitutehisown unitsprovidingtheseare basedon a rationalsystemin whicha unit
localvalue; non-dimensional value force is defined as one which imparts unit acceleration to a unit mass. Thus, for
oscillating part example,a pressureequation quoted here in kilonewtons per square metre is equally
...' .
validinpounds (force)per squarefoot (whenthe unitof massis the slug)or poundals
per square foot (if the massunit is the pound).

.4.

."
.,7

1
Seakeeping

There are three things which are too wonderful for file. yea. four which I
.

knownot:
the wayof an eagle in the air;
the wayof a serpent on a rock;
the wayof a ship in the midstof the sea;
and the wayof a man with a maid.
..

(
Proverbs Chapter 30 verses 18-19
In the daysof sailshipswereverymuchmoredependenton theweatherthan they
are today.Square-rigged sailingvessels couldnotsaildirectlyinto the windand were
strictly limitedin their abilityto gowherethe masterwanted. In severeconditions it '"

wasnecessary to shorten sail and even to rideout a storm under bare poles. Manya
shipwaslost becauseshe wasdriven ashore under suchcircumstances.
t
I Economic pressures often demanded that the ship's master spread as much
1'
canvas as he dared inorder to makethe bestspeed.Thisisnowhere moregraphically
I illustrated than in the stories of the clipper 'races' from China to Europe in the
i
t_
nineteenth century. The first ship home with the newly harvested tea crop could
demand a premium price for her cargo. Speed wasof the essence and these ships
i sprouted all sorts of additional sails to make the most of every breath of wind
!,. available.
A heavily laden over-canvassed shipmusthavebeen an unpleasant homefor the
sailors and passengers in rough weather. With the lee gunwhale submerged. the
decks continuallyawash.deckhouses dampand cold.lifemusthavebeen miserable. --t
Yetevenin these circumstances the crewwould be expectedto continue to navigate
I andsteer the ship and to go aloftin order to shortensailor spreadadditional canvas,
l as the master demanded.
~

(
~
However. the real problemsof seakeeping onlycame to be recognised with the
{r. demise of sail and the advent of steamas the primemotive power. Now, for the first
time.shipscouldsteam directlyinto the windand sea witha consequentincreaseof

".-'<-~ ..... ""'..."..."""""~.:>~~~,.~."'""'-~ , 'W '"'"K'.'"-,,,,".,,lk"nrwll''i('' 1""""';""''''>~>4lI~'n' . ' . " 'l!IIi.ii.:jjja'in!t'r;;lijlit<,


"'~--='." lV{ .' ~~""""""7-.~''''''Y;:~'''''''''"~'''''~~~'''' -',""';~.t;,.", -~,-.,,".,_,_
.. ~'T"

26 Seakeeping reh. 1 Ch. I} Seakeeping 27

pitch and heavemotions. The damagingeffectsof shippingheavyseas over the bow allbeen added to the navalarchitect's armouryofweapons:seakeepingperformance
began to be experienced. The punishing effects of high speed in rough weatherwere predictionshould now be a routinein any ship designoffice.
... ....; not fully understoodand at least one ship (HMSCobra in 1901) is believedto have Unfortunatelythese developments have not been accompanied by muchreadily
been lost after her hull broke in two after slamming in roughweather. obtainable literature on the subjectoutsidethe specialist papers and publications of
At the same time the steadyingeffectsof tall mastsand a good spread of canvas the learned societies and researchinstitutes. The time therefore seems ripe for the
were lost and the new steam ships were found to roll heavily. It is ironic that this publication of a standard text on seakeeping covering all essential aspects in some
beneficial effect of sails has only recently been rediscovered with the emerging detail.
technology of wind-assisted propulsion for low-powered merchantships. Although the underlying physical principles of seakeepingtheory are not gener
At about this time William Froude, an eminent Victorian engineer. proposed to ally difficult to understand, the intimate details are mathematically complicated. It
build what would become the world's first model towingtank at Torquay in Great follows that calculations of ship motions and related phenomena require access to
Britain. He had recentlydevelopedscaling laws for predicting the resistance ofships suitable computer programs and computers. No real progresscan be made without
from tests on models and he intended to use the tank for the required scale model them. Fortunatelymanysuitableprograms are availablejn educational.researchand
experiments. The British Admiralty accepted Froude's proposal on the condition designestablishments as wellascomputerbureauxthroughout the world". The PAT
that he alsousedthe tank to investigate ways of reducing the rollingmotionof ships. 86 suite of seakeeping computer programs (available at the Admiralty Research
In due course towing tanks were built in manydifferent countries. These were Establishment at Haslar in the United Kingdom) was used for the examples of ship
~.
often fitted withwavemakerswhichallowed the behaviourof modelshipsinwaves to motion calculations presented in thisbook.
be studied at leisure and provided. for the first time. a technique for refining a full No book can hope to cover sucha complex subject completely. Indeed such an
scale design to ensure adequate performance in rough weather. These model undertaking would be inappropriate for all but the most specialised readers. This
experimentswere usuallyconfined to tests in regular head or following waves with book is therefore intended for the practising (and practical) navalarchitect and the
c; occasional tests at zero speed in beam waves. Tests at other headings or in more , student. It ishoped that others on the fringes of the profession will alsofind the book
realistic irregular waves were impossible because of the long narrow shape of the useful.
towingtanks and the simplicity of the wavemakers. t
These early model experimentsallowedsomelimiteddevelopmentsin the study r
of seakeepingbut theycould not be usedto predictthe actualperformanceof shipsat
sea because no techniquefor relatingthe behaviourof the modelin the regularwaves
!
;:, of the laboratoryto the behaviour of the ship in the chaoticenvironmentof the real
oceanwasavailable. This situation prevailedfor sixtyyearsor more and the studyof
I-
seakeeping remainedin effectivelimbountil the publication of a landmarkpaper by i,
St Denisand Pierson in 1953. Thisshowed. for the firsttime, how thisproblemcould I
be solved using the techniques of spectral analysis borrowed from the field of
electromagnetic communications.
At about the same time theoretical methodsof predictingthe behaviourof ships i

in regular waves were being developed. The breakthrough came with Ursell's
(l949a.b) theory for predicting the characteristics of the flow around a circular
cylinder oscillating in a free surface. Classical transformation techniques allowed
these resultsto be applied to a widerangeof shapesof ship-like cross-section and the
I

1
i

&
fundamentals of modem ship motion theory were born.
These developments some fony years ago provided the basic tools required to ,i
1

develop routine techniques for the prediction of ship motions in something i


approaching the real irregular wave environmentof the ocean. It was now possible ,
~

r' for the first time to predict the rough weather performance of a ship at the design
,.
f
~

stage and to allow seakeeping to take its rightful place in the designprocess.
Since that time seakeeping has remained an active field of research, but
,a
~

developments have been in the nature of progressive refinements rather than f


spectacular advances. Techniques for designing roll stabilisers. criteria determi i
I~
nation, predictionof long-termmotionstatisticsand operational effectiveness have
behaviourof shipsin roughweatherare no exception.However.weshallsee that it is
often possible to simplify matters and treat certain limited aspects of these flows as
two-dimensional, In thiscase the flow isalways in a planeparallel to the x-y plane as
shown in Fig. 2.1. There are no variationsof velocity. pressure.densityor anyother

...>
2 o

Fluid dynamics

2.1 INTRODUCTION
Manyaspectsof the behaviourof shipsin roughweather depend on the general laws
.
of fluid flow. The study of the waves on the sea surface. the resulting responses to
them and detailed considerations of the flow around appendages such as roll
stabiliser fins are all based on the classical equations of fluid dynamics which were
firstexpounded by the great mathematicians of the eighteenthcentury. An extensive
knowledge of fluid dynamics is not required for an understanding of seakeeping
theory: nevertheless. a basic knowledge of certain aspectsof the subject is needed
and this chapter is intended to give the necessary grounding. Readers requiring a Fig. 2.1 - Frame of reference for two-dimensional ftows.
more detailed treatment of the subject are referred to O'Neill and Chorlton (1986).
At the time when the basic axioms were first established the results had little
practical application, and remained only of academic interest until the advent of property of fluid in the directionnormalto the x-y plane. For convenience the fluid is ...
flight and powered ships in the late nineteenth century. Even then the practical assumed to have a constant depth d metrest.
application of this rigorous early work was often hampered by the impossibility of
solving the resulting equations for any but the simplest of cases. It was usually
necessary to pretend that the fluid was 'ideal'; that is. it had no viscosity or surface
2.2 EULER'S EQUATIONS OF MOTION FOR AN INVISCID FLUID
tensionand wasincompressible (i.e. the densityremainsconstantat alltimes).These
rather limiting assumptions resulted in predictions of fluid flow which were some Euler developed the basicequationsof motion for fluid particlesby considering the
times at variance with the observationsof experiments. forceson a smallrectangularblockof fluid. For present purposeshisderivation may
Fortunately for the student of seakeeping. the neglect of viscosity. surface be simplified by considering only two-dimensional flow: in this case the block has
tension and compressibility in these equations allows goodtheoreticalpredictionsof sidesof length Ox. oy and d metres and has itscentre at a point (x, y) in the x-y plane
manykindsof fluidflow whichare important inthe determinationofthe behaviourof as shown in Fig. 2.2. Ox and oy are at first supposed to be small but finite.
ships in rough weather. This is not to say that water does not have viscosity. surface In general the properties of the fluid which are of interest (pressure. density,
tension or compressibility; rather that these qualitiesapparentlyhavelittle effect on velocity. acceleration etc) willvary throughout the x-y plane but will have specific ".f
the fluid flows concerned. So relatively simplesolutionsto many relevant problems valuesatthe point (x.y). Supposethat the pressureat the point (x.y) is PkN/metre::.
are possibleusingthe classical equations of fluid dynamics describedin the following A possiblevariationof pressurein the x directionisshownin Fig.2.3. Obviously this
sections. )01
T The usc of the word 'depth' docs not necessarily imply that the r-y plane is horizontal.
Fluid flows are. in general. three-dimensional and those associated with the

--- -- --- - _.~-#

"':'-';="'""''''''''*'''';'''"'-';C~''-;'''"~.>'''ii,.,~,." ..,,:z,s;.'':='"''''O"'''~''''''''';' ny;' 1<;0- W'I ~' f "-'ioWa'*",*",' fV~,.,~.<~- ., -" ',-,:.....8imc- 'M ....<' I
~~_"',,,..,...~~.~~~,,.""'...~~. ,&., ;;::',.1:<+...,,* ....N ! :;:S; .. ~j ,'f"~~t<::'"~~.-....."..~~~~--,.,<-.,,-,.-"*",,,..,. ~---""'--'_'0"t"-'~'-m-<'~",""7,'~,",-- ...~-

30 F1uid dynamics {Ch.2 Sec. 2.2] Euler's equations of motion for an inviscid fluid 31

~
If
. witl result in different pressures on the end faces of the block and give rise to a
'pressure force' in the x direction. Other possible forces might be externally applied
(such as gravity) or due to friction as adjacent fluid overtakes or is overtaken by the
'<i
. ,
block under consideration. If the fluid is assumed inviscid (that is. it has no viscosity)
there can be no frictional forces and the only forces which can exist are therefore due
to pressure differences or are applied externally.
If the dimension ox is small the variation of pressure in the x direction may be
r-i~
I~"
~'
approximated by the straight line of slope'

(P- ~~)C) Y~(PT ~se z ):


dx2 ~
MC)c)v ap
ax
~
kN/metr~/metre

t .)y
as shown in Fig. 2.3. Then the pressures at the centres of each end face of the block
shown in Fig. 2.2 are approximately

\-.
ap Ox ,
p-- - kN metre on the side nearest to the origin
ax 2
y
ap Ox ,
p +- -2 kN/metre on the side furthest from the origin
-c Fig. 2.2- Euler's equations of motion: forces acting on a particle in the x direction. ax
These expressions are approximate because the pressure variation in the x
direction will not if! general be linear. We introduce a further approximation by
assuming that the average pressure over each end face is the same as the pressure at
the centre of each end face. These approximations will improve as the block
, dimension ox is reduced and eventually become exact if the block size becomes
'" infinitesimal.
Since the end faces have an area ox d metres? the net pressure force in the x
direction is approximately

/..-.....-. Slope ;'P


dX
ap 8X) oyd- (ap Ox).
P+-- ap
8yd = --oxoyd
pI ~Jr ( p -ae- -
z ax2 ax
kN

The volume of the block is Ox oy d metres'. If the mass density of the fluid is p
TIT tonnes/metre' the mass of fluid in the block is p Ox oy d tonnes. So if X is the
externally applied force per unit mass the resulting force in the x direction is
,.. tx
Xp Ox oy d kN
.,. Fig. ~.3 - Variation of pressure in ther direction .
and the total force (pressure plus external) is

ap
- ax Ox oy d + Xp ox oy d kN
32 Fluid dynamics [eh.2 Sec. 2.31 Equation of continuity j)

These forces result in an acceleration uof the fluid block in the x direction. From Substitutingequation (2.6) in equation (2.2) we obtain Euler's equation of motion
Newton's second law for the.\' dircl:lion:

force = mass x acceleration 1 ap


X- - - =
p ax
011
II -
ax
all OU
+ u - +-
ay at
metres/second-
,
(2.7a) .. ,.
so
A similar analysisfor the y direction gives
- ~~ ox oy d + Xp Ox oy d = p Ox oy d u kN (2.1)
I ap au au au ,
y- - -
pay = /I - + U -
ax oy + -at metres/second- (2.7b)
Hence dividing by the volume. of the block. Ox oy d.

These equations. as we have seen. are approximate for finite dimensionsof the
l ap . ,
fluid blockbut becomeexact if the blockdimensionsare madeinfinitesimal. They are
X -- - = u metres/second" (2.2)
pox

The fluidblockwillhave somevelocitywhichwill havecomponentsin the x and y


valid for inviscid flow but the fluid may be compress'ble. In the general form stated
they are insoluble. .
directions. We shall designate these as u and u respectively. These component
2.3 EQUATION OF CONTINUITY
velocitieswillvarywith time and withthe position(x, y) of the particle. For example
A second fundamental equation. the equation of continuity. states that fluid is ..
-

u = u(x. y. r) metreslsecond neither created nor destroyed. Consider the small rectangular volume shown in
Fig. 2.4. Again the centre is at (x. y). the sides are of length Ox. oy metres and the
I: fluid is d metres deep. Note. however. that in contrast to the moving block of fluid
so that the total differential of u is ~
usedto derive Euler's equations. this volumeremainsstationary relativeto the axes.
In physical terms it may be imaginedas a wireframework and weare concerned with
au au au . the rate of fluid flow through its open faces.
du = - d:c +- dy + -- dt metres/second (2.3) '14.
ax ay ar If the velocitycomponentsof the fluid at the centre of the frameworkare again u
t..
and u metres/second and the massdensityat that point is p tonnesl metre", the mass
of fluid flowing in the x direction through the centre of the frame is approximately
The component uof the acceleration in the x direction is
PU oy d tonnes/second, Again this result is only generally exact if the volume is
infinitesimal so that the valueof pu at itscentre is the same as the average valueof pu
.
= -du au d:c au dy au , 0
over the area oy d. The product pu will in generalvaryover the entire flow regimeand
ax -dt + -oy -dt + -ar
u = - metres/second- (2.4)
dt have different valuesat the two end facesof the framework. Following the approach
used for pressure variations in the derivation of Euler's equations. the mass flow in
but the x direction through the face nearest the origin is approximately

d:c
u = - u = -
dy
metres/second (2.5) ~~)Ox)
--ax- 2 oy d tonneslsecond .into the framework
dt' dr ( pu - --+
f
o(pu) ax)
i.
so that ~ d s: sI d out of the framework
:t ( pu +-- - ax uy
2
tonne secon .
through the opposite face ~
~
. au au au ~
u = u ax + u ay + at metresseccnd" (2.6) Hence the net mass flow into the framework through these two faces is

'--""'-.....:.~." ,.. -""~.:...<4.'-'_A. -..'.'~'o.~~,_~~.:..:.._"-."


, i
t>_
t
~~}~!'!~r''''''''~.~'' Wk R lb'_ClI.~"""''';:;''''''''''''*.'&t'.J>I.,iJ!'.'''! ~"'""'""'~~_~"':O:'::'''7'=7'7'''''''''',''''">,,",~_~...,-._n ... , ...",.,. -l~~''''''''''-'_''':~''~-''''''-'''--

34 Fluid dynamics [Ch.2 Sec. 2.4] The velocity potential 35

0. x ., changes. In this case the rate of increaseof the massof fluid insidethe frameworkis
(ap/at) ox oy d tonnes/second and this must balance the net mass flow through the
""', ; faces into the framework. Hence
"
~~ Ox oy d = - e~:) + a~;) Ox oy d tonnes/second

~.J and the general equation of continuityis

('.!U-a~';I~)i\YC:::>
Q! ( ~).,y (X~y) C:::>''aX2
" u +a(\Ju ) ap
at
= _ (a(pu) + a(pu))
ax ay
tonnesfrnetre' second) (2.8)

. which is valid for both real and ideal fluids. If the densityisconstant (i.e. the fluid is
incompressible) this reduces to

au au
ax + ay = 0 seccnds " ' (2.9)

which is the equation of continuityfor an ideal fluid.


Y

Fig. ~.~ - Equation of continuity: mass flow in thcr direction.


2.4 THE VELOCITY POTENTIAL
,
~. The flow of an ideal fluid can be described in termsof the velocity potential. This is a
function <I>(x. y. t) whichhas some value everywhere in a fluid flow and varies such
tl(pu) that the velocity componentsare givenby its partial derivatives:
- --a:;- OX oy d tonnes/second
acl>
u = - r.retres/second (2.lOa)
The same approach is used to find the net massflow into the framework through the ax
other pair of faces: acl>
u = - metres/second (2.lOb)
ay
o(pu)
- --ay Ox oy d tonnes/second
-, As an illustration Fig. 2.5 shows velocity potential contours for a particular
two-dimensional fluid flow in the x-y plane.The potential maybevisualised as a 'hill'
,. and the total massflow into the framework is with the fluid velocities given by the slopes in the appropriate directions. So the
velocity u in the x directionat point Q isobtained bytakinga sectionat the plane AA
........ and finding the slope of the velocity potential at Q. The velocity v maybe found by a
_ (O(PU) + a(po) Ox oy d tonneslsecond similarmethod.
ax ay The velocity potential has no physical significance in itself. Although it has a
value everywhere in an ideal fluid flow itcannot be measureddirectlyand issimplya
The massof fluid within the framework is approximately p ox oy d tonnes. Since mathematicalartifactwhich is useful in deriving the characteristics of a wide rangeof
the dimensions of the framework are fixed.this masscan only change if the density ideal fluid flows.
It isoften moreconvenientto workin termsof polar coordinatesas definedin Fig.
36 Fluid dynamics [Ch.2 Sec. 2.4] The velocity potential 37

0,
IS )( &

/~~J) )
t
i
-.r'"
A 1/ ~ ~~ ~ ;1A CIl
a1

~s
;;
c:
o

YL
' /
/ /
.
t;1:...
<J)

Is

<p

~
.-
lVCOSIl
......-:. Slope=Cl'l> =u
ax
~
Section at AA

"
11"
Fig. 2.5 - Velocitypotential in a two-dimensional fluid flow.
~

Fig. 2.6- Conversion to polarcoordinates.


2.6. If the velocity potential at A (r. 8) is <t> and the velocity potential at
B (r+ Sr. 8 + (8) is <t> + o<t>. it follows that

<I>+o<t>
~ a<t>
= <t>+- a<t>
ax ax+-
ay oy or (~ sin 6 + ~; cos 8) + r 08 (~~ cos 6 - ~; sin 6) ',(

a<t> a<t> ,
'= <t> + a<t>
ar or- + a<t>
a6 06 metres-'1second = ar or + a6 06 metresvsecond

or and. from equations (2.10)

a<t> ax + a<t> by = aa4> or + 3<t>6 66 metresvsecond or(1< sin e + u cos 6) + r 06 (u cos 8- u sin 8)
ax ay r a
= ~~ or + ~: 08 metresssecond
Now
~
Separating radial and tangential components we obtain for the radial velocity
Ox = r oe cos 6 + or sin 6 metres

(iy = (ir cos 8 - r 08 sin e metres


u, = u sin 6 + u cos 8 )I.

so = alP
ar metres-'1second . . away from t he ongm
posmve ;. (2.11a)

I" -.' ,. ""~"_'~'.,.~_",,"'_ ~.~_.,,,~~.,, ...._".... ,.'_. ~" ....

-"-.~'"----~~'-~H_".~"_,-"J.) __, . ~,_.,_ ..~~.~._",",,,- .""~~"-=''''~'''' ~"--W'l%hr'fii"*,,,xj"," h 1\ "'if ~~,.;;;o.,A'~ . U;;"'


~~:':':i~"""f"""}"""'~~ ..;:!!{"'j' t..,~. {if -W, ,)., 'fSi '~~~""'~-'-~''''':'''~'''='~.".~r''''_'N''h0~'''''

38 Fluid dynamics [Ch.2 Sec. 2.5] Integration of Euler's equationsof m.otion: Bernoulli'sequation 39

and for the tangential velocity if p is assumed to be constant (i.e. the fluid is incompressible). Equation (2.16) may
nowbe integrated to give
'"\' ..
Ue = u cos e- u sin e
= ;1 a</l
a9 metres-'1second . . antic
posmve . IockWIse
. (2.J1b) q~ a4>
-+--Q+-p = F-<(y. r) '1 d'
metres-rseconc- (2. 17a)
2 ar p

where q2 =u2 + U.! (q is the total velocity) and F, is an arbitrary functionwhichdoes


2.5 INTEGRATION OF EULER'S EQUATIONS OF MOTION: BERNOULLI'S not vary withx (in other words F-< is a 'constant' of partial integrationwithrespect to
x), A similar procedure for the y component yields
EQUATION
An analogousforce potential n mayalsobe definedfor the externallyappliedforces
so that q2 + a4> _ {1 + ~ = Fv(x. I) metresvsecond- . (2.17b)
2 at p .

x = an ,
;~~

ax metres/second (2.12a)
where F; is not a function of y. Since the left-harrd sides of equations (2.17a) and
(2.17b) are the same. it isclear that the functions F, and F; mustbe identicaland have
y = ay
an metres/second
, (2.12b) the same values at all positionsand that they are therefore functions only of time.
-, Hencethe integrated formof Euler's equationsof motionfor an inviscid incompres
sible fluid is .
Partial differentiation of equations (2.10) gives
2 aq, p
au _ a~4> au i..+ __ Q+_ = F(t) metresvsecomf (2.18)
ay - axay = ax second- I

(2.13) 2 at p

, .

". Now equation (2.10) shows that the velocities are functionsonly of the deriva
Substituting the 'x' equations (2.10a). (2.12a) and (2.13) into Euler's equation of tivesof the velocity potential and not of the potential functionitself. It follows that
motion for the x.direction (equation (2.7a we obtain any arbitrary constant may be subtracted from the potential function without
affecting the velocities. The quantity
an 1 ap au -au a.!4>
---
ax p -ax = U -+u
ax ax +axar
- metres/second 2 (2.14)

Now
I: F(r) dt metresilsecond

hasthe samevalue everywhere in the fluid at somearbitrary timerand maytherefore


au
uax a (u.!)
- -- ax 2" metres/second" (2.15a) be regarded as a constant. We may define a new velocity potential

.. "
.....
au a 2' )
ax - ax
u- (u 2
metres/second (2.15b) q,' = <1>- I~ F{t) dr metresvsecond

and equation (2.14) may be written without affecting the velocities in any way. Then

2 P)
-a (u.! u 3<!>
-+-+--{1+- = 0 metres/second' (2.16) aq,' = aq, _ F(r) dr metresssecond
at at
ax 2 2 al P
40 Fluid dynamics [Ch.2 Sec. 2.1] The stream function 41

2.7 THE STREAMFUNCTION


and equation (2.18) becomes Consider a small rectangular element of sides ox and oy and depth d metres in the
two-dimensional flow field shown in Fig. 2.7. The volume flow through the element is
2 act>' P ,,,,"
.r
!L + - - 11 + - = 0 metresvsecoruf
2 at p
x

This alternative form of Bernoulli's equation is sometimes convenient. The prime


may of course be omitted so that

q2 a<t>
-+--11+-P = 0 metres-'1second'- (2.19)
2 at p

If the flow is steady (i.e. no variations with time) equation (2.18) reduces to

q2 P = F metresvsecond-
--11+- ' ,
(2.20) y
R ...
2 p

where F is now an arbitrary constant. If there is no external applied force the force
','= f (u dy- v dxl

potential 11 is constant and the equation reduces to the well knownfonn >
Fig. 2.7- Definitionof tile stream function.

P+ pr = PSlag kN/metre2 (2.21)

U oy d metresvsecond
where PSta g is another arbitrary constant. If the fluid is brought to rest at some point
so that q =0, the pressure willbe in the positive x direction and
"
P = PSta g kN/metre2 u Ox d metresvsecond

and PS ta g is known as the stagnation pressure. in the positive y direction. So the total volume flow across the line OS.R is

2.6 LAPLACE'S EQUATION


Substitutingequations (2.10) for the velocitypotential in the continuityequation for
df(U dy - 0 dx) metresvsecond
an incompressiblefluid (equation (2.9 leads to the Laplace equation
The related quantity
a
2<t>
+a
2<t>
= 0 seconds- 1 '-+
(2.22)
ax 2 ay2
which must be satisfied at every point in an ideal fluid flow. A potential function
'V = J (u dy - u dx) metresvsecond (2.23) ,..
which satisfies Laplace's equation will therefore describe some ideal flow of an
is the volume flow across the line OSIR per unit depth of fluid.
inviscidincompressiblefluid.
Considernow a second line OS2Rjoiningthe originto the point R. Providedthat

.l.,

.. ~~"-'-'-= ~.-'-'q--""".~~.<.-... --~-'W?M"",';-~~}"-';&"1}"'r,-,,"''r~~L;;;. .. <""".,..,;<:~IJ<.;.~'"~~\,,


~~~~~~-'''c8?''''l~-l1''''~P'l.l .."_,CT_'*!&,,i, ,-,vN"" A::;W', :q;it,~! '~"'"C"~~~"'m>,"l"':'~~'~_""'~'_'_"')"'"~'''''''
",.",,-.,..,. ""-"~'''''' __~'',",",.,_.~.,~._,,~,~ ,",
-, -" "-~-~....l="""""'~'""-".J.,,_~._
...."._~,_

42 Fluid dynamics [Ch.2 -Sec. 2.8] Somesimple fI~ws 43

no fluid is created or destroyed in the space between the two lines (i.e. the equation 2.8 SOME SIMPLE FLOWS
of continuity (2.9) is satisfied) the value of Ijf will be unchanged. Ijf is therefore a
'\
-. ,
function only of the positionof R and is independent of the path of integration. Ijf is
2.8.1 Uniformstream

Considera uniformstream with velocity .Umetres/second inclinedat an angleX to the

called the stream function, y axis as shown in Fig. 2.8. The velocities everywhere are given by

Differentiatingequation (2.23) gives


opc::: x
..
dljf = u dy - v clx rnetresvsecond
j

but

dljl =
Oljf
ax dr + aljf
ay y
d 'd
metres-rsecon

..
USinx

, .

..... ~ u~.,
so the velocities are
R

-;
aljl y
u = ay metres/second (2.24a)

oljl
v = a; metres/second (2.24b) Fig. 2.8 - Uniform stream in the ;:-y plane.

Referringto equations (2.10) wesee that the stream function isrelated to the velocity
'"
h_
potential by u = U sin X metres/second
v = U cos X metres/second
aljl _ o<jl

ay - ax metres/second (2.25a)
and the stream function at any point R is, from equation (2.23)

dIV a<jl IjI = Uy sin X- Ux cos X metresvsecond (2.27)

ax = metres/second (2.25b)
ay
From equation (2.10)

Lineson which IV isconstant are calledstreamlines.and the fluidflows along these


lineswhenthe flow issteady. Streamlinesintersectlinesofconstant potential at right
angles. u = U sin X = ~; metres/second

" In the polar coordinates defined in Fig. 2.6 the stream function is related to the
tangential and radial velocities by a<jl

,
tJ = U cos X = ay metres/second
'""
Ue = ~; metres/second - (2.26a) and the potential function is therefore

1 a'l' <jl = Ux sin X+ Uy cos X + an arbitrary constant metresvsecond (2.28)

ur = ; ae metres/second (2.26b)

We note in passingthat the potential functionsatisfies unlace's eouation. confirm


Somesimple flows 45
44 Fluid dynamics [Ch.2 Sec. 2.8]

ing that it represents a valid flow of an ideal fluid. Fig. 2.9 shows streamlines and
equipotential contours for a uniform stream derived from equations (2.27) and
(2.28).
,j>,.
r
2.8.2 Sources and sinks
Fig. 2.10 illustrates a point source at the origin in the x-y plane. The source may be
visualised as a narrow tube with porous wallsextending over the depth of the fluid.
Fluidiscreated within the tube at a rate md metresvsecond and the source strength is
said to be m metresvsecond. At some radial distance r metres the fluid recently
created by the source is flowing outwards at a rate md metresvsecond across a
cylindrical boundary of circumference 2lTr metres and depth d metres. The radial
velocityistherefore

md m
u, = - -
2lTrd - 2lTT metres/second

Fig.2.9_ Streamlines and equipotential contoursfor a uniformstream. ~


where

r = y(x 2 + y2) metres


.r
The component velocities are

. mx aej> aljf
u :; U, SID a = --
2lTT2
= -ax = -
ay metres/second
I I >-\It- 1_ I
x
= ur cos a = my
= -aej> aljf
= - - 'Il'\'
u --
2lTr ay axmetres/second
'*
Integrating, we obtain the stream function for a point source at the origin:
y

Ijf
m
= - tan - I -
(y) =
m (lTl2 - 0)
metresvsecond (2.29)
Fig.2.10- Pointsourceat the originin the r.-y plane.
2lT x 211'

and the potential function is

Ijf := _ m tan-I
2lT
(l)x = m(lTl2 - 0) metresvsecond
2lT
(2.31)

m .{ 2 m ,
<l> = 2lT '
log, v (x + y-) = 211' log, r metresvsecond (2.30) '~
ej> = _!!!. log, y(x 2 + y2) = - m log, r metresvsecond (2.32)
2IT 2IT
Streamlinesand equipotential contours for a point sourceare shown in Fig. 2.11. ~
As expected, the streamlines radiate outwardsfrom the sourceand the equipotential Note that the equation of continuity is violated at the source (or sink) but is valid

contours are concentric circles centred on the source.


elsewhere in the ftow.
A sink is simply a source with a negative strength. Fluid is therefore drawn into
the source at a rate md metresvsecond and the stream and potential functions are

."c."~,_.~~"""'...j ... '>_'-.:.i.",... ,._~..:,,,,,,\_._~_.,~~~~~.c.<;.,;


,.,.ij,; ~~>;4?~";':'1iWs;\ta i&l#ji'>iM"t&j"i;uf"Hitet,N.tdE;~iZi:oi;;.";'ir~WX'!YtT.k'
46 Fluid dynamics [Ch.2 Sec. 2.81 Some simple flows 47

Now
tan-I a.-tan- I b = tan- 1 1 +ab
(a-b)
and the stream function is

m
= -tan _I ( -2ys ) metresssecond
'11 21T x 2 + y2 _ S2

if S2 is small compared with x 2 + y2. this is given with sufficient accuracy by

Fig. 2.11 - Streamlines and equipotential contours for a point source at the origin in the x-y
plane. '11 = _!!!..
221' ( x 2 +2ys
y2 _ $2
) metresvsecond

2.8.3 Doublet or dipole


Stream and potential functions for sources. sinks and uniform streams may be added If we now choose to move the source and sink towards the origin and at the same time
to build more complicated flow patterns. One of the simplest combinations is a to increase their strengths in such a way that the product M 2ms metrevsecond =
source of strength m and a sink of strength - m on the x axis as shown in Fig. 2.12. remains constant. we may write for the stream function

My _
'11= M cos e metressseeond (2.33)
21T y(x 2 + y2) - 21TT'

and the potential function is

4> = Mx _ M sin e
" 211' y(x 2 +y 2 ) - 2m:- metresesecend (2.34)

The combination of a source and a sink at the origin is called a doublet or a dipole.
Fig. 2.13 shows the streamlines and equipotential contours associated with a dipole
y
aligned with the x axis. These are all circles centred on the y and x axes respectively.
The centres of the circles are at (0. M12ir1V) and (Ml2iTcjl. 0).
In a similar way it can be shown that the stream and potential functions for a
Fig. 2.12 - Combination of a source and a sink on the x axis.
dipole aligned with the y axis are given by
The stream function is then
'11 = Mx _ Msin9
221' y(x 2 + y2) - ----z;:- metresvsecond (2.35)

III = !!!.. tan " ' (_Y_) _!!!.. tan" ' (...1-) metresvsecond cjl = My _ Mcos e
21T x +s 21T X- $
211' y(x 2 +y2) - - 211'r metresssecond (2.36)

So changing the orientation of the dipole exchanges streamlines for equipotential


contours and vice versa.

.1.
..-;~,,~,~~~~-- . . ,- 't*"l """f ,s,-'O-P.--..
j ' '--;:"-)"Q-~.j;W"- ~,,,,,~,':;,,", l~'
~!\"Bf~_k!?- .
'._.W~,~, ,,.";.,.~,,,,, '!f. .% ~, :<t ::>t:--w~~_." '--"'-'~3"""",~."""...""~,.,."._."-.,,. .,.,,.....,~,,~~_~

I
48 Fluid dynamics [Ch.2 Sec. 2.81 come sun~lI: alll'" S

/'
,
... - .... " .....
,
$ =
M cos (m9)
"71r'"
metresvsecond m = 1.2.3.... (2.40)

If m = 1 the multipoles become the dipoles a:l e,' ::.' "~.:,, '<'~~ '. -... >: ..
examples of streamlines and equipotential contours lOr va;-,c..r:; .. __v __ ..
,-
, .A

shown in Fig. 2.14.


x
,.-
. .:. .......

r-
,."
....~
~.:~ "I'''~'

-,
-
",/
_ ...- ~~
" .... - y
- ./
,.
'.'

Fig. 2.13 - Flow patterns associated with dipole aligned with s: axis: ---. streamlines:
- - - equipotential. .A;

I
L-.

mal (OIPOlfl m-3


1.8.4 Multipoles ,:
Sources, sinks and dipoles are often termed singularities because their stream and _.._._R_-;
potential functions adopt infinitevaluesat the origin.The potential functionssatisfy
Laplace's equation everywhere except at the singularity itself and these functions ~
therefore represent valid flows of an ideal fluid.
These particular singularitiesmay be visualised in physical terms. As an example
we have already seen that a source may be imagined as a porous tube from which
fluid flows in all directions. However, this is not a necessary requirement for a valid
potential function. A wide range of singularities exist which represent no simple
physicallyunderstandable dow. Yet they still represent a valid flow of an ideal fiuid
provided that the potential function satisfies Laplace's equation (2.22). Multipoles
fall into this category. The stream and potential functionsfor multipolesalignedwith
the x axis are defined as .

m-2 (QUADRUPOLE)
M cos (me) metresvsecond m = 1.2,3, .. (2.37)
= 2lTT'"
1jf
t Fig. 2.14 - Multipoles: - streamlines; - - - equipotentials,
M sin (me) metresvsecond m = 1,2.3, ... (2.38)
$ = 2nr'"

and the corresponding functions for multipolesalignedwith the y axis are


1 2.8.S Flow arounda circularcylinder in a unifonn stream
-./

The stream and potential functions for a uniformstream of velocity U metres/second


parallel to the x axis are, from equations (2.27) and (2.28), .
M sin (me) metres~lsecond
",'

1jf = 21T7'" m = 1,2.3,... (2.39)

1jf = Uy metresvsecond

50 Fluid dynamics [Ch.2 Sec. 2.8] Somesimpleflows 51

ep = metre,s2/second 103/33(6) RACK 9.1


Ux '" = ,0 metresvseeond

These may be combined with a doublet to give from the set of streamlines defined in equation (2.41), we find it reduces to

'" = Uy
My
2IT(x:' + y ')
,
metresvsecond (2.41)
y =0 metres (2.43)

.I. Mx , or
'I' = Ux + 2IT (x-+y
' ') metresvsecond (2.42)

x 2 + y2 = -M metres! (2.44)
and these functions are plotted in Fig. 2.15. 2ITU
Equation (2.43) is the x axisand equation (2.44) is the equation of a circle of radius
'1' INCREASING
..
I I I I I
a = ~(2~U) metres (2.45)

and we can see that equations (2.41) and (2.42) represent the flow around a circular
cylinder in a uniform stream. For simplicity only streamlines and equipotential
contours outside the circle are shown in the illustration of the flow in Fig. 2.15. The
velocitiesare obtained by differentiating equation (2.41) or (2.42):

2
a", _ 0$ _ U _ M ( x - y2 ,) metres/second (2.46)
u = ay - ax - 2IT (x 2 + y2).

ax = -ay - - .. ...
- -a",
tJ - a$ _ Mxy metres/second (2.47)
-
At the points A:( - r. 0) and B:{r. 0) the velocities are zero. and these points at

the front and rear of the cylinderare caIledstagnation points. As explained in section

2.5 the pressure is then equal to the stagnation pressure of the fluid.

At C:(O. - r) and D:(O.r) on the top and bottom of the cylinderthe velocitiesare

u = 2U metres/second
tJ =0 metres/second
Fig. 2.15 - Potentiaillow around a circular cylinder in a uniform stream.
So the velocity at these points is twice the freestream velocity and. as would be

expected. parallel to the x axis. The pressure at these points is a minimum given by

Now we have seen that the lines on which the stream function is a constant are equation (2.21):

streamlines. Since in steady flow the fluid flows along these lines. anyone of them
could be replaced by a solid boundary of the same shape without altering the
characteristics of the rest of the flow. If we choose the particular streamline P = Pstag - 2pU2 kN/metre2 .

,
.v. I..;,I..
_f"",*,,-,,,,~,",~,,):;"0"'>''''~''~~~''''''''~-''''~''~~~>M;~~~;';':,.,v;' " ".' ,.,&.(_",-~ . .
~~r:r~""'~'''1''''''~'''-'ii\l.i''''j(4 d0 .. , y ..... 4'4;,,<;:;9..,c;2~i*~. >~'"""'''''~'"O':''~'-~';'~~-,~~~",<,"-"",,,,--,,-~~,, .
I' , ,_.". 'M_,j,"'''''... ,." 'w..;.
-t " ..

Sec.2.9} (;ontonDlU traDslOClIllUaOllS


52 Fluid dynamics [Ch.2
(e) circular cylinder in a uniform stream parallel to the x axis
2.9 CONFORMAL TRANSFORMATIONS
The solution for the potential flow around a circular cylinderin a uniform stream is
but one example ofthe many ways inwhich complicated flows can be synthesised by w(Z) .. Uz +-2
M
metres~/second (2.52)
adding the stream and potential functions for elementary flows. Manysuch solutions
can be built up by suitable combinationsof sources. sinks and uniform streams.
1[Z
,.. .A

A powerful additional technique allows a wide range of further flow patterns to The velocities u: and u: are obtained by differentiating the complex potential
be derived from these basicsynthesisedsolutions.The method involves mappingthe
function: .
streamlines and equipotential contours of a known flow into the streamlines and
equipotential contours of the required flow using some suitable mapping function.
In order to exploit the method we redefine the x-y plane of our known flow dw(z)
-d =
a ($. + 1'1'.)
-a . a$..
= -a aljl.
+ I -a' metres/second
solutions (for example. the flow around the cylinder in the uniform stream) as the z x' x x
complex plane z such that J
z = x+iy metres or

where i = '1/( -1). _dw(z) = .


-1 - .
a (<\I + . )
I"'. =
a<\l.::
-I - - +--alii. metres/second
We then define a complex potentialfunction w(z) bycombining the potential and dz ay' T - ay ay l\

(2.53)
stream functions to give = u. - io: metres/second

w(z) = w(x + iy) =: $: + i'l': metresvsecond (see equations (2.10) and (2.24. '.,..
Suppose that we require to find the flow pattern (i.e. the streamlines and the
This often results in a considerable algebraic simplification. For example. the equipotential contours) around some arbitrary shape which is defined in another
complex potential functions of the elementary flows already considered are simply complex plane ~ such that
(a) uniform stream at an angle 1. to the y axis
~ = XBl + ixBJ metres
~
w(z) = Uz sin l. - iUz cos 1. metresvsecond (2.48)
1 (see Fig. 2.16). .
(b) source at the origin
I
-- --
~ Plane
w(z) = ~IOg., [z] metresvsecond (2.49)
II
ZPlane
_......
(c) sink at the origin
i x.,
i x

w(Z) = - ~ log, [z] metresvsecond (2.50) j


~
..;.

~ ix.,
(d) doublet aligned with the x axis at the origin
.~
....
iy

M
= -2 , d
.11
w(z) metres-rsecon (2.51) Fig. 2.16 _ Mapping a shape in the z plane into another shape in the; plane.
1[Z
54 Fluid dynamics [Cb.2 Sec. 2.9] Conformal transformations 55

Then we need to find a mapping function streamlines in the z plane must map into streamlines in the ~ plane. By a similar
argument equipotential contours in the z plane must also map into equipotential
~ = f(z) metres contours in the ~plane.
The velocitiesin the ~ plane are obtained by differentiatingthe complexpotential
and its inverse with respect to ~:

z = F(~) metres dw{z) dz dw{z)


T=d~~
relating all points in the z plane to corresponding points in the ~ plane. We require
the function to map all points on the surface of the body in our knownsolution in the = F'(~) (u: - iv:)
z plane (for example, the circular cylinder)onto the surface of the body about which = u~ - iv~ metres/second (2.5S)
the flow is required in the ~ plane. Finding a suitable function to map a simple
geometric shape in the z plane into an arbitrary shape in the ~ plane may be a
formidable problem. However. a wide range of sh~ can be produced and it is As an example consider the mapping function
often possible to achieve a reasonable approximatio""'to a desired shape using
relatively simple mapping functions.
Let us suppose that a suitable mapping function has been~nd. Then for any
point in the ~ plane we may calculate the numerical value of the rnplexpotential ~ = aD (z + ~ + :~) metres
(2.56)
J
w(z) at the corresponding ~oint in the z plane. Let us call this W( where

W(~) = W(XB2 + IXB3) / where the coefficients an, at and a3 are real. Choosing different values for these

coefficients allowsthe flow around the circularcylinder in the z plane to be mapped

= w(z) into the flow around a wide variety of shapes in the ~ plane. We shall meet this

= ljlz + i'l'z metresvsecond mappingfunction again in Chapter 11where we shall see that it is used to obtain the

solution to the flow around shapes of ship-like cross-section. The coefficientsare

Then then required to haveparticular valuesto ensure that the mapped shape in the ~ plane

approximates to the required hull cross-section. However, for the time being let us

choose the values


dWd(~) a
= -aa (4)z+i'l'z) = - i - (4)z + i'l'z). metres/second
aXB3
z XB2
an=l', a3=O
and equating real and imaginaryparts we obtain
Then the mapping function becomes
a4>z _ a'l'z a'l'z = _ a4>z metres/second (2.54)
aXB2 - aX B3' aX B2 aXB3

Comparing equations (2.54) with equations (2.25) it is evident that the complex ~ = z+~z
potential w(z) calculated in the z plane must also represent some valid fluidflow in
the ~ plane. alZ
Consider the value of the complex potential on any streamline (including the = Z+JZI2
surface of the body) in the z plane. Sincethe stream function isconstant everywhere
along a streamline the complex potential must be of the form
On the surface of the cylinderwe have
w(z) = real number + i x constant
z = ia e- i9 metres
Since w(z) has the same value at corresponding points in the ~ plane it isclear thatthe
i = ia ei9 metres
,-.,",~."~,.....4oJ;.:;-~.,.,,,"~,,"~,,:,-,- ..;,,;:;,,,",,,~~<~"~- '''"'-':...''';'.;':;'..<:,,,,,,,,~...,~~,~~~...,~:-
56 .'
Fluid dynamics [Ch.2 ~ . Sec.2.9J Confonnal transformations 57
Increasing

Izi = a metres
.

i I I II : :: : :: :' : ; ! I I

.=a I: l \' . _: .1 I I

:: :t~t
JJ-~l :: : 1 :
I : J J.
where ).

~
J : : .:
; ;i t i :
I( M) ~~:~
~1:: ; ~ tJ~"""'~-+!
I: ;.
a = "2zrU metres (equation (2.45

and the circular cylinder maps into an ellipse whose equation is ; A.' 0 8-' ~I=O

f~,~! ~---+-!-
} !; t~:~~~~_
ia
; = ia e-ie ial e
+-~
a

=++~)COSO+(Q-~)sinO metres ~ : ; ~f [ 1B~\\ : ...

1 : ~: i :: ttS=~ ~ ! ::
and whose major and minor axes are
I: ! : : ; : : I: !~ ~ ~ :
,.
a+ at a- at metres. Fig. 2.17- PotentialDow around an elliptical cylinder in a uni(onn stream.
a a

Fig. 2.17 shows the streamlines and equipotential contours obtained from this
mapping function for the particular case of ZU Z
_ 3z ( a ) (2.57) -.'
-:- 3z Z _ az 1 - zz metres/second
a::
at metres
3 The front and rear stagnation points A r and B, on the circular cylinder map into the
corresponding points ~ and B~ on the ellipitical cylinder (Fig. 2.17). Putting z a =
The major and minor axes are then in equation (2.57) yields Ut; - iUt; = 0 metres/second. so that these points are also
stagnation points in the ~ plane. Similarly the points C, and Dr on the circular
4a 2a cylinder. which experience the maximum velocity 2U metres/second in the z plane.
3 . metres map into the corresponding points Ct; and Dt; on the elliptical cylinder. Putting
3 =
z ia metres in equation (2.57) and equating real and imaginary parts gives
The velocities are obtained from equations (2.53) and (2.55): 3U
U = 2'" metres/second ....
dz dw(z)
~-iu~ = dl: ~ u = 0 metres/second
,,,'
for the velocities at <; and D~. The velocities at any point in the ~ plane may be found

=z 2_
-Z2
- - M)
d ( Uz+
by thismethod.
at dz 2lTZ
58

2.10 VISCOSITY
Fluid dynamics

Although neglect of viscosity can often be justified. it cannot always be ignored. In


particular. viscosity has important effects very close to the surface of a body in a fluid
[Ch.2

~
~;;;:
~.
"':<
;
Sec. 2.11] LiCtingsurface characteristics

parallel and normal to the local body surface.) At the transition point eddies will
begin to grow in the boundary layer and the velocity distribution changes to the
lurbu[entprofile also shown in Fig. 2.19.
59

and is responsible for the existence of the 'boundary layer'. a thin layer of slow ;,0
The shear stress applied by one layer of fluid moving over another is given by
moving fluid immediately adjacent to the body surface. t
Consider the flow around the body shown in Fig. 2.18. Immediately behind the i
1 t = ILw -du
dy
kN/metre 2 (2.58)

Fall~n~_
pres/"
.r:"
./~

Rising pressure
~
j~
where p.", is the coefficient of viscosity. At the surface this appears as a frictional force
on the body. Clearly the force applied to the body by the turbulent boundary layer is

~(l
~. much greater than that applied by the laminar boundary layer.
/ uV Outside the boundary layer the velocity gradient is very small and the viscous
,'0
/ ,/1
iu r
!lU len!
forces are negligible. So potential flow methods can be applied provided that the
/ V
tL TranSition
boundary layer is relatively thin. This is generally true over the forward portion of
the body where there is a favourable (falling) pressure gradient. This helps to
f Laminar Boundary layer minimise the growth of the boundary layer and keeps the flow firmly attached to the
.------------------,
Stagnation point
separates
body surface. However, the pressure gradient beyond the maximum diameter of the
. body is adverse (rising) which tends to slow the flow and leads to a rapid thickening of.
the boundary layer. At some stage the velocity gradient at the surface may become
Fig.2.18- Growthand separationof boundarylayer(boundarylayerthickness exaggerated). zero as shown in Fig. 2.18. Beyond this point flow reversal occurs and the boundary
layer is said to separate. Large-scale eddies which are not predicted by potential flow

methods will then occur. Predictions of forces based on potential flow may then be in
front stagnation point the boundary layer will be laminar with a smooth well ordered
error.
structure and the velocity profile shown in Fig. 2.19. (x and yare here taken as
Flow separation may occur whenever there is an adverse pressure gradient on
bodies with tapering tails. The more rapid the taper, the more likely is separation. In
1.0 I I I I I I particular, separation is virtually guaranteed at any discontinuity or sharp corner on
r. ~II. the body surface.
,)

0.8
yt~
~
t

0.6 2.11 LIFI'ING SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS

0.4

0.2
,
i.
$
Ship hulls are usually fitted with appendages such as rudders, propeller shaft brackets
and roIl stabiliser fins. These can influence the behaviourof the ship in rough weather
and we shall require a method of estimating the forces developed by them. These
forces may be estimated using potential flow methods based on the techniques
described above, but results of adequate accuracy can be obtained using the simple
empirical formulae given below.
~_.
Consider the typical lifting surface appendage shown mounted on the hull in Fig
2.20. The geometry of the surface is conveniently defined by the root and tip chords
c, and e, and the outreach b. The mean chord is 0

1.0

c = cr+c, metres
Fig. 2.19- Laminar and turbulentvelocityprofiles. 2

_.,.'''_'''".,CJ~;(;,'''''7','"''''''"=,{''''..'''.~~<u .........,''_,...C,.;.:.W~\~:~ ~~'I4,~~"" ,... :o.> ." ."" , . >..,,;-M_"'_,:a.;,_.~.;. . . ,a.


-'>- .. ,'N,",<."""''''''''''''''-'

,WJ:::::':!M W_'*" >~ ~~-"'-7'''!~~{:r:: ;;e"


..,;:lX.. ,,,,.,Y,._ ....",<-:.",''o'
~_~""I-"'''~''''~~~~''''''''''"''''jY'~_"" "''''."y,o-'', ....'''"''"'...,..,",~~~,_"-> __.-,'c"

leh.2 Sec.2.11} 1J11W1g llllll~ ~'ll':Laall""'"


60 Fluid dynamics ~.
...
c. ..,
~'=l,.
r- : L (2.61)
'':'
CL = !pU2A
D (2.62)
Co = !pU2A ,- -"

Most surfaces used in ship applications have.a streamlined symmetricalsection

like that shown in Fig. 2.20. For these sections there is no lift at zero incidenceand

the drag is a minimum. Fig.2.21showstypicalnon~imensionallift characteristicsof

A b ;i 'such a surface.
-~

.,
:$
. ,

~.
-t.
" High aspect
~ IS ratio
.~

J ..
c
'y

't
:t ..e
Ii:

Stall r

L u
.~

1
~i
"
.~
:5
~

Fig. 2.20- Lifting surface notation.


--. ~
~
'j
Low aspect ratio

Incidence angle a

and the planform area is ~q Fig.2.21- Typicallifting surfacecharacteristics.


-,
.~

A = be = ~(c,. + c.) metres' (2.59) ~ For small angles of incidence the lift coefficient increases more or less linearly
~:J with the angle of incidence and we may write the lift coefficient as
The aspect ratio, defining the general proponions of the surface. is ~
'3
1 _ del. IX (2.63)
2b 4b Cl. - dIX
a=-=-- (2.60) t
C c,.+c, .!
\ where dCL/dcx is the lift curve slope. , .
When the surface is at an angle of incidence IX to the incidentflow itwillgenerate a The slope of the curve diminishes as the angle of incidence is increased and
lift force L and a drag force D. These forces are respectively normal and parallel to maximum lift occurs at the stall angle cx.'all' The;lift curve slope increases with the
the direction of the incidentflow. aspect ratio, but surfaces of high aspect ratio stall earlier and more abruptly than' ,.;
For a given angIe of incidence and planfonn shape the lift and drag are found to those of low aspect ratio. The lift characteristicsof symmetricalsections are only
beproportional tothe square ofthe forward speed and thepianform area. So the lift weaklydependent onthe section shape.
and drag may be expressedin non-dimensional terms as
,
62 Fluid dynamics

Whicker andFehlner (1958) tested a variety of lifting surfaces oflow aspect ratio
such as are typically employed on ships and derived an empirical formula for the lift
[Ch.2
I
"
:::
'$
.-.~
,"
Sec.2.11} Liftingsurface characteristics

direction) becomes zero. The drag force is then very large and acts normID to the
plane of the surface. For this case Hoerner (1965) gives
63

curve slope as a function of aspect ratio:


i Co = 1.17 (2.66)
~
-.....;:.~""';'""7~
I JIll'Q
dC L =
US + v(a~ + 4) radians"

i
(2.64)
da

Fig. 2.22shows this formula plotted for rectangularliftingsurfacestogether with ,1;

1"., '
., ..
',ji;
.~

';L-
5. i i i l i t

:- 4
...c:
,j
"'
:;; I
.;
'6
i.i.
s:
J
"..
1
D
go 2
..:;
iii -j
>
u
,,,
~
~

:~
.

o 4
I
6
,
8
I
10
I
12
:-~

i
$

Aspect ration a .~;

~
Fig. 2.22- Liftcurveslope. (After Whicker and Fehlner(1958).) ~-;;
'~
$}

illustrations of the surface planfonns associatedwith various aspect ratios. Clearly ~:':'?

~
the lift curveslope increasesdramaticallywithincreasing aspect ratio: in other words
longslender liftingsurfaces (likea glider'swings) are muchmore effectivethan short
stubbv surfaces.
whicker and Fehlner also reported the stall an~les foundfor their liftingsurfaces.
These are given approximately by

cx"all = 1.05 - 0.445a + 0.075a: radians for 0<3.0 (2:65a)


cx,'all = 0.39 radians for a> 3.0 (2.65b)

If the angle of incidence approaches90 degreesthe lift force (normal to the flow

,--""_~._"k~'~ __ ""-"~"'C~-"Y-"-t.""~~~,~~~"",,.~,..-,).cx;t,i:--_.~, . . ,,. -; ' ~} " ' Y9 - -' \" i.


~~~<::~~"?~'1~t~J., _1 '-';4 \3 M-~_~_/'~~~"""':'~Y.'~'-"~"'''~ '''"''~.-''~''''',''''R",,'_''"''''''

~
~

1
~ Sec. 3.2] The potentialfunction 65
~.'
~,
(
~

r
r

3 ~.

Regular waves ">

.
!
l

'! ""
3.1 INTRODUcrION
The waves whichinfluencethe behaviour of ships at sea are generally irregular and ~I
more or less random in nature. No two waves have exactly the same height and they ).

travel across the surface at different speeds and in different directions. Techniques Fig. 3.1- Regularwaves.
for coping with the chaotic nature of the real sea surfaceare described in Chapter 4,
but it is first necessaryto discuss the characteristics of ideal regular waves. T the wave period: the time interval between successive crests (or troughs)
Such waves never occur in the real ocean environment although they can be passinga fixed point
produced in laboratory towingtanks and form the basisof manyseakeeping model a: the instantaneous waveslope: the gradient of the surface profile (in radians)

experiments. Of equal importance is the fact that the theory of irregular waves is lXo the maximumwaveslope (in radians)

based on the assumption that they can be represented by 'superposing' or adding HI,,- the wave steepness.

together a suitable assemblyof regular waves. So it is clear that the characteristicsof


regular waveshave a profound influence on the behaviourof ships in rough weather These wavesprogressacross the surface in a regular orderly fashion. Each wave
even though they are never actually encountered at sea: an understanding of their crest advances at the same steady velocityc so that the wavesnever overtake each
nature is one of the vital tools in the study of seakeeping. other and the wavelength "-and period T remain constant. The shape of each wave
Fig. 3.1 showsa train of regular wavesadvancingacross the surface of a body of remainsthe same and the wholewavetrain appears to advancelike a rigidcorrugated
water of constant depth d. The waves are two-dimensional: that is, they advance in sheet. Fortunately for the student of seakeeping, the characteristics and detailed
the x direction and the crests are perpendicular to the x axis. The crests may be structure of regular wavesare very wellpredicted by the technique of classical fluid
considered as extendingto infinity on either side of the x axis;alternativelythe waves mechanics outlined in Chapter 2. In common with the treatment of many other
may be imaginedto be advancing downa longnarrowtank bounded byverticalwalls amenable flows 'itis necessaryto assumethat the water is incompressible and inviscid
parallel to the x axis.
in order to obtain a workable solution. This does not imply that water is actually
The salient characteristicsof the waves are:
incompressibleor inviscid: merelythat the valuesof compressibility and viscosity are
such that they havelittle discernibleinfluence on the characteristicsof regularwaves.
~ the instantaneous depressionof the water surface below the mean level We shall also assumethat the effectsof surface tension are negligible. This restricts
l;o the waveamplitudeor verticaldistancefromthe meanlevel(y=0) to a crest or the validityof the solutionsto wavelengths greater than about 0.1 metres.
a trough; r.o is alwayspositive '0(
H the wave height: twicethe waveamplitude
3.2 THE POTENTIAL FUNCTION
1 the wavelength: the horizontaldistance(in the ~ direction)betweenone crest
(or trough) and the next
It is first necessary to find a potential function Q> which describes the fluid flow
c the wave celerity: the velocity of an individual crest in the x direction
associated with a regular wave. A large number of potential functionswhichhappen
66 Regular waves [Ch.3 Sec. 3.3] Pressure contours and the surface profile 67
to satisfy Laplace's equation (2.22) could be formulated and each would describe
some flow ofan ideal inviscid incompressible fluid. The choice ofapotential function Hence
to describe some particular flow is a matter of considerable mathematical skill and
insight coupled, no doubt, with a good deal of trial and error. Lamb (1932) showed n = gy . metres21second2
that the potential function
and equation (3.2) becomes
g/;o cosh{k(d- y)] cos (kx - (r)t)
4> = ro cosh(kd)
(3.1)
:! aljl P
i.. + - - gy +- = 0 metresvseconrf (3.3)
is appropriate to the case of the two-dimensional regular wave of amplitude ~I
propagating across the surface of a body of fluid of any constant depth d as illustrated ~
In calm water the pressure at depth yp metres is
in Fig. 3.1; k and (r) are constants whose physical meaning will be derived in Section
3.3.
The potential function satisfies Laplace's equation (2.22) so it is confirmedas a P= pgyP kN/metre2
valid representation of some ideal fluid flow. If we assume that the bottom boundary
(the sea bed) at y = d is imperviousor waterproof there should be no flow through it. and a constant pressurecontour isa horizontalstraight line. Under regularwavesthis
So contour is distorted as shown in Fig. 3.2. The depth of a point on this contour is
Y=Yp+~ metres
(U)y=d =0 metres/second
where ~ is the depression of the contour below the depth yp'
and hence, from equation (2.10b),

( a4
oy y_d
= 0 metres/second

and the chosen velocity potential also satisfiesthis condition.


~

3.3 PRESSURE CONTOURS AND ras SURFACE PROFILE


Bernoulli's equation (2.19) for the unsteady motion of an ideal fluid Constant pressure COntour Yo Y
/P"'!!9YO
aljl' P
r
2
i.. +- - n +- =0 metresvsecond-
2 at p
(3.2) .. _.-.-.........
.,,------
must apply everywhere and can be used to findthe surface profileassociatedwith the

velocity potentialgiven by equation (3.1). The only force applied externally to any
t
fluid particle is gravity. Hence, from equation (2.12),

Fig. 3.2 - Constant pressure contour beneath a regular wave.

x =-an=0ax metres/second"

Since the pressure everywhere along the contour and the depth yp are both

Y"= ~~ =g metres/second' constant, the quantity

,;...~.~.,,,,<&,,,,~.~~..~
..~.~;~""''''~..,"~.."-'''''''''''.~..~'''"~,~...~~..:..._'''~" ..~ ......'''~~-. . .~ ~ _ .
z:e $tQU_& ~. ;.,_.;:;,_a:s.~:W~W:-K,*,.!i;:.,\ l!A ..$ q:: ?O:C. SQ . lII'lS'~ eo "'''''''''''''''~--'''''~'~.~~..,.._ .._-_. ->.~._' .... ""'~";'-"'-<-'''''''''''''-.''~A'"._''''''''''~'''"_'''''''''Y"<'-' w_"'F"""w'~"'" w',

68 Regular waves [eh.3 Sec. 3.3] Pressure contours and the surfaceprofile 69

J: (~- gyp) dl metresvsecond


This and many other expressions which follow can be simplified by using the
following approximations:
,
:.-
r

(a) for water depth greater than about half the wave-length
willbe a constant on the contour at any giventime r.It maybe added to the potential ~
without affecting the velocities in any way(sincethey are functions of the potential
gradients and not of the potential itself).So we maydefine a newvelocity potential cosh[k(d - Yp}] _ sinh[k(d - Yp)J cosh[k(d- Yp)] sinh[k(d - yp)]_ (_ k )
"

cosh(kd) - cosh(kd) sinh(kd) sinh(kd) - exp yP


(3.6)
$' = $ + J:. (~- gyp) dt metresvsecond
tanh(kd) == 1.0

~,
so that (b) for water depth lessthan about 0.03 timesthe wavelength .j.
!
"
a$' a<l> P ~
cosh[k(d - Yp)J == 1.0, cosh[k(d- yp}]_-.!.
at =at + P- gyP metresvsecond" ,j
J sinh(kd) - kd (3.7)
cosh(kd)
i
~ ;.
and equation (3.3) becomes !
~_.
sinh[k(d- Yp)] k(d- ) sinh[k(d- Yp)J d- yP

j
cosh(kd) yp , sinh(kd) d

a<l>' 1
1.. +- - g ~ =0 metresvseconrf
2

2 al
il

l
tanh(kd) == kd

and the prime may now of course be omitted. So the constant pressure contour in deep water is given by
~
If wenowassumethat the velocity issmall(tantamount to assuming that the wave
amplitude 1;0 is small compared with the wavelength)we may neglect q2 so that the ~p = 1;0 exp( - kyp) sin (lex - <Ill) metres (3.8)
depressionof the constant pressure surfaceis
and in shallow water by

1(a<l metres
~P=g at Y_Y.+!;,. ~P =1;0 sin (lex - <Ill) metres (3.9)

or, since ~p is small, As an illustration of these equations Fig. 3.3 shows typical pressure contours
beneath a regularwaveof length 100metres in three differentdepthsof water. These
resultshave been obtained by setting l= 0 in equations (3.5), (3.8) and (3.9).
In very shallow water (d = 2 metres) equation (3.9) appliesand the amplitudeof ~

_!(a<l metres
~P-g al yay.
(3.4) the pressure contour is everywhere the same. In deeper water (d =20 metres)
equation (3.5) is appropriate and the amplitude decreases as the bottom is
approached. In very deep water (d = 100 metres) equation (3.8) applies and the ~"

Substituting the expression for the velocity potential (equation (3.1) yields the amplitude of the pressure contour then becomes very smallat the bottom.
equation for the constant pressure contour at depth j, metres: The surface profile is one of these constant pressurecontours (with the pressure
equal to the atmosphericpressure). It is obtained by setting
cosh[k(d-yp)] sin (kx-Wl) metres
~p =1;0 cosh(kd) (3.5)
Yp=O metres
70 Regular waves [Ch.3 Sec. 3.3] Pressure contoursand the surface profile 71

Au 00
l!'P

J7~~ A t=O tRot, Wave shapes at successive time intervals

\/ \ n V\T
i I

~i VV1/"'\1
:' ii . ; I

I~O.25
1 I
'-./ .' ./ 1 '- , '- / ,j"
I I
' I
I

:
'
I
I
x.

., I <: I I
1 \/ V 1 r------:
I (1.5

r.1d
KX,

". II
' N !i
\
I
,
I 10.75
;.
I
1 I

'---_l
I
I I J
i
I I, I ! 1.0 t, t,
ll1lplh2m Depth 10m Depth 100m

., Time history of elevation atxsX'"


Fig.3.3- Constant pressurecontours under a 100metrelongwavein variousdepthsof water.
Fig. 3.4- Regularwavespicturedin space and time.

in equation (3.5) to give


A second photograph taken a short while later at t =t 1 seconds would reveal
~= ~ sin (kx - rot) metres (3.10) exactlythe same wave profilewith the same amplitudeand wavelength moved along
the x axis a distance wt)/k metres. This can be seen by recastingequation (3.10) as
whichis the equation of a regular waveof smallamplitude ~, metresadvancingacross
the fluid surface. This result is independent of water depth. So the chosen velocity
potential function does indeed represent the fluid flow associated with a regular
wave.
~ =1;0 sin[ k(X - ~l)] metres
Equation (3.10) is illustrated in Fig. 3.4. Consider first the wave shape in the
geographicalor spatial sense. This is tantamount to fixing time at some instant t as, and the term wtl/k (metres) can be recognised as a phase 'lag' which governs the
for example, when taking a photograph. If for simplicity we choose t = 0, equation location of the wave along the x axis. As time passes, the lag increasesand the wave
(3.10) is reduced to advancessteadily away from the origin with velocity

1; = 1;0 sin(k-x) metres CJ)


C= k metres/second (3.12)
which represents a simple sine wave starting at the x origin.
The wavelength is A metres and the 'wave number' k is nowseen to be
c is the wave celerity or phase velocity.
An alternative view of events can be obtained by fixing the distance x and
21T allowing time to proceed. Physically this can be considered as recording the time
k=-y: metres-I (3.11)
historyof the rise and fall of the water surfaceat some fixedpoint x = Xl metres. The

"""'~'<-Yi"~-,=~ ......-,~""""".=;r,~ ..,",-,,,,",,,~~,""""'d~~~""""~~"';">~'''';;;'''":~~'"_""'_'.~~~<,,",,=~i-3!


~"'-."'- "._..::,.,~~~t\"~t.I!i!l.p$tI:Q ..i,%,*D$, .!l,<,w ~,X;;;:O;'!9 -'\'/_"""_~ __=~'~~, _ v " " ,_ _ ~,.~~_<".. ;.-. -;"--;"~r"""""'~_.-!~~,..'""."",.~,,,-,,~,,,,,,,,,,-,,~~

n Regular waves [Ch,3 . Sec. 3.5] Regular wave caaractertsucs 73

resultingsine wave of amplitudeL:tl metresand period Tseconds isalso illustrated in the surface elevation. Fig. 3.5 shows the surfaceprofileand the corresponding wave

Fig. 3.4 and the frequency CI) is related to the period by =


slope at some time t t I The waveslopeisa maximum whenthe surfaceelevationis

zero and vice versa.

)..r

m=~ radians/second (3.13)


'!!f
The time history is given by recastingequation (3.10) as

~ = -\;0 sin[ m (t- ~I)] metres (3.14)


r. ~

and the term 10: 1/ 00 (seconds)may nowbe recognised as a phase 'lag' which governs
the temporal location of the sine waveon the taxis.
~
~
3.4 WAVE SLOPE

,~
It is sometimesconvenient to quantifythe effectsof the waves in termsof their slope
rather than their elevation or depression below the mean level. The slope of the
pressure contours may beobtained bydifferentiatingequations (3.5). (3.8) and (3.9)
as appropriate.
For any depth yp
III
. -____,__1
F ,. . . /
)

~- cosh(d- Yp) cos(lo:-ror) radians


\"J/
a,.. = dx - k~ cosh(kd) (3.15)
Fig. 3.5- Wavedepression and waveslope profiles at t = 'I'
',.{
For deep water
The time history of the wave slope at a certain location x=x 1 is obtained by
lX" = k~ exp( - kyp) cos(10: - roll radians (3.16)
~- recastingequation (3.18) as
~
For shallow water
lX = lXo cos[m(t - ~l) ]
IX,. = k~ cos(kr - oot) radians (3.17)

and this iscomparedwith the corresponding surfaceelevationtime history(equation
The wave slope at the surface is obtained by setting yp =0 metres to give. for any (3.14 in Fig. 3.6. The waveslopelagsthe surfacedepressionby aquanerofa wave
water depth.
period.
,..
lX = lXo cos(10: - roll radians (3.18)
3.5 REGULAR WAVE CHARACTERISTICS
where the waveslope amplitude is ' ....
At the surface the verticalvelocityof the water is
lXo = k\;o radians (3.19)

So the waveslopevariessinusoidally in both time and space in muchthe same wayas


a~_ _[a cll]
at - [V],_t - ay ,-t;
74 Regular waves [Ch.3 Sec.3.6J Particle orbits 75

.Joe!
,., }.
;.;
Figs 3.7 and 3.8 show how the wave period and celerity vary with wavelength for
various water depths. As might have been expected, long waves have very low
~s
frequencies and vice versa. As if to compensate for this the celerity increases with
I wave length: for example, the celerity of a 1000 metre wave is almost 40 metres!
second (over 75 knots) in deep water compared with only about 4 metres/second

f~
(about 8 knots) fora 10 metre wave. This dependency of celerity on wavelength
distinguishes surface waves from some other forms of wave motion (notably
electromagnetic radiation) and we shall see that it is responsible for some peculiar
properties of waves on the sea surface.
In shallow water the wave celerity is reduced and the 1000 metre wave's deep
.~. water celerity is almost halved in water of 50 metres depth. In very shallow water the
celerity becomes independent of wavelength and depends only on the water depth:

c=Y(gd)
"

3.6 PARTICLE ORBITS


According to equation (2.10) the velocities at any point under the wave can be found
by differentiating the potential function given by equation (3.1). This gives
Fig. 3.6- Waveslope time historyat,l=,l,_

u= :~ = - Uo sin (10: - cor) metres/second (3.22)


Since the wave elevation is assumed to be small this may be written

v =ocP
oy
=- Vo cos (10: - rot) metres/second (3.23)

~;= [~:1.0 =~u ~~ t.o =i[~:f 1.0 where the velocity amplitudes are
(see equation (304. Substituting equation (3.1) forthe velocity potential we obtain
the relationship between the wave-frequency and the wave number for regular waves g~ cosh[k (d - y)} metres/second
of small amplitude ~, in water of any (constant) depth d: Un = ro cosh (kd)
(3.24)

CJ) =y[gk tanh (kd)] radians/second (3.20) gkr.c, sinh[k(d - Y)\ metres/second
Vo =ro cosh (kd)
(3.25)
Combining equations (3.12) and (3.20) gives for the celerity
These relationships may again be simplified for the two special cases of deep and
shallow water. For deep water
c= ~(~ tanh (kd)) metres/second (3.21)
Uo =Uo =CJX;o exp ( - Icy) metres/second (3.26)
Combining equations (3.5)-(3.21) in various ways leads to a multitude of relation
and for shallow water
ships between wave frequency, period, number, length and celerity, and these are
listed for easy reference in Table 3.1. The deep water approximations are usually
considered adequate for most practical ournoses. Uo =ror.o; Vo =oX;ok(d - y) metres/second (3.27)
,.~",.,.~: ..",.".". ~"""""""'"'~~~"".~-'t;"""'''~~'_~"'''''''''''''''''''~~"~~..~,,:J:a.~f_''''~'''---'::'X>-'~-=."W~,_~.,~
Celerltv (metrell.eoondl
Wave frequency [radlens 'second]
~
0

-
0 U1

N
N

. "N ,.
. -<-.
. '!:If>!.'
lit
'"
II>

:n 0 :I
".
:n 0
'!"
'!"
.... ...:E
< ;J"if ....:.." i

i 1
00 Ill.
~ :l
... ."---".
I I <-
..
~
<
n
::J
U)
S
3~
~
~
,>,ffi"
I
::; co ~
I
n
n

---
Ii- !!t E .so :I
::I. ;;;
e, '"
n
".
~
~
::J
-f! ~i~
8 .---.
1
8 N
8 i
8 Q.

U
~
111 0 N
0
3 3 3 3
8 8
0

Table 3.1 - Regular wave relationships

Quantity in terms Any depth Deep water


of (d>O.5A)

211 211
Cll T
T T

k y[gk) tanh, (kd) y(gk)

A ~[2~8 tanh e~d) ] ~e~g)


c ~
c

211 211
T
Cll Cll

211 211
.
k
y[gk tanh(kd) y(gk)

211A

~ 8 tanh e~d) ~e;A)

2c
c -I1g

s:
Table J.t (COntinued)'

Quantity In terms
or
Any depth Peep water
(d>O.S)")
Shallow water
(d<O.03)") 1
Uo
t
T

k ~y(gk) exp( - ky)


1
'I

~ (2fTg) 1/2 COShe"(~- y)


1

r '(2fT8) Y
- 2fT )
t
J
'>0,/ T exp( -A
~[A Sinhe~d) COShe~d)] I
j

c
1
d

~oCJ> (d - y)
Vo
d

Table 3.1 (continued)

Any depth Deep water Shallow water


Quantity In terms
(d>O.SA) (d<O.03A)
or

Vo k
~ V(gk) sinh[k(d -
y(sinh(kd) cosh(kd)
y)J ~ V(gk) exp( - ky) ~ ~(5) (d~y)
~ V(2I1'g) COShefT(d y)
~~e~g) ex p( -~"y) 2~~ ~(5) (d-y)
A-

[.e e
y Asmh T
fTd
) cosh T
fTd
)]

Xo (-roly)
~oexp -g-' ~ ~(5)
T ~;; ~(5)

~cosh[k(d - y))
k ~ exp( -ky)
sinh(kd)

T
)
Table 3.1 (continued)

Quantity In terms Any depth Deepwater Shallow water ~


of (d>O.5l) (d<O.03l)

Xo
~o coshe1T(d)..- y})
x Y) ~oA.
~o exp (- 21T
-)..
.hCT
sin
1Td
)
211

c ~ exp( -c~Y)
:Q
2y
Yo ro -ro )
~o exp ( -g ~
ij"
~
T ~ exp( -~Y) m

~ sinh(k(d - y)
k ~ exp( -ky)
sinh (kd)

~ sinhe11 (~-y)
x ~ exp( - ~1TY)
.heT
sm
11d
) ~

P
w
C ~exp( ~~y)
=, ut :; : . It 1'( ii1tri'eWS!!t!!e"'5rt=ytjP'=htU!!'l'P!!f1li:*~M~e
Table 3.1 (continued)

Quantity In terms Any depth Deep water


(d>O.5"')
Shallow water
(d<O.03l)
w
w
of
~
!;o(d-y)
Yo d d

,, s.
~

~I, 14 0 ro 2ro
~ gT

I
I
T 411

Ig.
~(;k)
It
b
Ir k ~ (;k tanh(kd) ( 1 + sin~~:kd) a
,
~[~~ tanhe~d)]
1
W I + 41Ti ] /gl
x
x sinh(4~d)
VB11
[

c c
c 2
~
~

~(8:)
t
~'
r d
e
I
I
-l!i$5;A,Il'SI:J:l5.(iK<'..4e,. 1_ _ ,~~-,..,.,.-;'"'-~~-!.-~.~.... A ,","",,,,,,,,,,,,,,-,,~_~=~~,-_,~,,,,_,",,"~~"""'_~h'_"_'_"""" ,- -'->hV'~_~'~~"_~ ,,~_" "'_",~
'--1 '.~.""""''''''~lt~n, '-fT",.>-~,",~_j1""'I"'-"w",,''--''''''

84 Regular waves [eh.3 . Sec. 3.6] Particle orbits 85

O'bitalveJocilY amplilude (mellalsecondl

Fig. 3.9 illustrates these formulae for shallow and deep water as well as for the 2.0 2.5 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 0 0.5 1.0

rrn
0.5 1.0 1.5

I Y I
0
general case. The vertical velocityis alwayszero at the sea bed (since the bottom is
assumed to be impervious) and the motion is therefore purely horizontal at this
i i I I
n 0 ,
-
~
;

point. The horizontal velocityis generallygreater than the vertical velocityexcept in


I
very deep water where the two amplitudes are everywhere the same. In shallow'
rl 1-1 l- I I -I 1-1 -l 0.2S y'd

Ij ~-_.
water the horizontal velocity amplitude is constant but it generally increases with v. u.

jLJ
height above the sea bed and assumes an exponential variation in very deep water.
Followingour physicalinterpretation of the characteristicsof the waveprofilewe 0.5
sba1l now adopt the same techniques for examining the geometry of the structure of
the flow at a particular location by fixing x and y and allowingtime to proceed. Since
the waveamplitude is assumedto be small the velocityamplitudes givenby equations , 0.75
(3.24) and (3.25) must also be small and it follows that a particle of water oscillating Depth

2m

about some point (x, y) will never stray very far from that point. The path of the
panicle can therefore be calculated approximately by assuming that it is always I I I I , I I I U I I I I 1.0
subject to the velocities calculated for the point (x. y). With this assumption the
particle's trajectory is obtained by integrating equations (3.22) and (3.23) to give -..-'
Fig.3.9- Orbitalvelocity amplitudes; ), = 100 m, ~ =1m.

Llx= -Xo cos (la-WI) metres (3.28)

6.y= Yo sin (Ia - WI) metres (3.29) ~

where Llx and 6.y are the deviationsof the particle from its datum position (x. y) and
the amplitudes of its displacementsare Depth 10 m

xo= Un =gk~ cosh[k(d - y)] ~cosh[k(d - y)] c::::::::::: =>


metres (3.30)
00 00
2
cosh(kd) sinh(kd) <: =
=
).

;
_ ~ _gk~ sinh[k(d - y)) =~ sin~[k(d - y)] metres (3.31) -=
Yo - 00 - (J)2 cosh(kd) smh(kd) I
i
.-L-
I
I
Bottom
nwrmTTIT

Again the deep and shallow water approximations may be applied. In deep water Fig.3.10- Orbitshapesundera 100 metrewave.

Xo =Yo =~ exp( - ky) metres (3.32)

and in shallow water Seabed is approached. At the bottom the particlesmerelyoscillateto and fro with no

vertical displacement as the wave passes overhead. The major (horizontal) axes of

the orbits decrease as the water depth increasesuntil the orbits becomecircularwhen

xo=t. yo=~(d-y) metres (3.33) the water is very deep. In this case the orbit radius decreasesvery rapidly(exponen

tially)with depth belowthe surface: at half the sea depth the radius is onlyabout 4% .

....
of its surface value. Fig. 3.11 shows the relationship between the profileof a deep
Equations (3.28) and (3.29) represent an elliptical orbit with major (horizontal) axis water wave and the circular orbit of a particle at the surface.
2ro and minor (vertical) axis 2yo' Individual particles of water under a wave will
therefore follow elliptical paths as shown in Fig. 3.10. At the surface (y = 0) the
minor axis is alwaystwice the waveamplitude but the orbits become flattened as the
86 Regularwaves (Ch.3 Sec. 3.8] Energy or a regular wave 87
c
Pressure amplitude fIcN.metre.l)

~
o 10 o 10
I

f~\~~ ~~~~/t
I 11 I / 1 1"'1 125

Fig. 3.11 Orbit of a particleat the wavesurface.


! y'd

0.5

3.7 PRESSURE FLUCTUATIONS UNDER A WAVE


The pressure at any point under a regular wave may be found from Bernoulli's
equation (3.3). If we assumethat the velocity is smallwe obtain
Depth
2m
~
L0:: I J L =1"
p== pgy + P I I '1.0

Fig. 3.12 Pressure amplitudes; A'" 100 m, 1;., "" I m.


so the pressure at any depth y metres oscillates around the steady hydrostatic
pressure pgy kN/metre2 The fluctuating part of the pressure is

- cosh[k(d- y)J .
?= - p~ StO (kx (Or) kN/metre2 (3.34)
cosh(kd)

x MasS/unit width= -e<;roc


In deep water this becomes

?= - p~ exp (- ky) sin(kx (Or) kN/metre2

,/:&\1'
(3.35)

and in shallow water


t
P= - p~ sin (kx - (Or) kN/metre2 (3.36) 'jbxL x

Fig. 3.12 shows the variation of the pressure amplitude beneath a 100metre long
wave for three different depths. In very shallow water the pressure amplitude is
constant and everywhere equal to the hydrostatic pressure associated with the
surface wave amplitude. In deeper water the pressure amplitude decreases with
y
depth and becomesnegligible at the bottom in very deep water.

Fig. 3.13 Potentialenergyin a wave.


3.8 ENERGY OF A REGULAR WAVE
The energyassociated witha train of regularwavesincludescontributionsfrom both and its potential energyrelativeto the undisturbed(calmwater) state is ip~2 Ox per
ox
potentialand kineticenergy. Considera smalllength of the regularwaveshownin
unit width of the wave. If we now allow0% to becomeinfinitesimally small we may
Fig.3.13.The surfacedepression~ is given by equation(3.10)and the massof water
integrate to obtain the total potential energysummedover a singlewavelength:
over the length Ox isapproximately - p~ ox per unit widthof the wave.The centreof
~~.".;f" ...,f tl,;~ "''l~~ ;~ ~nnrn'C;matelv - rl7. metres above the undisturbed surface I
,xx .M'~_..4L,:-:.>~'-'~~""'o>i~~_- .." .. ,~._._'.~.~~"" .._"'"~.""~~
~-"~"""n~lrM,,"",,,,,,,,,,,,-,-,,,:-1""'l""'''''''''''''_

88 Regular waves lCh.3 Sec. 3.91 Energy transmissionand group velocity 89

the total kinetic energy of the fluid in one wave length betweenthe surfaceand the

Ep =[!pg~2 dx= P~ J: sin 2


(kx-lIll) dr=
bottom:

= P~ joules per metre width of wave (3.37). e; = ~p f: (r~ q= dY) dx joules/metre


r'
r

Considernowa smallelement of fluid beneath a wave asshownin Fig. 3.14. The Substituting equations (3.22}-(3.25) in equation (3.38) gives
Zy-' .,

i. q== ,g ~~kd) {cosh: [k(d-y)] sin:(Jcx-<ol)


or cos
+ sinh=[k(d - y
cos:(lcx - roc)} metre;:/second2

and. after some manipulation. the kineticenergy is found to be

1< ; ( I \' .)( k = p~ joules per metre width of wave (3.39)


.-:..-

Soth-e potentialand kineticenergiesare equaland the totalenergyinone wavelength


y is r-

a E= pgf" joules/metre (3.40)

y!. .1 which leads to the remarkable result that the averageenergyper square metre of sea

i(

v surface is independent of the wave frequency and depends only on the wave )....

amplitude:

Bonom
E =pg~ joules/metre: (3.41)
2
Fig. 3.14- Kinenc energy in a wave.

massof the element per unit widthof the wave is p Ox oy and it has a total velocity q 3.9 ENERGYTRANSMISSION AND GROUP VELOCITY
given by
The energy associated with a sequence of regular waves is transmitted along the
direction of their propagation. The rate of energy transmission can be found by
q== u= + v"' (3.38) considering the energy flux acrossthe planeAA in Fig.3.15.We beginbycalculating ...
the rate at which the fluid on the leftof a small elementof height oy isdoingwork on
So the kineticenergy of the particleis the fluid on the right of the element.
Since the element is small the pressure and velocity acting on its face may be ;../
1PqZ hI oy joules per metre width ofwave regardedas constant (at a giventime)and the forceexerted by the fluid on the left is
oy
P kN per metre width of the element. The work done by the fluid on the left J,;
Ifwe nowallowOx and oy to become infinitesimally smallwemayintegrate to obtain uP oy joules per second per metre width. If we nowallow oy to becomeinfinitesimal
the total rate of transmission of energyacross the planeAA isobtained byintegrating
90 Regular waves [eh.3 Sec. 3.9] Energy transmission and group velocity 91

The rate of transmission of energy evidently fluctuates with time but we are
concerned with its mean value. Over a long period of time (or an integral number of
A waveperiods) the mean value of sin2 (kx - rot) ishnd the mean value of sin (lex - oot)
x is zero. So the mean rate of energy transmission is

E=p~c
4
(1 + . 2kd )
smh(2kd)
joules/(metre second) (3.43)

-.L d

by
Now the total energy is given by equation (3.41) and this energy is transmitted at a
u mean velocity given by
y T
Bottom .lG=!=~(1
E 2 + sinh2kd
(2kd)) metres/second (3.44a)
AI--"- -,_::--.~ ,,:, , ........

Fig.3,15 - Energy transmission in a wave. This relationship is plotted in Fig. 3.16. In deep water

over the depth of the fluid. Neglectingthe small contribution due to the portion of
fluid above the undisturbed surface level (y =0), the rate of transmissionof energy is 1.0. t I a:::::::tJ iii iii i

E= Jd uP dy joules/second per metre width of wave (3.42) 0.8


n

Using equations (3.22) and (3.35) we find that the energy is transmitted at a rate 0.6
(.)

2 2
~
. - pg @ sin (1ex - rot)Jd cosh2[k(d _ y)J dy 0.4
E- ro cosh2(kd) 0

pg21;ok sin(kx - rot) Jd y dy joules/(metre second)


ro cosh (kd) 0 0.2

After some reduction this becomes O' I '" I I I r I I


0.01 0,02 . _. ... _. .-
d,i.
E=_Po_'oO'- 1 + . 2kd).
,,,r2,. (
sm2 (lex - rot)
2 sinh (2kd) Fig. 3.16 - Group velocity.

pgl(;ok~~ _ sin(kt - rot) joules/(metre second)

''""'~~~k",,,,,,, J:~'r ;>~.4""1,';;~~ ...","""""r.~. '<"'-""''''i..w","~~""";,,".,.,<."w,,,,~,,~ __ ,," ". _... ~.~.,


.... ..
~--''"-''~'" ."-~."~ .._~.", "'~ ~-, ~-. ''''', -":"-'-'-""""~-""
'-"-4,:,'~'''~'-''''-~'-~;;;'-';'::~'''"''~''''-'"_",",,-''b'
::,,9--'5"- T'=--M1W-'f''rf-ini~~~'.~~. , ?iq
~-~~I"""=,A_. "A ..'i'*"h.*",Jl,~~'"">---~~'-.,,,,~~,...~_,,,,,,,,,_,

92 Regular waves [Ch.3

2kd
sinh (2kd) =0
and ~

c
Uo = 2 metres/second (3.44b)
4
In shallow water
Ocean waves .
2kd
1.0
sinh (2kd)

and
-"

Uo = c metres/second (3.44c)
4.1 WAVE GENERATION
For deep water we may interpret this result by considering the progressionof a As explained in the previouschapter, a knowledge of the characteristics of regular
group of regular waves down a laboratory tank. If the energy associatedwith each wavesis an important assetto the navalarchitect. However,suchwavesdo not occur
wave length is joules/metre the amplitude of the waves is. from equation 3.40. in the real ocean environmentand this chapter is concernedwith the characteristics r-

of naturally occurring'real' waves.


The waveswhichare of most concern are those whicharise in the ocean through

~ = ~(~)
the action of the natural wind. Other wave generation mechanisms exist but are of
metres (3.45) little practical importanceexcept in specialcircumstances.
The mechanismbywhichwind-driven wavesare formed is not wholly understood
or of particular interest to the average reader of this book. Suffice it to say that a
Each individual wave within the group is propagating forward at a velocity c steady wind blowing over an open stretch of calmwater willcreate rippleswhichwill
metresfsecond but the energy is only propagatingat cJ2 metres/second. So after one travel acrossthe suiface in more or lessthe same directionas the wind(see Fig. 4.1).
wave period each wave will have moved forward one wave length, taking half its
associated energy with it. It foIlows that half the energy of each wave must be left
behind to be added to the energybrought forward by the next wave. In this waythe Wind
total energy per square metre within the group is kept constant. o c> o
At the leading edge of the group the first wave wiIl be propagating into calm ~ ~
water. So this orderly exchangeof energyfromwaveto waveisinterrupted and after III CIlm OUr/1CI Ibl Ripples Ie) SmAil wav

one wave period the energy of the leading wave is halved. The wave amplitude is
reduced and this processcontinues as the leadingedge of the wavetrain propagates
downthe tank at the wave celerity. o
The leadingedge of the group proper (definedas the positionof the firstwave of
full amplitude given by equation (3.45 propagates down the tank at UG metres! ~

second and this velocity is called the group velocity. Individual waves within the
group propagate at the wave celerity c. which in deep water is twice the group
velocity(see equation (3.44b. ld) RiDola develoD on growing WIVes .>-'

Fig. 4.1- Wmd-gencr.llcdwaves.


94 Ocean waves [Ch.4 Sec. 4.2] Statisticalanalysis of time histories of Irregular waves 9S
,
;. If the windcontinues to blowfor longenoughand sufficient lengthof wateror 'fetch' T.
is available, the ripples will advance and grow in length and height until they can ~

more properlybe calledwaves. At the same time,the windgeneratesnewripples on


the surface of the growing waves and these ripples will eventually growinto waves T.
themselves. The process is of course continuous and the observed waves at any
particular place and time will consist of a mixture of wavelengths and heights
superimposed on each other.
The individual wavecomponentsapparentlystillbehavein the same wayas they
it wouldin ideal conditions, uncontaminated by waves of other lengths. Thus the fast
"':-.'
1>"
moving longwaves continually overtake the slow moving short wavesand the shape
of the surfaceis changing all the time as the waves progress through each other.
Clearlythe waves are absorbing energyfromthe wind.Thisenergyabsorptionis
countered by two principal decay mechanisms: wave breakingand viscosity. If the (\
wind continues to blow at constant velocity for longenough and sufficient fetch is
available, the rate at which energyisabsorbedbythewaves will eventuallybeexactly \ I
balancedby the rate of energy dissipation and a steadystate 'fullydeveloped'wave I

system will be achieved. 'Such wave systems are rare because-the required steady I
conditions do not often presistfor longenoughand the fetch may be limitedby the
V\ /

localgeography.
If the windceases to blow. the wavesystem it has created willgradually decay.
Since wave breaking is a relatively powerful decay mechanism, the short steep
V

waves, which are more likely to break, decay first, leaving the longer waves to be
dissipated by the relatively weak forces of viscosity. This decay process may last
severaldays.duringwhich these fast moving longwaves maytravelseveralthousand T,
kilometeres and be recognised at some distant location as a swell, Swells are
generallyof longperiodand comparatively regular.Locally generatedwavesystems ~ (metres) Negative amplitude
may therefore be contaminatedby swells generatedelsewhere. These swells will of
course bear no relationship to the localwind. .
Fig. 4.2- Typical wave recood: analysis of peaks aftdtroughs.

4.2 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF TIME msTORIES OF IRREGULAR trough above the mean level gives a negative ampli
WAVES tude; otherwise amplitudes are always positive)
wave height H. (metres) the vertical distance from a trough to a succeeding
Whatever the complexities of local geography and the vagaries of the wind. an peak or viceversa(always positive)
observer at sea will see a confused(and confusing) pattern of ever changing wave
wave period Tp (seconds) the time between two successive peaks
crests and troughs travelling in different directions. For many years this apparent
wave period Tz (seconds) the time between two successive upward or down
chaos (and the resulting unpredictable nature of ship motions) providedan insur
wardzero crossings.
mountableobstacletoprogress in the field of seakeeping. However,in recent years
considerable progress has been made in the application of statistical methods to These individual measurements are unique to the particularpart of the record
quantifythe characteristics of the waves on the sea surface,and these methodsform chosenfor analysis and are of littleuseforcharacterising the wholetimehistory. Soit
one of the-foundations of the modern science of seakeeping. is customary to describe the general characteristics of the completetime historyin
Fig. 4.2 shows part of a typical record of wave elevation obtained from a wave terms of the mean values of thesequantities:
sensingdevice in the ocean. As expected. the record is irregularin nature and no
coherent pattern is obvious, It is customary to define four basicmeasurements: ~. mean valueof manymeasurements of (metres) s.
H. mean valueof manymeasurements of H. (metres)
wave amplitude!;. (metres) the vertical distance from the mean water level to a Tp .: mean valueof manymeasurements of Tp ( seconds)
peak or a trough (a peak belowthe mean level or a
_." __,_.... \.,~_-'_"-''O,,.-.AA_,,'''-'. __.;1.<r'"' ..,.... ; ' _ _" .. _"",_~p.,.;".",.-.....-".~'~"k.~'-'t. "~Y'if'M;'Y .>.
)f"8~"" "'r V*,*"-'i?')l-'~;:;-,.."",,,,,,:.,<~ 1' if n I ?Y e-,'
~~~~~'T;~~L;' .. S- t. ',> e.- ,A4,," 4.,A'1_~"~~_""~,<:,,,,,-~-_,,,,,.,.~~.%~"4"",,,,,_,.,,",>-~_~,,,,
- , "~_"_"'~r~__"_"v""

9h Ocean waves leh. -l Sec. -l.3J Fourier analysis 97

T, mean value of lll;my mc.e-urcrucnts Ilf 1", l~~~'()nlhl


.....
Two additional quantities arc also used: -- ""'
L.J:=!!N metres (4.1)
II- I
';" ~
'-,11.\ significant single ampluudr: mean value of highest third 01 many measure r
rncnts of t;" (metres) (where N is the number of observations of surface depression)
T signijicant wal'eheight: mean value of highest third of many measurements of
'11.\
H, (metres).
m n = variance of surface depression relative to the f!lean.
They arc related as follows: !II

L(1;" -;)~
R ./~ = 2.0 ;.0 metres 11=1
N
metres (4.2)

In addition to the statistical measures associated with peaks. troughs and zero
crossings there exists another class (Ifmeasurements used to quantify the characteris Gu = standard deviation Of root mean square (rms)
tics of an irregular wave record. Here the time history is sampled at discrete (short) depression relative to the mean
.-4-
intervals of time to obtain successive measurements of the surface depression 1;"
relative to some arbitrary datum as shown in Fig. 4.3. For a typical irregular wave
= Vmn metres (4.3)
record an appropriate time interval would be 0.5 or 1.0 second.
In passing it should be noted that a sensible analysis using either of these
techniques requires a wave record containing at least 100 pairs of peaks and troughs.
Such a record will be typically of about 2{}...30 minutes duration. Shorter records run
the risk of yielding unreliable results because they may. by chance. be unusually
severe or unusually moderate. The record illustrated in Figs 4.2 and 4.3 would
therefore not be of adequate length for analysis.
Very long records of. say. several hours should also be avoided. This is because it
is quite likely that real changes in the wave statistics would occur in this time due to
changes in the wind speed or the arrival of swells from distant storms. \0_

of : 'I! '. : " " 1


' I(I&Q l l l i i J ' ! ! . ?
--.JIll!!!!'
1ft'" I
\ ,'l } (/
4.3 FOURIER ANALYSIS
The continuous process of wave generation (and the typical form of an irregular.wave
record) suggests that any given time history of length, say, TH seconds might
reasonably be represented by the Fourier series
Time t (secondsl

. :; (metres)
~(t) = ~+ LA" cos (w"t) + B" sin (w"t)
II-I
metres (4.4)

;i.
Fig.4.3- Typical wave record: analysis at successive time intervals. where the frequencies are given by

y
These measurements enable three important quantities to be derived:' 00" = 2T71n (n = 1,2.3... ,.CXl) radiansfsecond (4:5)
Ii

~ = mean surface depression,


The coefficients are given by
98 Ocean waves [Ch.4 Sec. 4.4] The wave energyspectrum 99
*'
.' surprising if this were the case). The synthesised time history will repeat itself at
A" =T
fTH ~(t) cos (ront)dt
2
metres (4.6) intervals of TH whereas the original (real) time history will never repeat itself.
H 0

4.4 THE WAVE ENERGY SPECTRUM


B" = T2H JTH~(t) sin (oo"t)dt
0 metres (4.7)
It is customary to express the relative importance of the component sine waves
making up an irregular wave time history (equation (4.9 in terms of a wave
Equation (4.4) may be written as amplitude energy density spectrum (usually abbreviated to the more easily managed
wave energy spectrum). The energy per square metre of the sea surface of the nth
wave component is ipgt;~ (equation (3.41: the wave amplitude energy density
spectrum is defined so that the area bounded by a frequency range (say (J)a to CI>t, as
~(t) = ~ + 2:~no cos (oo,,! + e,,) metres (4.8) shownin Fig. 4.4) isproportional to the totalenergy(per square metre of sea surface)
,,-1
where the coefficients are

~"o = yeA; + B~) metres (4.9)

and the phase angles are given by


"0
c:
Bn o
tan En = - An (4.10) '"
c:'"
en
~
'6
!
In physical terms equation (4.8) may be interpreted as representingthe irregular
wave record by the sum of an infinite number of sine waves of amplitude !;..o and .

0;

frequency 00". These frequencies have been chosen(equation (4.5 so that one cycle Q;

or period of the lowest frequency rot corresponds to the length TH of the record. S.
Similarly the record length corresponds to two cyclesof the secondsine wave, three ;;{
of the third and so on. The interval between the frequencies is

Om = 00\ = ~: radians/second (4.11)

and 000 becomes very small as TH becomes very large.


The individual sine waves are staggered with respect to each other. The phase
angles e, whichdefine the stagger are related to the timeorigin. ~, the mean value of
Fig.4.4- Definition of wave energy spectrum.
the record, is often made zero by judicious choice of the datum level of the
measurements.
Any giventime history could be analysedin thiswayif it were actuallypossibleto
calculate the required infinite number of sine wave amplitudes, frequencies and of all the wavecomponentswithinthat rangeof frequencies. It follows that the total
phase angles from equations (4.5), (4.9) and (4.10). The resultingsynthesisedtime area enclosed by the spectrum isproportionalto the total energyper square metre of
history (equation (4.8 would match the original exactly over the time interval TH' the complete wave system.
There would, however, be no guarantee that the synthesised time history would If we set
match the original outside the range of the recording (indeed it would be most

.~ . ..,.,~".;;i.:'"'f~;M";,,,,-,,--,,,,~,,,;""'A,y,,"=.,...,,,.:;..,,,.~,,&..--$_~ ~,,,,,O';'"_.>_'"""*,,,.,;.i;~""44~''''\''1
'1':'" '-,,"C' 'If?" ""-(.~'AH*W';h?":\r'"$'V'if'~':f.:11 'H'V,;'> If"j '''''''-~~ 'iF- 'e' -.r.--
X?tieHf,,'if:WC"I',,'
~7'''~'''';fl~~~~~% a;;<;U!!!"'..\R~f A.,W,,":;;; tSW:."""%!"\~'~"f=0'>."7M<>"""'~~'~'~~""""""""'-':"1\"""""'_:''''',.~v .......~~o,.nf';<"."1'i..,..,'.,~__..,.~.",.." .....-"""1(i

......, . " '"1 ".. '~ ..~"'~",+,"W~",,.,'''"' ..~.+..,".~._.._

100 Ocean waves [Ch.4 Sec. 4.5) spectral moments 101

~ 31 I
Cl). = Cl).. -~ radians/second
(a) I I i
..8
and
~.
'6
2
- - - - " " " - ~'I

,..
~
.. r'

.E
..
;;

l\(J) -':__~J = 1
c.o.. = +"2
(0.. radians/second
'j

;;j'

0
' c::::I I
t'\
I I , ,
..
I
,..
I , I I
..
I
_
n t=:f
__

~
there will be only one component frequency (0.. in the range (0. to c.o... Actually a real
irregular wavewouldaJsocontain componentsat otherfrequencies within this range.
but the Fourier analysis technique does not identify them explicitly. Instead their 3, i , , ,
effects arc amalgamated in the single frequency identified by the Fourier analysis. (b)
The wave amplitude spectral density ordinate corresponding to this frequency (0.. is ~
given by
8.. 2.-= f~
~
'6
.
.......

pg~O)l\(J)

so that the spectral ordinate is


= ipg~~
!
E
:!
;;
<;
1 rrlffllfltllllftl
~
;;;.
0'
;t
r , I '_'_' I , '",'",,' , I , I I , I I I I>

Sr,O) = metres7(radian/second) (4.12)

Fig. 4.5 - Waveenc:rgy spectra: (a) typicalspectrumfrom Fourier analysisof irregular wave
A wave energyspectrum corresponding to any irregular wave time history can be time history; (b) typica1liDe spectrum correspondingto time: historysynthesised by summing
derived in this way and a typical example is shown in Fig. 4.5(a). The spectrum is sine waves.
discontinuous and consists of a series of rectangles of width l\(J). The area of each
rectangle is proportional to the energy attributed to that frequency band and
represented by the corresponding singlesine wave component. frequencies. Clearly components corresponding to large spectral ordinates must be
If the wave energy spectrum is known it is possible to reverse this process and included but little will be lost by omitting very high and very low frequencies if their
generate a corresponding time history by adding a large number of component sine contributions to the spectrum are small.
waves accordingto equation (4.8). In this casethe sine waveamplitudes are obtained The use of a limited number of component sine waves may give an apparently
by rearranging equation (4.12) to give . acceptable time history but it should be remembered that the energy spectrum
actuallybeing realised is not the original spectrum but a seriesof infinitelyhighspikes
of infinitesimalwidth at each of the chosen frequencies as shown in Fig. 4.S(b). The .
1;..0 = V[2Sr,O,,0<0)J metres (4.13)
synthesised time history contains no energy at frequencies between those chosen for
the synthesis.
. It is also necessary to specify the phase angles Ell and these should be chosen at
random. An infinitenumber of choicesis possible and each willgive a different time
history. Nevertheless. all the time histories will have the same wave energy 4.5 SPECTRAL MOMENTS ~

spectrum. One possible choice would be the phase angles corresponding to the The definition of variance given in equation (4.2) can be written as
original wave time history from which the spectrum was derived: Only in this case
will the synthesised time history be identical to the original time history. . .v
In principle an infinite number of sine wave components are required but
1110
1
=T JTK ~(I)zdJ
0 metres' (4.14)
acceptable results can be obtained with a limited number. The form of the wave H
energy spectrum can be used as a guide to choosing an appropriate range of
102 Ocean waves [Ch.4 Sec. 4.5] Spectral moments 103

,,.,
if the time history has a zero mean and the number of observations is very large. A S~(W) ~~~' = w~Sc; (oi) metres~second2f(radian/second) (4.20)
time history represented by equation (4.8) therefore has a variance

w41;;~
S~eo) = 2"0;' = w~Sc; (w) metresssecond "!(radian/second)
m o ::: T1 '" cos (Wnt+S n))~ dt
ITH ( 2:1;;,,(, metres- (4.15)
(4.21)
H () n-l

So the velocityand acceleration spectral densities can be obtained by.multiplying tbe


Sincethe frequencies are chosen in accordancewith equation (4.5) this reduces to amplitude spectral density by appropriate powers of the frequency.
By analogy with equation (4.17) it is dear that the area under the velocity and
acceleration spectra must be equivalent to the variances of velocityand acceleration
respectively. The variance of velocityis
mo ::: ! 2: ~~ metres- (4.16)
"-I
ml = I= S~ (w)deo
II
and, from equation (4.13),

mo::: 2:Sc;(w)&o
: : I"" w~
II
Sc;(w) deo metres2/second 2 (4.22)

,,-I
and the variance of acceleration is

: : f: Sc;(w)dw metres" (4.17)


:.n 4 ::: f: S~(w)dw
So the variance of the irregular wavetime historyis equalto the area underthe wave
amplitude energy density spectrum.
The time history given by equation (4.8) can be differentiated to obtain the
: : f: w4 Sc;(eo) dro metres2/second 4 (4.23)
vertical velocityand acceleration of the sea surface:
m" and m 4 are called spectral moments since they can be considered as moments of
area of the amplitude spectrum about the vertical axis. In general
'"
~(t)::: 2:
n-1
-~noeonsin(w"t+sn) metres/second (4.18)

mn = Io"" eon S~(w) do metres:t'second n (4.24)


'"
~(t) ::: 2: -I;..ow~ cos (wnt + sn)
n-1
metres/second" (4.19)
and n may take any positive integer value (n :::0,1,2,...).
The average frequency can be found by determining the centre of area of the
These can be regarded as irregular wave time histories in their own right and can be spectrum from
analysed to obtain statistics of velocity and acceleration in exactly the same way
as for surface elevation. The amplitudes of the component sine waves are now -Q) = -
ml radians/second
~lIOeoll metres/second and ~IIOW~ metres/second" respectively. (4.25)
mo
These velocity and acceleration time histories can be analysed to produce
corresponding velocity and acceleration energy spectra. By analogy with equation
and the corresponding average period is
(4.12) thespectral density ordinates are
;;;s~ ' . . . , . , .'!t7' .. '7'!1'-, ~_<>t~Xtt_ "",...~-l" ,$3 A*?".kJ;;;;:_.4;::P~:-"':>:'~'''~~:~~_
-'<:--~_.,..-~'~."v<"'''''''''~'_''.-._~'--.-w:-~~
__,W'"""....,..,~,"_.,,,_.-"

._'';1

104 Qceanwaves [Ch.4 Sec. 4.5] Spectral moments 105

..
I .. - -
2nm" seton ds (4.26) T.
mt
,
,
.,
It can alsobeshown(Ochi and Bolton(1973)) that the meanperiodofthe peaksis
t (seconds)

Tp = 21I ~ (::) seconds (4.27) -


(meires)

la) T.",T,
and the mean zero-crossing period is

r: = 21I ~(:;) seconds (4.28)


.-4

Strictlyspeakingequations (4.27) and (4.28) are validonly if the surfacedepression


measured at equal intervals of time is normally distributed (see Chapter 17). In
practice this assumption is invariably true for real ocean waves.
Fig. 4.6 showstwo irregular-wave timehistories,andsketchesof the correspond ~

ingwaveenergyspectra are shownin Fig.4.7.The 'narrowband' time historyof Fig.


4.6(a) could looselybe described as a sinewaveof varying amplitude.and the origin
of the terminology is clearfrom the appearanceof the spectrum:the waveenergy is (metres)
concentrated in a narrow band of frequencies and little or no energy is present at
other frequencies. One propertyof this formof timehistoryis that anypeak is almost (b) T.T.
invariablyfollowed in orderlysuccession by a downward zero crossing, a trough, an
' .....
upward zero crossingand another peak. Peaks below the datum levelare very rare fig. 4.6-(a) Narrow and (b) wide band time histories.
and it follows that the averageperiod of the peaks is almostthe same as the average
zero-crossing period.
The 'wide band' time history contains energyover a widerbandof frequencies as
shown in Fig. 4.7(b). In this case there are manypeaks and troughs which are not waveamplitudecan be relatedto the area under the wave energyspectrum.In terms'
immediatelyfollowed by zero crossings and the averageperiod of the peaks is very of significant waveheightthe relationship is
much less than the averagezero-crossing period. There are manypeaks below the
datum level and many troughs above the datum level.
The ratio betweenthe averageperiodof the peaksand the average zero-crossing H1f3 = 4.00 ~(l-~) Y17Zo metres (4.30)
period can be regarded as a measureof the 'narrow bandedness' of the time history
and its wave energyspectrum.The 'bandwidthparameter' isdefinedby
so that
...

& = ~(l-~) = ~(l-:1nJ (4.29) H1f3 = 2.83Y17Zo metres if s = 1 (wide band spectrum) (4.31)
>-t
and
and values of ~ lie in the range 0 to 1: = 0 corresponds to a very narrow banded
spectrum and & = I corresponds to a verywide bandedspectrum. H1f3 = 4.00Ymo metres if & = 0 (narrowband spectrum) (4.32)
It has been shown (Cartright and Longuet-Higgins (1956)) that the significant
106 Ocean waves [Ch.4 Sec. 4.6] Idealisedwaveenergy spectra 107

ta)
The Bretschneider or met (two-parameter) wave energy spectrum formula. is
appropriate to open ocean waveconditions and is given by
~O

SBI;(ro) == :5 exp (~~) metresi'(radian/second) (4.33)

where
:0
~
c:
.,"o
.!!!
c:
I \ A = 172.75 ~
R2
metresvsecond" (4.34)
lG
'" (radianS/seconds)
'ti
~

~
B = 691
f4 second:" (4.35)
ii
..
]
v,'
(b)
Ii
l The 'two parameters' are the characteristicwaveheight HI and the average periodT
I (equation (4.26. Weshallsee that the characteristicwaveheightisoften assumed to
i
j be the same as the significant waveheight. -
., The spectral moments of the Bretschneiderspectrum are

mo = J: :sexp (~!)dro
,-I (radians'seeoncl A Tn
(4.36) -
== 4B = O. 0625nr metres" L
Fig. 4.7 -(a) Narrow and (b) wide band spectra.

Thus, as expected from the general appearance of Fig. 4.6(b), the significant wave
m2 == J Aexp (B)
1" ..
0 ~4 dro
Q)J

height of a wide banded time history is relativelysmall.


It is often convenient to assume that I: == 0 for real wavesystems, and equation
(4.32) is assumed to applyso that the significant waveheightcan readilybe estimated = ~ ~(i) = 2.916 ~ metres2/second2 (4.37)
by integrating the wave energy spectrum. In fact I: is usually of the order ofO.Sand
this practice results in an overestimate of the significant waveheight.

4.6 IDEALISED WAVE ENERGY SPECTRA


m. = J: ~ exp ( ~~) dro
In general the wave energy spectrum derived from an analysis of an irregular wave A
= 4'[(0) = co metres'fsecond 4 (4.38)
recordobtained at a particular place and time in the ocean wiJl be a unique result that
will never be repeated. Although it may be a useful guideto likelywaveconditions.
its use for ship design purposes isstrictlylimitedand it iscustomaryto rely instead on where r is the gamma function.

families of idealised wave spectra. Current practice is to use different formulae for Hence, from equation (4.36),

open ocean and coastal (limited fetch) conditions.


t Intemational Towing Tank Conference.

""."_'_~'~'"'~'~"";"'''''_'''_;''''''''~''''';,4;i4>~~~I}''_U~~.sm:t~"" 7731 _ 1M nzs=


.SUP ...... _i;,'f~~~,~.L ~-'z:;:X_:;t;;:J,!"_ ..Q. ..,,~.Z "~.~,~"._ L .. '"*'>"''''<',...,..,----':".:':',.,."..,.....,~,'!'':'"''.<_''l'.~.~'''''",.,~.<''.".,'''''"''''"'r ''" ' '' - - ,~",~ ~ ...~r''~
""=-I""""""f':"~lf9't'l1>'"~.,"", o>~"",~~L"l,. ..,. . ~." . ",,,.~,, .., ,.,~.
"::c:z '"' .__. "
..- t-t-' ",., ..

lOS Ocean waves [Ch.4 Sec.4.6} Idealised wave energy spectra 109..
r'
1
peak. whichmaybe obtained by differentiating equation (4.33)and settingthe result
HI = 4.00 VTlfo metres (4.39) to zero. It is found that .

and thecharacteristic wave height may be related to the area under the spectrum.
The mean zero-crossing period (equation (4.28 is
000 =
4
V1(48)
"'5 = 4.849
't radians/second (4.44) ~j"f

-T. = 2lT VI(nto\


Tm 21T
= 4 Y(7TB) = 0.92T seconds (4.40) and the modal period is

and the mean period of the peaks is (equation (4.27 1 To = 27T = 1.296T
-
= -
I.41T. seconds (4.45)
000

Tp = 27T ~ (::) = 0 seconds


(see equation (4.40. The corresponding peak spectral density ordinate is
(4.41)
j
I SBI;(CIO = O.OI846H rT
The bandwidthparameter (equation (4.29 is ->
f = 0.01425HrTo metres2/(radian/second) (4.46)
& = 1.0 (4.42)
i
1
Equations (4.40) and (4.45) may now be used to define the constants A and B
and the Bretschneiderspectrum istherefore extremely broad banded. These results
more fully: ...
imply that a true realisation of a time history corresponding to a Bretschneider
spectrum (including all frequenciesup to infinity) would have countlesstiny ripples R2 [P R2
of infinitesimal period superimposedon the more visuallyobvious large-scale wave
A = 487.3:r.t = 172.75 T~ = 123.8~ metresvsecond" (4.47)
o li
structure as shown in Fig. 4.6(b). These ripples are responsible for reducing the
significant waveheight from the narrow banded value (4.0 YTlfo) to the wide banded 1949 691 495
value (2.83Ynto). B = ~ = 'f4 = T; seconds t" (4.48) )
Whilethisresult ismathematicallycorrect, the infinitesimal rippleswhich reduce
the significant wave. height have no discernible effect on the large-scale visual
appearance of the wavesor the ship motionswhich are causedby them. In practicea It should be emphasised that the relationships between the periods (equations
time historyrealisationof a Bretschneiderspectrum coveringa finite,but adequate. (4.40) and (4.45 are not general and apply only.to the special case of the
rangeof frequenciesof practicalimportancewouldnot includethese tinyripples,and Bretschneiderspectrum. Fig. 4.8 showssome specimenBretschneiderwave energy
a practical analysis of the record to find the significant wave height would include spectra for a characteristicwave height of 4 metres and various model periods. As
only visually obvious peaks and troughs. Such a synthesised time history would expected from equation (4.39), the area under each spectrum is the same since the
invariably have a narrow banded appearance with Tp == Tz so that the significant characteristicwave height is the same in each case. The position and height of the
waveheight derivedfrom the record would be much more nearly givenby equation peaks depend on the modalperiod. Fig. 4.9showsBretschneiderspectra for a modal
(4.32) than by equation (4.31).
period of 10seconds and variouscharacteristic wave heights.
Comparingequations (4.32) and (4.39) it is seen that
.. In coastalwaterswherethe fetchmaybe limitedthe JONSWAP(Joint North Sea
Wave Project) spectrum is used: )..
HI == H113 metres (4.43)
SJr,(CI = O.658CSsc;(CI metres1t(radian/second) (4.49)
~
and indeed the characteristic wave height for the Bretschneider spectrum is often
loosely referred to as the significant wave height. where SBI;(CI isthe Bretschneider wave spectral density ordinate (equation (4.33.
The modal period To of the Spectrum corresponds to the frequency ClJo of the The factor C is given by
110 Ocean waves [eb.4 Sec. 4.6] Idealised waveenergy spectra 111
51 I i i I 217 (4.51)
y = 0.07 for 00 < To
27T
20 sec y = 0.09 for 00 > To

't:l
c
10
4 0
u
I Modal frequency
:%
=0
c
0 .
c
:c 8

i I I l15
!
N'
sec I .~
)
!
~-

~"'
Qj
..

6
~ 3

Gi
Ii)

L I\h"~l0'~ ?: 4
:

J ..
'iii
:
j..
rJ.,' c
i 't:l
;; ~ eu
c
'20 2
;
~ ... 2

...
Q.

eu
. >

.....
a. ~ 0
2.0
> Frequency COl (radianS/second)
~
Fig. 4.9 - Bretschneider waveenergyspectra; modal period 7'0 = 10seconds.
..

f The JONSWAP spectrum is thus a distortion of the Bretschneider spectrum

l
.~.
specified in terms of the characteristic wave height and the modal period. Fig. 4.10
!

, 6. iii iii I i I I
"
I -; To=10 sec
oI J < ,/ I
A~
~~
__
,--
__
. I j =0
c
t o
u
:Jl 4
~JO~SWAP

Fig.4.8- Bretschneider waveenergyspectra;characteristic waveheight4 metres.


s C
i '"
:c
i ~
I ~
{ ~
Qj

I .s 2
exp [-- 1(OOT
- -o1
2y2 217
)2] (4.50) !
t ;;'
C = 3.3
where o 2.0
Frequency ,., (radianSisecond)

Fig.4.10- JONSWAP and Bretschneider spectra:significant wave hcight4 metres,

>,".,,'::"l$.t~""'.''~".-_''''''''~:''-''''''''';''''''''''"'''''''''';''''''-~'';''~''h_'''''''''',_",.' __ ~;;~'",,j,,~,,~,_ ..,;r;~~~,,,,,;,,",,~~~...:w-' * .-K'i! ' ~'"~..~ '4: ...- "i;ii'-' "'Giil\' ,""-""j,,_~.ciilt>-- . . ~.. -5?t R( v~
~~~'rl~~"~,M., W A%$At<
.. ;:S",@'4i%'4. "~-~~~''''-cJ~_-,~-
... ",-~_.,~_\~-",_

112 Oc:ean waves [Ch.4 Sec. 4.~j vaV\;'~Pl1:4'i:lID5-"-' .

shows a comparison between the two spectrafor a characteristic wave height of 4


metres: and a modal periodof 10 seconds. The effectof the additionalfactorsin the SJ..(J) = O.658CS B..(J) radians:!J(radianisecond) (4.55)
JONSWAP formula is to increasethe height of the peak of the spectrum. There is.
however. a corresponding reductionin the spectral ordinates. on either side of the Fig. 4.11 shows examples of thesewave slopespectra.The JONSWAP spectrum
peak and the areas enclosedby each spectrum are the same sincethe characteristic
wave heightsare the same. .~
;!
.009' I i i i

To=10 see
4.7 WAVESLOPESPECTRA
Whenconsidering the effectsof waves on the angularmotions of ships (pitch. roll.
yaw. ete.) it isoften convenient to express the energy ofthe wavesystemin termsofa
walle slopespectrum rather than the conventional wave amplitudespectrumalready ~
e
discussed. o
We haveseen in Chapter3 that theslopeof thesurface of a regularsinewave also ~
~
C
varies sinusoidally (equation (3.18)~,and that the wave slope amplitude is III
'6

Oil = /d;o radians (equation (3.19


j
~
.eg .004
'6
! !
In deep water the wavenumber .003
A'

~
(J)Z .002
k =- metres-I
g
~
.001
so that the waveslope amplitude of the nth component sine wavebecomes
0' {-,_ ....'_ -,_ J
~.O

.1
~

01..0
(J)~~ radians
= -g- (4.52) t
!, Fig. 4.11 - Waveslope spectra; significant waveheight 4 metres.
l>
The time historyof the slopeof an irregular wave isalsoan irregulartime history
and can be represented by the sum of an infinite numberof sine waves in a manner is very sharply peaked but the most striking comparison with the shapes of the
analogous to equation (4.8). The amplitudes of these wave slope components are corresponding wave amplitude spectra (Fig.4.10)is the muchgreater comparative
givenby equation (4.52).The wave slope irregulartime historyhas its own energy importance of highwave frequencies. Thiscorresponds withpractical observations:
spectrom and the waveslopespectralordinates are given by short high-frequency waves are.often very steep even though their amplitudes are
verysmall.
_ ~..o _ C(J(J)~ (J)~ .,. All the relationships derived for wave amplitude spectra (equations
S,,{(J) - 2&0 - 2g2&> = gzS~((J) radians'rfradians/second) (4.53) (4.12)-{4.30 have analogous relationships for wave slope spectra. Thus, for
example. the variance of wave slopecan be obtainedby integrating the waveslope
" (see equation (4.12. spectrum.
, So the wave slope energy spectrum can be obtained by multiplying the wave
amplitude spectral ordinates by (iJ~/g2. The Bretschneider and JONSWAP wave ..i
slopespectra are 4.8 WAVE SPREADING
In idealconditions in the openoceanthe waves might all be expectedto travelin the
samedirection.However. these'longcrested'waves in which the infinitelylongwave ....
SB..((J) =~
(J)g exp (-(J)~) radians2j(radiarusecond) (4.54) crests remain straight and parallel are never experienced outside the artificial
114 Ocean waves [Ch.4 Sec. 4.8] Wave spreading 115

confines of the laboratory towing tank, although approximations may occasionally E


:>
be found atsea.. It is, however, much more likely that the real waves in the ocean will i'to
be travelling in many different directions; although an easily recognised 'primary' >
direction, often more or less aligned with the wind, may bediscernible. Changes in ~
wind direction, the influence of coastlines and bottom a h and the resence .s
'Ci"fwave systems ~ generated e seW ere will all conspire to ensure that tii~
<
~e long crestedwaye system IS at le..illa rarity an(tI~!9bably ~ myth. Limit of
speading
The presence of more than one long crestal wave system results in alternate
enhancement and cancellation of wave crests and troughs, and this phenomenon
" gives rise to the term 'short crested' to describe the appearance of a wave system with ~
. a spread of wave directions; So a wave energy spectrum derived from a record of
surface elevations obtained at a particular point in the ocean will invariably contain
'\ contributions from several different wave directions. Itis often convenient to ignore
. this fact and assume that the wave system is long crest~.~m:tcH9r many purposes lbi$_ '/. Secondary
ma~.giv~ePtabh~results. However, the degree of wave spreading does have a <
wave
direction
pro oun influence on some ship_ motions.JI!~icularly !()1!l.!nd its_effec~E_n!!~ i
" atWi"ys. be ignored...
The amount of wave spreading at any particular time and place is, like the other
characteristics of the wave system, dependent on the immediate past history of the
wind as well as on geographical factors. An infimte number or poSSibilities exist, but
for design purposes it is usual to assume that if the primary wave directio~~i!.E
relative to some fixed datum.. (Fig. 4.12), the secondary wave directions yare
distributed in the range - Ymu < V- Po < v:':". The diiectiOilafwavespeCtttirifK
delfri"ed suc!J th~Lt6e~~ntlty pgS;:(CJ),V)bCl>Ov IS equivalen~..!()_~~_~~...~__energy -/
contained in the!~eCl.lI~n.c:y band Om and the directbn band &y as show.njnYig. 4.13.
Hence the directional spectral density ordinate, by analogy with equation (4.12).
is given by , Fig. .\.12 Primaryand secondary wavedirections.

S~(CJ).v) = 2i~;oov metres7(radianlsecond) per radian (4.56)


S~(CJ = f:~.S6.CJ).V) d(v -p.) :etres l(radianlsecond) (4.58)

where ~..;o is'now the amplitude of the component sine wave a ro riate to the nth
kequency and the jth irection. or ~ ip estgn purposes it is assume t at the
directional wave spectral orcjinates are related to the ordinates of the equivalent total Putting
~aveenergy s.!'e~rum S~(CJ) by

v' _- z;-
1T
(V-IL)
S~(CJ),v) = D COS'" ( -1T2 (V- IL) ) S~~CJ
V max
max

we obtain
me~es2/(radianlsecond) per radian (4.57)

\" \
~

S~(CJ = 2vmax fm2 S~(j}) dv'

l
where D is a constant and m is a positive integer. Since t~e total wave energy is D COS"'(V') metres1'(radianlsecond)
assumed to be -distributed
that"------ over'-."--
.__.--_.. -._.,- the.'-range of directions
....----. from- -,-:-vm.~tov~~Itfollows
..----... ._- 1f -"rz

__,,:.~._-.;,;.;.", .., ....,,*~-,-~"".~~~.."""""""


.."",-~,-,;""~".~~-i;:;"-~.,;.,.-.'u'''''_'''~''''"'':_~''''',.;"_~"""""~,,,,,,,,, '",,;;/> ~?nj""'T"2'~' ar9' t'(' ~a tj 'M~*~",'" iil~.~ eo". CZ'
'" ;W<:.,<", ~~~,~* 8M ,~.Q'S-,.R, .>-.iZ. "Lb. ,(_;;~ __ [i<;$,tt.,,_,e .5 ~h'''*_''.c.,,,,X ,_ . , A,P""'.k.f.
,$&'.", ....... "'''''''';~~~''''''''.''''''-~'''--:'''~''~''Y~~''r':~~~''!P-''''''''~''\'''''''''--
__'' ~",'~'""""""'"'"""''' . . . , ... " ..

~
.~
.~
..... ~

116
f
Ocean waves [Ch.4 Sec. 4.8] Wavespreadibg 117
5;1,,,_ \-)
1.3.5.7.... .m 11
D = ........;;;~;...--=--~ for m odd

2.4.6.8... .(m -1) 4vmu


.J
2.4.6.8.....m 'IT
D= for m even
1.3.5.7.... .(m -1) 2vmax

Fig. 4.14 shows the spreading function D cos" (v') for various values of the
"!

-: 2.0 i i i

20
i I

t"

1.5

10
~

UI
~- Primary wave direction

G' Fig. ~.IJ - Typical direttional wave spectrum.


-s: 1.0
~. ...o
~ u r-
~

'" and
e';

<
'. D = _11_
;~~ 1
(4.59)
~~. 4V AlU
f-'2 cos"'(v') dv'
0.5

II

- 2v""",
for m ::: a
11 ;
---
4vmu
for m = 1
o
::: _1_ T
for m ::: 2 (4.60) Relal,vt! Head;n\! V >"
v......
Fig. t 14 - Wave energy spectrum spreading functions.

In general
t
11
i
..~ Wavespreading 119
118 Ocean waves (Ch.4 Sec. 4.8]

spreading index; m =0represents uniform spreading with equal contributions to the O.167S:(..,1
waveenergy fromall directions. As m isincreased. the energybecomesprogressively
more concentrated around the primary wave direction v - p. = O. fi. nearly long
cre.sted sea can therefore be represented either by choosinga high value for m or a '. . /
~~. For ship design purposes the most common practice IS to us<:
m = 2 and V max = 90to represent short crested seas, and trialsevidence (Cummins
O.083S:(,.,)
and Bales C1980 suggests.. that t~osine squ~e~~_ ~prea_~Iing ~a..ppropria!~Jor
typicallyoccurring conditions in the open ocean. However. spreading angles as low
as 6Uo-or as hi'ghas!20 mayfreque"ritly be founa.ror cosinesquared spreading with ~
V max = 90equation (4.57) becomes

Sr(OO.V) = ~ cos~v - p.) 5:'<(0) metrehCradianisecond) per radian


-90"
'" '
(4.61)

Equations (4.57) and C4.60) are of little direct use in practical computations of
ship motions in short crested seas. These calculations (see Chapter 14) require the
spread wave spectrum to be represented by a discrete contribution from each of a
finite number of secondary wave directions within the range of the spreading. Each
contribution isessentiallya scaled. downversion of the total waveenergyspectrum as
shown in Fig. 4.15. If the secondary wave directionsare spacedat intervals of Bv the
appropriate waveenergy spectrum at each secondary direction is given by
Primary wave direction
-: 'c: j ~ 14 5"

WS~(oo)
Fig. ~.15 - Representation or directionalspectrumat discrete headingintervalsor 15";cosine
squaredspreadingover 90".

where the weighting factor W is

W = D cos" (-"- (v -
2vmax
p.) ov (4.62)

Table 4.1 lists the weighting factors for intervals of ov = 15" and various spreading
angles and indices.

.,c~,"""*I"~f-o .....,,,, ". ..


~-.'" ~.,,.~,L,..yil1.m..,,,,,..j..,.,,.",,,,..
I ~"".&;Vfi:~"""-~~"""~''''''''.''_''''''''''''''''''''''~,~_.J,.","." __4 ,_'"_O-;''''}~'~~''~~'''"4<~''''''''~''_>~''_''~~~_~'''W=~'-:.-'';'''''~' _~-."""" ,'e"-' .....i~,-
~""'''''''''0~''''''''''~~'8,'''1lt-,o'",''~ ,."
j i ' 1----1--

120 Ocean waves [Ch.ot

Table 4.1- Weighting factors for calculations ofship motions inshort crested seas;
QV = 15 .,.
V-IJ. m
(degrees) 0 1 2 5 10 20

VfI\.;Ill -= t!:ir

-60
-~5
-30
0.063
0.125
0.125
0
0.075
0.139
0
0.037
0.125
0
0.003
0.065
0
0
0.016
0
0
0.001
5
-IS 0.125 0.181 0.213 0.248 0.230 0.146
0
15
0.125
0.125
0.196
0.181
0.2.50
0.213
0.368
0.248
0.508
0.230
0.710
0.146
Ocean wave statistics
30 0.125 0.139 0.125 0.065 0.016 0.001
45 0.125 0.075 0.037 0.003 0 0
60 0.063 0 0 0 0 0

v.... =90"
r
-90 0.042 0 0 0 0 0
-75 0.083 O.O~ 0.011 0 0 0
-60 0.083 0.066 0.042 0.00& 0 0
-45 0.083 0.093 0.083 0.043 0.011 0 5.1 INTRODUCTION
-30 0:083 o.ns 0.125 0.119 0.080 0.027 Chapter 4 described how an idealised wave energy spectrum may be defined in terms
-15 0.083 0.127 0.156 0.206 0.239 0.236 ~

0 0.083 0.131 0.167 0.245 0.338 0.473 of the significant wave height and various measures of the average wave period. This
15 0.083 0.127 0.156 0.206 0.239 0.236 allows representative spectra to be constructed for any point in the ocean provided
30 0.083 0.1lJ 0.125 0.119 0.080 0.027 that these quantities are known. Of course many different combinations of signifi
45 0.083 0.093 0.083 0.043 0.011 0
60 0.083 0.066 0.042 0.008 0 0 cant wave height and average period may occur at any particular point. For practical
75 0.083 O.O~ 0.011 0 0 0 ship design purposes we need to choose appropriate values for the sea areas and
90 0.042 0 0 0 0 0 seasons in which the ship is expected to operate.

v.... = 120" This chapter reviews the available sources of wave data.

-120 0.031 0 0 0 0 0
-105 0.063 0.019 0.005 0 0 0
-90 0.063 0.038 0.018 0.002 0 0
-75 0.063 0.054 0.039 0.010 0.C01 0 5.2 VISUAL OBSERVATIONS
-60 0.063 0.069 0.063 0.033 0.008 0
-45 0.063 0.081 0.086 0.073 o.oo 0.009 5.2.1 Sea state code

-30 .0.063 0.091 0.107 0.124 0.115 0.073 The description of the mechanism of wave generation in Chapter 4 shows that there

-15 0.063 0.096 0.120 0.167 0.209 0.241 can be no unique correlation between wind and wave height. Nevertheless, mariners

0 0.063 0.098 0.125 0.184 0.254 0.355


15 0.063 0.096 0.120 0.167 0.209 0.241 have traditionally used the visual appearance or 'state' of the sea as an indication of
30 0.063 0.091 0.107 0.124 0.115 0.073 the local wind speed. This led to the concept of a numerical scale of sea state as a
45 0.063 0.081 0.086 0.073 0.040 0.009 measure of the severity of the waves and different scales were evolved by different
60 0.063 0.069 0.063 0.033 0.008 0
75 0.063 0.054 0.039 0.010 0.001 0 national authorities. These scales have often been used to report sea conditions in
90 0.063 0.D38 0.018 0.002 0 0 preference to more precise estimates of wave height and period.
lOS 0.063 0.019 0.005 0 0 0 In 1970 the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) agreed the standard sea
120 0.031 0 0 0 0 0
state code given in Table 5.1. Each sea state number corresponds to a range of
significant wave heights and there is no indication of period. As such, the sea state ...
can be regarded at best as a rather vague and indeterminate indication of wave
conditions which is of only limited use in reporting sea conditions. Nevertheless, its

use is so well established and widespread in the seafaring community that naval

architects and oceanographers must sometimes tolerate its deficiencies.

:~

Sec. 5.2] Visualobservations 123


122 Ocean wavestatistics [Ch.5 .t
Table 5.1- World Meteorological Organisation sea state code
!'.
14, i i I I i j, I

Sea state code Significant wave Description


height (metres) 12
Range Mean
;;;
o o o Calm (glassy) ~ 10
;;
1 0-0.1 0.05 Calm (rippled) g
...
2 O.I-{).5 0.3 Smooth (wavelets) i;f
3
4
0.5-1.25
1.25-2.5
0.875
1.875
Slight
Moderate
i:
"
.E 8
Cl
.;
5 2.5-4.0 3.25 Rough .,
s:
>
co
6 4.0-6.0 5.0 Very rough 3 6
7 6.0-9.0 7.5 High C
9.0-14.0 11.5 Very high '"
~
8 t '2
a
9 Over 14.0 Over 14.0 Phenomenal
j iii 4


5.2.2 Visual" observations of waveheight and period ~
With encouragement from oceanographers, sailors now often report sea conditions }
in more detail by estimating the 'average' wave height and period. Hogben and ~
Lumb (1967) compared these visual observations with values measured by wave
buoys and other suitable instruments and obtained the following approximate
~
relationships: {
R 1I3 = 1.06 Rom metres (5.1)
l, Fig. 5.1- Significant and observedwaveheights.

T.=0.73 TObo seconds (5.2)


16, t I \ j 7 i
t; 1.12 Tom seconds (5.3) "tJ 16.
iii
g i I I I

Nordenstrom (1969) derived alternative expressions: <


lil
en

..
I
I I;:: 12
;; 12
'C
c
H1I3 = 1.68 (Fiomy ' 7S metres (5.4) 41 -e
.S1
;
..
o
u
..!!
I Q.
a 8
~.., 8
T. = 0.82 (Tobs)II96 seconds (5.5) 1
e

'0;
.g
..
en
j o Q.

U ;;
If we asume the Bretschneider spectrum period relationships (equations (4.45 ~ 4 ~ 4
:E
Nordenstrom's period relationship can also be written as :e
c:
.,
'"
:!: L I I I ,
7;,= 1.16 (To bs )o.96 seconds (5.6) o ..
n
0 12 16 4 8 12 16
Observed period i alii [seconds) Observed period rOM (seconds)
These relationships are illustrated in Figs5.1 and 5.2. It may be concluded that
observers' estimates of average wave height correspond reasonably closely to the
significant wave height. Since the true mean wave height must by definition be less Fig. 5.2- Measuredand observed periods.

,~~..,-"~"",,.,""~., ..c,y."-I_"_"~"':'''''~~'''''''''''''''_' '~"""'j:_~.>;;,.""",~",.~.,..;;,.,=..:.a.....",,-~,~-i.';'''''~'''';', ..)<o.''''''''--'' >'..,n.~,,,-~~,.:.-~~


"'o~ ,4""b'
~:fr:~'~,","'.""""'''''(~''~''

124 Ocean wave statistics [Ch.5 Sec. 5.3] Wave atlases 125

than the significant wave height. thisimplies that observers ignore the smaller waves .s:::
when making their estimates. E
'C
_...- ..
0)
Average visual estimates of wave period apparently agree quite well with the ....
ID

modal period. but Hogben and Lumb found that individual estimates were often o w ::::::::!: ~ I ..- ::::;:::! .I ::::::l:: ~

.. , .... --- .... ':


a: ; l' - _ ....

widely scattered and could not be regarded as reliable.


c
o 0( ... 10 , t :: ... : " "
'ij; :_. 'f .,1. __ ";' ; , - ~.
Ie _

~-
__ _ ::

!i
5.3 WAVE ATLASES
5.3.1 Visual observations
'"
'5
...
o
Co
>.
~~ ::::::=:=::::::
:; 8: . , -_:::t=:..
i: i
: -1
I ,

8~ ..
1

1
__ _

, ......
,:

~~;;:-~!
...
.:'. I

I . , , , _

=. 8: ... ,-_.~;::=--7
~ ~; ~::::
.---

..-....
-.

::
~

A very comprehensive atlas based on over 55 million visual observations from ships
~
: a; :::s:=. ,,:,. too! , - '::::: .,. I _ ,.

:"w~ .... -- ....:;:::: Z


'0 w
__ .. ! ~ ~~ ... , .. _ ~.:;::.!
on passage between 1854 and 1984 was published as Global Wave Statistics by 8::l ~ ~i ~:::;o
& z_
Hogben, Dacunha and QUiver (1986). This superseded the earlier work by Hogben
and Lwnb (1967). The new atlas covers virtually the entire globe and gives the
'0
e
2 ~:
-
r: v-
, --:a:; .
-..-:: :
! :::::::::::~:::3I .. ~~
, , ,_
::;~ ~! , It
..
it

probabilities of occurrence of significant wave heights and zero-crossing periods for ~


Co
Q,) ..... , I

.
.. .. II " " '-"Z .. ,,, ,- Z oC

,1," "" " """


~
, " to ,

all the sea areas shown in Fig. 5.3.


G" !:~~f~~Z%~!Z!Z!Z ! :~~~~ZZ!~:!U!~ !:~%~~i%!~!!!!!! ~

... '!" to 10 III III 10 .. "" 'lO


co

--...
0\ ",I _sa- &aQ1~" 1-1 ... &all . . .....,l~.,'

~
")~QII-~

. ,_ ......-
--.........
~

~-
I --::;t:::!: ~ I ....-::;::::;::-: :
~
Q,)
..1 .... -_ .. , :: i-- ... , 1 , I
';
..
! ::::=-!
, - ... - _ . , . , , : :

~
&.
w
o"""=' != ..... __........_
~ ~
%

10-4::2;. ) l
1"r
'0 ~
c..J
>
a:
I f ~ ..
WIll:
g~
01' .---
-
:: . -- ..... ~~:.-
-

-!
t

7 ~~::: :::::::::::: \;;:


:::::~::::::::::: 7~;
I

<U >.
<U tlll
0(

:)
e~ : .. _.. .. ~:s=::, ::-; .:-

i; ,.. ,
'

&
I t _ : : : - : :. . . ; . ;

:::;:: ~~~
~ ,..
..1-1 '0 I .s::: 0
c-
a:
ell !! ... ----..::xs::- -1 i E; . 1 I -_ ~=:::-::. :t: ~ I

:l
...
0
C
W
... ~ ~: "."!::X:ZI- ':" ! s~ ~ --:::::: II! f ~5"'" _"::::=-I~ ~
,.'.....:.:::- ,i ! ~: .,.,
I

<u.s::: 0 ~~; :::::: ~i ~~ : ~:;:. ...T ...III


C ~
e r- ffi
Q,) 0
l

ell
--
~: -
i: ... ,.,... ,,... I
I , _ _ ... : . : : :

~!
~ ;
..I
;l
::I::
c
;~

.........."'. 1

-- ~ =
,
tf.
.....
._
Z:

~=
I

,
,



_..
,_....
~
,
r ..~
2:
..

.D
~.=
e ~
w -I' ., ., ..... , . , '-I!
~o
~~ I I I ...
...
_ ... , .. ""'" r-I
z..
:
lO I -
.... -
.... ;
~:::;
U
w

~ " ': I I "",.",, _

..
~

w
,..
.::: ~~~~%~iZ!!!!!Z!I
E:~%f~!Z!!!Z!!!Z ! :~%~~!Z!!l!!!!Z
10 -
<
.~
..) .-1..

: ... - .... ::%::::~=:!


:aa. ioW.Jl...a-1I
tal UOI_ .....

& -::=:::::~;=:;:
~l.,u..-l' ... ~U11 ~ ~

i _.. __ .:::::::::=~
.a-" J

~
~
- - .
.......--_ ::

. .. , .... --_ ..... -:


:
.

~
Ct .. - - -
.~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . r :

..
;~ ~~::::::::::~::~~
0< _

.
~

... .. . ::: .....-- .... _--. , . I


;: :::::::::::::~ :~~
...
i: ~
,,. ,,.
to '" :: ---.._-.. ~--I
..--_
lO '10
"0

o
.;:
~: ~::::~.
~~ :::::::::::::::1;
~; .--_ !:::::: . ~-
Fig.5.3-Sea areas used by Hogben. Dacunha and QlIiver (986). (Reproduced by permission o
of British Maritime Technology Ltd.) Co =8: .. -- :~:t:::::--7 :; 8! . , . - ::::::= i

'0
C
~ ~; - ~:::::. T ; a; ,..... -_....:::::::..T
~-
;!,; .. , . --_.~::;::
~- .!
T

= i: ~~ I -_ ~:I:::: ~ .~; -- ::::- "! ;: ~: ' .... ,._tlt.~:::_


~ !'Z ~~: , .. I-_"::::;:'i
,--..
~: ~
The reliability of the raw visual observations of wave height was enhanced by .2.0
2: , , , _ . . . . . . . . ' I _ ':
.. u

. . .. - ,""
Io.t.. - .. - I

..
U

correlating them with simultaneous observations of wind speed. This allowed o


.-
~= ' .. , ., ~ ," t I" "_ ,. ~" ,
~
.s:::
o _! .1 I.'. "1 ... ", .. " ! ...

unrealistic estimates of wave height to be eliminated from the data base. The >
unreliable visual estimates of the wave period were not used at all. Instead. wave
~
= '1' 1~ I I ~ '1'" .. .. 1
E:~~%*iZ!!!!!:::!~
~

period statistics were constructed from correlations with measured data. ~=~~%il!Z!!!!!!I a:~~~~!Z!Z!!Z!Z
Table 5.2 shows a typical set of data from Area 9 (west of the British Isles) in I ta) ..... :aa- - ....u.u.-n: t-, ~I. :._ ~~,. ... ~~ - ~,......,.
~,

~
winter. The dc:.ta are subdivided into different wave directions and are presented in II'l
Q,I
the form of scatter diagrams. giving the joint frequency of occurrence (in parts per 2i
thousand) of particular combinations of significant wave height and zero-crossing ~
126 Oceanwavestatistics

period occurringsimultaneously. For example,the probability ofoccurrence ofwave


[Ch.5

heights from all directions in the range 4-5 metres with periods in the range 9-10
seconds is 5811000 =0.058.
I
~
j
Sec.5.3} Waveatlases 127

The frequency of occurrence of waves from each of the specified directions is ;;


given as 'percentage of obs' at the top of each scatter diagram. Also shown at the ~ Area 9 : North East
right-hand side of each diagram is the frequency of occurrenceof each significant j Atlantic
wave height range for all periods. The frequency of occurrence of each period range ~
for allwaveheightsisshownat the top of each diagram. Forexample,the probability 1

~
of wavesof any period from the west havinga significant wave height falling in the Area 11 : North Sea
range 4-5 metres is 149/1000 = 0.149.
-~
The probabilityof the significant waveheightexceeding a given levelis obtained
by summingall the observationsabove that level. For example, for wavesfrom the
west the probabilityof the significant wave heightexceeding 7 metres is , 'c:c"
} .,'o'""
"0

P(Rl/3> 7) = (50+ 32+20 + 12+ 7 + 4 + 3 + 4)/1000 = 0.132 -~ x


j '"
'0
Area 18 :
~

I
Fig. 5.4 shows the probabilityof exceeding specified significant waveheights for :a Sea of Japan
four different sea areas. Clearly Area 9 has one of the most severe wave environ 'o"
~

ments in the world, closely followed by the North Sea. The Gulf of Mexico is Q:
particularly benign.
A similar wave atlas based on visual observations for the North Pacific, with
particular emphasis on the seas around Japan, was published by Takaishi, Matsu
j Area 32 : Gulf of
Mexico
ii
moto and Ohmatsu (1980).
Wave statistics based on visual observations must always be considered less
reliable than direct measurementsof waveconditionsevenif the reliability has been
enhanced as describedabove. However,a moreseriouscriticism of visually observed
j
~
wave data lies in the fact that ships' mastersgenerallytry to avoidbad weather and i,
this is likely to introduce a fair weather bias into the results. So the publishedtables
are likely to underestimate the probabilityof extremelysevere weather conditions
simplybecauseships' masterswilltry to avoidstorms. It maybe argued that this bias
makes the statistics applicable to ships which have some freedom to avoid bad
1~
o 12
weather. Ships which must remain on station, such as warships and offshore
platforms, may well experience bad weather more frequently than these statistics
i Significant wave height ii, J (metres)
would imply.

5.3.2 Hindcasting

1 Fig. 5.4 - Probability of exceeding significant wave heights. (After Hogben, Dacunha and

Olliver (1986)).

Bales, Lee and Voelker (1981) publisheda waveatlasfor the North Atlantic, North,

Mediterranean, Blackand BalticSeas.Theyused measuredwinddata obtained over


1i
a period of twenty years for the sea areas in question to 'hindcast' the waveswhich l
I
limiteddata on visibility. cloudcover,precipitation,relativehumidity, air and water
would have occurred as a result of the measured winds. The prediction technique temperatures, sea level pressure and ice. Table 5.3 shows an example of a scatter
used wasdevised by Pierson, Tick and Baer (1966) and calculations of wavespectra diagram for windspeed and significant waveheight for the entire North Atlantic.
were made at six-hourly intervalsfor the period 1959-1969 forthe sea areas shown in Lee, Bales and Sowby (1985) have also published a similar atlas for the Pacific
Fig. 5.5. A total of over 133000 wave spectra were calculated and compiled to Ocean.
produce statistics in much the same way as shown in Table 5.2. The hindcast technique avoids the problems of accuracy and fair weather bias
In addition to data on wave heights and periods, Bales' atlas also gives infor
associatedwith visually observedwavedata but depends,of course, on the accuracy
mation on wave direction and wind speed and direction. The atlas also contains
and reliability of the mathematical modelused to predict the waveconditions.

,,4.. ~-'~"'&-"" ... ~. ' ",,,.,-,:,,,-,,;:;';'WiE


1_.1 1.,1
f#:'t:',.,.~",~~. - 'e"' -e-,,"....y .,-->" ...
."'~.e"'"._.""'''" -*''>;', .."''. .y,.''-*__.. '"',_'"'-<:._'<. _'''','''

.' '1'~-1""

- ,
~.,.:. .
128 Ocean wave statistics [eh.5 ~ec. 5.3} Wave atlases- 129

5.3.3 Measured wave data . - .


If both visually estimated and hindcast wave data are subject to uncertainties, direct'
measurements of wave spectra must provide the most reliable data of all. However.
measuring wave data over a protracted period (years) is an expensive arid compli
y
cated undertaking and few attempts at systematic data collection have been made.
Probably the most comprehensive is that organised by the US National Oceano
graphic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and publishd by Gilhousen et al.
(1983). Fig. 5.6 shows the locations of the wave-measuring buoys around the United

Fig. S.S- Sea areas in the North Atlantic. (After Bales. Lee ami Voelker (1981}).

)..

Table S.3 - Annual wind speed and wave height statistics for the North Atlantic;
probabilities in pans per thousand. (After Bales. Lee and Voelker (1981
Fig. 5.6 - Locations of NOAA wave bouys. (After GilhOUSCD tl ai. (1983)).
Wind speed (knots) ~

RII3 (m) 0 4 7 11 17 22 28 34 41 48 55 Total States. All of the buoys were deployed for at least three years and some have been in
continuous operation for as long as nine years. The buoys recorded information on
>24
air and sea temperature and atmospheric pressure as well as wind and waves. The
20-24
waves were sampled every three hours and a wave spectrum derived from the
16-20 + + + recorded time history. The significant wave height and mean zero-crossing period
14-16 + + + + were derived using equations (4.32) and (4.28) and scatter diagrams similar to those
12-14 + + + + + 1 + 1
shown in Table 5.2 prepared.
10-12 + + + + + + 1 2 1 + 4
Many other measurements of wave conditions have of course been made for'
9-10 + + + + + 1 2 2 + + 6
specific purposes at various locations throughout the world. Typically these are
8-9 + + + + + 1 2 5 2 + + 11
relatively short-term studies intended to provide data on the local environment for
7-8 + + + 1 1 2 5 8 1 + 18
use in research or specific projects such as ship seakeeping trials or the design of
6-7 + + 1 2 3 7 11 8 + + 32
offshore or harbour installations. Much of the data have been acquired by commer
5-6 + 1 1 5 7 14 21 3 + + 52 "
4-S cial organisations who regard them as proprietary information not available to the
1 2 4 12 16 30 15 1 + 80
general public. However, in 1982 the United Kingdom Marine Information and
l-4 2 4 10 28 37 43 2 + 125
2-3 5 12 26 66 67 10 + + + 187
Advisory Service (MIAS) published a catalogue listing the data sources open to .' ....
general use. Over 1350 entries were catalogued and their locations are shown inFig. - --
1-2 17 34 69 23 16 + + 259
~1 41 5.7. The majority of the measurements have been made in the coastal waters around
68 92 24 + + 225
the British Isles and in the North Sea (see Fig. 5.8), but a significant quantity of data
,
+ Indicates less than one P~ per thousand. are also available for North American and Australian waters.
130 Ocean wave statistics lCh.5 Sec.5.3] Wave atlases 131
l00w sow
6O"N 1 I I.... O"E S"E
j6O"N
..

55'N
55"N
1)
~
_ '-'.5
... --,

~i5
SOON I I .. 6'f .. - :;.. ~SO"N
100w sow S"E
ItfQIONAI. kU" IJilmSMISl.B JUfO .A.O.uteEIr1' COA.STS

Fig.5.8- Sitesof measuredwavedata aroundthe BritishIsles.(Reproducedbypermission of


Institute of Oceanographic Scienees.)

Fig. 5.7- Availability of measured wavedata. (From Marine Information Advisory Service
Catalogue of Wave Data (1982).)

.~

1,1-,..,
.
,0"'-~'.~~-'''_'_''''' -c.-,*';,;,;.o,;."j::y~di,
. .".... -.
,~~~<:;-.,~...,. ...~.-.,.~ ~ "-t''''-......,0.;'''',:"'''.,.-~_,''''-~",.,'''"'', ..?:'"''''''_".,,_,~~''''', ._~

, c"1~"

Sec.6.2} Harmonicresponse 133

A varying force F is applied at the free end and we require to find the resulting
(varying) displacement x of the massrelative to itsundisturbed equilibriumposition.
Each of the three components of the systemabsorbs a proportion of the applied force
so that. at any instant of time. "
6
10--

spring force + dashpot force + mass force = F leN

The spring-mass system We assume that the spring has no mass, contributes no damping and obeys
Hooke's law so that the spring force is directly proportional to the displacement x.
Similarly we assume that 'the dashpot has no mass an.d no stiffness and that the
dashpot force is directly proportional to the velocity i: Finally we assume that the
mass contributes only inertia top system so that the mass force is, directly
,i proportional to the acceleration i~ at any instant of time
<
6.1 INTRODUCTION
ax + bi: + ex= F leN (6.1)
We shall see in Chapter 8 that the behaviour of a ship in rough weather is -e:

fundamentally similar to the oscillatory response of the classical damped spring


where a is the mass in tonnes (or IeN/(metreisecond ), i.e, the force required. to
2
mass system illustrated in Fig. 6.1. So an understanding of the characteristics of the
accelerate the mass at 1 metre/second" to the right; b is the dashpot damping in
spring-mass system is a good basis for the study of ship motions.
kN/( metre/second), i.e. the force required to extend the dashpot at a rate of 1 metre/
second; and c is the spring stiffnessin kN/metre. i.e, the force required to extend the
spring by 1 metre-:y
This kind of sYstem is known as a 'second-order linear system'. 'Second-order'
impliesthat equation (6.1) contains terms up to the second derivative (i) but nothing
of higher order. 'Linear' means that each of the component forces is directly
proportional to the appropriate derivative of x. In other words there are no terms
involving powers like x 2 xJ etc.
Real systems may not be truly linear: for example, it is possible to have a stiffness
Massa ~ whichincreases progressivelyas the spring is extended as shown in Fig. 6.2. Another
Force F common form of non-linearity is the hard limit caused by mechanical stops which
limit the spring's extension. Non-linear damping is also possible and, in particular,
the dashpot may be fitted with a relief valve to limit the damping force at some
Stiffness c Displacement x predetermined velocity.
These inconvenient properties complicate the behaviour of spring-mass systems
and it is usual to assume that real systems are linear where this can reasonably be
justified. Equation (6.1) can then be used to examine the behaviour of the system.
Fortunately the linear assumptioncan be justifiedfor many problems ofship motions
Fig, 6.1 - Damped spring-mass system,
(with certain well defined and specific exceptions) and the results we shall obtain are
directly relevant to the study of ship behaviour in rough weather.
j
The spring-mass system consists of a mass a which is connected to a fixed rigid
base (say the Earth) through a dashpot and a spring. If the system is not disturbed it
6.2 HARMONIC RESPONSE
willadopt an equilibrium position which we shall define as datum displacement a >-
Let us suppose that the force F varies in a sinusoidal manner with amplitude l't, leN
x=O metres and frequency CJ) radians/second:

F=Fo sin(Cl) J) leN (6.2)


134 The spring-mass system [Ch.6 Sec.6.2J Harmonic response 135
Linear Non~linear

IFo
Hard
limit
I F
(kN)

,
;

I \ I 1 \ I \. r (seconds)

x
(metres)

z Displacement x (metres)
=
.....
.,
<.l
(a) Spring stiffness ( (seconds)

o
LL

T=0
"J

Fig. 6.3 - Sinusoidal response to a sinusoidal force acting on a linear damped spring-mass
system.

'Relief valve'
i =XoW cos (rot + s) metres/second (6.4)
limit
i= -xoW2 sin (rot+) metres/second- (6.5)

Substituting in equation (6.1) gives


Velocity x Irnetres/second)
(b) Damping
I Xo sin (rot) ( - aro l cos E- bro sin E+ C cos E) +
Xo cos (rot) - arol sin E+ bro cos E+ Csin E) = Fa sin (rot) kN
t
I
Fig. 6.2 - Linear and non-linear characteristics. The motion x thus has twocomponents: the termsinsin (rot) are in phasewith the
force and the terms in cos (rot) are out of phase, or in quadrature, with the force.
These two ccmponents may be separated to give two distinctequations:

We mightexpectthat the resultingmotionof the masswouldalsobesinusoidal and it Xo (-aro 2 cos E-bro sin E+C cos &)=Fo leN
is indeed found that
Xo ( - arol sin E + bro cos s + C sin s) = 0 kN
x = Xo sin (rot + e) metres (6.3)
After some reduction these two equationsyieldfor the motion amplitude
isa solutionof equations (6.1) and (6.2). Xois the motionamplitudein metresand is
a phase angle in radians. In other words a sinusoidally varying force applied to a
xo_ 1
linear damped spring-masssystem will resultin a sinusoidally varying displacement (6.6)
Fa - Y/[(c-arol)2+b2ro2] metreslkN
at the samefrequency. In practicethe phaseangle&isfoundto be negative so that the
displacement sine wave lagsthe forcesinewaveas shownin Fig. 6.3. The maximum
(positive)displacementXo occursriro seconds after the maximum (positive) force Fa. and for the phase
,. . ., .
1.,. < ~. >'''_''.".,e,,,~ ___.>i'''''M;/ii;~1:r
:<m:,,,,=;,,,"=1'7'~''''''::;''=e'c,'' ~.

'''~I'" I

136 The spring-rnass system [Ch.6


1
t
Sec. 6.2J Harmonic response 137

tan e= -boo (6.7)


C- uw: ~
Let us assume for the time being that there is no damping so that b = O. Then the "

motion amplitude becomes infinite at the undamped naturalfrequency 00. given by z


~
'"

i
e
0;

00. = ~(~) radians/second


(6.8) .s
Ii: a
!" ~ c
Equations (6.6) and (6.7) may now be written

Xu _ 1
Fu - c '1[(1- A2)2 + (2 TJ AYJ metreslkN (6.9)
1
C
I I ....
and 0
-'\11

1
-I2
A=(II
w.
- 2TJ A ~ 0
(6.10)

I~I
tan s = 1 - ".2 )...

where the non-dimensional frequency or tuning factor is '"


III
III
-50
I
:;,
III
~

i\=~ (6.11) ;; -100


00.
..
0,
c:
I 1\ '\. .............. n_ I t

and the non-dimensional damping or decay coefficient is i


..'"
III

f -150
f
b i -200'
(6.12)

Ii
I I
TJ = 2 Y(c a) o -
A=~
0'.
Fig. 6.4 shows the amplitude and phase responses for a second-order linear
damped spring-mass system according to equations (6.9) and (6.10) for various Fig. 6.4 - Responseof a second-orderlinear spring-masssystem.
values of the decay coefficient TJ. At zero frequency the applied force is steady and
the damping and inertia have no effect because there is no velocity or acceleration.
The displacement is governed only by the spring stiffness:
(.to
) ).
1 (6.13)
Fo "'-1.0 = 211C metresIkN
.to =_ metreslkN
I
...

Fo c 4
or 112TJ times the zero-frequency response. When there is no damping the amplitude
becomes infinite at the undamped natural frequency, as we have already seen.
At i\ = 1.0 the force due to the spring stiffness exactly balances the force due to the However. for finite damping the maximum amplitude occurs at a lower frequency.
inertia of the mass. The amplitude response is then called the damped naturalfrequency, given by"
138 The spring-mass system [Ch.6 Sec. 6.3] Free decay 139

Ao=y(1-Z,,2) (6.14) 6.3 FREE DECAY

or 1
Let us now suppose that the spring-mass system is deflected to some initial
displacement Xoo and then released. We require to examine the subsequent motion.
Since there is no applied force after the system is released, F= 0 and equation (6.1)
0>0 = (I). ',1(1- 2T'\2) radians/second (6.15) becomes
- rj
and the maximum amplitude response is ai+bi+cx=O kN (6.17)

We might expect that the resulting oscillation would resemble a 'sine' wave with a
continually decreasing amplitude. In fact the response
x o) 1
( Fa max =21]c y(l- 1]2) metreslkN (6.16)

When T'\ is small the damped and undamped natural frequencies are almost the same, x=xoo exp (~t) cos (OOdt) metres (6.18)
as shown in Table 6.1. For larger values of T'\ the differences become more

is a solution of equation (6.17). Substituting equation (6.18) in equation (6.17) and


Table 6.1 - Peak responses of a spring-mass system separating 'in-phase' and 'quadrature' components as before leads, after some
reduction, to r

1] J\, (xu) (xu)


Fu I\s I.U Fn ma<

0 1.0 co co
c-~ + a (~- (J)~) =0 kN/metre (6.19)
0.05 0.997 101c 10.0lle
0.10 0.990 s 5.031e and the time constant is given by
0.25 0.935 2Ie Z.07/e
0.50 0.707 lie 1.151e
0.707 0.0 0.707fe l.OOle 2a __1_ seconds (6.20)
r=b- 1]00.

appreciable until the maximum response occurs at zero frequency when" exceeds Combining these two equations gives for the oscillation frequency
0.707. The system is said to be critically damped when T'\ =0.707.
At higher frequencies the amplitude response falls towards zero regardless of the
decay coefficient or the spring stiffness. Physically this corresponds to the situation
rod =00. '1(1-1'\2) radians/second (6.21)

where the oscillation is so rapid that the system has insufficient time to respond
appreciably. So the frequency of the decaying oscillation lies between the damped and
Fig. 6.4 also shows the phase response of the system. At very low frequencies the undamped natural frequencies (see equation (6.15. In practice, if 1'\ is small the
phase is nearly zero and the displacement x is almost in phase with the applied force differences are negligible.
F. In other words the system responds more or less instantaneously to the slowly Fig. 6.5 shows the free decay of a linear damped spring-mass system for various
varying force. As the frequency is increased, the displacement begins to lag behind values of the decay coefficient T'\. When T'\ =0 there is no damping and the oscillation
the force and the phase becomes negative. As might have been expected, the lag continues indefinitely with no loss of amplitude because there is no mechanism for
increases with damping, showing that a well damped system responds sluggishly to energy dissipation. As T'\ increases, the oscillations decay more rapidly until they
the applied force. The phase is always - 90 at the undamped natural frequency effectively disappear after only a single cycle when T1 is greater than about 0.5.
regardless of the damping. At higher frequencies the lag increases still further and The free decay of an oscillation may be used to estimate the decay coefficient of
tends to 1800at infinite frequency. the system. If TJ is small the decaying oscillation frequency OOd is almost the same as
the undamped natural frequency 00., and free decays are often used to obtain an
~,... _,_,-a-_&",~-.",~;.;:~~"""n
'!',.,',.
~~'t<?1~- ....,~ .... ..",..,,,_. '~'>"'(-'1~o/'~""'''"''"~'-''''_''_'~'7>'''''''_~'Y

,
140 Thesprin~sy~m [eh.6 :1 Sec. 6.4] System with DO stiffness 141
j.
.t,
x~ f\ f\ f\ f\ f\ f\
\TV VVV we .,-0 ~. ~ 100.(X:~I)
,

x~
).-
x..
f\\TV
f\ f\
vL\v o
.~V ~ , .. ".""
C>

.1
.~
f\ C\ vC> .....~"=
\]V r tloO.l

.~V
'i
~

o
=- t ",= ~ J:T
;;;
:T
Ilitl

~.,
~

~u
Fig. 6.6- Estimation of decay cocffic::ient.
~
~
{ 'C""
, 1
1
< and the decay coefficient is givenby J

1
Fig. 6.5- Decayof oscillationsin a linear damped spring-masssystem.
, ".",~ ~
\, 1
l]=-lo~
'tt
(;COl)
-
Xo(l+ 1)
(6.22)

The decaycoefficient can therefore be estimatedfromthe decaying oscillationby ~


intervals of rr/oorj ~ nk; seconds and the Jth maximum (peak or trough) occurs at determining the ratio betweenanypair ofsuccessive amplitudes. When the damping
time is very small and the oscillation decays veryslowly, several estimates of the decay
B
i coefficient can be obtained from a single record. The method is not reallypractical
hr when 11 is muchgreater than about 0.2 and is in any casestrictlyvalidonlyfor small
/J = - seconds
00. values of 1'\.
~
!
(see Fig. 6.6). The corresponding peak amplitude is (fromequation (6.18 , 6.4 SYSTEM WITH NO STIFFNESS

{ Fig. 6.7 showsa related systemin which there is no springstiffness so that the system
:COl =..t(x> -Jrr)
exp (- - metres
only has damping and inertia. The equation of motion is now
too.
ilX+bx=F kN (6.23)
=:Cun exp ( - J11ll) metres '"
Now the ratio between the Jth and the (1 + l)th amplitude is and we againrequire to find the responseof thesystemtoa sinusoidally varyingforce
1
; ...
~

:C(lJ exp ( - JlTTJ) J F= Fo sin (Wl) kN


exp(lTTJ) 1:..
Xo(J ~ 1l exp [ - (J + 1)lTTJl ~
A solution is
142 Thesprln~~synem [Ch.6
t
{
Sec. 6.41

Sa
1)2
System with no niffness 143

t
fc
~
4a
jji
;~
Massa
~ '"
.~ ~

j
Force F 0; 3a
~ jji
Qi
g


Displacement x ~
,
~I~ 2a
bi

Fig. 6.7- Damped systemwith no stiffness. .~


a

""iii

x = Xo sin (rot + E) metres


0 2
lJ)0

so that the application of a sinusoidally varying force again results in a sinusoidally

varying displacement. Following the procedure used for the system with stiffness
0
leads to the amplitude response

-50
xo_ a 1 -;;;
F - b 2 ro' y(l + ro/2) metresIkN (6.24) '"
'"c.

and the phase is given by 1i '"

~
...
.:;:
.c;

1 -150
tan = ro' (6.25)
~
l;
where the Don-dimensionalfrequency is -200

I
0 2

lJ)0

aro
ro'=""b (6.26)
Fig. 6.8- Responseof a second-orderlinear systemwith no stiffness.

Fig. 6.8 shows the amplitude and phase response of the zero-stiffness system

according to equations (6.24) and (6.25). The responses are quite different from

those of the spring-mass system. The absence of stiffness means that there is no

natural frequency and the amplitude rises steadily as the frequency approaches zero.

1~
Since this velocity continues indefinitely, the amplitude Xo is infinite at zero
frequency. In practice this ideal amplitude may not be achieved because of mechani
At zero frequency the steady force Fo is resisted only by the damping force bi: (since
cal constraints such as limits on the dashpot travel. I
the acceleration, after an initial transient, is zero) and the mass moves at a steady
The phase is - 90" at zero frequency. In other words the displacement lags the
velocity given by
force by 90". This phase lag increases as the frequency increases and ten~to -180"
at infinite frequency. .
o
F metresfsecon d
.r. =b
, I" '~'''''''''~''~=~C;.;.''''"-;;'"'';k""",",,;,,, -;-:,,,'=;>;.;;.~'<t';~'*'~~"';'~""N"_. ,_";-,,,,,,,,.,,,~,,,~.~~"
'S; ~""I''""--,,

1 Sec.7.2J Encounter frequency 145


"I
~. Following
!I=O~

7 *
:?

Heading and encounter frequency t Starboard


beam
!.=90
I ..( ,. I Port beam
u =270'

;"
-.;,
t
.
'"
"
,~

7.1 HEADING
j ....

The ship's heading is defined with reference to the direction of propagation of the
waves. The convention chosen isshown in Figs7.1 and 7.2. The ship is assumed to be ! Head
,,=180

i"" Fig. 7.2 - Headings.


."
01
With this definition:
;,
-~
:i ).: = 0 corresponds to following waves with the waves and the ship travelling in
j
, JL = 90"
the same direction
corresponds to beam waves with the waves approaching the ship from the

starboard side

2700

'\~"

JL = corresponds to beam waves with the waves approaching the ship from the

" port side

! JL = 180 corresponds to head waves with the waves travelling in the opposite
-.i direction to the ship.
i
1~
..-\ Quartering waves are defined as heading angles between 0" and 900 (or 270" and
360). Bow seas are defined as heading angles between 90 and 180" (or 180" and

t 270").

Fig. 7.1- Definition of heading angle.


~
7.2 ENCOUNTER FREQUENCY l
attempting to maintain a straight line track at a constant speed U metres/second The characteristics of regular waves were discussed in Chapter 3 and it was shown
across the sea surface. The waves will cause deviations from the intended course and that the wave frequency 0), with which a train of regular waves would pass a fixed
track. but a directionally stable ship in the hands of an experienced helmsman (oran point in the ocean, is one of the most important wave parameters. ~ow although this .
autopilot) will usually be able to follow asensibly straight mean course so that the i wave frequency has some direct influence on ship motions, they are also critically
heading angle p. can be readily defined as the angle between the intended track of the
t dependent on the frequency with which a moving ship would encounter these regular
ship and the direction of wave propagation.
, waves~j

-~ .. - - -
,

i~.j. - - ---------
146 Heading and encounter frequency [Ch.7 ..;.
... Sec.7.2J Encounter frequency 147
'"
.~
.,"'!.
Fig. 7.1 shows a ship heading at an angle p. relative to the direction of propagation
of a train of regular waves. The component velocity of the ship in the direction of
wave propagation is
~.I.

U cos p. metres/second

and the waves will overtake the ship with a relative velocity

c- u cos p. metres/second ::.


:~.
- - - - ~,.,.(+)
Since the wave crests are I.. metres apart. a crest will meet the ship once every T;
seconds, where the encounter period is given by
-or ,\" I

T, = c- I..
U cos p. seconds (7.1) ~ r ~
~

The corresponding encounter frequency roe is defined as


...~~~
i-r-. ~ L
~ '1
2lT 2lT . ~
roe = Te = T (c - U cos p.) radians/second (7.2) \
'"
In deep water this reduces to the fundamental relationship Fig. 7.3- Encounter frequency and heading.
f- .._-....
ro1 U The encounter frequency is zero when
roe = ro- kU cos p. = ro - - - cos p. . radians/second (7.3)
---
, p --~
" .

g

and this is ilIustra"(~d'in Fig. -rio ro = U cos


g u: - 4roemu: radians/second (7.6)
In seas forward of the beam (90 < p. < 2700) cos p. is always negative and the
encounter frequency is always greater than the wave frequency. In beam waves Since ro = glc in deep water this corresponds to the condition when the component
p. = 900 and cos p. = O. The encounter frequency is then equal to the wavefrequency velocity is equal to the wave celerity:
and is unaffected by ship speed.
The situation is much more complicated when the heading lies abaft the beam
(0 < P. < 900 or 2700 < P. < 360) cos p. is then always positive and the encounter U cos 1J. =c metres/second
frequency now has a maximum value
The encounterfrequency is negative for higher values of to. These high-frequency
~aves advance only s!(?,:vly and the negative encounter fregueng mean!~~.3:t!I!~.~
g
O)emsx = 4U ~ radians/second (7.4) -r' isovejtaTdn!Uhewaves. !t1ore precisely, a negative encounter frequency means that
ine~av.:~.!:~.e)!:!~&'~S!?',!1)3ere(rp.E-their tramnrras:~whiIe..~~J1Q.unt!
freg~es.I11~~~ that thewaves a~.~ei!! ~~EP-.!!rlJ~[~d_2R!lt~ir le~. This is
which occurs when the wave frequency is of course self-evident -onneaaings forward of the beam where the encounter
frequency is alwayspositive. In followingand quartering waves a pQSitiv~ ~nco.!m!.er
ro = 2roemax radians/second frequency means that the waves are overtaking the ship.
(7.5)

.,.",_...,,:~;;.-.>.~-t.:;..::ilii.,,:e:ii:)&;:;.';;;;4 .
I ,.I~ ,<
\~~,"":'1'~"':'''''''''-''::'' --.'~"'-=""':h"""!f~>J7'.,,,-",,~/-,~~,.,,.._~~_w.,-,,".'"!:, .....,-_,---_,. ""-~"-_""'~"_/''-''''''',,"_~A'p,'_~' ",,,,-_~_~,_,,? _ ,,,,_~, "'_"="
, ,-.""'-''''''''~':'~~1",,t,''-\t.",_... "., '1'-"-1"-'

[eh.7 ~i Sec.7.2J Encounter frequency


149
148 Heading and encounter frequency

4tJgllqwing and .2~e~g ~ a given ,absolute) value of encounter he The relationship between encounter frequency and wave length may be further

. qucncy may be experienced intfiree different wave systems (if IIDe I < IDe max) as examined by rearranging equation (7.3) to give

shownin Fig. 7.3. Twoof these wavesystemswillgive posItiveencounierfrequencies


and the third will give a negative encounter frequency. If IIDel > IDe max the given
encounter frequen~~ly one wave system~m:-wjII benficgafive.----
The corresponding wave frequencies can be obtained by rearranging equation
Ucos ~ = ~1T ~(2~g) - OOe]
[ metres/second (7.8)

(7.3) to give
and this is plotted in Fig. 7.4. The diagram may be used to find the wavelength

W = g [ 1 ~ (1- ~e U cos )] ~ radians/second (7.7)


~
1000

The physical interpretation of this phenomenon is best illustrated with a numeri IE


cal example. Consider a ship steaming at 20 knots (U = 10.3 metres/second) in
regular following waves. Suppose that the ship encounters the wave system at a
frequency ~
.;
lt..
">
900

\ I >,

.;,
~ L-SOO
looel = 0.2
\
radians/second

It is required to find the wave systems whichcould be responsible. Possible results.


~nn I r:
obtained from equation (7.7), are given in Table 7.1 together with corresponding

celerities and wave lengths.

Table 7.1- Regular wave systems giving looel = 0.2 radians/second; ship speed 20

knots; following waves

r:
Wave We w c A.
no. (rad/sec) (rad/sec) (m/sec) (m)

1 0.2 0.285 34.4 759


2 0.2 0.667 14.7 139
3 -0.2 1.12 8.8 49
(4) ( -0.2) ( -0.17)

Wave no. 1 has crests about 0.75 kilometres apart, but its celerity isvery highand -0.3
it overtakes the ship with a relative velocityof nearly 47 knots. So the high celerity -0.5
compensates for the distant crests and results in the required encounter frequency. -1.0
Wave no. 2 is much shorter and slower and overtakes the ship witha relative velocity ~-2.0 j

of only about 8.5 knots. However. the closercrests compensate for the lower relative 20
velocity and the wave again gives the required encounter frequency. Wave no. 3 is -20 -10 o
-very short and the celerity is only 8.8 metres/second. So the ship overtakes this wave Head
1-~eas
Beam
seas
Followong
seas -
...
system with a relative velocity of about 3 knots, giving tbe required encounter U cosIt (metres/second)
frequency. Again the very low relative velocity compensates for the short wave
length. Wave no. 4 is a trivial result: negative wave frequencies have no physical

-meaning.

5
Fig. 7.4- Encounter frequency and wave length; deep water.
150 Headingand encounterfrequency [Ch.7 t
."
f:
~
corresponding to any givenencounter frequency for a particularspeed and heading.
As already demonstrated, a particular encounter frequency is experienced at only
one wavelength (or wave frequency) in head or bow waves; but in following and
quartering waves up to three different 'Wave systems will yield the same absolute
encounterfrequency. Fig.7.4 alsodemonstratesanother peculiarproperty of regular
waves. In following and quartering wavesa widerange of wavelengths may produce
virtually the same encounterfrequency. For example, a ship steamingat 20 knots in
quartering waves (p. = 45) has a componentvelocity of about 7.0 metres/second. In
this condition all the wavelengths from about 50 metres to about 400metres yieldan
8
encounter frequency close to about 0.3 radians/second. We shall see in Chapter 13 l;
that this phenomenon can have profound implications for roll motionsin quartering
seas.
" Basic equations for ship motions
in regular waves

,
,...
~~

8.1 INTRODUCTION
Shipsdo not, in the normalcourseof events. experienceregular wavesat sea. So the
study of ship motions in regular waves appears at first sight to be an academic
exerciseof no practicalsignificance. Yet it isan essentialfirststep inthe calculationof
ship motions in a realistic irregular seaway; moreover, an appreciation of regular
wave motions will give the reader an insight which will prove invaluable in
.(
understanding the general nature of the motionsof ships in rough weather.

8.2 AXES AND SHIP MOTION DEFINITIONS


A ship in rough weather experiences a complex sequence of motionsas it twistsand
turns its way across the ocean surface. The motions seem to defy any rational
analysis, particularly by those who suffer from their effects on board the ship.
Nevertheless,it is possible to make some observationson the characteristicsof ship
motions which willhelp to clarifytheir nature and willform a basisfor the modem
theory of seakeeping.
Let us suppose that the ship is attempting to maintain a straight course at a
constant speed U metres/second as shown in Fig. 8.1. Waves continuallycause the
ship to deviate from its course and track and the helmsmanmay findit necessary to
take corrective action. In addition the ship will rise and fall in response to the
changing water level and the deck will seldom be truly horizontal. The ship will
generally fo . iral ath which is more or less aligned with the
in en ~~ou~ Finally the ship's speed will be continua y varymg aroun the
nomma speed U metres/second as the ship surgesalong its track in response to the
waves.
Any particular ships's track and motion time history can be represented by a
j
\"h_,."~"",,-.,,,$i'":'~-__"'_"''''''~~'_d _~" ..,~,~., '''', ~"'~'""''''''"'''''''~'''''''''''''''''''''$,;""~,,,.",,,,,,,{;d",-",,~'''',''''~'',,,,,
".. ,."''',....~"'',;~~,
~':rJ~~~'">"'~""""lt:,,.,..,:~\-,,,, "',",""'",r'''-'~;!!;'F''''''''''''''''''''-T>~8i':'"''''.''','~''~';'''-'''' ' ''''.''' ",.~ ' ' ' ' .

""'1'-'--1

. Sec. 8.2] Axes and ship motiondefinitions 153


152 Basic equations for ship motions in regular waves [Ch.8
Xu

Boc:iv aXil IVllem

'"

X..

X,

-b
.;
~I:t
"\4-' ."
Fig.8.2- Axesand shipmotiondefinitions.

Fig.8.1- Typical path of a ship in waves. roll X4 radians: positivestarboard side down
r
pitch Xs radians: positive bow up

yaw X6 radians: positive to starboard.

combination of the time histories of three lineart and three angular displacements.
These sixdisplacements are definedusingthe right-handed axissystemshown in Fig. M~~!~hiP-s have po_fll~tarboard symmetryand so surge ,!lellve.llIl~pi.~ch~hich lie
8.2. in th~pla~_<?.f s~etry :areCiIreaverti~p!~~~or's~I!1~trlc motjgns. SWA~ ).
The axis system ~ h~jts origin fixedat E at the mean ware: level and regular ,/ and yaw are terlI1eIaterai plane or antisymmetric motions. The motions are often
waves propagate along the Er axis. A second axissystem ErE 1XE2Y also has its origin referred tolls 'degrees of f r e e d o m . ' . -
at E but is rotated through the heading'angle p: so that"El:El comC1d~\\'itll.tb!:tm~.<ln. ffj'lother right-handed set of axes GXBl XB2 XB3 is fixed in the ship and is used to
~ckofihe ship. ....--_.- --_." .
define locations on (or in) the ship's structure. The originis at the (moving)centre of
. A-pomfO:lying at the mean water level, moves along Er El at the mean speed of gravity G and the axes rotate as the ship rolls, pitches and yaws. Locations are
the ship, U metres/second. (This speed is approximately the same as the ship would defined as:
achieve at the same power in calm water. In head waves the speed Will be slightly
reduced and in followingwavesit may be increased.) The mean position of the ship's XBl metres: positive forward

centre of gravity Go lies verticallyabove 0 and is taken as the Q!.igin of a third ~is . XB2 metres: positive starboard

~ystem GoXl X 2X3' At any instant of time the position of the ship's centre of gravity G XB3 metres: positive down.

relatiVe to the moVingorigin Gois defined by three linear displacements:


The wave depression at any point x is, according to equation (3.10),
surge metres: positive forward
Xl
sway Xz metres: positive to starboard ~ = i;o sin (kx - wt) metres
heave X3 metres: positive down.
The attitude of the ship isdefined by three angular rotations about the axes GOx h where the time t may be measured from an arbitrary datum. Transformingto the axis
GOX2 and GOX3: . system aligned with the ship's track we find that the wave depression at any point'
(xEl' xE2) is
t 'I1ne:tr' here means a displacement alongan axis as opposed to a rotation about an axis. There is no
necessary implication that the motionresponses are linear in the sensethat tbey are directlyproportional
to a fOfCC. ~ = i;o sin (hEl cos p. - h E2 sin P.- wt) metres
154 Basic equations for ship motions in regular waves tcs.s Sec. 8.3) General equations for ship motions in regular waves 155

If we choose a datum time such that the moving origin 0 is at E at time


x; -= X2 - .tB3 .t4 +XB1.t6 meiresseconc' to starboard

t = 1T
cos p. seconds
.i; = x) + X B2 .i4 - xBI.i, metres/second- downwards

The forces and moments necessary to sustain these accelerations are


the moving and Earth-fixed frames of reference are related by

om ii
= Xl + U kU :os ~)

oFI
XE I (t- metres
/ = kN
oF2 = Om x; leN to starboard
forward

XE2 = X:! metres


oF3 = om i; kN downwards
y = X3 - OG u metres
of. = om XB2 i; - Om X B3 x; leN metres roll moment to starboard

Then the wave depression at (Xl' X:!) in the moving frame of reference is
sr, om XB3 ii - om x BI i; oleN metres pitch moment bow up
oF6 om XBI i; - om XB2 xi leN metres yaw moment to starboard
1; = ~J sin (met-hi cos JL+ kx; sin JL) metres (8.1)
The forces and moments required to sustain the linear and angular accelerations
of the whole ship are obtained by allowing Om to approach zero and integrating over
the volume of the ship. Bearing in mind that, by definition of the centre of gravity,
8.3 GENERAL EQUAnONS FOR SHIP MOTIONS IN REGULAR WAVES
8.3.1 Basic equations of motion
The structure of the ship may be regarded as being composed of a large number of
very small masses om
tonnes. Fig. 8.3 shows one of these masses located at fXB1elm fXB2 elm = fX B3elm = 0

/8' we obtain

mx, = F; kN (i = 1, 3) \:
\';j
...,

144 x4 -14S .is -14(, x6 = F4 leN metres


G
s, - 1S4 4 + 1'5 .i, - 1S6 i 6 = F, leN metres
- 164 .i 4 -16S .f, + 166 i 6 = F6 leN metres
X2
where F; (i = 1,3) are the surge. sway and heave forces and F, (i =4,6) are the roll,
X3 pitch and yaw moments required to sustain the accelerations of the ship. m is the total
mass in tonnes and 144 , 1'5 and 166 are the mass moments of inertia of the ship defined
Fig.8.3 - Accelerations experienced by elementalmass om. by

(X B I, X B Z, X93) relative to the centre of gravity of the ship. [f the ship has linear
accelerations XI' X2 and xJ metres/second! and angular accelerations .r.r~ and x~
radians/second- the mass Om will have linear accelerations
144 = J(X~2 +X~3) dm tonne metre- about the .rB I axis

x; = Xl +X B3 is -XB2 x6 rnetres/second- forward Iss = f(X~l +X~3) elm tonne metre- about the X B 2 axis
j

"',o:;,,~,.;"'>'~~_'<"_' o.""_,,",_."'>_""=",,.._~-._,, __ .""_'_''';''''''',;k<'",,,,.,,,,,-,;,_,,,~~,,,,,v,,us-~:;.,,;~,~.iI:_''''';'''"''''.-, __, -,>~,a.,;..,,,.,,,~,,,,,,"-~~~,


~~;'::<7,'O"/*~'=t:,...,,,,,,,
. . .~..,,,,,,." ~ .-''-"'''''~''~~''''''~''"''''~'''"':!f''''N''~-'':''''!'~'''''''.'x_'''''''~''<
_~."

1-"'"'' "" ..".)" .. ~" r",,!"

156 Basic equations for ship motions in regular waves [eh.8 Sec.8.3J General equationsfor ship motions in regular waves 157

166 = f(X~l + X~2) elm tonne metre- about the Xa3 axis
where the coefficientsa" ali' etc are functionsof the wavelength(or wave frequency).
ship speed and hull form; a.; b, and c, are also functions of the heading angle.
Substituting equations (8.4) into the six equations (8.2) we obtain six general
linearised equations for small-amplitude motions in regular waves:
The product moments of inertia are defined by
b

2: (Aiji + j b;A + C'jX j) = Fw' kN or kN metres (i = 1. 6) (8.5)

[45 = [54 = J ISI Ia2 elm tonne metre"


j-t

14<, == 164 == f XS t XB3 elm tonne metre'


where

A;j = a;j u= 1, 6; i = 1,6; j *' i)


156 = 165 = J XS2 :CB 3 dm tonne metre" and

A ij
= m rr a., (j = 1. 3; i = 1, 3; j = i)
For conventional ships the product moments of inertia are usually small and are
invariably neglected. The equations of motion then reduce to A'i = Iii + a;j (j = 4. 6; i = 4, 6; j = i)
,.
and the exciting forces and moments due to the wavesare
m X, == F, kN (i == 1, 3)
Ij;X, = F, kN metres (i == 4, 6) (8.2) FWi = a,~ + bj:, + cl, kN or kN metres (i = 1, 6) (8.6)

8.3.2 Motions in regular waves


It is customary to relate all the regular waveship motions to the wave depression ....
The forces and moments in equations (8.2) may be applied by any external means.
experienced at the moving origin 0 in Fig. 8.2. In practice the waves here will be
but we are here concerned with the forcesand moments applied to the ship by a train ./
distorted by the presence of the hull(indeed 0 willoften be withinthe hullso that the
of reWar~s. ------.--.. surface depression cannot be defined at that point). So, to be precise. the motions are
For a given hull shape at a particular speed and heading in a given regular wave related to the waveswhichwould have been observed at 0 in the absence of the hull.

system (i.e. a particular wavelength) the F; would be expected to be functions of the Setting x I =X2 := 0 metres in equation (8.1) gives for the surface depression at 0

displacement. velocityand accelerationof the surface depression and the sixpossible


motions. So we may write
s = ~) sin ("let) metres (8.7)

F; = F; {~.~. ~, (x, i x j(i j = 1, 6)} kN or kN metres (8.3) and the velocity and acceleration of the sea surface perceived by an observer on the
ship at 0 are
If the wave amplitude issmallcompared with the wave and ship lengths motions will ;.
also be small and we may use a Taylor series expansion to obtain a linear ~ = coJ;() cos (coJ) metres/second (8.8)
approximation to equations (8.3):
and ~ = - co~ ~) sin (wet) metres/second 2 (8.9) .,.
F. - ar L
I
I"b~-'cr
.., T T .~ I , ~

6
Substituting equations (8.7)-(8.9) in equation (8.6) we obtain
+ L: (- aijij - b'jij - CjjXj) leN or leN metres (i = 1, 6) (8.4)
=
j-l Fwi = F'Nio sin (wet + y;) kN or kN metres (i 1, 6) (8.10)
158 Basicequations for ship motionsin regular waves [eh.8 Sec. 8.4] Coefficients in the equations of motion 159

where the excitation amplitudes are


Wave depression
Fw.o = ~) v'[(c, -a,.(J);) 2 + (b i Cll e)2] kN or kN metres (i = 1, 6) (8.11) at 0
-o

and the phases are given by

b, Cll e .1
tan Yi = Ci - aiw~ (8.12) ;r. r:

The equations of motion (8.5) may now be written as

6 <
2: (Aij xj + bi;Xj + cijx) =F sin (oi,t + Yi) kN or kN metres (i 1, 6) . \:-
j-I
will

(8.13)
;",
' ....
, x. -j
I
I
I
r-;;;;
I
e.

Motion
Solutions to these equations have the form

= X;o sin (wet + 8,) metres or radians (i = I, 6)


Xi (8.14)

l
.
,~
.;1
... Time
" Fig. 8.4 - Time histories of wave depression. exciting force and motion in regular waves.

S3a = S3f = X3 = X3Q sin (wet + 3) metres (8.15)

and the model executes a sinusoidal heave motion. All other motions are restrained
and the forces necessaryto impose the heave oscillationare measured by transducers
at the ends of the struts and recorded on suitable apparatus. The aft transducer is
8.4 COEFFICIENTS IN THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION fitted with a swinginglink and this ensures that the longitudinalforce is measured in
~o(illt -11'\4!-'I
The theoretical methods outlined in Chapter 9 are usually used to determine the its entirety by the forward transducer.
coefficientsin the equations of motion, but these quantities may also be determined The longitudinal force consistsof a steady force required to tow the model at the
by experiment. It is instructive to examine the techniquesinvolvedsince this throws constant speed U metres/second and an additional oscillatorycomponent due to the
some light on the physical meanings and characteristicsof each coefficient. oscillatory motions of the model. We may write for the oscillatory part
Full-scaleexperiments are impractical but experiments with models are a viable
alternative. The coefficients can be measured in forced oscillation experiments in FI = Fif = Fto sin (w.t) kN
which the forces and moments applied by the waves are replaced by forces and
moments applied by some suitable mechanism while the model is towed in calm where FlO is the force amplitude and the heave motion leads the force by 3 radians.
water. Fig. 8.5 showsa typicalexperiment rig in whichthe model is mounted on two For an arbitrary shaped hull form the transducerswillalsoexperience verticaland
verticalstruts spaced equally about the centre of gravity. If the struts are oscillated in
unison so that the strut motions S3. and S3f (positivedown) are the same,
__"~~"<_ ....
"",,,,~._~~_ .. "",."~ ..c<,-_:-,,,,, .,~",... , _ ..40_,_,,,~,,,~,,,,,,,,,",,,,~,~,,~,,,,=,_:_ """,,_,"~'-"~A'",""""'" " ,---,_a"q_&lo:.: .,..~;~~~
1,")'-'
,,,,.... ,,~~\.~"""N"~'C-;,~~"""'"0*'<"'::,""',""'i',.
',",~~~"'<"~.'--'-"':'>.""""'>'
""-'' '. . .,. -.'".w.~. 1 '.... I" """1:""1

/io<
160 Basicequationsfor ship motions in regular waves [Ch.8 Sec, 8.4J Coefficients in the equationsof motion 161
:'~

, !S~ Is. Ai3X3 + bax3 + Ci3X3 = FiO sin (wet) kN or kN metres (i = 1,6) (B.17)

and these may be recognised as the equations of motion of six second-order linear
damped spring-mass systems with sinusoidal excitation (see equation (6.1)}. The
motion response of each system is given by equation (B. IS} and the amplitude and
phase response are, from equations (6.6) and (6.7),

X3I1 1
F;o = [v'c.c'"3 - A we)2 + blJ W~] metreslkN or metres/(kN metre)
t (I = I, 6)
a

b,"3CJ)e )
tan f.i = - ( Ci3 - A'"3CJ)~ (i.= 1.6) (8.19)

Combining these equations yields for the in-phase and quadrature components of the .>

six applied forces and moments

Fig. 8.5- Forced oscillation experiment.


Ci3 - A,3CJ);~ = -Fio cos f.i kN/metre or kN metres/metre (i = 1.6) (8.20)
XiO
lateral forces and roll moments. 'If the motions are small the total forces and
moments imposed on the model may be obtained by appropriate addition and
subtraction of the forces measured by the individual transducers: and

F2 = Fa + Fu = F2fJ sin (wot) kN

biJwe = - FlO sin Ei kN/metre or kN metres/metre (i = I, 6) (8.21)


F3 = F + F = F30 sin (wot)
3A 3C kN
XiO

F4 = F + F4 f = F40 sin
4A (wot) kN metres

The components of the six applied forces and moments which are in phase with the
Fs = (F 3A - F3f ) x; = Fso sin (wet) kN metres
heave motion are therefore associated with the stiffness and inertia coefficients,
while the quadrature components are associated with damping.
F6 = - (F2A - Fu) Xr = F60 sin (wet) kN metres

The coefficients which are of most interest in the heave oscillation experiments

The motions of the model are related to these forces and moments by six
are a33' b33 and C33 which relate the heave motion to the applie~J!~ave Fig. 8.6 wee.
sh.Q.WS-the.PhSicaJ mecbanismmsponsl6Te1~tIiese-=~~~1!1cieiits. At zero frequency
equations analogous to equations (8.13): the model has no heave velocity or acceleration and the heave force is related only to
the heave displacement through the coefficient C33 This arises because a stea'!}'
6 downward heav~(j~1l1~~~!!!~~..e~oduc~~~.9..~~tl;ii.tioniI..liisRla.ce.d.YQlume and a
2: (A~J+biiJ+cijxj)
j-l
= FlO sin (wer) kN or kN metres (i = 1, 6) (8.16) /steady upward restoring force due to buoyancy A typical relationship between the
neave displacement and the force is shown in Fig. 8.7(a}. Provided that the heave ,.
displacement is small, this may be approximated by a straight line whose slope is C33
All the motions except heave are zero and C33 is specifically defined_~ the m-clicmt of the..cuIYe..asit..passesJhmu~rigin.
ACIiignerlrequencies the in-phase component of the applied heave force ...
includes a contribution from heave ineniaA 33 This is made up of contributiorislrom--'
Xi = Xi = Ii = 0 for i *3
t~~ so called 'added mass' an as well as the real mass m of the ship. J'he former arises
v~'"5ecaus~. the accelerating hull cause,j.banges in ~~!l.uitl.Y~.Q~l~e~ a~iae:=.nt to its
Equations (8.16) then reduce to six much simpler equations surfaceas shown in Fig. 8.6(a). The additional force required to accelerate this water
162 Basicequations for sbip motions in regular waves [Ch.8 Sec.8A} Coefficient'! in the equationsDC motion 163

OA D
" , (al c
GI
u
.

(al Heave acceleration


Ix, Keel emerges ..............
Heave displacement '"

\\ , ~
t! Fluid
,J-.. ",,)
-- ./
.......

-,~ ,/./ accelerates

'".
" o b"x,
f
Ib) ~ E+
':;0
Q.E
-;.
E

-
Slope=O
Waves radiate
-"'u
0;0
.,
outwards \(''J -,
t ....
.E

.,t
(b) Heave velocity
lx' ~
Venicall:'a'he motion

OC 33 X
:J
oj
leI

~;
JX, ~
(c) Heave disptacernent "::.;.;.o..~:.-. ~

... I'=" (' ~~> -;


i

Add.tiona:
I -t Lateral plane motion
displacement

Fig. 8.6 - Effects of heave motions.


Fig. 8.7 - Typical Iorce/moticn relationships.

as wellas the bullisincluded in the inertia coefficient and the ship behaves asthough
it has an increased mass. A JJ is sometimescalled the 'heave virtual mass'. heaveon pitch in the eillla.llims of motion (8.13) and they occurbecauselocalinertia,
Fig. 8.8 showsthe resUlts or some heave oscii"lation experiments bySmith (1967) d~andSilflness forces everywhere- ;iiong the -hull excitpm:1iingiif6'1'lretm"
on amodel of the Dutch FrieslandClassdestroyer. The added mass aJ3 is about the ~bout the centre at-gravity. If the ship has fore and aft symmetrvli1ce a canoe, me f ./
same as the mass of the ship over much of the frequency range and rises to even moments ansin from the forces on t e orwar a 0 t e shi will almost exactly V
higher values at low frequencies. ba ance those arisingfrom the after half of the ship, and these 'cou lin coe cients
The heave damping bJ3 an~es becausethe oscillating s!!!p. generates ~~~_~icE,. . U ormoreort 0 ox ormsresl ua momentswil}remainwhich
radiate outward and dissipate energy as shown in Fig. 8.6(b). Energy is also may not be neg!igi b1e
aisslpated by friction but these effects are very small. Smith also measured bJ3 and For arbitrary shaped hull formsforcesand momentsin the other four degrees of
some-results are shown in Fig. 8.8. . freedom (surge, sway, roll and yaw) will also be required to sustain a pure heave
The pitch moment Fso sin (ooel) measured in the heave oscillation experiments
willyieldestimatesofthe coefficients ':5J' b5~and CoS3' These describethe influence of t They will be exactly zero at zero forward speed.
----.-.--_.... ~,,_ .. ~-.~ ..
,-~- -~-
~~..."".~ftP""'''~'''~'.'''''''''''''''''''''' . _,.."",..,.__"""=,,,-~'C'- .yo '~~""~'~'"'''_~'.~'';,'it''''''''':''''''W- .

164 Basic equations for ship motions in regular waves fCh.8 Sec. 8.4] Coefficients io the equations or motion 165

)
51
1'lJ
]
oJ"
i r
I
i i i
v.:) U ..J
i
Xs = Xso sin (oV+ &s) radians

4 1 where

2s3a - _ 2s31 radians


~ -

I
Xso:= X
r
3

~ The analysis proceeds along lines exactly similar to those used in the heave oscillation
'" 2
experiment and yields estimates of the terms Ass, bss, css, 0S3, bS3 and ':S3' Ag~i!t all
the lateral plane forces and moments and associated coefficients are zero if the hull
1 has port/starboardsymmetry. --.. -..- . - - - . -
8 ! The pitch oscillations cause local vertical motions everywher~along the huY so
that eaCb~ionottlre1iull eXPeriences106lttnertia~-damprng arlg...s~Jorces

o L !
n.c::
I

!
...
I
_
I
~.5
Il analogous to those experienced by -the Whole model in the heave oscillation
experiment. These ~r~~~xerL!!!~ents about the centre of M.,avity and are
responsible for tlfecoefficients Q". b" ana
c,~. The local forces distributed over the
.,..

Frnqtu,ru:y "'. (tadl:IrI~~ :~lH:Olld) ) "'lwal<ll'lIIti'lltICCliliJf;.j-,i;",c l~ "II Ihe- 'Ifiel (',Ulul Ih" h,,11 ~llllhllllll:; rcstduul
~ heave forces associated with the coefficients aS3' bS3 and CS3 are usually small. Indeed
~
ytheL~o\ll~ be zero on a hUll_wit!!JQJ.e...qmLCs)1rnI1j~~i:Y iit~Wo.sp~
1 The pitch virtuatineitia coefficient Ass includes contributions from the so called
61 ( i i i i
J
added mass moment of inertia as well as the truc mass moment of inertia of thc ship's

"
""
~ 4
5!;
,
~
~


I
structure. This is analogous to the heave added mass already discussed. The true
mass moment of inertia may be expressed as

Iss = mkl tonne metre" (8.22) ..

>
.& 2
where the longitudinal radius of gyration about a transverse axis through the centre
of gravity is usually in the range
I ! r I I I
o - ~ . . z.s
O.2L, < ks < a.1SL, metres
Frequency '''. (radians.second!

and L. is the waterline length of the ship in metres.


Fig. 8.8- Heave added mass and damping; Friesland CI= destroyer. (After Smith (1967).) Smith (1967) determined the coefficients ass and bss for the Friesland Class
destroyer and some of his results are shown in Fig. 8.9. The added mass moment of
inertia is about the same as the true mass moment of inertia over much of the
oscillation. However, most practical ship forms have port/starboard s~.et~La!!.d frequency range tested but rises to higher levels at low frequencies.
/
aJ!1!teQIplane e.xcitatioIlUWfiated ~ith motions intne verticatp.~aneare~.:Jn Lateral plane forced oscillation experiments may be used to determine the
other words the relationships between the lateralpl1l.neJQrces!l!1(!JTI.oments and remaining coefficients in the equations of motion. Vugts (1968) used these tech
vertical" plane motions have the fo~ shown-i;-Fig. 8.7(b) and all the ass~ciated' niques to measure the hydrodynamic characteristics of a number of cylinders of ship -,..
~~~~~.' ~ like cross-section at zero forward speed. Some of his results are shown in Figs 8.10
- nreapparatus shown in Fig. 8.5 may also be used to induce a pitch oscillation by and 8.11 for a nearly rectangular cylinder.
oscillating the struts in opposition. Provided that the motions are small the 'pitch is The sway added mass (Fig. 8.10) exceeds the true mass at low frequencies but
given by falls to much lower levels as the frequency increases. The roll added mass moment of
inertia is usually less than about half the true mass moment of inertia.
166 Basic equations Cor ship motions in regular waves [CIl.8 Sec.8.4J Coefficientsin the equations oC motion 167

EQuivalent wave lengthlbeam AI8


4 U I V.OJ u.~
'7 i T i.
&.
iii
.,I
I I i i I 2.01 'IV yt j'

-8

E
1.5

i-h D

~
~
.,
~

2 ..
J::
oi1 =2

0.5

, ! ,- - I t
0' .... '.. ! .'.. ! '
4.5 o -- .- -- l.0
Frequency "'. (radianS/second)

1.5. i i i ,

0.3 --::::::--
Ql
;::: 1.0

N'" '>C
~ 0.2 ....z...
~ i 0.5
~
'>:::: 0.1
.Q
o 2.0

0 0.5 1 1.5 '} 2.5 Fig. 8.10- Sway added mass and damping. (After Vugts (1968).)

Fig. 8.9- Pitch added moment of inertia and damping; Friesland Class destroyer.

Fig. 8.7(c). In other words the vertical plane excitation will have the same magnitude
(After Smith (1967).)
and direction t:.~g'![dl~ss>,Qf.lh.ejffr~.m.QR~ lateral plane ~ Sincewe-are
" concerned only with small motions and our lineariSation requires die coefficients to
be determined from the slope at the origin, all such coefficients are zero.
~ third cate 0 . is alwa s zero re ardless of the ship's shape.
In most cases the coefficients are found to be nearly independent of the motion These are all stiffness coefficients associated with the ship's geographica ocanon
amplitudes used in the experiment and this justifies the assumption of linearity in the with respect to the origin GQ: N()forces or moments are required to sustain surge and
derivation of the equations of motion. Coefficients associated with roll motion, sway disp~~~~~rlts x,ynd ~ so that
however, are an exception to t!tisgeneral rule as shown in Fig. 8.11. lS()ILa.lli!~(:LIJ!~
mO'!!~I!.!..9i in~nia decx:eases and roll damping increases with roll amplitude. So the
!
I
assumption of linearity may not he justified in this case. ./ r C/I = c/2 = 0 (i = 1, 6)
In general, vertical lane forces and moments will always be re uired to sustain
motio . r ships with port/star oar symmetry. However, f Table 8.1 lists 60 coefficients (out of a total of 108) which are zero for a ship with
port/starboard symmetry. A further 12 coefficients are usually negligible and are

j
the relationship between the vertical pane excita Ion an t e ateral plane motion
for ships with lateral symmetry will have the symmetrical If-shaped form shown in invariably neglected.

__",.,"';,d,~v~=~<-,
->.~.=
I-I
~~'''"'''",*",.~'~'~'~-'.''~''h'~'''''P':'~'''''.~.''1''1~"",~.'''fff~'"",,",'((.~~7';J,::':""""""'"

I
168 Basic equations for ship motions in regular waves [Ch.8 . Sec. 8.4] Coefficients in the equations of motion 169
Equivalent wave lengthlbeam ...18
f ' Table 8.1- Zero value terms in the equations of motion
t
0.6t j i i t i' i ; l

2 3 4 5 ,6

.~.o.os",
0.4
t 1
2
-0) 0: S
0)
0: S
0)
0: Surge

Sway

'7,;,
3 S 0: 0: ()., Heave

~
~:; 1 Motionsj -l OJ 0; 0) .; Roll Added inertia Q&.w
1 5 S 0: 0: 0: Pitch and damping bi}
0.2 6. ~X<o=0.15rad 6 0, 0;- ~
0) - Yaw

0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0


t~
Motionsj
I
2
3
4
0,
0.
S
OJ
0.
0.
0.
S
0.
1).

OJ
01
0.
0:
0.
O.
-OJ
0.
0.
0.
S'
Surge
Sway
Heave
Roll

Stiffnesseij

~ 0: Pitch,

0;. 0:
5 S 0:

0.03
I I .L: I I i 6 OJ 0) Yaw

is

Q
0>
N'

'>
'a.
e,
0.02 i
"
~.,
Surge Sway Heave Roll Pitch Yaw

FOTeuand momentsi
"

~ !
-e 0.01 ~ Key: O. zero: S. small: 1. by position; 2. by symmetry; 3. for small motions.
i;~
<
i
o "
~,
pitch: aS3x3 + bS3X3 + CS3X3 + (Iss + ass) is + bssis + CSsXs
'''. v (8J2gl
2.0
i
it = FwSO sin (w,.! + y s) kN metres (8.27)
i
Fig. 8.11- Roll added mass moment of inertia and damping. (After Vugts (1968).) ,
:!l

yaw: a62x2 + b62X2+ a64,X.. + b64x.. + (I66 + a66) 'x6 + b66X6 + C66X6
== Fwf:A) siri (w,.! + Y6) kN metres (8.28)
{
This results in six much simpler equations for small-amplitude motions of a ship The vertical plane motion equations (heave and pitch) are coupled as we have
with lateral symmetry: already seen. In other words the hea~tion includeHenns dependent on pitch
so that heave is infiuenc~gl>)'-Pi!!?!Ll!!!<i.Yice versa, However, the s~e equation~
surge: (m + au).i l + bux I = Fw l O sin (ulet + YI) kN (8.23) un.o-ypieaarurrndep~of.the-Other.motions. The lateral plane inotions are also
coupled so that these motions are affected by each other. Th~Ec;:j~L.E0wever..t.E.0
couplt~gR~Jwe.enJ_h~.,Yenic_al.planemonons.andrbe.lareralplanejnoiians. So heave,
sway: (m + a:2) 'x2 + b:2xz + a2..'x.. + bz~..
pitch and ~Qtamt~db}'..e~n!SjntheJateralplane; ne!tJ1~L~
+ a:u.'x6 + bZ6X6 + C:u.X6 == Fw 20 sin (WeI + Y2) kN (8.24) or'ya\Vmotions affected by heave, pitch or surge. t This allows the
vertical and latera I
plane motions to be considered separately. ---- . 'j
heave: (m + a33)'x3 + bnX3 + C3JX3'
+ a3S'xS + b3SXs + C3SXS == Fw30 sin (WeI + Y3) kN (8,25)
..

roll: a42 i 2 + b..2 .r2 +(I.... +a....) i ..+ b....x.. +c....x..


+ a46'x6 + b46 X6 + C46X6 == F""40 sin (WeI + Y..) kN metres (8.26) t This is not necessarilytrue for large-amplitudemotions.
I
1
~
1
.~
Sec, 9.2] Strip motions

represent the three-dimensionalunderwater hull form by a seriesof two-dimensional


slices or strips as shown in Fig. 9.1. Each strip is of length oXo l metres and OXOI is
assumed to be small,
171

9 ----
Strip theory

9.1 INTRODUCTION
Solving the equations of motion (8.23)-(8.28) requires the evaluation of the
coefficientsand the excitationamplitudes and phases.These may be determined by --~
experiment but this method islaboriousand hardlypracticalfor routine calculations.
In any case, if experimental methods are used, it is much more appropriate to
measure ship motions directly as described in Chapter 16. Fig. 9.1 - Representationof underwaterhullsectionshape by an infinitecyclinder.
Considerable effort has therefore been devoted to developing theoretical meth
ods of determining the coefficients and excitations to allow ship motions to be
calculated without recourse to experiment. Various authors, includingTasai (1959), Each strip has associated local hydrodynamic properties such as added mass,
Gerritsma and Beukelman (1967), Salvesen, Tuck and Faltinsen (1970) and damping and stiffnesswhichcontribute to the coefficients for the complete hullin the
Schmitke (1978), have made significant contributions. Their theories are generally equations of motion. Similarly the wave excitations experienced by the hull are
similar, differingonly in detail and mathematicalrigour.They are complicatedand a composed of contributions from all the strips.
complete description is beyond the scope of this book. This chapter is intended to Strip theory assumes that these local hydrodynamic properties are the same as
give an abbreviated presentation of the mainfeaturesof strip theory in general and is would be experienced if the strip were part of an infinitely long cylinder of the same
largely based on the methods proposed by Gerritsma and Beukelman. cross-sectional shape asshown in Fig.9.1. In other words three-dimensionaleffects,
All the theories assume that: such as mutual interference between the strips, flow leakage around the ends of the
ship and effects due to changes in the shape of the strip over the length OxB 1 , are
(a) The ship is slender (i.e. the length is muchgreater than the beam or the draught ignored.
and the beam is much less than the wave length). ~.

(b) The hull is rigid so that no flexure of the structure occurs. ,'
(c) The speed is moderate so there is no appreciable planinglift. ,11 1 i 9.2 STRIP MOTIONS
(d) The motions are small. .,,,, , i Let us firstsupposc that rhe ship is undergoing a generalised forced oscillationin all
(e) The ship hull sectionsare wall-sided. ' "".-,' ! degrees of freedom except surge. If thc pitch and yaw oscillations are small the
(f) The water depth is much greater than the wave length so that deep water wave motions of each strip winbe essentially ccnfincd to the plane of the strip. If the strip is
. approximations may be applied. located zg, metres forwardof the centre of gravitythe motionsof a point on the GXo1
(g) The presence of the hullhas no effect on the waves (the so calledFroude-Kriloff axis will be
hypothesis).

The theories are grouped under the general headingof 'strip theory' sincethey all X2G = x! + XOI sin X6

",...,J .".' "~.'M'."'". ~. '"'"." ",.,.....,.,.. ,."..,4'~"'~~",4"~.,'""o,o",~,,~.,,., ..,., ,.._o~'o~_


-""-.1,,1--
,
";p;,.,,;."_,,,,,,.k_~.~_i,,
~~"'"~~;"''''''-'~~~''''01'b~~''''Y'0_~,'':~'':~!r':''.-':::'';"';''"'''''~ ~-~'"~"~""'~=-"'_""'''~'~'''''''.' __ _1%~'''(~N'''7;'''..w

I
172 Striptheilry [Ch.9 Sec. 9.3} Hydrodynamic coefficients 173

:.: X2 + XS1X6 metres to starboard (9.1)


r-- - --,
G
I
iii I
X3G = X3 - Xal sin Xs "i I .ic~ SG .ic;c; - I
I

== metres downwards (9.2) t I


I Waterline

r
X3 - XS1XS

!
,
ki=lCiG-OGX~
X~ = x. radians to starboard (9.3)
i
~ lC)
Consider an observer stationed at some fixed point alongside the ExE I axis in Fig. i
8.2. The oscillating ship passes him at a steady velocity U metres/second. At some
instant of time a certain strip is opposite the observer and his perception of its lateral ~
velocity is given by the total differential of equation (9.1): .;:
t
., 0 (X::o
')
j Fig. 9.2 - Velocities or a strip.
Dr = 'Xz + XSt 'X6.+.XS1X6 metres/second
I
Xzo =
- .,,'
''! local hydrodynamic properties of each strip. The velocities and acclerations of this
Now the distance XS t from the strip to the approaching centre of gravity is i" point are then
diminishing at the rate