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22-Feb-17

Prestressing Systems

Methods of application:
A) In the early attempts, hydraulic jacks reacting against abutments
were used to apply the prestressing force.
Jack

Abutment
Beam

Enhancements:
Jacks may be replaced with struts after force application.
Cheap jacks filled with cement grout, as the hydraulic fluid, may
be used.
Drawbacks:
Considerable loss of prestressing force due to possible movement
of the abutment
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B) Instead, jacks reacting against internal (or external) cables were used
to apply the prestressing force.

Jack

Cable Beam

Advantages:
Cables may take any required profile.

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Steps of application:
Beam

1) Ducts are placed and


concrete is cast.
Duct

2) After concrete hardens, Cable


cables are anchored at one
end and jacking is applied
at the other end. Anchorage Jack

3) After jacking is completed,


cable ends are wedged to
the beam end.
Anchorage

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End anchorages:

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C) Alternatively, wires may be pretensioned before casting concrete,


then releasing the tension in the wire to transfer the force to the
beam.
Beam Jack

wires
Advantages:
Several units may be manufactured in one batch.
Suitable for mass production.

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Steps of application:
Form wires Jack
1) Forms are made and
wires are placed and
tensioned.

Concrete
2) Concrete is placed and
cured to harden.

Beam
3) Jacks are released and
wires are cut.

Prestressed concrete, Dr. Hazem Elbakry

Commercial systems:
Almost all practical techniques are forms of the last two methods which
fit in two main categories:
Pre-tensioned systems.
Post-tensioned systems.

Pre-tensioning Post-tensioning
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Notes:

There are several commercial systems available in the


market for wires, strands, anchorages and jacks.
The designers role is to specify the required jacking force
and its line of action.
The choice of the commercial system is usually left to the
contractor to get the best price.

Prestressed concrete, Dr. Hazem Elbakry

Other thechniques still under investigation:

Heating the tendons to expand, anchoring them to the


ends of the beam and then letting them to cool and
contract.
The use of expanding concrete mix.
The use of shape memory alloys.

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Materials

Steel:
Steel is used for the prestressing tendons.
Early attempts of prestressed concrete failed due to the use of low
grade steel as explained in the following example:

Assume fs=160 N/mm2 (low grade steel)


s=fs/Es=160/200,000=810-4
c (due to creep & shrinkage) 810-4
Therefore, prestressing will almost be completely lost.

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On the other hand, if fs=1000 N/mm2 (high grade steel)


s=fs/Es=1000/200,000=5010-4
c (creep & shrinkage) 810-4
Therefore, residual steel strain=5010-4 - 810-4=4210-4
Corresponding steel stress=s Es =4210-4200,000=840 N/mm2
This represents 16% loss of prestressing force compared to 100% loss for
the case of low grade steel.

Therefore, only very high strength steel is


practically effective in prestressed concrete
( fpy=1400 N/mm2 is commonly used)

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Prestressing tendons:
Types: wires, strands and bars

1)Wires: used for pretensioned prestressing.


2.5mm to 8mm diameter wires may be used.

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2) Strands: used for post tensioned prestressing

7-wire strand 19-wire strand

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Bars: used for post tensioned prestressing

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Steel allowable stresses:


According to ECP-203:

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Concrete:
Good quality/strength concrete is used for prestressed concrete
(fcu=30N/mm2 and higher) due to the following reasons:
1) It reduces the sizes of required members.
2) It is faster in gaining early strength, therefore, allowing early
removal of forms to save time and cost.
3) It has a relatively high modulus of elasticity and, therefore, has
small elastic and creep strains under prestressing force which
reduces prestress losses.
4) It is more effective in resisting stresses at the anchorage zones
(post- tensioned).
5) It has a better bond strength (pre-tensioned).
6) It has a better shear resistance.
7) Prestressed concrete is usually precast in factories under good
quality control conditions.

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Concrete allowable stresses


According to ECP-203:

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