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Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 67, No. 7, pp.

1349 –1358, 2003
Copyright © 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd
Pergamon Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
0016-7037/03 $30.00 ⫹ .00

Oxygen isotope systematics in Diploastrea heliopora: New coral archive of tropical
Research School of Earth Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
Department of Geology, The National Science Museum, Tokyo, 169-0073, Japan
Institut de Recherche pour le De´veloppement, Noume´a, 98800, New Caledonia
Research and Development Center for Geotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Bandung, 40135, Indonesia

(Received April 24, 2002; accepted in revised form September 13, 2002)

Abstract—Diploastrea heliopora forms dense, robust, dome-shaped coral colonies throughout the reef
ecosystems of the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. This slow-growing (2 to 6 mm/yr) coral has the potential
to yield continuous paleoclimate records spanning up to 1000 yr for the warmest waters on Earth, the
Indo-Pacific Warm Pool, and has a long fossil history as a single recognizable species. Despite the potential
of Diploastrea to be an important new paleoclimate archive, little is known about the systematics of
geochemical tracers incorporated into its skeleton. To fill this knowledge gap, we compared skeletal ␦18O
signatures in live Diploastrea and Porites colonies from Southwest Lagoon, near Ame´de´e Lighthouse, New
Caledonia (at the southern latitudinal limit for Diploastrea) and Alor, Indonesia (in the core area of the
Indo-Pacific Warm Pool). We designed a new microsampling technique to minimize smoothing and distortion
of the isotopic records due to the complex calyx architecture and slow growth of Diploastrea. High-resolution
isotope profiles from the septal portion of the Diploastrea corallite are attenuated, whereas those restricted to
the central columella are similar in quality to those extracted from the well-established Porites coral archive.
The ␦18O-temperature relationship for the columellar portion of Diploastrea (⫺0.18‰/°C) is in good
agreement with that derived for a nearby Porites (⫺0.19‰/°C; Quinn et al., 1996), on the basis of comparison
with an in situ sea surface temperature record from Ame´de´e Lighthouse. There is a measurable difference of
0.3 ⫾ 0.1‰ between the kinetic/biological disequilibrium offsets from seawater ␦18O composition for
Diploastrea and Porites. Despite this offset in mean ␦18O, Diploastrea accurately records the regional
differences in mean temperature and salinity between New Caledonia and the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool.
Additional tests show that Diploastrea records El Nin˜o–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) interannual variability
in sea surface temperature and salinity across the southwestern Pacific, indicating that it should yield
dependable paleo-ENSO records. Based on these results, we propose that D. heliopora has the potential to
provide an important new coral archive of tropical paleoclimate. Copyright © 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd

1. INTRODUCTION topic techniques appropriate for exceptionally slow-growing
(0.2 to 1.0 mm/yr) coralline sponges (Bo¨hm et al., 2000), which
Massive corals are useful paleoclimate archives because they
can live for ⬎ 400 yr (Swart et al., 1998). Although coralline
are widely distributed throughout the tropics, can be accurately
sponges appear to be well suited for recording century- to
dated, and contain a wide array of geochemical tracers within
decade-scale climate changes (Bo¨hm et al., 1996; Moore et al.,
their skeletons (Dunbar and Cole, 1999; Gagan et al., 2000).
2000), they lack annual density bands and must be dated
The quality of the evolving network of coralline paleoclimate
radiometrically, thus potentially limiting their accuracy as re-
records will inevitably depend upon its length, accuracy, and
corders of seasonal to interannual climate variability. Also,
ability to resolve events spanning seasonal to century time
coralline sponges are not abundant in the fossil record, which
scales. So far, most studies of past climate have used the coral
limits their ability to provide time slice reconstructions of Late
genus Porites because it is abundant throughout the climati-
Quaternary climates.
cally influential Indo-Pacific region and can be sampled at high
On the other hand, the massive annually banded coral Dip-
temporal resolution because it grows quickly (8 to 24 mm/yr).
At present, however, continuous geochemical records from loastrea heliopora is known to live for up to 1000 yr (T.
Porites do not extend beyond the past ⬃300 to 400 yr (Druffel Corre´ge, unpublished data) and has inhabited the tropical reef
and Griffin, 1993; Linsley et al., 1994; Quinn et al., 1998; ecosystems of the Indian Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Tethys
Hendy et al., 2002). The same age barrier has been met in Sea since the Oligocene as a single distinctive species (Veron,
published studies of Pavona from the equatorial eastern Pacific 2000). Today, Diploastrea is common throughout the tropical
(Dunbar et al., 1994) and Montastrea from the Caribbean Indian and Pacific Oceans and grows slowly (2 to 6 mm/yr),
(Watanabe et al., 2000; Winter et al., 2000). even in the warm waters of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool, where
Recently, there has been a concerted effort to develop iso- the coral Porites tends to grow quickly and die relatively
young. Diploastrea is known to be less prone to boring organ-
isms and grazing fish than Porites (Veron, 2000). The robust,
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed dense skeleton of Diploastrea is also well preserved in Late
( Quaternary raised coral reefs within the Warm Pool region,

Southwest Lagoon. Mean SSS in Alor (34. Fig. 1998). 1998. 166°27'E. http://iridl.sst). National Center for Environmental Prediction satellite . Papua New Guinea (Chappell. New Caledonia reef environments. with an isotope record for the Diploastrea with the oxygen isotope average monthly maximum of 245 mm in March and a mini- record of Quinn et al. Alor. New Caledonia is located on the variability in a fossil Diploastrea from the raised reefs of southeastern pole of the Asian-Australian monsoon system and Espiritu Santo. so we produced September 13 and 14. 1991.3°C range) for the calibration period from 1985 house (22°29'S. Alor. at the 2.. Mean SST at Ame´ de´ e during standing of tropical climate variability. We experimented with mic.5 to 3.3 psu).2. This specimen of Diploas.NOAA/. was 28. dence of ␦18O in D. with the exception of a study of radiocarbon seasonal range of 5. rosampling protocols for Diploastrea specimens from two dif- ferent physiographic and oceanic settings: the Southwest La- goon. including Indonesia (Chappell and Veeh. Indonesia (8°14'S. mm in September. Indonesia southern latitudinal limit for Diploastrea. heliopora (Veron. heliopora. 1998).4°C.5 m below mean low 2. and highly seasonal. 1978. SSS at ter (Epstein et al. little is known about its the calibration period (1980 to 1996) was 23. to 1999.NCEP/. The oxygen An underwater hydraulic drill was deployed to retrieve ver- isotope systematics for the coral Porites are reasonably well tical cores from live colonies of D. and Pantai Putih. with an average seasonal range of 0. In this study. Sea surface temperature estimated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis- (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) have been monitored tration. and Alor. 1972) across its Ame´ de´ e from 1980 to 1996 was a relatively constant 35. Monsoon rainfall is higher in Alor than in New of ⬃3 m below mean low tide. Despite the seasonal rainfall.. 2000) in relation to the Western Pacific Warm Pool (mean sea surface temperature ⬎ 28°C.5°E. Dashed line shows the known range of D. 1951. (1996) for a Porites growing in a similar mum of 16 mm in September. with a mean geochemistry. well-flushed reef environment at a depth Caledonia. Indonesia. Cabioch et al. by the Institut de Recherche pour le De´ veloppement. Vanuatu (Burr et al.. Indonesia. which is 4.7 psu..EMC/. 1999. heliopora and Porites on established for the western Pacific region. Watanabe et al. Fig. The 1974). heliopora to advance our under.1350 T.ldeo. Reynolds and Smith.columbia.6 psu.5°S (Integrated Global Ocean Services System 29.GLOBAL/.1.9°C warmer than the mean SST of New trea grew in an Alor. STUDY AREA tide) to ensure that both coral specimens grew in comparable 2. Weber and Woodhead. 1.. 15 km northwest of Ame´ de´ e Light. heliopora was collected on March at 124. son with the coral ␦18O records from New Caledonia. from the fringing reef at Pantai oxygen isotope records for pairs of Diploastrea and Porites Putih.3°C (2. New Caledonia. reef environment 4 km from Ame´ de´ e. 1) for compari- from both oceanic settings to compare the quality of the isoto. 8. 1994). Pirazzoli et al. 1). 1996.2°C. with an average test the ability of ␦18O in Diploastrea to record the full range monthly maximum of 150 mm in March and a minimum of 40 in the temperature and oxygen isotopic composition of seawa. averaging 2000 mm/yr. and Vanuatu (Burr et al. The pic signals recorded by the two corals. We compared the oxygen Caledonia. 124°24'E. known range of survival (Fig. in the core area of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool. 1). near Ame´ de´ e Lighthouse.. Diploastrea and Porites were located ⬃50 m apart in similar water depths (tops of colonies 2. 1967. mean SST for the 1° ⫻ 1° box centered A continuous core of D. New Caledonia. we receives annual average rainfall of 1050 mm. Hantoro et al. 1994) Lagoon of New Caledonia.Reyn_SmithOIv2/. Location of sampling sites for comparison of oxygen isotope ratios in Diploastrea heliopora and Porites: Southwest Lagoon near Ame´ de´ e. in situ SST record is used to establish the temperature depen- Despite the potential of D. almost continuously at Ame´ de´ e Lighthouse since February 28.climatology/. Fig. using an underwater hydraulic drill in the Southwest nmc blended ship and satellite data. The ocean water surrounding Alor is among the warmest on Earth.CMB/.

sectional area centered within the columella. All cores were slabbed samples of equal mass (400 ␮g). whereby a 2-mm-thick ledge is prepared and ultrasoni- Ame´ de´ e. to disintegrate dis- 3. 2). smooth growth surfaces.1. one restricted to the columella and the other restricted to the Microsamples for the Diploastrea and Porites specimens from Alor septal area of the corallite. 2. Individual corallites are 10 mm in diameter. we designed a microsampling approach to was shaved continuously along a strip with a 2 mm ⫻ 2 mm cross- investigate the nature of the isotopic signals retrieved from the colu. Skeletal Architecture and Sampling Considerations sepiments. cipitated over a period of several months. To test for the potential effect of signal smoothing in microsamples from a septal transect adjacent to the columellar sam- the septal area of Diploastrea. at 7 mm thickness parallel to the axis of maximum growth and X-rayed. in the case of Porites. and convex the isotopic record (Barnes and Lough. Thus.. prominent columella (3 mm in diameter) surrounded by radiating septa that thicken toward the coral- lite wall. Couplets of high skeletal density (dark bands) and low skeletal density (light bands) represent one annual growth increment. X-radiograph positive prints of coral density banding showing difference in growth rates for the Porites from Alor (⬃20 mm/yr. New Caledonia. where seasonal variations in SST are comparable to that used for the Diploastrea from New Caledonia. This was accomplished by immersing the coral slab in distilled water and focusing a powerful ultrasonic beam repeatedly onto either side of the ledge to remove 3. An identical protocol was used to collect setting (Fig. can potentially cause substantial smoothing of by their dome-shaped habit. Each corallite comprises a straight. we prepared two parallel sampling pling transect. The experiment was carried out on the were collected in the same manner and at a frequency (25 samples/yr) Diploastrea from New Caledonia. Microsampling Technique columella at an angle of 45°. In the first instance.2 mm/s) across the In addition to showing the position of the columellar and septal areas cutting surface. 1996). we used a slowly rotating (90 rpm). Horizontal dissepiments are precipitated near the base of the living coral tissue at depth within the skeleton of Porites and. density band couplets observed in X-radiographs. transects. Far right: schematic diagram of coral ledge configuration and micromilling technique used for high-resolution microsampling of transects within the columellar and septal areas of Diploastrea. the X-rays revealed distinct density band couplets that mm was cut and discarded to ensure that the next sample was collected are 4 to 5 times narrower than those in Porites growing in the same reef from a flat cutting surface. The large and any smoothing of the ␦18O signal in the septal region should sampling frequency for the Porites from New Caledonia is 12 sam- be obvious. heliopora. samples per annual growth increment. 2000). an additional 1 of Diploastrea. if they are Colonies of D. Upper growth surfaces of septa slope downward from the 3. The important point is that the sloping growth surfaces in the septal Computer-controlled microsamples of 100 ␮m in thickness were region of the corallite are not perpendicular to the main direction of collected from both columellar and septal transects in the New Cale- coral growth. heliopora are easily identified in the reef environment not selectively removed. corallites (Veron. Oxygen isotope systematics in Diploastrea heliopora 1351 Fig. donia Diploastrea to ensure that the records were comparable at 25 mellar and septal skeletal elements would produce a complex paleo. is substantially lower (1. cally cleaned before microsampling (Fig. it became clear that microsampling of both colu. 2-mm-diameter end-mill bit that traverses slowly (0. 1993. on the basis of the width of environmental record reflecting a mixture of carbonate material pre. After the sample powder was collected. forming 5-mm-high cone-shaped tops. . 1994). MATERIALS AND METHODS surficial contaminants and. To obtain a clean cut and mellar compared to septal areas of D.. data. 2).2. right). (1994). the anastomosing network of skeletal elements forming the columella To address this issue.4 psu) than the mean salinity at et al. left) and Diploastrea heliopora from New Caledonia (⬃3 mm/yr. We adopted the ledge microsampling technique of Gagan ples/yr (Quinn et al. Gagan et al.

1978. for the signal). 1972. The smoothing and offset in position of the ␦18O and ␦13C records extracted from the septa of Diploastrea. The oxygen isotopic analysis of seawater followed a modified ver. McConnaughey.0 mm down from the top of the columella. it has been suggested that this kinetic offset . the septal to 12-month offset (one half to one seasonal cycle) between data collected from septal and columellar transects. Heikoop et al. 1992. (1992).1352 T. 3. spectrometer. Skeletal Calcification Rate and Oxygen Isotope Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW). ␦13C: 1. base of the septa. produced by bulk sampling is significantly reduced and irreg- action device (Kiel device) coupled to a Finnigan MAT 251 mass ular (Pa¨ tzold. In addition. Average internal precision from specific skeletal elements. relative to that from the columella. during the CO2 hydration and hydroxylation reactions involved The results demonstrate that the seasonal range in ␦18O and in calcification (McConnaughey.1°C. The smoothing and offset of the seasonal ␦18O and half of a seasonal cycle between isotopic profiles produced ␦13C signals in the septal area is caused by the ⬃45° slope and from septal and columellar transects. 2002).2. oxygen isotopes. Land et al. Watanabe et al. Erez. the position of the isotopic seasonal cycle is offset between the columellar and septal sampling transects in terms of its distance from the outer growth surface of the coral. Figure 3 shows ␦18O and ␦13C profiles for the columella and 2000). case of the Diploastrea used in this experiment. where the septa thicken and interlock with other septa along the walls of adja- Fig. 1989b. Oxygen and Carbon Isotope Analysis These results agree with studies of Montastrea in which it Sample aliquots of 180 to 220 ␮g were analyzed for oxygen (␦18O) has been found that skeletal structures may calcify at different and carbon (␦13C) isotope ratios by reacting the powders with 103% times and that the amplitude of the seasonal ␦18O profile phosphoric acid at 90°C using an automated individual-carbonate re. VPDB ⫽ Vienna record reflects the concentration of calcification toward the Peedee belemnite.00‰). 3. An additional smoothing process could involve the thickening of septa through time as they pass through the tissue layer. ␦13C: ⫺5. Years are labeled in ␦18O profile (1991 to 1995) to show ⬃6.95‰) and columellar and septal structures allow samples to be collected NBS-18 (␦18O: ⫺23. In the case of ␦13C from the septal sampling transect is significantly attenu. attenuation of isotopic signals in D.2). 1989a. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION It has been shown that corals do not precipitate their skele- 4.04‰ for ␦13C (n ⫽ 158) during fication in the columella may be primarily restricted to the area the course of the measurements. a distance that is equivalent to about one half to one seasonal cycle in ␦18O and ␦13C. Isotopic signals extracted from skeleton residing midway within the living tissue layer at the time the coral was collected are offset by about one half of a seasonal cycle (6 months). The specimen from New thickening of septal skeletal elements through time (averaging of Caledonia grows at 3 mm/yr (see section 4. Goreau.3. Watanabe et al. The results indicate that calci- for NBS-19 was 0. The ␦18O value of the purified CO2 was measured on a Finnigan MAT 251 mass spectrometer and expressed relative to Vienna 4. ated relative to that of the columella.. 1993). 1977... Isotopic ratios are expressed in conventional delta nota- tion in per mil units relative to Vienna Peedee belemnite through However. Comparison of seasonal range in skeletal ␦18O and ␦13C for cent corallites. Three-milliliter water samples distortion of the isotopic signal caused by the complex corallite were equilibrated with 7 ml of CO2 gas for ⬃40 h at 25. Disequilibrium 4. is likely to be caused by two factors: corallite geometry and calcification at depth within the tissue layer. only columellar skeletal sion of the H2O-CO2 equilibration technique (Epstein and Mayeda. at the top of the corallite. 1. The 45° inclination of the growth surfaces of septa relative to the direction of coral growth means that each mic- rosample contains skeleton precipitated over a longer period of time compared to microsamples collected within the columella.0 ⫾ 0. Thus. The architecture and slow growth of Diploastrea.20‰. 1975.04‰ for ␦18O and 0. heliopora can be measurements of the isotopic ratio of CO2 gas derived from National avoided because the large corallite and distinct separation of Bureau of Standards NBS-19 (␦18O: ⫺2. Oxygen Isotope Ratios in Columella Compared to tons in isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater (Weber and Septa Woodhead. 1989a.5 to 3. and their 45° inclination may explain the offset of about one New Caledonia. In Diploastrea. as has been observed to some extent for Porites (Barnes and Lough. the bulk of septal calcification appears to occur near their outer edge and base. Signals that have passed through the entire tissue layer are offset by about one full seasonal cycle (12 months). This basal thickening of the septa in Diploastrea high-resolution sampling transects from the columellar (solid line) and septal (dashed line) areas of the Diploastrea heliopora from Ame´ de´ e. elements should be sampled to minimize any smoothing and 1953) described by Socki et al. Therefore.00‰. 1996.1. Swart. Leder et al.. heliopora from New simultaneous depletion of the heavy isotopes 13C and 18O Caledonia over five annual growth increments (1991 to 1995). 1983. equilibrated H2O-CO2 gas was then injected into a vacuum line for CO2 extraction. The result of this isotopic disequilibrium in corals is the septa in the same corallite of the D. 1989b).

8 to 23. 2000). McConnaughey.2 to 13. there is evidence that kinetic and Porites from Alor are –5. part of the difference in the mean ␦18O values for the Diploas- naughey.g. which predict that slow- paleoclimate reconstruction. heliopora are preferentially enriched in 18O.3 ⫾ 0. Oxygen isotope systematics in Diploastrea heliopora 1353 Fig. Regardless of the extension rate (3 to 23 mm/yr) should result in significantly exact controls for the offset in ␦18O. which correspond to winter SST minima. Thus.39‰ (Fig. the difference in bulk density between the coral genera grew 4 times faster (10. Cohen and Hart. The Diploastrea examined in this study both have tical reef environments should be indicative of the difference in bulk densities of 1.03‰ and coral to be explored further for the purposes of paleoclimate – 4. Well. It Diploastrea and Porites is surprisingly small. 1995. Alor. The difference in mean ␦18O for consistently offset from those of the faster growing Porites.4 mm/yr). Linsley et al. 1972)..4 mm/yr). 1989a. is insufficient to compensate completely for the four. 1989a).45 g/cm2/yr for Porites.27‰ and –5. elements of Diploastrea may calcify at a mean rate similar range 16. VPDB ⫽ Vienna Peedee belemnite.4 to 6.25‰ at Alor.25‰. rates.. or even within individual coral colonies (McCon.39‰ at New Caledonia and 0. One pos- faster growing coral colonies. reconstruction.2 ⫾ 0..26 to 2. In Alor. Comparison of columellar skeletal ␦18O records and growth rates for Diploastrea heliopora and Porites corals from Ame´ de´ e.7 mm/yr (range 2. Data for Porites from New Caledonia are from Quinn et al. Horizontal lines show mean ␦18O values for each record. g/cm3). and Pantai Putih. . Another possibility is that the columellar skeletal whereas the adjacent Porites grew 5 times faster (20. 1996) from New Caledonia are – 4. de Villiers et al.8 mm/yr (range 2. 1989a). Disregarding the possibility that coral genus.68 annual extension rate for the New Caledonia Diploastrea was g/cm2/yr for Diploastrea and 1.2 mm/yr).1 to 3. 4).49 to 0. 2. growing corals should approach isotopic equilibrium and be mine if the ␦18O values for slow-growing D. or sidering the vast difference in their extension rates.8 g/cm3 (determined gravimetrically).2 the two coral genera.1‰. as measured throughout the Great Barrier Reef. tend to be more strongly depleted sibility is that the relatively high skeletal bulk density of in 18O (e.4 mm/yr. 4. 1997. the average ␦18O values for the Diploastrea and Woodhead. the consistent results different kinetic fractionation of 18O (McConnaughey. 1999.5 mm/yr. whereas the nearby Porites Clearly. from equilibrium is constant within a given coral genus (Weber For comparison. the coral specimens from New Caledonia and Alor yields 4). 1989a.52‰. con- has been shown that faster growing parts of coral skeletons. New Caledonia. the five- Quinn et al. 1991. The average calcification rates (density times extension rate) of 0. respectively. 1996. 1996). 1989b). The difference in the disequilibrium offset from seawater ␦18O composition for Diploastrea and Porites (⌬K) is 0. Aus- Annual skeletal extension rates were estimated for the paired specimens of Diploastrea and Porites from New Caledonia and tralia (Lough and Barnes.. respectively. trea and Porites from New Caledonia may be due to interlabo- ington et al.4 mm/yr. Applying these densities to Alor on the basis of the distance between ␦18O maxima (Fig. (1996). isotope or “vital effects” are not necessarily constant within a giving a difference of 0. across a range of environmental settings suggest that this The average ␦18O values for the Diploastrea and Porites offset is sufficiently constant in Diploastrea to allow this (Quinn et al. 1999). Aharon.. differences in the Diploastrea is compensating in part for the reduction in exten- mean ␦18O values of Diploastrea and Porites growing in iden- sion rate.42‰. 1997). the average annual extension rate fold difference in calcification indicated by coral extension for the Diploastrea was 3. fractionation are sufficiently constant within a coral genus The results agree with kinetic isotope disequilibrium models across its known range of survival to use a given coral for (McConnaughey. range 6. results suggest that the disequilibrium offset in ␦18O between A key question is whether biologic controls on 18O/16O Diploastrea and Porites is 0. Guilderson and ratory calibration differences (Ostermann and Curry. However.. Such large differences in coral to the bulk calcification rate of Porites. however. This study was designed to deter. giving a difference of 0. which the effect of biologically mediated fractionation of 18O/16O for are 50% greater than densities typical for Porites (1.

Fig. Fig.1354 T.16‰. Distance along the coral sampling record for Ame´ de´ e yields average seasonal variations in ␦18Ow transect was converted to time assuming that each peak and of 0. Seasonal variations in ␦18O re- corded by the Diploastrea and Porites in New Caledonia are One of the goals of this study was to establish if the different likely to be driven primarily by variations in temperature be. disequilibrium offsets from seawater ␦18O composition for D. 1980 Analyseries computer program (Paillard et al.77‰. Time series of columellar skeletal ␦18O in Diploastrea heliopora compared with mean monthly sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) measured in situ at Ame´ de´ e. Examining (␦18Ow).4. (1996). respectively. The Diploastrea (0. (1) extracted from Porites. cor- The least squares regression equation for the temperature responds to only 0..83 psu).18‰/°C) 18 is in good agreement with that derived for the Porites from 4.14 ⫹ 0. 5. 1996) was used to 1992).18 ⫻ T共⬚C兲 共r ⫽ 0. maxima and minima used for the ␦18Oc-SST calculation. VPDB ⫽ Vienna Peedee belemnite. Reconstructing Regional Differences in Temperature Ame´ de´ e (⫺0. In the tropical Pacific. 5). psu) and August (35.82‰. Although the seasonal variation in ␦18Ow is not trough in the coral ␦18O profile corresponds to the average small relative to the mean seasonal range in ␦18Oc for the arrival time of summer and winter SSTs. Temperature Dependence of ␦18O in Diploastrea SSS with the following regression equation (Fairbanks et al. This is because the difference in SSS in February (35. The timing and pattern of skeletal ␦18O and reef SST correlate during periods when SSS and presumably seawater ␦18O are relatively constant. (2) by comparing minima and maxima in coral ␦18O with corre- sponding peaks and troughs in SST for 15 seasonal cycles from Applying this ␦ Ow-SSS relation to the in situ salinity 18 1980 to 1995 (Fig.94兲. cause the effect of SST variations on coral ␦18O is large relative heliopora and Porites affect the ability of either coral genus to to those brought about by variations of ␦18O in seawater record regional differences in mean SST and SSS. heliopora will yield estimates of sea- sonal variations in paleotemperature comparable with those ␦ 18Oc ⫽ 0. and Salinity tion by Quinn et al. 1980 to 1996) and Porites (0. New Caledonia. ␦18Ow is strongly related to the combined effect on coral ␦18O of the difference in SST and . Coral ␦18O values are reversed on the y axis for direct comparison with SST (warmer upward). Watanabe et al.06‰ change in ␦18Ow. 6) analyzed at high sample resolu.63 points in the coral record to produce a resolution of 12 sam. The results suggest dependence of ␦18O for the New Caledonia Diploastrea that high-resolution measurements of ␦18O in the columellar (␦18Oc) is skeletal elements of D. which are the times of the SST ples/yr to match the resolution of the in situ SST record. 1997): We calibrated the relationship between ␦18O in Diploastrea and in situ measurements of temperature at Ame´ de´ e Lighthouse ␦ 18Ow ⫽ –9. its influence on the ␦18Oc-SST calculation is negli- to interpolate linearly between summer and winter anchor gible.19‰/°C. 4.23 – 0.. The slope of the ␦ O-temperature calibration (⫺0.273 ⫻ SSS 共r 2 ⫽ 0.92兲.3.

whereas the ␦18Ow value for Pantai Putih was 0.9°C 1. and Pantai Putih. some mean SSS between the two regions (1. Table 1). 1.27 Measured ⌬(New Caledonia–Alor) 4. which is 0. and Alor.24 Calculated ⌬␦18O 0. The results suggest that slow-growing colonies of Diploastrea ap- pear to faithfully track regional differences in mean SST and ␦18Ow at least as well as Porites. b Calculated ⌬␦18O ⫽ ⌬(New Caledonia–Alor) ⫻ (0. which comprises Diploastrea records from New Caledonia and Alor is 1. 1). The accuracy of the calculated ⌬␦18O (on the basis of the difference in mean salinity between New Caledonia and Alor) was checked with spot measurements of ␦18Ow at Ame´ de´ e. New Caledonia. ⫺0. and differences in mean ␦18O recorded by Diploastrea heliopora and Porites. VPDB ⫽ salinity between New Caledonia and Alor (see Table 1). the ences in calibration to NBS-19 (Ostermann and Curry.26‰ (Fig. only one species throughout its known range of survival. the difference in to quantify the significance of this mismatch for Porites. over the period from Fig.53 ⫾ 0. New Caledonia. 7. Oxygen isotope systematics in Diploastrea heliopora 1355 Table 1. Open Diploastrea and Porites.88‰ (Table 1). Vienna Peedee belemnite.52 –5. Summary of annual average columellar skeletal ␦18O for 1980 to 1996.7 psu –4.18‰°/C). SST ⫽ sea surface temperature. The mean ␦18Ow for Ame´ de´ e was 0.3°C 34.16‰ produce a shift in coral ␦18O of 0.10‰. 1996).88‰a 0. The ␦18O/SST consistent with the shift of 1. The magnitudes of the chronological uncertainties in spring and autumn produced by simple shifts in coral ␦18O (1. SSS ⫽ sea surface salinity. combined effect of the difference in mean SST and SSS on However. Indonesia.9°C differ. 7.4 psu) should shift the of the 0.38‰b 1. .3‰ for coral ␦18O calculated using the slope for Diploastrea is similar to that published for a nearby Porites measured difference in mean sea surface temperature and sea surface (dashed line.26 Difference (measured–calculated) — — 0. 1.42 –4. The regional difference in mean ␦18O ence in mean SST between New Caledonia and Alor should indicated by the pair of Porites is only 1. less than the anticipated difference. VPDB ⫽ Vienna Peedee belemnite. Porites are responsible for some of the mismatch.18‰/°C for the Diploastrea heliopora and Porites compared to coral annual extension Diploastrea was derived using 2 months defining each maximum and rate. Indonesia 28.4°C 35. 2000). the 4.10 1.26 1. Fig. Likewise.3 psu –5.27‰/psu).03 Alor. Although it is not possible according to the ␦18O-SSS relation (Eqn. SSS between New Caledonia and Alor provides a good test. it is also possible that differences in oxygen isotope coral ␦18O would be to lower Alor coral ␦18O by 1.2‰ for Diploastrea.06‰ (n ⫽ 4).. The ␦18O-SST relationship of ⫺0. 2). Therefore.26‰ disequilibrium among individual species within the genus relative to coral ␦18O from New Caledonia.24‰. Alor.1‰ for Porites) are linear interpolation between ␦18O maxima and minima.02‰ (n ⫽ 2).16 0. The measured difference in ␦18Ow of 0. from September to December 1999.16‰ difference may be due to interlaboratory differ- coral ␦18O by an additional 0. which is essentially the same as the calculated difference of According to the ␦18O-SST relation (Eqn. both corals record a similar shift in coral ␦18O circles are data points excluded from the regression analysis because of (⌬␦18O) between New Caledonia and Alor. This cannot The regional difference in mean coral ␦18O indicated by the be the case for the coral genus Diploastrea.4 psu 1.51‰ is consistent with the calculated ⌬␦18O of 0. 6.38‰.38‰ (Table 1). Location/calculations SST SSS ␦18O (Porites) (‰) ␦18O (Diploastrea) (‰) New Caledonia 23.02 a Calculated ⌬␦18O ⫽ ⌬(New Caledonia–Alor) ⫻ (0.19‰/°C) from Ame´ de´ e (Quinn et al.02 ⫾ 0. Least squares linear regression of columellar skeletal ␦18O and sea surface temperature (SST) for Diploastrea heliopora from Southwest Lagoon near Ame´ de´ e. Despite the different kinetic disequilibrium effect on ␦18O for minimum (solid circles) in the columellar skeletal ␦18O profile. New Caledonia. Comparison of differences in mean SST and SSS for Ame´ de´ e.

Figure 8 shows the timing and magnitude of ENSO-induced The ability of ␦18O in the coral genera Porites and Pavona to variability in ␦18O for the Diploastrea and Porites from New monitor interannual climate fluctuations in the tropical Pacific Caledonia and Alor over the period 1980 to 1999. long-lived. 1987) in the southwestern Pacific region. heliopora records ENSO climate variability in a manner similar ter. reef-building coral has the fall diluting the surface ocean drives coral ␦18O in the same potential to provide an important new archive of tropical cli- . has been demonstrated with live effect of the ENSO on the coral ␦18O is evident. Dunbar et al.. Comparison of El Nin˜ o–Southern Oscillation-related interannual variability in ␦18O for Diploastrea heliopora (solid lines with closed circles) and Porites (dashed lines with open circles) from New Caledonia and Alor. 8.. Cole et al.. Indonesia. 1996) and then smoothed with a 48-point running average (thick solid lines) to remove the annual cycle in ␦18O. During the coral specimens (e. Guilderson and Schrag. Lower coral ␦18O values are evident 2001). such as the ENSO. 1999. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS marked during La Nin˜ a events (when the eastern equatorial Pacific is cooler than average). the Evans et al. Coral ␦18O values are reversed on the y axis to show warmer/wetter conditions upward. when warmer SSTs Diploastrea and Porites in the ENSO-sensitive area of the and higher monsoon rainfall (lower ␦18Ow) prevailed. El Nin˜ o events as pronounced in the coral records or instrumental records (Fig. the effects of this event were not trea to record interannual climate variability. strong El Nin˜ o events of 1986 to 1987 and 1992 to 1994. 1982. typically associated with cooler SSTs (Rasmusson and Carpen. Corre`ge et al. The Alor southwestern Pacific (Rasmusson and Carpenter. The regional region. but rainfall is enhanced because On the basis of our examination of skeletal ␦18O in D. 1993. 4. of a more vigorous summer monsoon. Diploastrea also records the very strong El Nin˜ o event from Ropelewski and Halpert. New Caledonia and Alor. changes in SSTs in the southwestern Pacific are less 5. The coral records are interpolated to a resolution of 12 samples/yr (Paillard et al. heliopora from New Caledonia and Alor. Urban et al. (when eastern equatorial Pacific SSTs are unusually warm) are 5) for subtropical New Caledonia.. 1987) to judge the ability of Diploas.. 2000. 1998. 1994. Shading indicates periods of cooler sea surface temperature and higher salinity (higher ␦18O values) in the western Pacific region associated with El Nin˜ o events. This study was designed to directly compare records of at both sites for the 1988 to 1989 La Nin˜ a.. Tudhope et al.g. VPDB ⫽ Vienna Peedee belemnite. 1982 to 1983. Reconstructing the El Nin˜ o–Southern Oscillation direction. it appears induced changes in SST and the amount of 18O-depleted rain. and Halpert. The effect of ENSO.5. 1982) and below average monsoon rainfall (Ropelewski to Porites. that this slow-growing. Fig. In con- trast. 1999. The results indicate that D. Watanabe et al. combined effect of cooler SST and reduced monsoon rainfall 2000) and fossil corals for time slices since the Last Interglacial (higher ␦18Ow) served to increase coral ␦18O simultaneously at (Hughen et al.. thus increasing the significance with which ␦18O (ENSO) in the Western Pacific detects ENSO events.1356 T.. but evidently..

(1997) The effect of colony topography on changes in SST and precipitation in the ENSO-sensitive climate signals in coral skeleton. Res. Am. Burr G. Porites has not been straightforward. H. continuous records spanning centuries from a single corallite. Chappell J. Eisenhauer A. and Wo¨ erhide G.. Geol. loastrea records interannual climate variability as well as Cole J. Cosmochim. and Veeh H. and Chivas A.400 cal- good agreement with that derived for a nearby Porites endar years BP derived from 230Th ages of corals from Espiritu (⫺0. of Diploastrea preserve well in the fossil record. Camoin and P. J. Fairbanks R. 1996). R. tation and can potentially affect the quality of the resulting (1994) Eastern Pacific sea surface temperature since 1600 A. Despite the differ. Re´ cy J. 261–277. Morgenroth G.. A. J. The slope of the ␦18O. Stewart Fallon (Re- time span of existing coral paleoclimate records. Geochim. (1998) Environmental and tectonic influ- ences on growth and internal structure of a fringing reef at Tas- 3. 356 –368. Int. 291–303. Cabioch G.. K. J. Beck J.. similar to that reported for Porites. Epstein S. M... (1999) Annual Records of Tropical sampling transects within a coral core is a matter of interpre. E. ferences in mean temperature and salinity throughout the Chappell J. B. Paleocean- are long and straight. Paleoceanography proved paleoclimate reconstructions. S. Acta Diploastrea exhibit a ␦18O-temperature dependence that is 64. offering the potential for long paleoclimate records for time slices from the Associate editor: D. Corre`ge T. Bull. Cosmochim. R. isotopes in corals. 1790 –1793. tracted from the septal portion of the skeleton of Diploastrea 71–90. and Griffin S.. Lehnert H. Seasonal oxygen isotope and carbon isotope signals ex. Radiocarbon 40. and Mayeda T.-C.. ments and sea-level changes at Timor and Atauro Island. 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