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CONTENTS .

rnJ Tense Forms 3 Questions/Short Answers 197


Word Formation 17 Practice test 11 206
Practice test 1 25
Inversion/Emphatic Structures 210
[D The lnfinitive/-ing form/Participles 29 Practice test 12 216
Practice test 2 42
Revision 3 220

[J Modal Verbs 46
Practice test 3 56 Further Practice Sections 223

[J Adjectives/Adverbs/Comparisons 60 Appendix 1 - Present, Past &


Practice test 4 74 Future Forms 240

Revision 1 78
Appendix 2 - Phrasal Verbs 244

[ ] Clauses/Linking Words 81 Appendix 3 - Verbs, Adjectives,


Practice test 5 106 Nouns with Prepositions I
Prepositional Phrases I
EJ Reported Speech 110 Prepositions of time 250
Practice test 6 125
Appendix 4 - Word Formation 255
[J Passive Voice/Causative Form 129
Practice test 7 140 Irregular Verbs 259

Conditionals/Wishes/Unreal Past 144 Suggested Answer section 260


Practice test 8 156
Test 1A / 18 T1
Revision 2 160

Test 2A / 28 TB
Nouns/ Articles 163
Practice test 9 173 Test 3A / 38 T15.

I Determiners/Pronouns 177
Practice test 1O 193
Tense Forms
Identify the tenses , then match them with the correct description.

1 They are getting married this summer. Present Cont. a fixed arrangements in the near future
2 The robber waves his gun and everyone gets down b personal experiences/changes that have
on the floor. Present Simple happened
3 The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. c actions taking place at or around the moment
Present Simple of speaking; temporary situations
4 The course starts on 10th October. Present Simple d actions started at a stated time in the past
5 Clare is looking for a new flat. Present Continuous and continuing up to the present
6 We've been sharing a flat for years. Pres. Pert. Cont. e reviews/sports commentaries/dramatic
7 They employ staff from all over the world. narratives
Present Simple f permanent situations or states
8 Paula has become more independent since starting g permanent truths or laws of nature
university. Present Perfect Simple h emphasis on duration of an action that began
9 The child has been missing since last night. in the past and continues up to the present
Present Perfect Continuous timetables/programmes (future meaning)

1 ...a ... 2 e 3 g 4 i 5 c 6 h 7 f 8 b 9 d

Identify the tenses, then match them with the correct description.

1 Bill always stops to buy milk on his way to work. a past actions of certain du ration having visible
Present Simple results/effects in the p resent
2 The new serial is growing in popularity. Present Cont. b changing or developing situations
3 There goes the last bus! Present Simple c recently completed actions
4 Scientists have just discovered a way to prevent d exclamatory sentences
memory loss. Present Perfect e frequently repeated actions with 'always'
5 Andrea has phoned me every day this week. expressing the speaker's annoyance or
Present Perfect criticism
6 Laura is always criticising my appearance. Pres. Cont. f actions which happened at an unstated past
7 I feel exhausted as I have been working on my time and are connected to the present
assignment all night. Present Perfect Continuous g emphasis on number, frequency
8 He's been asking to borrow money again. h repeated/habitual actions
Present Perfect Continuous expressing anger, irritation, annoyance or
9 The Kellys have moved to Manchester. Present Perfect criticism

1 ... h ... 2 b 3 d 4 c 5 g 6 e 7 a 8 9 f

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct present forms.

Dear Greg a nd Christine,


I 1) .. .am writing... (write) to thank you for coming to our wedding reception last month. I hope you
ertjoyed yourselves.
Mark and I 2) have just returned (Lust/return) from our trip to Kenya. We 3) have just moved Gust/move) into
our new house and since we returned we 4) have been spending (spend) all our free time decorating. The house
5) is actualJy beginning (actually/begin) to feel like home now and we 6) are gradually settling (gradually/settle)
into a routine. We n have (have) breakfast together in the morning, but then we 8) don' t see (not/see) each
other until late in the evening when we 9) get (get) home from work.
I hope both of you 10) have been (be) well since we last saw you.
Best regards,
Mark a nd Sheila Roberts
Stative verbs express a permanent state rather than an action and do not have continuous forms. These are:
verbs of the senses (used to express involuntary actions) : feel , hear, see, smell, taste etc. I see someone
standing at the front door. Verbs of feelings and emotions: adore, detest, disl ike, enjoy, forgive, hate, like
etc. She really enjoys cooking for her friends. Verbs of opinion: agree, believe, suppose, understand etc. I
don't believe he 's coming. Other verbs: appear (= seem) , belong, concern, contain, depend, fit (= be the
right shape and size for sth) , have (= possess) , know, mean, owe, own, possess, need, prefer, require,
want, weigh, wish, keep (= continue) , seem etc. This skirt fits you perfectly
Note: Feel and hurt can be used in continuous or simple forms. Ann is feeling 'feels tired. Listen, look and
watch express deliberate actions and can be used in continuous forms. They are looking at some pictures.

Some stative verbs (be, love, see, smell, taste, think etc) have continuous forms but there is a difference in
meaning.

STATE ACTION

I see exactly what you mean. (= I understand)


Peter thinks he knows everything. (= He believes)
She is seeing a lawyer tonight. ( = She's meeting)
He is thinking of studying Law. (= He is considering)

They have a villa in Portugal. (= They own)


A baby's skin feels very smooth. (= It has a smooth
He is having problems. ( = He is experiencing)
He is feeling the engine to see how hot it is. ( = He's
texture) touching)


This soup tastes of garlic. (= It has the taste of garlic} Why are you tasting the curry? ( = Why are you
The room smells of fresh flowers. ( = It has the smell testing the flavour?)
oD Why are you smelling that meat? ( = Why are you

Most people love/enjoy eating out. (= They like in


general)

checking its smell?)
She is loving/is enjoying every minute of her

Peter is a difficult person to get on with. (= His


character is difficult)

holiday. (= She likes specifically)
Jane is being particularly generous this week.

He looks as if he's going to faint. (= He appears) (= She is behaving generously)


The patient appears to be recovering. (= He seems They are looking at the photos. (= They are viewing)
to be) Simply Red are appearing on stage next week.

Sam now weighs more than his father. (= His


weight is greater)

(= They are giving a performance)
The doctor is weighing the baby. (= She is finding

My uniform doesn't fit me. (= It isn't the right size).



out its weight)
We are fitting a new kitchen next week. ( = installing)

Fill in with Present Simple or Continuous.

1 A: I ... am Beeing... (see) an old friend tonight.


B: 1 see (see) - so you won't be able to meet me after work, will you?
2 A: Why are you smelling (you/smell) the milk?
B: It smells (smell) a bit strange. I think it might have gone off.
3 A: Do you enjoy (you/enjoy) reading Jane Austen's novels?
B: Not usually, but I am enjoying (enjoy) this particular one.
4 A: Why is John being (John/be) so bad-tempered today?
B: I don't know. He is (be) usually so easy to get on with .
5 A: Carol and I are thinking (think) of getting married.
B: Do you think (you/think) that's a good idea? You haven't known each other for very long.
6 A: Do you have (you/have) the phone number of a good business consu ltant?
B: Why? Are you having (you/ have) problems at work?
7 A: Is the singer appearing (the singer/appear) tonight?
B: Unfortunately not. She appears (appear) to have lost her voice.

14
_ _ _ j
8 A: Why are you tasting (you/taste) the lemonade?
B: It tastes (taste) a little bitter. I think I'll add some more sugar.
9 A: I hear the Fords are looking (look) for a bigger house.
B: Yes, it looks (look) as if they are going to move.
10 A: How much does the parcel weigh (the parcel/weigh)?
B: I'm not sure. The assistant is weighing (weigh) it at the moment.

Have gone to I Have been to I Have been in

She has gone to the bank. (She 's on her way to the bank or she's there now. She hasn 't come back yet.)
She has been to New Orleans. (She has visited New Orleans but she isn't there now. She has come back.)
She has been in the Hague for four years. (She lives in the Hague now.)

@ Fill in has/have been to/ in, has/have gone to.

1 How long ... has... she ... been in. .. York?


2 Sheila has been to Brussels twice this year.
3 Mum has gone to the supermarket. She'll be back in about an hour.
4 Sam isn't in the office. He has gone to a meeting.
5 Mr Smith has been in Paris for nearly three years.

Since expresses a starting point. She's been working here since November.
For expresses the duration of an action. They've been in Hawaii for two weeks.

[) Fill in since or for.

Animals have been a source of help and comfort to humans


1) ... since... history began, and we have known 2) for years that
animals make people gentler and more relaxed. 3) For a long
time the question has been how exactly animals can change
people. Some researchers believe that stroking a pet helps to
relieve anxiety and tension and, 4) since the 1960s, therapists
have believed that animals' remarkable powers can be used to
heal our bodies and minds. This belief has actually been
confirmed 5) since the discovery that seriously ill people live
longer if they have a pet to care for.

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct present forms.

1 George Smith ... has been training ... (train) for this match for months. He has been practising (practise) at
least four hours a day for the last two weeks and he says (say) that now he is feeling/feels (feel) confident.
However, he is facing (face) a difficult opponent tonight. Palmer has won (win) several games recently, and
he looks (look) determined to win this one too. The match is (be) about to start, so let's watch and see what
happens (happen).
2 Louisa usually goes (go) to work by tube, but today she is going (go) there in a chauffeur-driven limousine.
The reason for this is (be) that she has just won (just/win) the young business person award , and as part of
the prize people are treating (treat) her like royalty.
3 Mary has.been dyeing (dye) her hair for years. She goes (go) to the hairdresser once a week and tries/has
tried (try) every colour you can imagine. She says (say) she wants (want) to match her hair with her clothes.
I have been asking (ask) her for ages why she doesn't keep (not/keep) her natural colour but she says (say)
she has forgotten (forget) what it is!
4 A: Excuse me, I have been trying (try) to pay for this shirt for ten minutes. Nobody seems (seem) to want to
serve me. I have tried (try) complaining but nobody listens (listen). It's the worst service I have ever
experienced (ever/experience). Something ought to be done!
B: I agree sir, but I don't work (not/work) here.

. Make all the necessary changes and additions to make a complete letter.
(See Suggested Answer section)

Dear Sir,
I write/apply/position of French teacher/advertised/The European. Academic qualifications
include/degree in French/Oxford University. I spend several years/Paris/have excellent practical
knowledge of French. I work/assistant French teacher/two years/school outside London. I be
unemployed/at the moment. I enclose references/former employer and CV. I trust you give/application/
serious consideration. I look forward/hear you/earliest convenience.
Yours faithfully,
Derek Spencer

Dear Sir,
I'm writing to apply ...

Identify the tenses, then match them with the correct description.

1 I had read most of his novels by the end of the a action in progress at a stated past time
holiday. Past Perfect b complete action or event which happened
2 I was talking on the phone while Tim was watching at a stated past time
football on TV. Past Continuous c past actions which happened one
3 We got up at half past six this morning. Past Simple immediately after another
4 They were still considering his proposal that d past action in progress interrupted by
evening . Past Continuous another past action
5 She jogged five miles every day when she was e action continuing over a period up to a
young. Past Simple specific time in the past
6 She had a shower, got dressed quickly and left for f complete past action which had visible
the airport. Past Simple results in the past
7 Reporters had been telephoning all morning. g past action which occurred before another
Past Perfect Continuous action or before a stated time
8 A cr'owd of tourists were waiting outside the hotel h past habit or state
when the lights went out. Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous as the past
9 He made his last film in Poland. Past Simple equivalent of the Present Perfect Continuous
1O They had been going out for five years before they action not connected to the present and
decided to get married . Past Perfect Continuous which happened at a definite past time not
11 She was upset because she had just heard the mentioned
news. Past Perfect k Past Perfect as the past equivalent of the
12 The police officer changed her phone number Present Perfect
because she had been receiving anonymous calls two or more simultaneous past actions
for several weeks . Past Perfect Continuous m past action of certain duration which had
13 The dancer had always dreamed of becoming visible results in the past
successful. Past Perfect

1 .. g.. 2 I 3b 4a Sh 6c 7i 8d 9j 10 e 11 f 12 m 13 k

16
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct past forms, then match the
sentences with the correct description.

Christopher Columbus 1) ... wa!? born... (be/born) in Italy in 1451. He 2) had worked (work)
as a woollen cloth weaver w ith his father before he 3) began (begin) his nautical career at the
age of 22. After several merchant voyages he 4) settled (settle) in Lisbon, Portugal in 1478.
By this time he 5) had taught (teach) himself Portuguese and Latin and 6) had ~ead (read)
many geographical and navigational books. In 1481 he 7) married (marry) Felipa .
Parestrello. They 8) had (have) one son, Diego. They 9) had been married (be/married)
for two years w hen his w ife 10) died (die). At this time he 11) was working (work) for
John II of Portugal. Columbus 12) had always wished (always/wish) to sail around the
world westward but John II wouldn't agree. Finally King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
of Spain 13) decided (decide) to finance the voyage. He 14) set off (set off) for the first
time in April 1492. There 15) were (be) three ships; the Nina, the Pinta and the Santa
Maria and a crew of 90 men. They 16) had/had had (have) many false alarms before they
finally 17) spotted (spot) the ' New World' at 02.00 on Friday the 12th of Octob~r, 1492.
Columbus 18) made (make) another three voyages after this. He 19) retired (retire) to
Valladolid 12 years after his first voyage and in 1517 he 20) died (die) there.

a complete past action s not connected 8, 10, 13, d complete action or event which 1, 3, 4, 7 , 14
to the present, w ith an implied 15, (16) , 18 happened at a stated past time 17, 19, 20
tim e reference
e past action which occurred before
b action in the middle of happening another action or before a stated 2, 5, 6, (16)
11
at a stated past time past time

c action continuing over a period up f the Past Perfect as the past 12


to a specific time in the past 9 equivalent of the Present Perfect

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct past forms.

When she 1) ... wa!? ... (be) only fifteen Helen 2) left (leave) school without any
qualifications. Nevertheless, she 3) was (be) very ambitious and 4) wanted (want)
to work in the fashion industry. Luckily she 5) found (find) a job immediately as an
assistant in a small fashion company. While she 6) was working (work) there she
7) decided (decide) to go to evening classes to get a qualification in business
studies. Once she 8) had successfully completed (successfully/complete) the course
she 9) was promoted (be/promoted) to the position of assistant manager. After she
10) had been doing (do) that job for some years she 11) wanted (want) a change. She
12) had been thinking (think) of moving to London for some time, so she 13) applied (apply)
for a job which she 14) had seen/saw (see) advertised in a fashion magazine. Helen 15) got
(get) the job as the manager of a small but prestigious fashion company in central London. She 16) had
achieved (achieve) her ambition of becoming a successful businesswoman at last.
Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple or Continuous.

to
A few years ago a friend of mine, Tom, 1) ... was travelling ... (travel) in Java. One day he 2) decided (decide)
visit an ancient temple. The walls were covered in beautiful old paintings of mysterious-l ooking faces. While he
3) was walking ( walk) around the temple, he 4) felt ( feel) an inexplicable desire to remove one
particular face which seemed to be staring at him . Nervously, checking to see that no one 5) was
looking (look), he 6) peeled ( peel) the face from the wall and 7) put (put) it carefully in his bag.
Tom 8) thought (think) no more about the incident until two years later. At that time he 9) was
living (live) in London and 10) (was) working (work) in a shop selling old books and
manuscripts. One day an extremely old man 11) walked (walk) slowly through the door. Tom
could hardly see him but he 12) noticed (notice) the man's piercing black eyes. He 13) stared
(stare) at Tom, fixing him with his gaze, saying nothing. As the man 14) was staring (stare)
at him, Tom 15) had (have) an awful, terrifying feeling of shame and fear. Suddenly, the man
was gone. When Tom got home that evening he 16) searched (search) frantically through all
his things until he 17) found ( find) the face from the temple. It was the face of the old man
from the shop! He 18) knew (know) then that he had to return the picture to the temple, or
something terrible would happen.

Pre~~nt P~rfoct

She has come. (unstated time; we don't know when She came last Friday (stated time - When? Last
she came) Friday.)
u ee ho. 1, ro1 10 (he's still in He was ho 1i1 1e (he isn't in hospital
hospital - action connected to the present) any more - action not connected to the present)
f-J een 1 'Ce 1h1s " ek (it's still the same He went out w 1ce /, 1sr week (action not connected
week - action connected to the present) to the present - it's the next week now)
I v seen Nii ole l\idman. (action connected to the I saw Prince. Diam (action not connected to the


present - she's still alive )

Parliame,
s has decided to dissolve
(announcing news)
i present - she's dead)
He announced t s d .., 1s1 n Mor ng (giving
details of the news - stated time in the past)

[ljg) Fill in with Present Perfect or Past Simple.

1 The presid ent 1) ... h.~s ann U'1ced... (announce) the introduction of a new set of measures to deal with
unemploym ent. The problem 2) has become (become) worse in recent months, and yesterday the president
3) stated (state) that action must be taken now. She actual ly 4) signed (sign) the new bill during this
morning's session of Parliament.
2 George 1) arrived (arrive) late to work again this morning. He 2) has been (be) late at least five times this
month. The supervisor 3) spoke (speak) to him about it yesterday but he obviously 4) didn't pay (not/pay)
any attention .
3 John Keats, who 1) died (die) when he 2) was (be) on ly 26 years old , 3) wrote (write) a lot of beautiful poems.
I 4) have read (read) most of his poetry, but I 5) have never managed (never/manage) to get to the end of
Endymion. It's too long for me!
4 Clare 1) has been (be) in New York for almost a year now. I 2) went (go) to visit her last month and I have
to say I 3) was (be) very impressed . I 4) have visited (visit) most of th e major cities in Europe but I 5) have
never seen (never/see) any place as exciting as the Big Apple.
5 I 1) have seen (see) five films this mo nth, but I 2) didn't like (not/like) any of them very much. Actually, I think
the films they 3) made (make) ten years ago 4) were (be) much b etter than anyth ing I 5) have seen (see) for
ages.
Used to - Be/Get used to + ing form/ noun/pronoun - Would - Was going to
Used to expresses past habitual actions and permanent states. (Note that stative verbs are not used with 'would':)
She used to wake up at 6 am every day. (ALSO would wake up) They used to live in a flat. (NOT: ~
Would expresses past repeated actions and routines - not states.
When I was young, I would go for a walk before breakfast. (ALSO I used to go ... )
Be/Get used to expresses habitual actions and means 'be/get accustomed to', 'be in the habit of'.
She isn't used to staying up late at night. She is getting used to working under pressure.
Was going to expresses actions one intended to do but didn't or shows that one doesn't mind changing his
plans.
She was going to buy a new watch but unfortunately she couldn 't afford one.
"Do you have a moment?" "Well, I was going to make something to eat." (= but it can wait if you want to tell me
sth really important/ interesting)

Q Complete the sentences using the words in bold . Use two to five words.

1 Paul lived in Brazil when he was young.


live Paul ... used to live... in Brazil when he was young.
2 When he was in the army, he used to wake up at 5 o 'clock in the morning.
would When he was in the army, he would wake up at 5 o'clock in the morning.
3 Rosa didn't like English food at first, but now she quite likes it.
used Rosa didn't like English food at first but now she is/has got used to it.
4 He meant to make a cup of tea but they had run out of teabags.
going He was going to make a cup of tea but they had run out of teabags.
5 I don 't think I'll ever find it easy to eat with chopsticks.
used I don't think I'll ever get used to eating with chopsticks.
6 My grandmother rarely travels by plane.
used My grandmother isn't used to travelling by plane.
7 She wanted to call him but she couldn 't find his phone number.
going She was going to call but she couldn 't find his phone number.
8 My mother always gave me a bath every Friday night when I was little.
would My mother would always give me a bath every Friday night when I was little.

Make all the necessary changes and additions to make a complete email.
(See Suggested Answer section)

Dear Sir,
Yesterday/I receive/new TV set/I order. However/I be/ very angry/as it arrive/terrible condition.
Firstly/delivery men/be rude/refuse/wait/while l/unpack(TV. When I unpack/I see/it be damaged. The control
knob/be broken/and there be/ large crack/on the top(TV. I/never before/receive/anything/ in such bad
condition. Could you arrange/collect this set/and deliver/a new one/soon/possible? I trust/this matter
receive/prompt attention.

Yours faithfully,
L. Rogers (Mr)

Dear Sir,
Yesterday I received ...
Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate past forms .

1 Alexander the Great ...was born. .. {be/born) in 356 BC in Macedonia. He became


(become) King when he was 20 and continued {continue) the work that his
father had begun {begin) . In 334 BC he invaded (invade) Persia and by his
thirtieth birthday he had conquered {conquer) most of south-west Asia.
However, while he was planning {plan) the invasion of Arabia he developed
{develop) a fever and died {die) .
2 Last month Albert and I went {go) on a skiing trip to Scotland . We had been
saving up {save up) for months and so we were {be) very excited when the time
came (come) to leave. We packed (pack) our bags, got (get) in the car and set off
(set off). We had been driving (drive) for six hours when Albert suddenly remembered
(remember) something - we had forgotten {forget) to pack the skis!
3 George Grimes woke up (wake up) feeling very odd. All through the night he had been dreaming (dream)
about strange creatu res which were trying {try) to break in through his window. They had {have) horns and
big green eyes and they seemed {seem) to be threatening him. "Oh well ," he thought (think) , "at least they
aren't real. " Just at that moment, however, a big scaly hand came (come) crashing through the window!
4 When Bob invited {invite) me to go fishing with him I was (be) excited because I had never been (never/be)
fishing before. But as we were driving (drive) to the river we saw (see) the first black clouds and ten minutes
later it was raining (rain ) heavily. Three hours later, soaking wet, we were still looking for {still/ look for)
somewhere to get warm and dry.
5 "Did you enjoy (you/enjoy) your holiday?" "No , it was (be) a disaster! As I was getting on (get on) the plane,
I found I had left (leave) my holiday money at home! I had been saving {save) for months to get that money.
My father sent {send) me a cheque, but it took (take) five days to reach me."
6 Alan had been working {work) in the same office for ten years before he applied (apply) for another post with
Mask Ltd. He had been waiting {wait) for an answer for weeks when he was asked {be/asked) to attend an
interview with the Personnel Manager. He went (go) there dressed in an expensive suit which he had bought
{buy) the day before, on ly to find that they wanted (want) someone to work as a cleaner.

Identify the tenses, then match them with the correct description.

1 The builders are going to start work tomorrow. Going to a prediction about the future
2 She' ll be waiting outside the station as usual. b asking politely about people's
Future Continuous arrangements
3 I forgot to tell Jim the news. I'll ring him now. c action which may (not) happen in the
Future Simple future
4 By the end of the year we will have been working d action which is the result of a routine
together for ten years. Future Perfect Continuous e action intended to be performed in the
5 Be careful. You're going to fall off your bicycle. Going to near future
6 The meeting starts at 9 o 'clock. Present Simple f action which will be finished before a
7 I'm sure things will work out in the end . Future Simple stated future time
8 Perhaps your mother will change her mind . Future Simple g action in progress at a stated future
9 Will many people be coming to the wedding? time
Future Continuous h evidence that sth will definitely happen
10 They will have finished the plans by the end of the duration of an action up to a certain
week . Future Perfect time in the future
11 Hospital staff are beginn ing a two-day strike tomorrow. j timetable/programme
Present Continuous k fixed arrangement in the near future
12 By the year 2020 more people than ever will be moving I decision taken at the moment of
to the cities. Future Continuous speaking

1 .. e.. 2d 31 4 i Sh Gj 7a Sc 9b 10 f 11 k 12 g

110
Tense Forms __
Future Forms with Time Words
We never use future forms after: as long as, after, before, by the time, if (conditional), unless, in case, till/until,
when (time conjunction), whenever, while, once, suppose/supposing, on condition that etc. Let's buy more food
in case James comes. (NOT: in case J.aFRes vdJI seFRe.)
If meaning 'whether' especially after I don't know, I doubt, I wonder etc and when used as a question word can
be used with future forms. When will the race take place? I doubt if they will hold their annual anniversary party
this year.

Fill in the correct present or future forms.

Welcome to Nutfield Valley Health Farm!


After you l) ...have settled in. .. (settle in), a member of staff 2) will come (come) and interview you about
your specific dietary requirements. Once you 3) reach/have reached (reach) your target weight, you 4)
will start (start) a maintenance diet to make sure you stay slim! To ensure your safety a nd well-being,
our fitness programmes are planned by qualified instructors. Before you 5) begin (begin), the resident
doctor 6) will check (check) your heart rate and blood pressure. There is also a fully-equipped medical
room in case you 7) have (have) any problems- though of course we don't expect you will. At Nutfield Valley
you pay only on condition that you 8) lose (lose) at least 5% of your body weight in two weeks. If not. we 9) will give
(give) you a refund. By the time you 10) leave (leave) . you 11) will feel (feel) like a new person. Of course. we doubt
that you 12) will have (have) any complaints. but our helpful staff are always on hand if there 13) is (be) anything you
need. Remember, our motto is: 'As long as you 14) are (be) happy, WE 15) are (be) happy!"

Fill in the correct present or future forms.

Dear Mr Green,
Regarding our telephone conversation last week, here are the details of your forthcoming trip to Thailand.
You 1) ... will be leaving ... (leave) on Saturday 4th December from London Gatwick at 10.00 pm. You 2) will be
flying/are flying (fly) with Thai Air, flight number TA 907. The flight 3) arrives/will arrive (arrive) in Bangkok at 4.00
pm on 5th December - that 4) will be/is (be) 11.00 pm local time. Our tour guide, Jim Smith , 5) will be waiting
(wait) for you at the airport to accompany you to the Imperial Hotel.
As soon as you 6) settle in/have settled in (settle in), you 7) will attend (attend) a welcome dinner party. In the
next few days you 8) will visit/will be visiting (visit) all the sight s. There 9) will be (be) time for you to do your
shopping as well. By the time you 10) get on (get on) the return flight on 10th December, you 11) will have
experienced (experience) the most traditional aspects of Thai life. Our tour guide 12) will be (be) with you
throughout, so there shouldn ' t be any problems.
If you 13) need (need) more information, please contact us.
Yours sincerely,
A. Jones

~ Fill in will or be going to.

1 A: There's no sugar left. 2 A: Have you got any plans 3 A: Have you bought a dress
B: That's OK. I .. .'//... go and for the evening? for the reception?
buy some. B: Yes, I'm going to see The B: No, but I'm going to buy
Doll 's House' in town . one this afternoon .
4 A: Here's 20.
B: Thank you. 111 pay you back as soon as I can.
5 A: Have you heard that Mrs Potts is ill?
B: Yes. Actually we're going to visit her this afternoon.
6 A: Peter is taking his driving test tomorrow.
B: Oh , I'm sure he'll pass.
7 A: Is Tom coming tonight?
B: I don't know. I'll phone him and see.
8 A: Has Helen decided what to study?
B: Yes. She's going to train to be a teacher.
9 A: It's quite cold today.
B: I think winter will be here soon.
10 A: We are having a picnic on Sunday.
B: I hope the weather will be nice.

Make all necessary changes and additions to make a complete letter.


(See Suggested Answer section)

Dear Mrs Scott,


I/write/con.firm/arrangements/concerning/new n.anny Margarita. Margarita's plane/leave Hamburg/
5:30/arrive/Lon.don Gatwick 6:45, so/it/be/early start/you. As agreed/ Margarita/ work/8-10 morning/
3-8 afternoon an.cl evening. She/have/English lessons/every Saturday. As know/by December/
Margarita/complete/six months' employment/therefore/expect/pay rise 10%. I/go/ho liday/three
weeks/Saturday/if/have problems/con.tact/secretary Elizabeth Hazlett. I hope/ things run smoothly/
you/Margarita.
Yours sincerely,
Janet Hemsworth

Dear Mr:; Scott,


I am writing to confirm the arrangement:; concerning your new nanny Margarita ...

Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate present or future forms.
1 Bill Haynes, author of the immensely popular novel 'Black Roses', 1) is going to write (write) a new novel. "I
2) am starting/will start/am going to start (start) next Monday- or at least that's the p lan ," says Bill. "It's amazing
to think that by next year it 3) will have been (be) ten years since I last picked up a pen ." Despite his long
break, Bill is confident. "I think this book 4) will be (be) even better than 'Roses', I 5) am going to include/will
include (include) the usual elements of action and adventure but this time there 6) is going to be/will be (be)
some romance too. I hope it 7) will be (be) successful. Of course, we 8) will not know (not/know) until it 9) is
published (be/published) next year. "
2 Jeanne and Paul 1) are moving (move) to London next month . Paul is being transferred there and Jeanne
hopes she 2) will have found (find) a job by the time they 3) move (move) there. They 4) are driving/are going
to drive (drive) down next weekend to look for a flat. They hope they 5) will find (find) something in a nice
area, but with prices the way they are, they will have to be satisfied with whatever they 6) find (find). Jeanne
is afraid she 7) will miss (miss) living in Nottingham, but Paul is convinced that they 8) will be (be) happier in
London because there is so much more to do there.

3 The staff of Cottenham Primary School l) is/are/will be holding (hold) an open day on August
Cottenham 21st. In the morning you 2) will be able to (be able to) meet your child 's teachers. At 12.30
the Headmaster, Mr Patterson, 3) will show (show) the plans for the new adventure
Primary playground. We hope that this 4) will have been finished (finish) by December. If your c hild

School 5) is starting/starts (start) school this September. bring him or her along! The programme 6)
begins (begin) at 9 am. See you there!

112
4 "Where 1) are you going (you/go) on holiday this year Laura? "
"I don't know Sue. What about you?"
"We 2) will probably go (probably/go) to Spain again. But as I 3) am getting (get) a pay rise very soon, I'd
like to go somewhere more glamorous. I think I 4) will get (get) some brochures from the travel agent
tomorrow, so if you want, I 5) will pick (pick up) a couple for you as well. "
"Good idea. With any luck, we 6) will have decided (decide) where to go by the time summer 7) comes (come) !"

5 Dear Anna,
I got the job! I 1) am leaving (leave) for Africa in two weeks. It's a shame I 2) won't see (not/see) you before I
3) go (go). For the first six months I 4) will be working (work) in a village school, teaching English and Maths.
5) Will you be able (you/be able) to visit me? If not, by the time I 6) see (see) you again, so much 7) will have
happened (happen) to us both that it'll take us hours to catch up on our news.
Lots of love,
Danielle

Time Words
Ago (= back in time from now) used with Past Si mple. Jill called an hour ago.
Before (= back in time from then) Phi/ told me Jill had called an hour before. It can also be used with present or
past forms to point out that an action preceded another. He had been working in the company for two years
before he was promoted.
Still is used in statements and questions after the auxiliary verb or before the main verb. They can still walk long
distances. She still works in the same office. Still comes before the auxiliary verb in negations. They still can't
find a solution to the problem.
Already is used with Perfect tenses in mid or end position in statements or questions. Sheila had already cooked
dinner before Liz came home. Has he fimshed already?
Yet is used with Perfect tenses in negative sentences after a contracted auxiliary verb or at the end of the
sentence. She hasn't yet accepted the post. She hasn't accepted the post yet. It can also be used at the end of
questions. Has she phoned yet?

~ Underline the correct word .

1 She has gone to Singapore and she's still/ yet there.


2 He doesn 't want to watch the film as he's seen it already/still.
3 Ann was on a diet five months before/ago. She lost three kilos.
4 She's only been playing the violin for two years and she can
already/still play several of Mozart's most difficult pieces.
5 Even after twenty-five years she is still/ yet actively involved in the club.
6 Jo's yet/still got a good figure even though she's five months pregnant.
7 "Has Sandra typed up those reports ~/still ? I need them now."
8 Peter left the party two hours before/ago because he wasn't feeling well.
9 She had come back ago/ before he returned.
10 I can't do the exam - I haven't finished doing all my revisions still/~.

Put the verbs in brackets into a correct tense.

1 A new addiction 1) ...has recently emerged... (recently/emerge) - an addiction to soap operas, that is -
and the world's first clinic to treat people obsessed with the soaps 2) is opening/is going to open (open) next
week. Sufferers 3) come (come) from every walk of life. Symptoms of addiction 4) include (include) refusing
to miss an episode and watching recorded episodes again and again. One sufferer 5) explains (explain)
how he 6) became (become) addicted five years ago. His obsession 7) was (be) so bad that he 8) was (be)
unable to keep a steady relationship. "When my friends 9) came around (come round) , I was more
interested in the soaps. It was almost as if the people on TV 10) had become (become) my friends instead."
2 A: I 1) am thinking (think) of going to that new Chinese
restaurant in the city centre to celebrate my
birthday. 2) Have you been (you/ be) there yet?
B: No, I 3) haven't been (not/be) there yet, but people
4) say (say) that the food is fantastic.
A: Would you like to go there next weekend?
B: Yes, that's a great idea. I 5) will write (write) it in my
diary now.
3 John 1) left (leave) the house in a rush this morning. As
he 2) was driving (drive) to work he suddenly 3)
remembered (remember) that he 4) had been asked
(be/asked) to speak at a conference. He 5) looked (look)
at his watch and 6) saw (see) that it was nearly time for
the conference to begin.
4 Last March, Sam 1) decided (decide) that he 2) had
had (have) enough of working in a bank and that he
3) would ride/was going to ride (ride) around the world on a bicycle. He 4) left (leave) England two weeks later
with his bike, a rucksack and a tent. He 5) has been (be) away for six months now, and no one 6) knows
(know) whether he 7) will return (return) or not.
5 Jan and Paul 1) are packing (pack) their suitcases at the moment. They 2) are (be) extremely happy as they
3) have won (win) a trip to Australia. It all 4) started (start) when Jan and Paul 5) received (receive) a call a
few days ago regarding a competition they 6) had entered (enter) some months before. To their surprise,
they 7) (had) won (win) a 10-day trip to Australia which 8) would be (be) completely free. What a lovely
surprise!
6 A: 1) Are you going (you/go) on holiday to Germany this year?
B: No, we 2) go/have been going (go) there every year, so we want a change this year.
A: Where 3) are you planning (you/plan) to go instead?
B: Well, we 4) have been told (be/told) that Greece is a beautiful country so we 5) have already booked
(already/ book) a two-week holiday on Corfu.
7 Susan 1) has been studying (study) interior design part-time for three years and she 2) is getting/is going to
get (get) her diploma next month. Since she 3) has been working (work) in the same company for over ten
years she 4) feels (feel) that she 5) needs (need) a change, so she 6) is planning (plan) to open her own
design business. She 7) is going to start (start) looking for an office next week, and she 8) hopes/is hoping
(hope) she 9) will have found (find) something in a good location and at a reasonable price by the end of
the month. Her tutors 10) tell/have told (tell) her that she 11) is (be) very talented and they 12) assure/have
assured (assure) her that she 13) will make (make) a success of the business.
8 Jim 1) was walking (walk) along the High Street when he 2) noticed (notice) someone behind him. Actually,
he 3) had been following (follow) him since he 4) got off (get off) the bus. Jim 5) stopped (stop) at a shop
window. The man 6) came (come) closer to him. Jim 7) had (have) the feeling he 8) had seen (see) him
before, so he 9) went (go) up to him and 10) asked (ask) : "Don 't I know (not/I/know) you? Why 12) are you
following me (you/follow) me?" The man 13) smiled (smile) and 14) said (say), "Smile! You 15) are (be) on
Candid Camera! "
9 Julie 1) has always wanted (always/ want) to be famous, ever since she was young. She 2) has been taking
(take) acting classes for years and last week someone 3) offered (offer) her a part in an advertisement. They
only 4) need (need) her voice, though, because it's going to be on the radi o. At least her career 5) has
started (start) .
10 Tom 1) has been saving (save up) to go to France for months, and yesterday when he 2) counted (count)
his savings he 3) realised (realise) he had enough. Unfortunately, as he 4) was driving (drive) to the travel
agent's he remembered that he 5) hadn't paid (not/pay) his rent for two months so he 6) turned (turn) round
and 7) drove (drive) back home again.
11 Next month 11) am visiting/am going to visit (visit) my friend who 2) lives (live) in Brazil. The flight from London
3) takes (take) about fifteen hours and I 4) have never been (never/ be) on a plane before. I 5) feel/am feeling
(feel) quite nervous about the journey but my friend 6) keeps (keep) telling me that there 7) is (be) nothing
to worry about.

114
"(SJ In Other Words
I've never read such a good book. It's a long time since we went out.
It's the best book I've ever read . We haven't been out for a long time.
He started studying Spanish two years ago. I've never eaten Chinese food before.
He has been studying Spanish for two years. It's the first time I've ever eaten Chinese food .
When did he start work? He started cleaning as soon as the guests (had)
How long is it since he started work? left.
How long ago did he start work? He didn't start cleaning until after the guests had
They haven't reached Madrid yet. left.
They still haven 't reached Madrid. He started cleaning when the guests (had) left.
He moved to London two months ago. He waited until the guests had left before he
He has been in London for two months. started cleaning.
He hasn't been out for two months. We joined the club a month ago.
The last time he went out was two months ago. We've been members of the club for a month.

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 She didn't go out until after Philip had called.


before She waited until Philip ... had called be:fore t;he went ... out.
2 She started taking lessons ten years ago.
been She has been taking lessons for ten years.
3 How long ago did he move to Canada?
moved How long is it since he moved to Canada?
4 I've never driven such a fast car!
ever It's the fastest car I have ever driven.
5 We haven't been abroad for two years.
time The last time we went abroad was two years ago.
6 How long is it si nce you visited Spain?
visit When did you (last) visit Spain?
7 She has never eaten lobster before.
time It's the first time she has ever eaten lobster.
8 He hasn't turned up yet.
still He still hasn't turned up.
9 The last time I saw Emily was six months ago .
for I have not seen Emily for six months.
10 When did Patricia finish writing her essay?
since How long is it since Patricia finished writing her essay?
11 She took up knitting five years ago.
been She has been knitting for five years.
12 They have never been outside Britai n before.
first It's the first time they have been outside Britain.
13 He can't speak Italian yet.
still He still can't speak Italian.
14 How long is it si nce they met?
ago How long ago did they meet?
15 They waited until sunrise before they got up.
get They didn't get up until after sunrise.
16 I haven't eaten meat for six months.
since It's six months since I ate meat.
17 I've never seen such a pretty girl.
ever She's the prettiest girl I have ever seen.
Tense Forms
18 She didn 't start serving until all the guests had arrived .
before She waited until all the guests had arrived before she started serving .
19 Geoff hasn 't come back from his holiday yet.
still Geoff still hasn't come back from his holiday.

Think of the word which best fits each gap. Write only one word in each one.

A Global craze
What's the big deal w ith Sudoku? Why are (0) ... so... many people addicted to a puzzle made (1) up of little
rows of boxes and numbers? Sudoku addicts - of (2) whom there are many - will tell you that it's the challenge
of the puzzles, the mystery of solving them, and the rush you get at the end when you (3) have completed one.
Sudoku, they say, is one of the (4) most addictive puzzles ever invented.
So , what exactly is Sudoku? Well, if you've never heard of it, Sudoku is a logic puzzle. Each puzzle consists
(5) of an 81-square grid divided into nine blocks, each containing nine squares. Some of the squares in the grid
contain a number. To solve the puzzles, you have to fill in all the empty squares so (6) that the numbers 1 to 9
appear only once (7) in each row, block and column. Each Sudoku puzzle has only one solution.

Part of Sudoku 's incredible success must surely (8) be attributed to the fact that no special skills are requ ired to
play it. It looks (9) like a maths puzzle but you don't need mathematical skills to solve it. It's simpler (1 0) than a
crossword because to solve one of these you need a certain level of linguistic ability and general knowledge.
To play Sudoku (11) all you need is logic. The concept is easy to grasp, the rules can be learnt in 10 seconds,
and solving the puzzles doesn't (12) take forever. Of course, the puzzles vary in their level of difficulty. But the
appeal of Sudoku is that everyone can enjoy it.

-f Jt iI 1J'l t.1fl (f; i1 -------------------------------------------------- ----.------


(See Suggested Answer section)
-

Look at the pictures below, then talk about these people. Talk about what they are doing now,
what they usually do, what they did/were doing before, and what they will do afterwards. Use a
variety of tenses.

,.
I

I16
Prefixes are syllables which we add before certain Nouns formed from verbs
words to form new words. The meaning of the new
-age pass passage
word depends on the prefix that has been used.
-al propose - proposal
anti- = against (anti-war) -ance insure - insurance
bi- = two (bilingual) -ation investigate - investigation
co- = with (co-pilot) -ence depend - dependence
counter- = in the opposite direction (counterattack) -ion select - selection
ex- = previous, former (ex husband) -ment improve - improvement
inter- = between (intercontinental) -sion expand - expansion (verbs ending in -
mis- = done wrongly or badly (misunderstand) d/-t)
mono- = one (monolingual) -sis emphasise - emphasis
multi- = many (multimil/1onalfe) -tion compete - competition
non- = not (non members) -ure fail - failure
out- = more, better (outdo) -y discover discovery
over- = (done) to a g reat extent (oversleep)
post- = after (postgraduate) Nouns formed from adjectives
pre- = before (p re-school) -ance important importance
pro- = in favour of (pro-war) -cy private - privacy
re- = again (rewrite) -ence innocent - innocence
semi- = half (semi-detached) -ion perfect - perfection
=
sub- under, less (subway) -iness lazy - laziness
super- = big, more (superhero) -ness dark - darkness
trans- = (travel) from one side, group etc to another -ity popular - popularity
(transatlantic) -ty safe - safety
tri- = three (triangle) -y modest - modesty
under- = not enough (underpaid)
=
uni- one (uniform) Adjectives formed from nouns
-ous poison poisonous
The prefixes below are used to express opposite -al function functional
meanings. -ic drama - dramatic
de- defrost. decompose -ical alphabet - alphabetical
dis- dissatisfied, disobey -ish fool - foolish
in- inaccurate insecure BUT ii- (before I) il/ega1 -Ive expense - expensive
im- (before b , m, p) immature impossible ir- -ful (with) harm - harmful
(before r) irrelevant BUT unreliable, -less (without) harm - harmless
unreasonable -ant brilliance - brilliant
non- non existent. non-stop -able reason - reasonable
un- uncomfortable unlucky -y salt- salty
-ly week - weekly
Some prefixes are added to words to form verbs.
en- courage encourage Adjectives formed from verbs
BUT em- (before b, m, p) power empower -able accept acceptable
-Ible respond - responsible (verbs ending in
Suffixes are syllables which we add to the end of
-d/-t)
certain words to form new words.
-Ive attract attractive
Nouns referring to people -ate consider - considerate
verb + -er/-or/-ar (train trainer. inspect - -ent differ - different
inspector beg beggar)
noun/verb/adjective + -ist (piano - pianist, type Verbs formed from adjectives
typist educational educationalist) -en tight - tighten
verb + -ant/-ent (descend - descendant, study - -lse legal - legalise
student)
noun + -an/-lan (republic - republican, magic - Verbs formed from nouns
magician) -en strength strengthen
verb + -ee (passive meaning) (examine -
examinee)
Fill in the chart with the derivatives of the words given.

Concrete/ Abstract Adverbs


Verbs Nouns (people) Adjectives
Nouns
accept - - acceptance, acceptability accepted, (un)acceptable (un)acceptably
decorate decorator decoration, decor decorative decoratively
response, responsiveness, (un)responsive,
respond respondent (ir) responsively
(ir)responsibility (ir)responsible
-- environmentalist environment environmental environmentally
beautify beautician beauty beautiful beautifully
shorten - - shortage, shortness short short
inspect inspector inspection -- - -
compose composer composition, (composite) compositional, (composite) - -
enjoy -- enjoyment enjoyable enjoyably
naturalise natural nature, naturalisation natural naturally
comprehension, comprehensive, comprehensively,
comprehend - -
comprehensiveness comprehensible comprehensibly
conclude -- conclusion (in)conclusive, concluding (in)conclusively
-- opportunist opportunity, opportunism (in)opportune, opportunistic --
-- -- loyalty (dis)loyal loyally
confident, confidential, confidently,
confide confidant(e) confidence, confidentiality
confiding confidentially
begin beginner beginning beginning --
employ employer, employee (un)employment (un)employed, (un)employable --
enthuse enthusiast enthusiasm enthusiastic enthusiastically
educationalist, (un)educated, educational,
educate education educationally
educator educative
promote promoter promotion promotional --
privatise - - privacy, privatisation private privately
movement, (re)move, moving, (re)moveable,
move (re)mover movingly
removal (un)moved
train trainer, trainee training (un)trained , training --
(un)pleasurable, (un)pleasant pleasurably, pleasantly,
please -- pleasure, pleasantness
pleasing, (dis)pleased pleasingly
(dis)qualify qualifier (dis)qualification (dis/un)qualified, --
calculating, (in)calculable,
calculate - - calculation, calculator calculatedly
calculated
(un)comfortable, comfortless, (un)comfortably,
comfort comforter (dis)comfort comfortingly
comforting
(re)construct constructor (re)construction (re)constructive constructively
emphasise -- emphasis emphatic emphatically
(re)creation, creativeness,
create creator, creature creative, recreational creatively
creativity

118
Fill in the correct form of the words in bold using the appropriate prefix.

1 After the operation, the patient was prescribed some anti-inflammatory drugs that INFLAMMATORY
would reduce the risk of inflammation.
2 Children outgrow their clothes quickly. GROW
3 In a multicultural society various languages are spoken and different ethnic groups CULTURAL
live together and learn to respect each other's traditions and customs.
4 This is a biannual conference which takes place in spring and autumn every year. ANNUAL
5 The co-driver sat next to the driver, put on his helmet and gloves, and got ready DRIVER
for the car race.
6 The first transcontinental railroad in the United States was built in the1860s and CONTINENTAL
connected North America's east and west coasts.
7 The teacher drew a triangle on the blackboard and asked the students to copy it ANGLE
into their notebooks.
8 She was rushed to hospital with symptoms of food poisoning after having eaten
undercooked chicken. COOKED
9 He decided to reconsider their offer. CONS IDER
1O He misjudged the speed of the car coming towards him and crashed into it with JUDGED
great force.
11 Heathrow Airport, the busiest airport in the world, handles up to a thousand
domestic and international flights a day. NATIONAL
12 Jack and his ex-wife are on good terms with each other and still spend time WIFE
together for the sake of their children.
13 She counterattacked me by saying that my argument didn 't hold water and was ATTACKED
totally invalid.
14 In the post-war years, many women had to raise their children on their own as a WAR
high number of men had been killed in the war.
15 Snow and sub-zero temperatures have brought the country's transportation ZERO
system to a standstill.
16 The documentary explores the development of painting and sculpture during
prehistoric, ancient and medieval times. H ISTORIC
17 The football team are preparing for the semi-final which will be held next week at FINAL
Stamford Bridge.
18 There seems to be a new pro-democracy movement in many non-democratic DEMOCRACY
countries.
19 He became a superstar throughout the whole country after scoring for the third STAR
time.

Fill in the correct form of the words in bold forming nouns referring to people.

1 All new loans and mortgages need to be approved by the bank manager first. MANAGE
2 Burglars broke into their flat and stole all their jewellery. BURGLE
3 The first prize will be given to the contestant who gets all the answers to the quiz CONTEST
questions right.
4 You will never hear anything honest from John. He is a compulsive liar. LIE
5 Scientists are warning people about the dramatic effect global warming has on SCIENCE
the environment.
6 Pablo Picasso is considered one of the most influential artists of the 20th century. ART
7 Tom worked as a trainee journalist before getting a senior position in the media. TRAIN
8 Jennifer was seriously overweight so she visited a dietician who put her on a DIET
healthy diet.
9 Being a war correspondent, Paolo has found himself in hazardous situations. CORRESPONO
10 The photographer took beautiful photos of the bride and groom during their first PHOTOGRAPH
dance as a married couple.
Word Formation
Fill in the correct form of the words in bold forming nouns from verbs.

1 The dress was sent over from Australia so the cost of the postage was quite high. POST
2 Matt very quickly came to the conclusion that Janet was lying. CONCLUDE
3 The arrival of our flight was delayed due to the fog . ARRIVE
4 Carbohydrates should form the basis of our daily diet. BASE
5 Ted found an interesting painting in the attic of his grandfather's house which
had been in storage for decades. STORE
6 In second-hand bookshops you can buy valuable first editions of well-known EDIT
novels for a few pounds.
7 We cannot proceed with the project until everyone is in agreement. AGREE
8 Elaine is a great cook and gets a lot of pleasure out of creating the most amazing PLEASE
dishes.
9 A new archaeological discovery has proved that there were people living in DISCOVER
America even 30,000 years ago.
10 The bride lost a lot of weight before her wedding day and so an alteration of her ALTER
dress was required.
11 Both teams gave a wonderful performance in the match. PERFORM
12 While in London , we walked past the Prime Minister's official residence in Downing RESIDE
Street.

Fill in the correct form of the words in bold forming nouns from adjectives.

1 You can tell that Ben has lived in Spain as he speaks the language with great
fluency. FLUENT
2 No one can question the convenience of being able to buy goods over the Internet. CONVENIENT
3 The woman couldn't bear the sight of blood and lost consciousness. CONSCIOUS
4 The majority of our customers are satisfied with our outstanding service and high- MAJOR
quality products.
5 For their own safety, visitors of the zoo are required to keep away from the cages. SAFE
6 He is a man of honesty and incredible courage. HONEST
7 His modesty does not allow him to talk about his work, but his musical MODEST
compositions speak for themselves.
8 There is a short-term vacancy at the local post-office, in case you are interested. VACANT
9 We shouldn 't underestimate the importance of regu lar exercise and healthy diet. IMPORTANT
10 James didn't do well in his last performance but he is determined to achieve
perfection next time. PERFECT

Fill in the correct form of the words in bold forming adjectives from nouns.

1 You should take a whole course of antibiotics so that the treatment is effective. EFFECT
2 This is a weekly magazine; it usually comes out every Sunday. WEEK
3 Joanna's mother's dominant personality has created many problems in the two DOMINANCE
women's relationship over the years.
4 The house is situated on a rocky hill and has a great view of the sea. ROCK
5 The committee will consider the effects of global warming and propose ways of
preventing further environmental destruction. ENVIRONMENT
6 My new sofa is much more comfortable than my last one. COMFORT
7 Fiona did well at the audition and is very enthusiastic about the possibility of being ENTHUSIAST
the leading lady in the play.
8 It is said that in wars people perform the most courageous acts in order to help COURAGE
others.

120
Word Formation
9 His family are regularly telling James that his behaviour at times is very foolish . FOOL
10 The book I read last month was an autobiographical story of the character's own AUTOBIOGRAPHY
personal experiences.
11 Sarah is definitely the safest driver I know as she is very careful not to break any CARE
of the rules of the road .
12 The long and hard climb left David breathless and exhausted. BREATH

Fill in the correct form of the words in bold forming adjectives from verbs.

1 Although they are twins, they are completely different from each other. DIFFER
2 Andrew is one of the most sensitive and considerate men I've ever met. CONSIDER
3 Jennifer simply never tells a believable story as she is always trying to make the BELIEVE .
truth sound more exciting than it actually is.
4 This remote part of the island is accessible only by boat. ACCESS
5 Drama and art classes encourage young children to develop their creative skills. CREATE
6 Brian works all day long and in the evenings he studies, but lately he finds this
schedule to be a most exhausting one. EXHAUST

: Fill in the correct form of the words in bold forming verbs from adjectives/nouns.

1 Mary bought a new pair of trousers and gave them to a seamstress to shorten them SHORT
as they were too long.
2 They decided to modernise the kitchen and bathrooms of their house and hired a MODERN
professional decorator to make suggestions.
3 Apart from being a great experience, travelling also broadens the mind. BROAD
4 Diane decided to join a yoga class to lengthen her muscles and become more LENGTH
flexible.
5 The clouded sky darkened and the wind became stronger, being a sign of an DARK
imminent storm .

Fill in the correct form of the words in bold forming the opposite from the words given .

1 Betty took the meat out of the freezer and let it defrost before cooking it. FROST
2 Last winter John had a ski accident which was inconvenient as he missed the rest CONVENIENT
of the season.
3 Next week I will go to dinner with the ambassador and so I will have to wear a suit
as informal clothing is not appropriate for the occasion . FORMAL
4 Every year in December teenagers gather in the city centre to collect money for a
charity, which is a non-profit organisation. PROFIT
5 My grandmother always says that manners are almost non-existent in todays world . EXISTENT
6 One wonderful feature of new tube stations is the number of lifts that help to
facilitate anyone with a disability.
7 When Sarah quit her last job she didn't think she would be unemployed for so long. AB ILITY
8 Being a doctor often involves working long and irregular hours. EMPLOYED
9 Tina is always boasting about herself and her achievements. She is probably the REGULAR
most immodest person I know.
10 John's handwriting was totally illegible and so I found it impossible to read his letter. MODEST
11 Mary was unlucky with the weather last summer as it rained everyday during her LEGIBLE
holidays. LUCKY

211
t Fill in the correct form of the words in bold.

1 The radio was faulty so I returned it to the shop. FAULT


2 Jane has been suffering a lot from headaches lately. LATE
3 The company was operating an illegitimate business and so had to be closed LEGITIMATE
down.
4 Most people believe that it is improbable that UFOs exist. PROBABLE
5 I liked the documentary as it contained some very interesting information. INFORM
6 As a result of the special offer James was able to purchase some new clothes
at very advantageous prices. ADVANTAGE
7 Maria has an imitation CK watch. IMITATE
8 He became famous for his heroic efforts to save the young boy from the river. HERO
9 Like most Olympic athletes, Kelly is fit and muscular. MUSCLE
10 The famous man was very angry about being misquoted by the newspapers. QUOTED
11 My neighbours always complain about the high maintenance costs . MAINTAIN
12 There is speculation that the Prime Minister will resign. SPECULATE
13 The result of the match was favourable to both teams. FAVOUR
14 Chris accepted the doctor's news although it was very painful to hear. PAIN
15 She used to smoke a lot but she became a non-smoker once she got pregnant SMOKE
with her son five years ago.
16 Kevin is always strugg ling with his Maths homework as he finds multiplication MULTIPLY
very difficult.
17 The government should have taken more preventative measures to stop the PREVENT
workers' strike.
18 The teacher took the class on a trip to London to reward them for their studious STUDY
efforts all year long.
19 The one thing I love about the new duvet cover I bought for my bed is that it is
reversible and so it can match sheets of all colours. REVERSE
20 The man's admission of guilt in court landed him in jail. ADMIT
21 Time went by quickly during the flight as the airline had an endless supply of END
movies to entertain us with.
22 The earthquake caused so much damage that most buildings in the area had to
be rebuilt. BUILD
23 He was so overworked that as a result he fell ill and suffered a nervous break WORK
down.
24 It is not uncommon for adverts to give misleading information about products so LEADING
that they are more appealing to consumers.
25 The doctor gave a prescription to Bob so he could collect the medication from PRESCRIBE
the local pharmacy.
26 My room was so messy that I spent the whole weekend cleaning it. MESS
27 Tracy has found a job as a librarian at the local library. LIBRARY
28 Joanne added a few spoonfuls of flour to the sauce in order to thicken it. TH ICK
29 No one seems to realise the urgency of the situation. REAL
30 The newspapers said the game was very boring due to the defensive DEFENSE
performance of the home team .
31 John's co-workers sent him some flowers to wish him a fast recovery. WORKER
32 James is a very immature person and often behaves in a very childish way. MATURE

122
Look at Appendix 2 , then fill in the correct particle(s) .
Folder iii
1 Pass me the newspaper I want to see what's 9 I'm not surprised Sally and Jim broke up; they
... on ... at the cinema tonight. kept quarrelling all the time .
2 Mercian diplomats have broken off all relations 10 Thousands of villagers fled when fi re broke out in
with Northumbria. the north of the country.
3 According to the police report, the thieves broke 11 On seeing the pictures he broke down and
in through the backdoor. confessed to his crimes.
4 Please have a seat - the meeting is about to start. 12 Can you break the report down into five separate
5 Scientists have broken through in their fight sections?
against TB. 13 By 1980, flared trousers were out. Nobody
6 There was mass panic when cholera broke out in seemed to like them any more.
the city. 14 He took a deep breath before breakin.g the bad
7 You aren't allowed to leave the auditorium until news to Mrs Jones.
the concert is over . 15 This is a difficult task - do you think he will be up
8 They became annoyed with Sam , who kept to it?
breaking into their conversation . 16 We may be in for a cold winter this year.

Q Look at Appendix 3, then fill in the correct particle(s) .

1 Helen was absent ...from ... school tor more than a 14 Very few people believe in ghosts.
week. 15 George is busy with his homework rig ht now.
2 John is bad at algebra. 16 What time is the train due to arrive in St Petersburg?
3 Real friends are never bad to each other. 17 When he arrived at school the gates were locked.
4 The money we owe the bank amounts to over 18 Both families approved of the marriage.
100,000. 19 John was angry at Anne' s attitude towards the
5 I've been acquainted with Norman for many years children.
now. 20 She was angry with Pete for not ri nging her.
6 I wish Vince wouldn't boast of/about winning the 21 I was angry with George about his behaviour on
lottery. the school trip.
7 Beware of holes in the pavement when you walk 22 Ben was anxious for Amanda to pass her driving
round this city. test.
8 Pau l was ashamed of himself after his unfair attack 23 Shei la was anxious about her impending French
on his friend. test.
9 Peter blamed Alan for losing so much money in 24 You must take all the tablets if you are to benefit
bad deals. from them.
10 When the broken window was discovered Sam 25 We took advantage of the trip to Austria and
put the blame on his brother. visited Mozart's house.
11 The police blamed the fire on faulty wiring in the 26 There's no advantage in rush ing th rough you r
building . work if you are going to make a lot of mistakes.
12 Let's agree on the best way to solve this problem . 27 Albert Einstein was b rilliant at Physics.
13 Helen's so argumentative! She never agrees with 28 This film begins with the hero running to catch the
anything I say. 8 o'clock train.
. Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 She didn't go to work for a week.


absent She was absent from work for a week .
2 Shall I call the office for you?
me Would you like me to call the office for you?
3 "I'm sorry I broke your window," he said.
breaking He apologised for breaking my window.
4 "Did you enjoy the film last night?" she asked me.
asked She asked if I had enjoyed the film the night before.
5 Kevin doesn't mind working long hours.
used Kevin is used to working long hours.
6 They cancelled the match because of the hail.
called The match was called off because of the hail.
7 She will probably pass the exam with flying colours.
likely She is likely to pass the exam with flying colours.
8 He is both clever and good-looking.
only He is not only clever but also good-looking.
9 She has a good relationship with her colleagues.
gets She gets on well with her colleagues.
10 I wish I were a bit taller.
rather I would rather be a bit taller.
11 They moved to Rome two years ago .
in They have been in Rome for two years.
12 The lift isn't working; use the stairs instead.
out The lift is out of order; use the stairs instead.

Match the following idioms with the correct definition, then make sentences using them.
(See Suggested Answer section)
1 a night owl a someone who says very little about themselves
2 a fly-by-night b someone who likes to get up early
3 a lame duck c someone who spends all their free time in front of the TV
4 a dark horse d someone who is lively and energetic
5 a cold fish e someone who you are extremely fond of
6 an early bird f someone who prefers to do things at night
7 a couch potato g someone who is weak and depends on others for help
8 a live wire h someone who is unreliable
9 the apple of one's eye someone who is lively and entertaining at parties
10 the life and soul of the party someone who is unfriendly and unemotional

1 ..f. . 3 g 5 j 7 c 9 e
2 h 4 a 6 b 8 d 10

Choose the correct word from the verbs in brackets.

1 The teacher won't ... let ... you use a dictionary during the test. (allow, leave, let)
2 Since it's getting late I suggest we leave it as it is and start working on it tomorrow.
(allow, leave, let)
3 They won 't allow you to enter unless you 're a club member. (allow, leave, let)
4 I think I'll let my hair grow long. (allow, leave, let)
5 I don't think she'll ever recover from the shock. (heal, improve, recover)
6 He's still ill but I think his condition will improve soon. (heal, improve, recover)
7 It will take a long time for his injuries to heal completely. (heal , improve, recover)
8 He went for a holiday by the sea to help him recover from his illness. (heal, improve, recover)

124
Part 1
Practice Test D-
For questions 1-12, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best
fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Example:
A B C D
o A capital B main C chief D principal 0
- c:=i c:=i c:=i

Beijing is the (0) ... A ... city of the People's Federal Republic of China. 'Beijing'
comes from the Chinese words 'northern' and 'capital' and follows a(n) (1) ...... .
East Asian tradition of naming capital cities literally. Other similarly named cities
(2) ....... Nanjing in Southern China which means 'southern capital', and Tokyo in
Japan, which means 'eastern capital'.
Beijing is a fascinating city with a history that (3) ....... back thousands of years.
It is the political and cultural (4) ....... of China and is world-famous for its many
historical attractions. Four million people visit Beijing each year to see (5) ...... .
such as the magnificent Forbidden City, Tiananmen Square and The Great Wall of
China.
Walking around the city, you can (6) ....... countless ancient temples, palaces,
imperial gardens and other intriguing cultural sites. But Beijing is more than just a historic
marvel. It is also one of the world's great modern metropolises and is (7) ....... of 21st century
vitality. Towering skyscrapers, huge shopping malls, and modern commercial areas are just as much
a (8) ....... of modern-day Beijing.
In 2001 , Beijing celebrated the news that it had been selected to (9) ....... the 2008 Summer Olympics. Hundreds of
thousands of flag-waving Chinese poured into Beijing's streets, singing and cheering. Fireworks (10) ....... up the sky
as the city rejoiced . The morning after the (11) ....... , the titles of all Beijing's newspapers were printed in red - a special
colour in Chinese (12) ....... that is reserved for good and important news.

1 A past @ ancient c antique D older

2 @ include B contain c involve D consist

3 A sets B moves c puts @goes

4 A square @centre c midd le D heart

5 @ sights B views c visions D d isplays

6 @ see B watch c notice D look

7 A total B rich @ full D complete

8 A p iece @part c section D b it

9 host B show c display D view

10 A glowed @lit c shone D flamed

11 A statement B d eclaration @ announcement D transmission

12 @ trad ition B custom C habit D folklore

251
Practice Test D
Part 2
For questions 13-24, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap.
Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETIERS in the answer boxes provided .

Example: 0 Irl0 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

1w,.1tdr,.mwWales
The sea cliffs and sandy beaches of Wales are hard (0) .......... beat. Add to
(1 3) this wild , romantic scenery, ancient castles, modern theme parks and
cheap accommodation and you've got a great family holiday. Of course ( 14)
what makes Wales so green is the rain. Even in mid-summer, you (15) can
expect a couple of wet and windy days. But don 't let that put you off. There
are (16) plenty/lots of indoor activities, so you can enjoy ( 17) yourself whatever
the weather. For many people Wales is a caravan country. If you haven't
stayed in a caravan (18) since you were little, it's time you tried it again .
Standards of comfort are much higher than a decade ago, with facilities such
(19) as laundries and kids' play areas. A good example is the Fontygary
Holiday Park. You can stay in a spacious caravan equipped (20) with TV,
shower, separate bedrooms and fridge, (2 1) which works out to be less
expensive when compared (22) with/to a guesthouse or self-catering cottage.
And you won 't even need to leave the site to (23) have fun. The kids can swim
in the 25-metre indoor pool, or join in the games organised by the entertainment
staff. Meanwhile you can take a sauna, go to the gym, (24) have/get your hair
styled, or just sit on the cliff top and enjoy the view.
Part 3
For questions 25-34, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of
some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an
example at the beginning (0) .

Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

Example: 0 II~ IPI[ I~ I I Ivi I I I I I I I I I I I I


When working out the correct derivative in word formation texts remember the following:
Read through the text carefully and decide what kind of a word is needed ; an adjective
(confident), a noun (ab//1ty), an adverb (s/ow/y) or a verb (attract).
Fill in the blanks making the necessary changes to the words in bold. Correct spelling is
required.
NB: Check whether the meaning of the missing word is positive or negative from its context
or in the case of nouns, whether the plural form is required.

For hundreds of years, the most (0) ........................ and precious pearls in the world EXPENSE
were found in the Persian Gulf. In the early 1900s, the land in this area was very dry
and (25) farming was extremely difficult. People of the region used to trade pearls in FARM
exchange for food, water and other (26) provisions. In the mid-1900s, India's economy PROVIDE
began to (27) strengthen. As most pearl buyers came from India, the demand for STRONG
pearls began to grow. Many Persian families settled permanently in the
(28) coastal villages of the Gulf in order to take advantage of the booming pearl COAST
market.
Divers often risked their lives. They would dive to (29) depths of 40 meters and remain DEEP
underwater for up to two minutes - all without the use of special diving (30) equipment.
When they found an oyster they would open it up with a knife to see if it had a pearl EQUIP
inside. (3 1) Unfortunately, not all oysters produce pearls. Divers often had to make FORTUNATE
thirty dives in one day to find enough. When they ran out of (32) breath , they were BREATHE
pulled to the surface by a rope. At the end of a pearl-diving season, some
divers would become (33) wealthy enough to buy their own boat, thus WEALTH
becoming pearl (34) traders.
TRADE
Practice Test 0
Part 4
For questions 35-42, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to
the first sentence, using the word given . Do not change the word given. You must use
between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the
beg inning (0).

Example:

O I think you should go to the doctor.


TIME
It ........................................................ .............. ... ................................................................ to the doctor.

Write the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

35 Somebody burgled their house a week ago.


BROKEN
Their house was broken into a week ago.

36 When did she decide to apply for the post?


SINCE
How long is it since she decided to apply for the post?

37 She could hardly absorb all the new information.


DIFFICULTY
She had difficulty (in) absorbing all the new information.

38 When did you last see John?


TIME
When was the last time you saw John?

39 He managed to pass the exam with distinction.


SUCCEEDED
He succeeded in passing the exam with distinction.

40 I think it would be a good idea if you left early to avoid the traffic.
SUGGEST
I suggest (that) you (should) leave early to avoid the traffic.

41 The exam wasn't as easy as I'd expected .


DIFFICULT
The exam was more difficult than I'd expected.

42 "You've spoilt my party," she said to him.


ACCUSED
She accused him of spoiling her party.

128
The Infinitive I -ing form I Participles
Forms of the Infinitive Forms of the -ing form

; Active Voice Passive Voice , Active Voice ~ Passive Voice

Present (to) type (to) be typed


............ .
rt;;;;;~9 . . .
~ b~i ng . typed

Present Continuous ; (to) be typing


Perfect l (to) have typed : (to) have been typed l having typed l having been typed
! Perfect Continuous
.i...~~~~--~-~~-~--~-~:~--~-~P._in_~.... ~ ...................................................:................................... ~ ...............................................:

Forms of the infinitive corresponding to verb tenses

Present Simple/Future Simple Present Infinitive


he dnves 'he will dnve (to) dnve
Present Continuous/ Future Continuous Present Continuous Infinitive
he 1s dnvmg,he will be dnvmg (to) be dnvmg
Past Simple/Present Perfect/ Past Perfect/Future Perfect Perfect Infinitive
he drove,he has dnven he had dnvenhe will have dnven (to) have driven
Past Cont/Present Perfect Cont./Past Perfect Cont/ Future Perfect Cont. Perfect Cont. Infinitive
he was driving/he has been driving/he had been driving/he will have been driving (to) have been driving

Rewrite the sentences using the verb in brackets. Mind the tense of the infinitives.

1 She has been ill for a long time. (seem) ...She eeeme to have been ill for a long time.. ..
2 Ann was treated unfairly. (seem) Ann seems to have been treated unfairly.
3 He is working hard . (appear) He appears to be working hard.
4 They have been watching TV all afternoon. (seem) They seem to have been watching TV all afternoon.
5 Tom missed the train . (appear) Tom appears to have missed the train.
6 They are moving house. (seem) They seem to be moving house.
7 She found the solution. (claim) She claims to have found the solution.
8 It has been raining hard. (appear) It appears to have been raining hard.
9 He stole the jewellery. (admit) He admitted to having stolen the jewellery.
10 Sharon tells lies. (tend) Sharon tends to tell lies.

Fill in the correct form of the infinitive.

1 The weather seems ... to have improved... (improve) . Let's go out.


2 She appears to have been working (work) on her composition for hours.
3 She has decided to accept (accept) my offer.
4 I'm hoping to have left (leave) by then so I won't be able to come with you .
5 This carpet is filthy; it really needs to be cleaned (clean) soon.
6 The waste from the power station is said to have been polluting (pollute) the atmosphere for months.
7 It will be much too hot to wear (wear) a coat.
8 You must have been thirsty to have drunk (drink) all that water.
9 He appears to have been injured (injure) as a result of the fight.
10 You're not expected to pay (pay) the whole amount today.
11 The report was supposed to have been finished (finish} two hours ago.
12 It was very cold earlier on today but it seems to be warming up (warm up) now.
13 He claims to have discovered (discover) a cure for the common cold .
14 Can I trust you to keep (keep) this a secret?
15 She seems to be working (work) too hard these days.
i...-- The Infinitive I -ing form I Participles
The to-infinitive is used

to express purpose. She /Jed to avoid bemg punished.


after certain verbs (agree, appear, decide, expect, hope, plan , promise, refuse, etc). He promised to be
back at 11.00.
after certain adjectives (difficult, glad, happy, obliged , sorry, unable, etc). He was happy to hear he had
been promoted
after 'I would like/would love/would prefer' to express specific preference. I'd prefer to stay in tonight.
after certain nouns. It's my privilege to present the winner of the competition.
after 'too/enough' constructions. It's too late to go now. Shes experienced enough to be appointed
Sales Manager. He 's got enough patience to cope with children.
after: be + the first/second etc/next/last/best, etc. You'll be the first to break the news.
with: it + be+ adjective (+of + noun/pronoun) . It was rude of him to speak like that.
with: so + adjective + as. Would you be so kind as to help me with the washing?
with 'only' expressing an unsatisfactory result. She went there only to find the meeting had been called off.
in the expression: for + noun/pronoun + to-inf. For Mary to behave like that was very unusual.
in the expressions: to tell you the truth, to begin with, to be honest, to start with, to sum up etc.
To begin with, I'd like to introduce our new manager, Mr Jones

Note that if two infinitives are joined by and or or, the to of the second infinitive can be omitted . I'd like to go
to an island and swim and sunbathe all day long during my holidays.
Dare expressing lack of courage is used with an infinitive with or without to. I don 't dare (to) tell him the
truth. Dare expressing anger, threat or warning is used with an infinitive without to. Don't you dare come
back late. Dare expressing challenge is used with a to-infinitive. I dare you to j ump over the fence
Help can be used with or without to. I helped my mum (to) bake a cake.

The infinitive without 'to' is used

after modal verbs (can, may, will, would, etc). You may use the phone.
after had better/would rather/would sooner. I'd rather have an early night.
after feel/hear/let/make/ see in the active . Will you let me play in the garden?
BUT be heard/be made/be seen, all take a to-inf. She was made to work overtime.
"Let" turns into " was/were allowed to" in the passive. He wasn 't allowed to play in the garden.

The -ing form is used

as a noun. Collecting stamps is his favourite hobby.


after prepositions. He left without being seen
after certain verbs (anticipate, appreciate, avoid, consider, continue, delay, deny, discuss, detest, escape,
excuse, explain, fancy, finish, forgive, go (physical activities) , imagine, it involves, keep (= continue), it
means, mention, mind (= object to) , miss, pardon, postpone, practise, prevent, quit, recall, recollect, report,
resent, resist, risk, save, stand, suggest, tolerate, understand, etc). She doesn 't mind working long hours.
after: detest, dislike, enjoy, hate, like, love, prefer to express general preference. I enjoy snorkelling. (in
general) (like + to-inf = it's a good idea John likes to walk 101 rg distances. ]
after: I'm busy, it's no use, it's no good, it's (not) worth, what's the use of, can't help, can't stand, feel
like, there's no point (in), have difficulty (In), in addition to, as well as, have trouble, have a hard/difficult
time. Tom had difficulty (in) driving on the left when he first cam 'le e.
after: look forward to, be/get used to, be/get accustomed to, admit (to), object to, what about ...?, how
about ...? He admitted (to) stealing the old woman 's jewels
after: spend/waste (money, time, etc). She spent a fortune redecorating iouse
after: hear, listen, notice, see, watch to express an incomplete action, an action in progress or a long
action . I saw her window shopping as I drove by. (I saw part of the action.) BUT hear, listen, see, watch +
infinitive without 'to' express a complete action, something that one saw or heard from beginning to
end . I saw the car crash mto the shop window (I saw all the action.)

130
The Infinitive I -ing form I Participles __..,,.
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the infinitive or the -ing form.

1 I suggest ... calling ... (call) the cinema to find out what time the film begins.
2 It's no use trying (try) to make excuses. She won't believe you.
3 I look forward to seeing (see) the artwork in the museum 's latest exhibition.
4 She spent a long time talking (talk) on the telephone so she didn't finish her chores.
5 Fred enjoys listening (listen) to classical music as it helps him relax.
6 To tell you the truth, I don't know how to dance (dance) .
7 We were happy to hear (hear) that Mary is coming to visit us.
8 The couple plan to announce (announce) their engagement later today.
9 Will you let me read (read) you some parts to tell me if you like them?
10 We saw him painting (paint) the fence as we walked past his house.
11 I would have preferred to have changed (change) my clothes before we went out to dinner.
12 It was so nice of him to send (send) me flowers.
13 Sandra was the last to perform (perform) at the dance recital.
14 For Bob to retire (retire) at such a young age was unexpected.
15 It's raining. There's no point in going (go) out now.
16 Would you be so helpful as to carry (carry) this heavy bag for me?
17 You should have spoken (speak) to her when you saw her.
18 He seems to be working (work) hard on a solution to the problem. Don't interrupt him.
19 He was the first runner to finish/to have finished (finish) the marathon.
20 We rushed to the station only to arrive (arrive) as the train was leaving.

Put the verbs in brackets into the -ing form or the infinitive without to.

1 I saw her ...turn ... (turn) the corner and disappear (disappear) .
2 Can you hear the dog barking (bark) outside?
3 I watched the plane take off (take off) and then I left.
4 He was listening to the rain pattering (patter) on the roof.
5 Paul noticed a woman staring (stare) at him while he was waiting at the station.
6 When she opened the door she saw someone trying (try) to steal her car.

Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the infinitive or -ing form .

1) ... Ordering ... (order) your own meal in a restaurant may soon be a
thing of the past. At an Italian restaurant in Brussels the waiter, Tony,
claims to be able 2) to choose (choose) the right dish for each customer. After
3) working/having worked (work) for many years in Italian restaurants , Tony
noticed that different people prefer certain types of food . "Women appear 4) to like
(like) milder foods and rich, creamy sauces while men seem 5) to enjoy (enjoy)
spicier foods cooked in olive oil and served with juices from the meat," he reports.
Tony makes his choices by 6) chatting (chat) to his customers - but not about their tastes
in food. What he does first is 7) to find out (find out) what kind of personality the customer has. After 8) serving
(serve) an Englishman a salad of red tuna with garlic and parsley, Tony was happy 9) to see (see) that his
customer was very satisfied. One Italian particularly enjoyed 10) munching (munch) on wild mushrooms
stuffed with Mediterranean anchovies, which Tony had served with black olives, spicy olive oil and lime. Tony
spends a lot of time 11) observing (observe) his customers. Once, a young French couple argued
throughout the meal. Tony avoided 12) giving (give) them a sour dessert. He served them a sweet dessert
instead, and after that they couldn 't stay angry with each other. People aren't accustomed 13) to being
served (be/served) meals that are not of their own choice, but Tony seems 14) to know (know)
exactly what people will like. This restaurant is certainly worth 15) visiting (visit) .
......,.,,_ The Infinitive I -ing form I Participles
Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the infinitive or -ing form .

Steam trains were replaced by electric ones years ago, so when the newspaper I work for heard that the 'Black
~ Admiral' steam engine had been restored, they decided 1) ... to send. .. (send) me on its first trip. I didn't
object to 2) going (go) even though I generally dislike 3) travelling (travel) by train. In fact I was looking
forward 4) to seeing (see) something I had never seen before. When I arrived at the station I saw lots
of people 5) celebrating (celebrate) the rebirth of the Admiral, and I was glad 6) to be (be) part of
the party. At 2 o'clock everyone was ready 7) to board (board) the train. I settled myself into a
compartment where I was soon joined by an old man who claimed 8) to have been (be) one of
the original workers on the Admiral. He claimed 9) to have been working/to have worked (work)
for a penny a day, and told me how much he had hated 10) being covered (be/covered) in
coal dust all the time. His family had been too poor 11) to buy (buy) more than the basic
necessities. It was a sad story, but it was a pleasure 12) to listen (listen) to him. At every
station people were waiting 13) to greet (greet) the train, and it was exciting 14) to see (see)
the spectators' faces as the past seemed 15) to come/to have come (come) alive again. If all
trains were as appealing as the Black Admiral, I would choose 16) to travel (travel) by train all
the time.

Verbs taking to-infinitive or -ing form without a change in meaning

begin, continue, intend, start + to-inf or -ing form . We don't normally have two -ing forms together. She
began dancmg 'to dance. (NOT: She is eogiRRiRg daReiRg.)
advise, allow, encourage, permit, require + object + to-inf. Ho advised mo to stay indoors.
advise, allow, encourage, permit, require + -Ing form . He advised staying indoors.
be advised, be allowed , be encouraged, be permitted, be required + to-inf. We were advised to stay
indoors
need , require, want + to-inf/-ing form/passive inf. You need to prune tho trees. Tho trees need pruning.
Tho trees need to be pruned.

Complete the sentences using the words in bold . Use two to five words.

1 We are allowed to take a one-hour lunch break.


allow They ... allow us to take... a one-hour lunch break.
2 They require employees to work on Saturdays.
required Employees are required to work on Saturdays.
3 You need to improve your handwriting considerably.
needs Your handwriting needs to be improved considerably.
4 She has been learning German since last year.
began She began learning German last year.
5 They advised us against drinking the water.
were We were advised not to drink the water.

Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the infinitive or -ing form .

For Thomas 1) ... to agree... (agree) to go on a walking holiday was very surprising. He usually hated
2) doing (do) outdoor activities of any kind. We thought we'd have difficulty in 3) persuading (persuade) him but
it was his idea 4) to set off (set off) the very next day. We suggested 5) going (go) to the Lake District as it would
be the best place 6) to find (find) hotel rooms each night. Though we'd have preferred 7) to take (take) the
coach, Thomas encouraged us 8) to travel (travel) by train. We decided 9) to meet (meet) at the station early the
next morning as we wanted 10) to be (be) in Carlisle by midday. Imagine the look on our faces when Thomas
arrived on a huge, brand-new motorbike . "Do you think I'll be allowed 11) to take (take) it on the train?" he said
"It needs 12) running in/to be run in (run in) and this holiday's the ideal time 13) to do (do) it! "

132
The Infinitive I -ing form I Participles
Verbs taking to-infinitive or -ing form with a change in meaning

1 forget + to-inf ( = fail to remember to do sth) 7 try + to-inf ( = do one's best; attempt)
He forgot to turn off the radio. Try to throw the ball into the basket.
forget + -ing form ( = not recall a past event) try + -ing form ( = do sth as an experiment)
/'II never forget seeing the Eiffel Tower for the first time. Try cooking with olive oil, you might find it
2 remember + to-inf (= not forget to do sth) improves the taste.
Please remember to feed the dog before leaving. 8 want + to-inf ( = wish) I want to go home.
remember + -ing form (= recall a past event) want + -ing form ( = sth needs to be done)
I don't remember seeing him at the party last night. These windows want cleaning.
3 mean + to-inf (= intend to) 9 stop + to-inf (= pause temporarily).
She means to study art in Paris this summer.
Can we stop here to admire the view?
mean + -ing form (= involve)
stop + -ing form (=finish; cease)
I won 't go if it means taking the train during rush hour.
He stopped studying and switched on the TV.
4 go on + to-Inf ( = finish doing sth and start doing sth
else; then; afterwards)
1O be sorry + to-inf (= regret) I was sorry to
He pruned the hedges, then went on to mow the lawn. hear he failed his exam.
go on + -Ing form (= continue) be sorry for + -ing form ( = apologise for)
She was sorry for yelling at him.
We went on dancing until we got tired. .
5 regret+ to-Inf (= be sorry to) I regret to inform you that 111 hate + to-inf (= not like what one is about to do)
there are no seats on the 12.30 flight. I hate to argue, but you are definitely wrong.
regret + -Ing form (= have second thoughts about sth hate + -ing form ( = feel sorry for what one is
already done) doing)
He regrets buying such an expensive sports car. I hate bothering you at such a late hour.
6 would prefer + to-Inf (specific preference) 12 be afraid +to-inf (= be too frightened to do sth;
I'd prefer to eat at this restaurant. hesitate) She was afraid to jump into the pool.
prefer + -Ing form (in general) I prefer reading spy stories. 1 be afraid of + -Ing form (= be afraid that what
prefer + to-inf + rather than + Inf without to ; is referred to by the -ing form may happen)
I prefer to drive to work rather than take the bus. When driving m the ram, I'm afraid of skidding
on the wet road.

Put the verbs in brackets into the infinitive or -ing form.

1 A: I'll never forget ... trav~fllng ... (travel) across America.


B: Yes, but you forgot to send (send) me a postcard , didn't you?
2 A: I hate to ask (ask) you , but can you help me with the housework?
B: Sure, but remember I hate doing (do) the vacuuming.
3 A: The door wants fixing (fix).
B: I know. I wanted to ask (ask) the carpenter to come and have a look but I forgot.
4 A: I'm sorry to put (put) you in such a difficult position .
B: It's OK. I'm sorry for shouting (shout) at you .
5 A: I'd prefer to spend (spend) this weekend at home.
B: Really? I prefer going out (go out) whenever I've got free time.
6 A: Did he go on talking (talk) about the same boring topics all night?
B: No, he went on to show (show) us his holiday photos.
7 A: Don't be afraid to talk (talk) to her in French .
B: I can 't. I'm afraid of making (make) mistakes.
8 A: Oh, I meant to tell (tell) you there's a job vacancy at the chemist's.
B: Well , I won't apply if it means working (work) at the weekend .
9 A: Why don 't you try taking (take) a different medicine if you're still ill?
B: I think I'll just try to get (get) some more sleep.
.__..- The Infinitive I -ing form I Participles
10 A: Let's stop to have (have) something to eat.
B: Again? I wish you'd stop eating (eat) so much!
11 A: The notice says the gallery regrets to inform (inform) us that the Picasso exhibition has fin ished .
B: Oh , no! Now I regret not going/not having gone (not/go) last week.
12 A: Did you remember to post (post) the letters?
B: I remember taking (take) them but I think I've left them on my desk.

Fill in the correct form of the infinitive or the -ing form .


'
Eli Bilston always enjoyed 1) ... telling ... (tell) us about his life, and we were always afraid 2)
to interrupt (interrupt) him because he had a very hot temper. He had left school at
thirteen, and he had managed to avoid 3) looking for (look for) a real job by 4)
working (work) for his father in the family scrapyard. He was supposed 5) to check
(check) the weight of scrap metal leaving the yard, but he always preferred 6) sitting
(sit) around and 7) making (make) cups of tea for the other workers instead. You won't be surprised
8) to hear (hear) that eventually Eli's father noticed him 9) wasting (waste) time 10) doing (do) nothing, and asked
him 11) to find (find) another job. Eli never regretted 12) having (have) to leave the scrapyard, because his next job
was even easier! He was employed at Dudley Zoo as a nightwatchman, where he found it a pleasure just 13) to sit
(sit) and 14) watch (watch) the monkeys 15) playing (play) in their cages. His only duty was 16) to feed (feed) the
jaguars at dawn - something which he claims he only forgot 17) to do (do) once in his time there. He said that he would
never forget 18) seeing (see) the zookeeper's face after the poor man had tried 19) to give (give) them their lunch -
they had nearly eaten him alive! After 20) working (work) in the zoo for six years, war broke out in Europe and Eli went
on 21) to join Ooin) the army in the hope of finding some adventure.

Fill in the correct form of the infinitive or the -ing form.

1 I used to love ... vsiting ... Santorini so much that I finally bought a house there.
2 He meant to tell his mother the truth but he didn't because he didn 't want
to upset her.
3 I' m sorry, I don't remember seeing/meeting you before.
4 I' ll have to go to Belgium by train - I'm afraid of flying .
5 You are required to complete/to fill in this form before you can start the job .
6 Before you leave, don't forget to water the plants.
7 I regret to inform you that your house must be demolished.
8 If we want to cat c h the early train, it means getting/waking up early
tomorrow morning.
9 I would prefer to go to the cinema for a change - we always go to the
theatre.
10 There's no point (in) complaining! It was your decision after all .
11 The explorer escaped from the lion only to find himself alone in the jungle.
12 As a child , I spent so much time swimming that people used to call me The Fish'.
13 If you can't get the stain out of your shirt, you could try putting/rubbing salt on it.
14 He regretted telling lies to his parents.
15 He tried to open the jar but he couldn't because the lid was stuck.
16 Please stop talking! There's a meeting in progress next door.
17 The thief got into the manager's office by pretending to be a cleaner.
18 You must complete this exercise without using/consulting a dictionary.
19 Acid rain is said to be damaging/to have damaged many trees all over Europe.
20 What do you mean Bob 's a vegetarian? I saw him eating a chicken sandwich only yesterday!

134
The Infinitive I -ing form I Participles --........
Fill in the correct form of the infinitive or the -ing form.

1 I advise you ... to take ... (take) some money in case the banks are shut.
2 My mother used to encourage (encourage) us to eat lots of vegetables.
3 Don't forget to lock (lock) the door when you leave the office.
4 Do you remember swimming (swim) in Lake Langaron last summer?
5 When you finish this exercise go on to do (do) the composition on page 11 .
6 Would you mind turning (turn) the radio down? I've got a headache.
7 Why don't we try eating (eat) some Thai food for a change?
8 They stopped running to have (have) a rest.
9 He put off telling (tell) her the bad news .
10 I really regret spending/having spent (spend) so much money at the weekend .
11 I suggest looking up (look up) this word in a dictionary.
12 David was too afraid to swim (swim) in the rough sea.
13 He doesn 't look old enough to be married (be/married) .
14 I couldn't stop wondering (wonder) whether I had done the right thing .
15 In general I prefer watching (watch) films on the big screen rather than on TV.
16 I'm sorry, I didn't mean to hurt (hurt) you.
17 Don 't you dare be (be) late again.
18 I need to get a job. I'm tired of having (have) to rely on my parents for money.
19 Have you considered learning (learn) another language?
20 I can't stand listening (listen) to you complain all the time.

Too I Enough
Too has a negative meaning . It shows that something is more than enough , necessary or wanted. It is used
in the following patterns:
a) too + adjective/adverb + to -infinitive It is too wet to go running.
b) too ... for somebody/ something This soup 1s too spicy for me.
c) too ... for somebody/ something + to -infinitive This box 1s too heavy for me to lift.
Enough has a positive meaning. It shows that there is as much of something as is wanted or needed . It is
used in the following patterns:
a) adjective/adverb + enough + to -infinitive She is beautiful enough to be a model BUT not + adjective/
adverb + enough + to -infinitive (negative meaning) He did not study hard enough to pass the exam
b) enough + noun +to -infinitive We 've got enough time to go shopping.

Complete the sentences with too or enough and the adjective in brackets.

1 A:
Did you meet up with Fiona yesterday?
B: No, she was too tired to go out after working all day. (tired)
2 A: Dad is planning on taking the kids canoeing this weekend.
B: I don't think they are old enough to go canoeing yet. (old)
3 A: What is your new house like?
B: It's big enough to fit all five of us. (big)
4 A: Is Ted talking to Rachel yet?
B: No. She is too selfish to apologise to him for her rude behaviour. (selfish)
5 A: Why don 't you open the window to let some fresh air in the room?
B: It's too cold outside and the baby might get ill . (cold)
6 A: How did the operation go?
B: It was very successful and I am even feeling strong enough to go back to work. (strong)
~~ The Infinitive I -ing form I Participles
7 A: Katie failed the driving test.
B: So I heard . She was not confident enough to pass it. (confident)
8 A: Would you like some help with your luggage?
B: Yes, please. This suitcase is too heavy for me to carry. (heavy)
9 A: Can you get me that book from the top shelf, please?
B: I can't. I am not tall enough to reach it. (tall)
10 A: Why are you not drinking your coffee?
B: It is too sweet for me to drink. (sweet)

Participles

Present participles (verb + ing) describe what somebody or something is. It was a surprising decision.
(What kind of decision? Surprising.)
Past participles (verb+ ed) describe how somebody feels . We were surprised by his story. (How did we
feel about his story? Surprised.)

Participles can also be used:


instead of a relative pronoun and full verb. The woman waiting for me 1s my mum. (= The woman who is
waiting for me is my mum.) The watch displayed in the window 1s very expensive. (=The watch which is
displayed in the window is very expensive.)
to express reason . Feeling tired, Laura didn't go to the party. (= Because she was tired, ... ) Having put on
weight, I decided to go on a diet. (= Because I had put on weight, I decided to go on a diet.)
to express time. After passing/having passed his dnving test, he bought a car. Having passed his dnving
test, he bought a car. (= After he had passed his driving test, he bought a car.) We met John while travel/Ing
(=We met John while we were travelling.)
instead of the past simple in narratives when we describe actions happening immediately one after the other.
Winning the lottery, she 1umped for joy (""' She won the lottery and jumped for joy.)
to avoid repeating the past continuous in the same sentence. He was dnving in his car listening to the radio.
(= He was driving in his car and he was listening to the radio.)

Rewrite the sentences using participles .

1 After Dianne read the letter, she tore it and threw it away furiously.
After reading/After having read/Having read the letter, Dianne tore it and threw it away furiously.
2 The lady who is standing next to my mother is my aunt Mary.
The lady standing next to my mother is my aunt Mary.
3 He picked up the guitar and started playing a traditional tune.
Picking up the guitar, he started playing a traditional tune.
4 Because he was so excited , he couldn't stop smiling.
Being/Having been so excited, he couldn't stop smiling.
5 The news which was announced yesterday left everybody speechless .
The news announced yesterday left everybody speechless.
6 Because the man was seriously hurt, he was admitted to hospital immediately.
Being/Having been seriously hurt, the man was admitted to hospital immediately.
7 Before Mel moved to Thailand, she used to live in Canada.
Before moving to Thailand, Mel used to live in Canada.
8 The film which was directed by Adam Johnson won an Academy Award for Best Actress.
The film directed by Adam Johnson won an Academy Award for Best Actress.
9 He was reading the book and he was taking notes.
He was taking notes while reading the book.
10 The man who is living next door is a famous playwright.
The man living next door is a famous playwright.

136
The Infinitive I -ing form I Participles __
~ Underline the correct participle.

On Saturday, I took my children to the circus. I


thought I would have a 1) boring/bored time, but
actually I was quite 2) astonishing/ astonished by
the 3) amazing/amazed acts. We were
4) stunning/stunned by the acrobats . They
balanced on top of each other with incredible
ease. We were really 5) impressing/ impressed
by their performance. The children found the lion-
tamer's act 6) exciting/excited. I felt 7) terrifying/
terrified when he put his hands into the lion's mouth,
but the children were 8) amusing/amused and they clapped loudly. A magician performed many incredible
tricks; it was 9) fascinating/fascinated to watch him make various objects disappear and reappear. The
children were more 10) interesting/interested in the elephant act. When the huge animals came into the
arena, the audience cheered . The elephants were well-trained and their tricks were
11) entertain ing/entertained. Some children from the audience were invited to ride on the elephants' backs.
My children were 12) disappointing/disappointed when they were not chosen, but their disappointment
faded when the clowns took the centre ring . It was quite a 13) captivating/captivated show. By the time we
got home we all felt 14) exhausting/exhausted.

Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the (bare) infinitive, -ing form or participle.

A: Hey, Tom. Where were you yesterday? We were supposed to go 1) bowling


(bowl), remember?
B: Oh , Jack, I am sorry for 2) standing (stand) you up, but the most
unbelievable thing happened to me yesterday. After 3) arranging (arrange)
to meet up with you in the centre, I got there 20 minutes earlier than we had
arranged . Since I was getting 4) bored (bore) of waiting , I decided 5) to go
(go) into the computer shop round the corner to kill some time . As I was
having a look at some devices, a man 6) standing (stand) next to me started
7) acting (act) in a suspicious way. I watched him for a while and finally I
saw him 8) hide (hide) a small camera in his jacket and discreetly 9) leave
(leave) the shop. I didn 't waste any time. I ran after him. Unfortunately, the
shop security guard saw me 10) running (run) and mistook me for a
shoplifter. He chased me and before long he caught me, just as the police
arrived. You see, 11) being (be) in a hurry to catch the man, I forgot 12) to place
(place) the camera I was holding back on the shelf. I tried 13) to explain (explain) the situation to the
police but they didn't believe me. So, I was taken to the police station where I spent the whole
evening . It was just before midnight that the police let me 14) go (go). Luckily for me, the CCTV
camera 15) installed (install) in the computer shop revealed the real thief and I was set free. After
16) clearing (clear) up the misunderstanding, the shop manager apologised to me for
17) causing/having caused (cause) such inconvenience and he even gave me a camera as a present..
A: What a story!
__ The Infinitive I -ing form I Participles

It's too hot for him to go jogging. I prefer listening to music to dancing.
It isn't cool enough for him to go jogging. I prefer to listen to music rather than dance.
It's so hot that he can't go jogging. We were interested in the lecture.
It's dangerous to exceed the speed li mit. We found the lecture interesting.
Exceed ing the speed limit is dangerous. Could you do the washing?
They allowed us to enter the room. Would you mind doing the washing?
We were allowed to enter the room. He had difficulty (in) concentrating on his work .
It took him two hours to reach London . It was difficult for him to concentrate on his work.
He took two hours to reach London . He could hardly concentrate on his work.
Reaching London took him two hours. He found it difficult to concentrate on his work.
She made him carry the bags. She let them use the spare room.
He was made to carry the bags. They were allowed to use the spare room .

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 We were allowed to take our dog inside.


allowed They ... allowed us to take... our dog inside.
2 We found what she said shocking.
were We were shocked by what she said.
3 Goi ng swi mming after eating is dangerous.
go It is dangerous to go swimming after eating.
4 Could you turn the volume up?
mind Would you mind turning the volume up?
5 He prefers walking to riding a bicycle.
walk He prefers to walk rather than ride a bicycle.
6 It was difficult for her to understand what he was talking about.
difficulty She had difficulty (in) understanding what he was talking about.
7 The box was too heavy for him to lift.
enough The box was not light enough for him to lift.
8 The dress is so long that she can 't wear it.
her The dress is too long for her to wear.
9 They made hi m wait for an hour.
was He was made to wait for an hou r.
10 She could hardly do the exercises.
difficult She found it difficult to do the exercises.
11 He made her promise that she would come back.
was She was made to promise that she would come back.
12 The audience found the performance amusing.
were The audience were amused by the performance.
13 The film was so interesting that I saw it twice.
was I was so interested in the fi lm that I saw it twice.
14 It was difficult for him to understand the instructions.
hardly He could hardly understand the instructions.
15 Could you move a bit please?
mind Wou ld you mind moving a bit please?
16 The headmaster let the boys leave the school.
were The boys were allowed to leave the school.
17 She prefers working to staying at home.
than She prefers to work rather than stay at home.
18 It took us longer than we expected to finish the project.
long We didn 't expect to take so long to finish the project.

138
The Infinitive I -ing form I Participles _
: Use the words in capitals to form a word that fits in the space in the same line.

The Guinness Book of


World Records is a
(0) .. .reference ... book that REFER
contains a ( 1) collection of amazing facts COLLECT
about the natural world and incredible human
(2) achievements. ACH IEVE
It all started when a gentleman called Sir Hugh Beaver
went out shooting with friends. Sir Beaver, who was
excellent at shooting, (3) repeatedly missed a flock of golden REPEAT
plover. He claimed that the golden plover was the fastest game
bird but his friends completely disagreed and an (4) argument ARGUE
followed . Sir Beaver and his friends realised that it was (5) impossible to POSSIBLE
say who was right. In order to provide answers to this and (6) numerous NUMBER
other questions, Sir Beaver decided to produce a book. Norris and Ross
McWhirter who had been collecting (7) interesting articles from newspapers INTEREST
and magazines helped to write the first (8) edition in 1955. The book was an EDIT
immediate success and people started taking part in dangerous (9) competitions COMPETE
just to get into it. The book is published (10) annually and still sells millions of ANNUAL
copies all over the world.

--t1f 1I 1JU4t.1. 1;; t; 1f - ----------------------------------------------------~ ------


(See Suggested Answer section)

A group of people went fishing last Sunday. Use the list below and your own ideas to say
what happened using infinitives or -ing form .
decide, look forward to , try, manage, continue, stop, notice, begin, have a difficult time, be afraid,
appear, happen, help, be relieved, regret

Bob and his friends decided to go fishing last Sunday. All of them ...
Folder ID
Look at Appendix 2, then explain the phrasal verbs in bold.

1 The company is planning to bring out a new 10 The sale of the paintings will bring in several
perfume in the summer. launch; produce thousand pounds. create profit
2 The situation calls for immediate action. need 11 We need to carry out some tests to find out
3 The director's retirement brought about the what's wrong with you. conduct (experiment/test)
changes in the company. cause to happen 12 She was nervous about chairing the meeting, but
4 Do carry on with your work while I'm away. she carried it off without any problems. handle sth
continue with successfully
5 Heavy rain brought on the flood . cause 13 Please don 't bring up the subject of politics in
6 John was completely carried away by the music class. mention
and lost track of time. be very excited 14 The meeting was called off due to the President's
7 The nurse brought the patient round by putting sudden illness. cancel
cold water on his face. cause to regain consciousness 15 When fire broke out we called out the fire brigade.
8 They managed to carry the task through despite order to come to sb's help
opposition. complete successfully 16 They tried to bring down the government by
9 This tune brings back memories of my childhood. starting a revolution. cause to fall
cause to recall

1 Look at Appendix 3, then fill in the correct preposition.

1 She applied ... to ... the manager for the post of 14 Compared to winters in Moscow, this isn 't really
editor of the magazine. cold at all.
2 He is crazy about all kinds of fast cars. 15 The Police Inspector wasn't able to comment on
3 I wouldn't bet on it being warm tomorrow. the case as they had no new evidence.
4 The manager of the bank had to account for all the 16 I'm going to have to stop eating chocolate. I think
money that was missing. I'm addicted to it.
5 I didn't realise there would be a charge for using 17 Michael 's been asked to contribute to this new
this telephone. science fiction magazine.
6 The police announced that they were going to 18 I couldn't get into the museum because it was
work with the public to solve the case. crowded with tourists.
7 Nobody seems to care about what is happening in 19 Scientists are sti ll trying to find a cure for AIDS.
the world today. 20 You have to comply with these rules or you will
8 James' mother told him to take care of himself lose your job.
during the journey. 21 Brian's been accused of cheating in his exams.
9 Mark is very clever at figuring out how machines 22 Maria should go and see a doctor. She has been
work. complaining of back pains for weeks now.
10 It was very clever of you to remember to bring an 23 I'm going to complain to the manager about this
umbrella. meal. It was terrible.
11 There has been some confusion over the results of 24 It upsets me when people are cruel to their pets.
the election. 25 He doesn't seem to be aware of what's going on
12 The inexperienced driver was confused about around him.
which turn to take and ended up on a dead-end 26 This new book I'm reading is based on the life of
street. Jackie Onassis.
13 You can't compare Elvis Presley with Michael
Jackson. Elvis is the king.

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 When did George give up his job?


since How long ... is it since George gave ... up his job?
2 She can't wait to start her new job.
forward She is looking forward to (starting) her new job.
3 The soup is so hot that she can 't eat it.
hot The soup is too hot for her to eat.
4 Her parents do not want her to go out late.
disapprove Her parents disapprove of her going out late.
5 The film was quite boring.
bored We were quite bored by the film.
6 She prefers watching TV to listening to music.
rather She'd rather watch TV than listen to music.
7 They say he was the best tennis player of the decade.
said He is said to have been the best tennis player of the decade.
8 They made the children study for five hours a day.
were The children were made to study for five hours a day.
9 He finds driving on the left difficult.
used He is not used to driving on the left.
10 The teacher explained the task to us fully.
gave The teacher gave us a full explanation of the task.
11 They have been building a new community centre for six months now.
construction A new community centre has been under construction for six months now.
12 He doesn't want her to work as a waitress.
objects He objects to her working as a waitress.
13 She is regarded as the most valuable member of our team.
consider We consider her to be the most valuable member of our team.

Complete the sentences below with a suitable word from the list.
a bell, a pancake, a fox, a bee, a cucumber, a peacock, a lamb, the grave, a picture, a sheet
1 Jane looked as pretty as ...a plctur~... in her white silk dress.
2 Mr Bayer looks a rather rough type but he is really as gentle as a lamb.
3 Her voice rang out as clear as a bell.
4 When Jenny came top of the class she was as proud as a peacock.
5 The land around town is as flat as a pancake. There isn't a hill in sight.
6 When Mr Jenkins heard the news he went as white as a sheet.
7 Her mother has been as busy as a bee all day making all the last minute preparations for the wedding.
8 John remained as silent as the grave as he listened to my plans for the future.
9 Mary stayed as cool as a cucumber and gave not even the slightest sign that she had met him before.
10 You can be sure he has an ulterior motive for inviting us to dinner; he is as cunning as a fox.

Tick the correct boxes. Then make sentences using any three of them.

of scissors of men of false teeth of cutlery of questions of shoes


couple ./ ./
pair ./ ./
set ./ ./ ./

-
f~ ;._ Practice Test 1

1
. Pair! For q ueslions 1-12, read the text below and d_ecide which answer (A, B, C or D) best
fits each gap. There is an example at the begmnmg (0).

Example:
A B C D
0 A fond B keen C enthusiastic D eager 0 c:::::J - c:::::J c:::::J

Up until recently the British were not exactly (0) ... 8 ... on cycling . In fact, only a quarter of the twenty million
.......----~b;icycles in the country were thought to be in (1) ................
use. Over the last year,
though, the number of cyclists in urban areas , particularly in London , has
(2) ............ ... by 83 per cent. This has turned the capital into a cleaner, less noisy city
(3) .............. to many others in Europe. How was this possible? It is all thanks to
the National Cycle Network project which, in the (4) ................ few years has
managed to encourage many people to use their bicycles either to travel to
(5) ................ or for fun. Part of the project involved the improvement of
(6) ........ ....... pathways, whereas by the end of 2006 the Network had
(7) ..... .......... to 11 ,300 miles. Moreover, the provision of bicycle
parking in the streets, at railway and underground stations, in schools
and in the workplace has contributed significantly to the rise in the
number of cyclists. It is (8) ................ that nearly 75 per cent of the
population live within two miles of a route and more cycling
(9) ................ are made than ever before. The project has been funded
principally by the National Lottery and it is expected that even more
cycling (1 0) .... ... ...... . will be developed by 2012, when the Olympics will
take (11) ...... ........... The aim is to create routes that will surround the
main sites for the 2012 Games in London , whereas a new bridge for
pedestrians and cyclists will ( 12) .. .............. Southwark and Canary Wharf.

1 A right B normal regular D proper


2 @ grown B raised c developed D enlarged
3 A contrasted B related compared D associated
4 A final B latest last D recent
5 A job B profession c office @ work
6 A prevai ling @ existing c living D left
7 A magnified B lengthened expanded D broadened
8 A figured B counted estimated D measured
9 A tours @ trips c journeys D travels
10 A directions @ routes c ways D passages
11 @ place B space c position D part
12 A attach B bond c relate @ connect
Part 2
For questions 13-24, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap.
Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0) .

Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

Example: 0 I0 I U I TI I I I I I I I I I I I I

When going on holiday, it is always a good idea to take (0) ....................... travel insurance.
This is just in case something goes (13) wrong along the way. You could lose your
luggage, you could (14) be robbed, or even become ill and need expensive medical
treatment. Without travel insurance you will not only have to pay for anything that goes
wrong, but you will also have to sort everything out yourself. For millions of holiday
makers, travel insurance is just a precaution (15) that will help them have an enjoyable and
worry-free holiday. But for (16) some, travel insurance is a way of earning money (17) by
making false claims against insurance companies. For (18) example, some people pretend
that they have had expensive equipment stolen which in (19) fact never even existed, and
then claim large sums (20) as compensation. Such claims cost insurance companies a
total (21) of 50 million per year. Until recently there was
no way of checking whether a claim was false or
not. But the cheats' luck has (22) run out. Thanks
to a new computer system , companies are able
to tell at a glance (23) if/whether someone has
made a claim within the last three years.
Honest travellers no (24) longer have to pay
through the nose for other people's
dishonesty. So think twice before you make
a false claim this summer. The chances are
that you'll get caught.
Practice Test H
Part 3
For questions 25-34, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of
some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an
example at the beginning (0) .

Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

(0) ..... .............. ...... farmers in Japan have figured out a way to produce INNOVATE
square-shaped watermelons. And all without the help of weird science or
genetic (25) engineering ! As baby watermelons are growing on the vine, ENGINEER
glass (26) containers are placed around them . As each watermelon CONTAIN
matures, it (27) naturally swells to fit the shape of the box. The result is NATURAL
(28) incredibly eye-catching watermelons that can be sliced like a loaf of CREDIBLE
bread. Unlike (29) normal watermelons, square watermelons don't take up a NORM
lot of room and there is no (30) difficulty storing them in the fridge as they sit DIFFICULT
neatly on the shelf. But these watermelons don 't come cheap. Each one
costs 10,000 yen (about $82)! Square melons are thus an (31 ) expensive EXPENSE
luxury food and so are not eaten by regular people. Instead, these melons
appeal to (32) wealthy Japanese who are looking to give a business WEALTH
colleague or friend an (33) impressive gift. In Japan, gift-giving is a very IMPRESS
important part of socialising. Giving a friend a
beautifully-wrapped and (34) costly piece of ~~-:<~}"-::;;: COST
fruit as a gift is very popular.
Part 4
For questions 35-42, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to
the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use
between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the
beginning (0).

Example:

0 My friends gave me a DVD for my birthday.


GIVEN
I .................... ...... .... .................... ........ ...... ..................... ....... ....... ................. my friends for my birthday.

Write the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

35 You packed more clothes than you'll need for the trip.
so
You needn't have packed so many clothes for the trip.

36 He made us wait two hours before he called us in.


WERE
We were made to wait two hours before he called us in.

37 Kevin doesn 't work as hard as he did in the past.


USED
Kevin used to work harder than he does now.

38 He was about to leave when the phone rang .


POINT
He was on the point of leaving when the phone rang.

39 Dad let us stay up late last night.


ALLOWED
We were allowed to stay up late last night.

40 They left early so that they could escape the traffic.


HOPE
They left early in the hope of escaping the traffic.

41 Sophie hasn't been to a party for a month.


LAST
It's a month since Sophie last went to a party.

42 She spent ages getting ready for the party.


TOOK
It took her ages to get ready for the party.
Modal Verbs

The modal verbs are: can, could, may, might, must, ought to, will , would, shall , should .
They take no -s in the third person singular and are followed by an infinitive without to except for ought to. He
must be at work. He ought to do what you asked him to. They come before the subject in questions and are
followed by not in negations. "Could you help me with the dishes?" "I'm sorry, I can't. Certain verbs or
expressions can be used with the same meaning as modals. These are: need (= must), had better (=
should) , have (got) to (= must) , be able to (= can) , used to (= would) etc. I've got to go to the library.

Summary of Functions of Modal Verbs and Synonymous Expressions


Ability Obligation Requests

She can dance well. I must cut down on fats. (I need to; I 1 Can I see the Manager? (informal)
She could/was able to dance well ~ say so) ~ Could I see the Manager? (polite)
when she was young. (repeated : I have to cut down on fats. (I'm : May I see the Manager, please?
action - ability in the past) : obliged to; the doctor says so) ~ (formal)
She's able to type 120 words per I had to cut down or else I would ~ Might I see the Manager? (very
minute. have become overweight. (past) l formal)
They were able to buy a car after ' We ought to stay within the speed ~ Will you do my shopping? (informal)
saving for years. (single action in the ~ limit. (It is the right thing to do, but ' Do/Would you mind working
past) . we don't always do it.) overtime? (polite; formal)
He couldn't/wasn't able to save the l We ought to have stayed within the
patient. ~ speed limit. (It was the right thing to
I do but we didn't do it.)

Possibility Necessity Prohibition I Duty

He can 't still be at home. (90% I must see a doctor soon . (I say so) : You can't enter this area.
certain) I had to see a doctor. (I was obliged , (prohibition - you aren't allowed to)
He could/may be tired. (50% certain; to; past) ~ They cou ldn't enter that area.
it's possible he is tired) He has to wear overalls at work. . (prohibition - they weren't allowed
He might come later. (40% certain; (necessity from outside the speaker) ~ to)
perhaps he will come later) He had to wear overalls when he You mustn't touch the statues.
He could have hit her. {luckily he was at school. (past) (prohibition - it is forbidden)
didn't - past) We've got to move house. (informal) You may not talk in the library.
He may/might have sold his house. They had to move house. (past) (prohibition - formal)
(perhaps he sold it - past) The cat needs feeding. OR The cat All applicants must fill in this form.
It is likely that Ann will offer to help. needs to be fed . (it is necessary) (duty)
Ann is likely to offer to help. The cat needed feeding. OR The cat All applicants had to fill in that form.
It was likely that she had missed needed to be fed. (it was necessary) (duty - past)
the bus. (past) . You ought to behave yourself. (it is People ought to respect the
She was likely to have missed the l necessary) environment. (It is the right thing to
bus. (past) She doesn't have to/doesn't need to ~ do but people don't always do it.)
come. (it isn't necessary - absence of ~ He ought to have notified the police
Note: to express possibility in ' necessity) , of the burglary. (It was the right thing
questions we use: Is he likely to ... ? She didn't have to/didn't need to l to do but he didn't do it.)
Is it likely that he .. ? Can he ... ? ' come. (it wasn't necessary for her to ~
Could he ... ? Might he ... ? come and we don't know if she did) '
Could he still be at work? (NOT: fflaY) l She needn't have come so early. (it
: wasn't necessary for her to come
: but she did)

146
Summary of Functions of Modal Verbs and Synonymous Expressions
Criticism Logical Assumptions Probability
You could at least call her. (present) He must be tired. (90% certain - He will come tomorrow. (100%
You could at least have called her positive; I'm sure he is tired.) certain; prediction)
yesterday. (past) He must have arrived by now. He should/ought to come by later.
He should let us know. (positive; I'm sure he has arrived .) (90% certain; future only; it's probable)
He should have let us know before. It can't/couldn't be a fake. (negative; He should/ought to have reached
(but he didn't) I'm sure it isn't a fake.) Rome by now. (He has probably
You ought to be more helpful. She can't/couldn't have reached Rome.)
You ought to have been more (negative; I'm sure she
helpful. (It was the right thing to do, didn't hurt him.)
but you didn't do it.)
Permission Offers I Suggestions Advice
You can/can't take my car. (giving or I'll/We'll carry your bags. (offer - You should stop talking .
refusing permission; informal) informal) (general advice; I advise you)
He wasn't allowed to/couldn't take Can I/we carry your bags? (offer - You should have stopped talking .
my car. (past) I could always/was informal) (BUT you didn't)
always allowed to stay up late on Shall I/we collect your laundry? You ought to comply with the
Saturdays when I was a child. (offer - informal) regulations. (I advise you; most
(general permission in the past) Would you like to stay with me for a people believe this.)
He was allowed to take my car. (an couple of days? (offer) You ought to have contacted a
action that really happened in the past) Would you like me to give you a lift? lawyer earlier. (BUT you didn't)
Could I go out for a minute? (more (offer) You had better not lie to her. (It isn't
polite; asking for permission) Shall we have a break? (suggestion) a good idea; advice on a specific
You may go out for a minute. (formal; I/We can watch TV. (suggestion) situation)
giving permission) We could go to the theatre tonight. It would have been better if you
Might I have the pleasure of your (suggestion) hadn't lied to her. (BUT you did)
company? (very formal; asking for We could have stayed longer if Shall I enter the competition?
permission) you'd wanted. (suggestion - past) (asking for advice)
I'm sorry, but you can't/mustn't Let's play football! (suggestion)
make long distance phone calls. Why don't we play football?
(informal; refusing permission) (suggestion)
Visitors may not take pictures of the How about playing football?
statues. (formal ; refusing permission (suggestion)
- written notice) What about playing football ?
You are allowed to see the patient. (suggestion)
(permission)

Read the following sentences, then identify the use of each verb in bold .

1 They can't have lied. ... logical assumption - negative...


2 You must tell them the truth. obligation/ necessity
3 He was able to run the marathon . ability - past
4 Can you help me with my homework? request - informal
5 He should have seen a doctor. advice - past
6 You'd better admit to your guilt. advice - present
7 They don't have to employ more staff. absence of necessity
8 Shall I speak to the manager about my problem? asking for advice
9 People ought to treat animals with respect. duty - present
10 She isn't at home. She may be at the supermarket. possibility - present
11 He had to wear glasses. obligation/ necessity coming from outside the speaker - past
12 She could at least have told me in advance. criticism - past
[?J1 Identify the use of the verbs in bold, then say the same sentence in as many ways as possible.
(See Suggested Answer section)
1 She can cook Chinese food . ...ablllty... - ... Sh~'e ab/~ to cook Chln~e;~ food ....
2 Tim may come over today. possibility - It is possible that Tim will come over today.
3 He should be at the party tonight. probability - It is probable that he'll be at the party tonight.
4 They must have gone out; the lights are off. logical assumption - I'm sure they've gone out.
5 I need to call my mother. necessity - It is necessary that I call my mother.
6 You ought to take an umbrella; it's raining . advice - I advise you to take an umbrella.
7 You could at least have driven her to work. criticism - You should at least have driven her to work.
8 I have to help Mum clean the house. obligation - I'm obliged to help Mum clean the house.
9 Can I have a look at your newspaper? request - Could/May/Might I have a look at your newspaper?
10 Would you like me to carry that for you? offer - Shall I carry that for you?
11 We can go to the beach tomorrow. suggestion - Shall we go to the beach tomorrow?
12 You may not feed the animals in the zoo. prohibition - You can't/mustn't feed the animals in the zoo.
13 All employees must attend the meeting . duty - It is all employees' duty to attend the meeting.
14 The dogs need to be fed at 12:00. necessity - It is necessary to feed the dogs at 12:00.
15 You should go to Pam's party. advice - You ought to go to Pam's party.
16 Shall we go out tonight? suggestion - We can/could go out tonight.
17 People ought to drive more carefully. duty - People should drive more carefully.
18 She can't be feeli ng well. logical assumption - I'm sure she isn't feeling well.

Must (affirmative logical assumption) - May/Might (possibility) -


Can't/Couldn't (negative logical assumption)

Present Infinitive I'm sure he works overtime. He must work overtime.


Perhaps he wlll work overtime. He may/might work overtime.

Present Cont. Infinitive I'm sure he Is working . He must be working.


Perhaps he wlll be working . He may/might be working.
............ ,
Perfect Infinitive I'm sure he didn't work. He can't have worked .
I'm sure he hasn't worked before. He can't have worked before.
I'm sure he hadn't worked. He can't have worked .

Perfect Cont. Infinitive Perhaps he was working. He may/might have been working.
Perhaps he has been working. He may/might have been working.

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 I'm sure she lost the race.


have She ... muet hav~ loet ... the race.
2 Perhaps she will phone us sometime today.
may She may phone us sometime today.
3 I don't think the Rogers have lived here long .
have The Rogers can't have lived here long.
4 I'm sure he has spent all his money.
have He must have spent all his money.
5 I'm sure J ames won 't be seeing the boss tomorrow.
be James can't/won't be seeing the boss tomorrow.
6 Perhaps he is feeling ill.
be He may/might be feeling ill.
7 I'm sure Alan wasn't driving carelessly.
been Alan can't have been driving carelessly.

148
8 Perhaps he had left before you called.
have He may/might have left before you called.
9 I'm sure she is considering your offer.
be She must be considering your offer.
10 Perhaps they rented the flat.
may They may have rented the flat.

Mustn't - Needn't

mustn't ( = it's forbidden) You mustn't park on the double yellow lines.
needn't/don't have to ( = it isn't necessary) You needn't do the ironing. I'll do it tonight.

Complete the sentences using the words in bold.


D Use two to five words.

1 It's forbidden to feed the animals.


not You ... must not feed ... the animals.
2 It isn 't necessary to cut the grass; it's still quite short.
have You don't have to cut the grass; it's still quite short.
3 It's prohibited to take dogs into the restaurant.
not You must not take dogs into the restaurant.
4 It isn 't necessary to dust the furniture; I'll do it later.
need You need not dust the furniture; I' ll do it later.
5 Children aren't allowed to run in the corridor.
not Children must not run in the corridor.
6 Sixth formers needn't wear school uniforms.
have Sixth formers don't have to wear school uniforms.

Needn't - Didn 't need to - Needn't have

don't have to I don't need to I needn't + present infinitive (It is not necessary in the present or future.)
C1t1zens of EU countries don't have to/don't need to/needn't have a visa to go to England.
didn't need to I didn't have to (It was not necessary in the past and we may not know if the action
happened or not.) She didn 't need to/didn 't have to go out last night. (It wasn't necessary for her to go out,
and we don't know if she went or not.)
needn't + perfect Infinitive 01'Je know that something happened in the past although it was not necessary.)
He needn't have given the waiter such a big tip. (He did, although it was not necessary.)

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 Tim went on a two-day trip. He took more clothes than necessary.


have Tim ... needn't have taken ... so many clothes on a two-day trip.
2 He decided not to take his passport because it wasn 't necessary.
need He did not need to take his passport.
3 We bought more food than was necessary for the party.
have We needn't have bought so much food for the party.
4 It wasn't necessary for Gloria to iron the clothes because Sue had already done it.
have Gloria didn't have to iron the clothes because Sue had already done it.
5 It isn't necessary to have a visa to visit New Zealand if you are Australian.
need You don't need to have/need not have a visa to visit New Zealand if you are Australian.
6 It wasn't necessary for Jim to accept the offer.
have Jim didn't have to accept the offer.
be supposed to - be to

be supposed to (= should) expresses the idea that someone else expects something to be done. You are
supposed to be helpful to customers. (Your boss expects you to.) You should be helpful to customers. (It's a
good idea because it makes a good impression.)
be to + infinitive expresses the idea that someone else demands something. You are to be in my office at
12 sharp. (You must be in my office at 12 sharp.)
be supposed to and be to are used to express what someone expects about a previously arranged event.
The shop assistant was supposed to give me a receipt.

Read the following sentences and explain their meaning .

1 You were supposed to eat your salad. .. . Your mother wanted you to eat your ea/ad....
2 You should clean your room. It's a good idea for you to clean your room.
3 You are to finish your homework. You must finish your homework.
4 All students are supposed to do their homework. Their teacher expects them to.
5 You are supposed to wear running shoes. It is expected of you to.
6 You should wear running shoes. It's a good idea if you do so.
7 I was to walk the dog twice a day. It had to be done.
8 I was supposed to walk the dog twice a day. I was expected to.

Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets.

1 Let's go jogging . (shall) ... Shall we go jogging?...


2 Please turn the TV off. (could) Could you turn the TV off?
3 Am I allowed to sit here? (may) May I sit here?
4 Please answer the phone. (wi ll) Will you answer the phone?
5 Don't bite your nails. (must) You mustn't bite your nails.
6 Do you mind if I use your pen? (can) Can I use your pen?
7 I wish I had checked the tyres. (ought) I ought to have checked the tyres.
8 These curtains don't have to be ironed. (need) These curtains don't need ironing./You don't need to iron these curtains.
9 It's not polite to speak with your mouth full. (should) You shouldn't speak with your mouth full.
10 Why don't we visit Mark and Jane? (shall) Shall we visit Mark and Jane?
11 Is there any chance that he'll phone? (likely) Is he likely to phone?/ls it likely that he will phone?
12 It's advisable to brush your teeth after meals. (should) You should brush your teeth after meals.
13 There's a possibility that he'll arrive a little late. (might) He might arrive a little late.
14 Do you know how to ice-skate? (can) Can you ice-skate?
15 It wasn 't necessary to show any identification but he did. (need) He needn't have shown any identification .
16 Why didn't you tell me there was no one in? (could) You could have told me there was no one in.
17 It wasn 't necessary for us to wait because there was no queue. (need) We didn't need to wait because there
was no queue.
18 Let's go to the cinema tonight. (shall) Shall we go to the cinema tonight?
19 It's important that you be here at 9.00. (must) You must be here at 9.00.
20 I'm sure he is a millionaire. (must) He must be a millionaire.
21 Perhaps he'll change his mind. (may) He may change his mind.
22 Please, help me carry these! (could) Could you help me carry these?
23 I don't believe she paid so much for that dress. (can) She can't have paid so much for that dress.
24 It's a good idea to lock the door at night. (shou ld) You should lock the door at night.
25 Is there any chance we'll get a pay rise? (likely) Are we likely to get a pay rise?/ls it likely that we will get a pay rise?
26 Why didn 't they inform us of the delay? (could) They could have informed us of the delay.
27 We could try to mend it ourselves. (Let's) Let's try to mend it ourselves.
28 It wasn't necessary for you to go to so much trouble. (need) You needn't have gone to so much trouble.
29 It's a good idea to show more respect. (ought to) You ought to show more respect.
30 You have to inform the bank of any change of address. (must) You must inform the bank of any change of address.

150
Fill in the blanks with a suitable word or phrase practising modals. Identify the use of the
: modal verb and/or the expressions used.

1 She .. .mw5t have worked... (work) late last night; she looks exhausted . ...logical assumption ...
2 When we emigrated to Australia, we had to leave (leave) our pets behind . necessity/obligation
3 Shall we go (we/go)? It's getting late. suggestion
4 You should start (start) learning Spanish if you're going to live in Madrid. advice
5 You ought to be (be) kinder to her; she's only a child . advice/criticism
6 Could you collect (you/collect) my parcel for me? request
7 You aren't allowed to/can 't/may not take (not/take) photographs in the museum . prohibition
8 You can't pay (not/pay) by cheque without a cheque guarantee card. prohibition
9 The doctor says I have to lose (lose) weight before my operation. necessity
10 May I paint (I/paint) my room a different colour, please? asking for permission
11 You really shouldn't eat (not/eat) so much red meat. criticism/advice
12 He must/could have taken (take) your car since he had the keys. logical assumption
13 I'm sorry to bother you but could you help (you/help) me? request
14 Call them later; they may be sleeping (sleep) now. possibility
15 You ought to/should write (write) to your grandfather more often. advice
16 She types very fast. Actually she can type (type) 100 words per minute. ability
17 You must/have to/should confirm (confirm) your resignation in writing . obligation/duty
18 Ian should have told (tell) her the truth; she now feels betrayed . criticism
19 Ann was able to/could play (play) the piano at the age of six. ability
20 They have got to sell (sell) their flat and buy a bigger one. necessity

Read the following situations, then write how you would respond to each using modals .
(See Suggested Answer section)

1 Your friend has won 10,000 in the lottery. What


do you advise her to do?
..."You should go to Venice." "Why don't you go
to Chile?"...
2 Your friend cannot sleep at night. What do you
suggest he does? .. ................ ...... .. .... .................. ..
3 It is snowing . Tom said he would be home early
and he still hasn't arrived. What do you think? ....... .
4 Some children are playing football in the flower
beds. What do you say to them? ........................ ..
5 It is your birthday. Your friend gives you a very
expensive present. What do you say? ................. .
6 You are at a train station . An old lady is carrying a
heavy suitcase. How do you offer to help her? .. .. ...
7 You are in a train . The window is open and you
are cold. What do you say to the other
passengers? ............................ ........................... ...
8 You see your window cleaner with a broken arm . What do you say to him?

9 You are looking after your young cousin. It is after midnight and he is still
running around the house. What do you say to him? ........ .. ............. ............... .
10 Your friend hurt her leg a week ago. She still hasn't seen her doctor. What do
you tell her to do? ......................................................................................................
11 Your friends are late for your dinner party. What do you say as you
impatiently look at your watch? ................. .......................... .............................. .
12 Your fri ends arrive three hours late for the dinner party. They say they were
delayed by an unexpected visitor. How do you reply? .. ...... .. .......................... ..
Perhaps he is sleeping now. It wasn't necessary for her to take so much
He may be sleeping now. money with her.
I'm sure he hasn 't finished yet. She needn't have taken so much money with her.
He can 't have finished yet. He is likely to perform in the concert.
I'm sure he has left. It is likely that he will perform in the concert.
He must have left. He'll probably perform in the concert.
Shall I help you with the dishes? Let's go for a ride.
Would you like me to help you with the dishes? Shall we/Why don't we go for a ride?
It's forbidden to take pictures in this museum. What/How about going for a ride?
You mustn't take pictures in this museum . It would be a good idea to stop talking.
You aren't allowed to take pictures in this museum. You shou ld stop talking.
It isn't necessary for you to take the bus. You'd better stop talking.
You don't have to/don't need to/needn 't take the Would you mind if I used your phone?
bus. May/Might I use your phone?

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 Perhaps the car needs a new engine.


need The car ... may/might need. .. a new engine.
2 Why don't you go to Canada for a holiday?
could You could go to Canada for a holiday.
3 Shall I get you a cup of tea?
me Would you like me to get you a cup of tea?
4 Sue will probably go and see her aunt.
is Sue is likely to go and see her aunt.
5 It wasn't necessary for them to buy such a big car as they did.
have They needn't have bought such a big car.
6 It's forbidden to eat in this building.
not You must not eat in this building.
7 It would be a good idea to change your hairstyle.
better You had better change your hairstyle.
8 Why didn't anybody warn me about the bus strike?
have Somebody should have warned me about the bus strike.
9 It isn't necessary for you to attend the meeting.
need You don't need to attend/needn't attend the meeting.
10 Let's go to the cinema.
going What about going to the cinema?
11 I'm sure he is seeing Ruth.
be He must be seeing Ruth .
12 It isn 't necessary for you to come early tonight.
have You don't have to come early tonight.
13 I'm sure he didn 't send you this letter.
sent He can't have sent you this letter.
14 May I read your newspaper?
mind Would you mind me/my reading/you mind if I read your newspaper?
15 I'm sure she wasn't lying to you .
been She can't have been lying to you.
16 She is likely to fail her exams.
that It is likely that she will fail her exams.

152
17 It's forbidden to talk to the driver while he is driving .
must You must not talk to the driver while he is driving .
18 It wasn 't necessary for him to give me the money back so soon .
given He needn't have given me the money back so soon.
19 Perhaps she went to her uncle's.
have She may/might have gone to her uncle's.
20 Shall I help you lengthen your dress?
me Would you like me to help you lengthen your dress?

Think of the word which best fits each gap. Write only one word in each one.

'Arachnophobia' is the term given


to the fear 0) .. .of... spiders. It comes from the
Greek words 'arachne', 1) which means 'spider', and 'phobos', meaning 'fear'. It is one of the
most common phobias, especially amongst people of European descent. In Britain, for example, it is
estimated that there are up 2) to one million arachnophobes. That's about 1.5% of the population ! But why
are so many people scared of spiders? More than 99.9% of all spider species cannot hurt humans and the few
species that are dangerous are far 3) more frightened of us than we are of them. Spiders help keep our homes
clean by eating flies , beetles and other pests, and they kill insects which carry serious human diseases, 4) such as
malaria-carrying mosquitoes. In fact, without spiders, the world would be overrun with insects! So why 5) do so
many people find them distasteful? Some psychologists have argued that we just can't help it - human beings have
evolved to fear spiders. But this seems unlikely. Why? Because 6) the strongest arachnophobia began (and
continues) in Northern Europe and England - where there are no dangerous spiders 7) at all!
In contrast, in many parts of the world where there are dangerous spiders, spiders are
considered good omens or symbols 8) of prosperity. For example, American Indians and
Australian aborigines worship a spider god in their creation myths. In India, an ancient
Hindu ritual involves throwing spiders at a wedding in 9) order to bring happiness to
the bride and groom. Mexican Indians used to catch spiders to keep 10) their homes
free from flies. Arachnophobia, it seems, has a definite cultural element. So, if you are
afraid of spiders, next time you see 11 ) one remind yourself that your fear is probably
learnt. And, if you learnt to fear spiders, you 12) can probably learn to like them!

--C1(iI114 (.)ii It; if----------------------------------------------------.-------:


- (See Suggested Answer section) :
Make speculations for the following pictures, as in the example.
~

S1: There must have been an accident.


I
I S2: The driver may have lost control of the car.
I
~------------------------------------------------ - ---- -- -------------------- - ----------------- ------ 4
Folder ii'
Look at Appendix 2, then fill in the correct particle(s) .

1 While I was walking down Oxford Street I came 9 Tim isn't cut out for such a high-pressure job.
...across ... a good record shop. 10 The performance came off well.
2 You should try to cut down on the number of 11 Nothing about the accident came up in the news.
sweets you eat a day. 12 You are always cutting into our conversations!
3 After selling the family estate the young man 13 You'd better come up with a good excuse or you'll
came into a lot of money. be in trouble.
4 I wonder how she came by that expensive car. 14 Our electricity was cut off because we forgot to
5 We were driving slowly enjoying the countryside, pay the bill.
when a police car cut in and stopped us. 15 After playing football in the rain he came down with
6 When is the writer's new book coming out? a bad cold.
7 This necklace came down to me from my 16 Do come round anytime. We can have a cup of
grandmother. coffee together.
8 The stain came out of the shirt when it was washed.

Look at Appendix 3, then fill in the correct preposition.

1 Your diet is deficient ... in ... iron. 15 A policeman arrested the woman for stealing from
2 The TV programme was aimed at teenagers . a shop.
3 She had to beg for money on the street. 16 Contrary to what the newspaper said , the Minister
4 He is very careless with his clothes. had agreed to sign the treaty.
5 There was a long delay in the completion of the 17 Babies are dependent on their mothers for
road. everything.
6 As it was icy he lost control of his car and crashed 18 The doctor told the woman that she was allergic to
into a wall. dairy products.
7 The couple took great delight in their new-born 19 The young actress could never dream of starring
baby. in such a film.
8 I was delighted with/by th e news of their 20 Although her husband has been dead for years,
engagement. she still dreams about him.
9 Sue is very attached to her pet dog. 21 Are you conscious of the fact that you have
10 She couldn 't concentrate on what she was doing caused us a lot of trouble?
because the television was on . 22 In the desert you can die of thirst.
11 The holiday was different from the one they had 23 A lot of people were injured in the accident.
last year. 24 The boy was bored with his computer game after
12 The only difference between the twins is in their having played it all day.
characters; one is shy while the other is outgoing. 25 We were doubtful about whether we shou ld sign
13 There is a great demand for economical cars. the contract or not.
14 The Manager demanded an explanation from his
assistant.

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 Perhaps it is worth leaving earlier to avoid the traffic.


idea It may ... be a good idea ... to leave earlier to avoid the traffic.
2 Her parents brought her up very strictly.
raised She was raised very strictly by her parents.
3 You 'll have no difficulty getting to the train station.
easy You 'll find it easy to get to the train station.

154
4 "It wasn't me who stole the wallet, " the man said.
admit The man did not admit {to) stealing the wallet.
5 I'm sure your sister didn't mean to upset you.
intention I'm sure your sister had no intention of upsetting you.
6 It would be a good idea to take an umbrella with you.
were If I were you , I would take an umbrella.
7 I booked an early appointment hoping I would not be made to wait long to see the doctor.
me I booked an early appointment hoping they would not make me wait long to see the doctor.
8 They have been discussing the new law for a week.
discussion The new law has been under discussion for a week.
9 People believe Sarah was responsible for the accident.
believed Sarah is believed to have been responsible for the accident.
10 He prefers cycling to walking.
prefer He would prefer to cycle rather than walk.
11 It wasn 't my fau lt that your dress was ruined.
blame You can't blame me for ruining your dress.
12 She doesn't go out as much as she did last year.
used She used to go out more than she does now.

~ Explain the idioms in bold .

1 I'm surprised he wasn 't hurt - it was a really close shave. a near miss
2 We have to pay for a new roof. That's a thousand pounds down the drain. wasted
3 I'm afraid we'll have to give him the sack - his missing the meeting was the last straw. one annoyance too many
4 That man thinks too much of himself - he is always blowing his own trumpet. is always boasting
5 I must have offended her somehow - she is looking daggers at me. is looking very angrily
6 As she said, he's a great person - that's his character in a nutshell . in a few words
7 Since you have no proof to show us, I'm afraid your theory just doesn't hold water. isn't valid or true
8 He's so sensitive to criticism that if you even make a suggestion he flies off the handle. loses his temper
9 He's obsessed with environmental problems; where they are concerned he has got a real bee in his
bonnet. keeps talking about them because he thinks they are important
10 I've never seen two people make friends so quickly - from the first day they got on like a house on fire.
got on really well
11 I'm very suspicious about him making that offer - in fact, I smell a rat. am suspicious
12 It's impossible to ignore him in a meeting - he really knows how to make his presence felt. make people
notice him
13 I wouldn't book a holiday with that company - they'll make you pay through the nose . pay a huge amount

Fill in the blanks with the words from the lists below in their correct form .

bring - carry - fetch - take anxiety - nuisance - problem - trouble

1 The baby is too young to walk so he has to be 1 The woman was full of anxiety when her daughter
carried everywhere. was late home.
2 You may borrow this book as long as you bring it 2 That dog is a(n) nuisance - he's always barking at
back tomorrow. night.
3 Bob took his dog for a walk by the canal last night. 3 Can you speak up, please? I have a(n) problem
4 I bought so much shopping I couldn't carry it all with my hearing.
home. 4 If you don't revise, you'll have a lot of trouble
5 My dog has been trained to fetch my slippers from answering the questions.
the bedroom. 5 I left my glasses at home - what a(n) nuisance !
~~ . Practice Test .:..l..~-l~l
~~--
--
. --
--
-

Part 1
For questions 1-12, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best
fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0) .
I
Example:
A B C D
0 A have B seem C find D happen 0 c:::::::J - c:::::::J c:::::::J

Living a healthier life


Keeping fit and healthy may (0) ... B... difficult. but there ore a
few easy-to-follow guidelines. Firstly, a balanced diet is
absolutely essential. This ( l) ...... selecting food that is (2) ......
in salt and sugar. Experts recommend (3) .... .. the amount of
fat in our diet. as too much con lead to heart problems. They
also suggest increasing the amount of high fibre food we
eat. This comes in the (4) .. .. .. of fresh fruit. vegetables.
wholemeal bread and pasta. As well as being pocked
(5) .. .. .. vitamins and minerals. they ore delicious too.
Secondly, it's important to fit exercise into your daily (6) .......
This co n be done by simply walking as much as (7) .. .. .. and
climbing stairs Instead of taking the lift. Exercise Is necessary to
(8) ...... a healthy body, as well as increasing energy levels and
(9) ...... you feel generally fitter and happier. Finally, staying relaxed is
important for good health. Too much stress con ( 10) .. .. .. to a variety of
illnesses. from headaches to high blood pressure. (11) ...... possible. do things you enjoy
and treat yourself occasionally. So the message is simple - enjoy yourself but learn to
respect your body too. It's all a (12) ...... of getting the balance right.

1 A contains B points @ means D suggests


2 A poor B short c small @ low
3 A declining B dropping c cutting @ reducing
4 form B way c look D means
5 A from B by @ with D of
6@ routine B custom c time D manner
7@ possible B probable c able D capable
8 A keep @ maintain c support D manage
9 A providing B doing c assisting @ making
10 A bring B direct c guide @ lead
11 A Whichever @ Whenever c However D Whatever
12 A feeling B wonder @ question D need

156
Part 2
For questions 13-24, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap.
Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0) .

Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

Example: ~ I TIH IA I TI I I I I I I I I I I I

The Suez Canal is a 192 km


artificial waterway (0) ..... ......... connects
the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea. It
provides a shortcut for ships travelling between
European and American ports, as well as ports located
(13) in Asia, Africa and Oceania. Without it, traders from Europe
(14) would have to sail around the entire continent of Africa to reach
Asia, adding 9,656 km (15) to the journey. Thus, the significance of the
Suez Canal to world trade is huge. Together with the Panama Canal in
Central America, it is the most important man-made waterway in the world.
The idea of connecting (16) the Mediterranean and Red Seas is an old one.
Four thousand years (17) ago, the pharaohs in Egypt made the first
attempt to link the two seas. Today's canal was built
(18) between 1859 and 1869 under the direction of a French
engineer called Ferdinand de Lesseps. Constructing the canal
(19) was a massive task. Several lakes made up 45 km of the
distance, but the (20) rest of the 192 km had to be dug from the
desert. One and a half million Egyptians worked on the
canal. Tragically, (21) an estimated 120,000 died.
Today, the canal transports about 14% of the total world
trade, and about 8% of the world's shipping traffic
passes through (22) it. The Suez Canal is often
referred to (23) as 'The crossroads of Europe,
Asia and Africa' (24) because of its
significance as a trade route between
these mighty continents.
Practice Test ~
.Part 3
For questions 25-34, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of
some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an
example at the beginning (0).

Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

Easter Island - or 'Rapa Nui' as it is known to its


indigenous (O) .............. - is a small island located POPULATE
3,600km off the coast of Chile in the south-east
Pacific Ocean. Easter Island is world-famous for its
(25) aston1sh1ng stone statues, called 'Moai'. Over 850 ASTONISH
Moai have been found on Easter Island. They are
human-like in (26) appearance, as tall as 20 m, and APPEAR
weigh as much as 270 tonnes. Very little is known
about the civilisation which produced the Moai.
(27) Archaeologists believe that the statues may have ARCHAEOLOGY
been made by colonists who arrived between the 1st
and 7th centuries AD from (28) distant islands to the DISTANCE
north-west. These settlers made the statues from the
soft (29) volcanic rock they found on the island. VOLCANO
(30) Construction of the statues continued for over a CONSTRUCT
thousand years, possibly for (31) religious reasons. RELIGION
During this time, the statues became larger and more
decorated until about 1500 AD, when (32) production PRODUCT
suddenly stopped. When European (33) sailors arrived SAIL
in 1722, the civilisation who had built the Moai had
(34) mysteriously vanished. MYSTERY

158
Part 4
For questions 35-42, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to
the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use
between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the
beginning (0).

Example:

O Although it was raining, I still went jogging.


OF
In ..... .................... .... ............... ..... .............. .............. ....... .................... ...................... ., I still went jogging.

Write the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided .

35 Eating on buses isn't allowed .


SUPPOSED
You are not supposed to eat on buses.

36 Shall I do the washing up?


ME
Would you like me to do the washing up?

37 This medicine works best if taken in the morning.


MUST
For this medicine to be effective, it must,be taken in the morning.

38 When did you start playing the guitar?


BEEN
How long have you been playing the guitar?

39 They have cancelled their journey because of the snowstorm.


CALLED
Their journey has been called off because of the snowstorm .

40 I don't feel like going out tonight.


MOOD
I'm not in the mood for going out tonight.

41 You shouldn't have been rude to your boss.


FOOLISH
It was foolish of you to be rude to your boss.

42 I'm sure Tom hasn't fixed the fax machine yet.


HAVE
Tom can't have fixed the fax machine yet.
Adiectives I Adverbs I Comparisons
Adjectives

Adjectives tell us what something is like. They are the same in singular and plural. They can be used before a noun
or after a linking verb (appear, be, become, get, feel, look, seem, smell, sound. stay, taste) . Shes got long hair These
roses smell nice Adjectives can be factual {big, square, blue etc) or express an opinion (nice, beautiful etc).

Order of Adjectives

When two or more adjectives are used before a noun, they normally go in the following order:
Opinion Fact adjectives
noun
adjectives size age shape colour origin material used for/be about
i"'j(;~~ lovely small old square brown Chinese wooden wfltmg .. ..... i..~a.~!.~:.
.J
When two or more adjectives are used after a verb, we use and to separate the last one. The music was loud
and deafening. He was considered cruel, selfish and ruthless.
When there are two or more adjectives of the same type, the more general adjective goes before the more
specific. a kind, gentle lady
Afraid, alike, alive, alone, ashamed, asleep, content, Ill, glad etc are never followed by a noun .
The students were ashamed of what they had done (NOT: tf:le asf:laffled sR:JdeRts)
Chief, eldest, former, Indoor, Inner, main, only, outdoor, outer, principle, upper can only be used before
nouns. This is an indoor swimming pool. (NOT: This swimming pool is indoor. )
Present and past participles can be used as adjectives. The film was amusing. We were amused.

Rewrite the sentences putting the adjectives into the correct place,
then identify what kind of adjectives they are.

1 I love ice-cream. (strawberry, Italian, tasty) ... / lov~ taety Italian etrawb~rry
lc~cr~am .... (opinion, origin, ma~rlal)
2 They have a sofa. {leather, navy-blue, modern) They have a modern, navy-blue, leather
sofa. (opinion, colour, material)
3 He loves his bike. (new, red, expensive, mountain) He loves his expensive, new, red
mountain bike. (opinion, age, colour, used for)
4 She has a voice. (lovely, singing, pure) She has a lovely, pure, singing voice. (opinion,
opinion, used for)
5 He's just sold that suit to a woman. {beautiful, slim, tall , French, young) He's just sold that suit to a beautiful,
tall, young , slim French woman. (opinion , size , age, shape, origin)
6 She bought curtains. (brown and orange, dining-room) She bought brown and orange dining-room curtains.
(colour, be about)
7 She bakes cakes . (chocolate, delicious, birthday, round) She bakes delicious, round, chocolate, birthday cakes.
(opinion, shape, material, be about)
8 June has a teddy bear. (tiny, fluffy, brown) June has a tiny, brown, fluffy, teddy bear. (size, colour, material)
9 She was given a dress. (black, spectacular, Italian, evening) She was given a spectacular, black, Italian, evening
dress. (opinion , colour, origin, used for)
10 He bought a racquet. (tennis, graphite, new) He bought a new, graphite, tennis racquet. (age, material , used for)
11 He has a grandfather. (French, ninety-year-old, wonderful) He has a wonderful, ninety-year-old , French
grandfather. (opinion, age, origin)
12 We watched a film. (boring, German, black and white) We watched a boring , black and white, German film.
(opinion , colour, origin)
13 She wears lipstick. (pink , horrible, glossy) She wears horrible, glossy, pink lipstick. (opinion , colour, material)
14 We used to have a teacher. (strict, old , biology, American) We used to have a strict, old , American, biology
teacher. (opinion, age, origin, be about)

160
Adiectives I Adverbs I Comparisons ___.
Nouns of material, purpose or substance can be used as adjectives. (a summer suit, a television series)
Certain adjectives can be used metaphorically: silky skin (soft and smooth , like silk), BUT a sllk dress (a
dress made of silk) , stony look (disapproving look) BUT a stone wall (a wall made of stone) , golden eagle
(a bird with gold-brown feathers) BUT a gold ring (a ring made of gold), feathery snowflakes (soft and
delicate like feathers) BUT a feather pillow (a pillow containing feathers), metallic paint (paint which looks
like metal) BUT metal-rimmed glasses (glasses with a rim made of metal) , leathery meat (too firm and
difficult to cut) BUT a leather coat (a coat made of leather), a leaden sky (dark sky; the colour of lead) BUT
lead pipes (pipes made of lead), a steely character (a hard, strong, unkind character) BUT a steel-plated
tank (a vehicle with a steel covering).

~ Underline the correct adjective.

1 A gold/golden eagle glided gracefully across the sky.


2 She ruined her silk/silky suit by washing it.
3 We had to climb over a low stone/stony wall.
4 He approached the task with steel/steely determination.
5 This soap will leave your skin feeling silk/silky and soft.
6 Leathery/Leather coats never seem to go out of fashion.
7 This plant has soft feather/feathery leaves.
8 We spotted the metal/metallic blue car speeding into the tunnel ahead.
9 The manager's stone/stony expression showed that something was wrong .
10 She was given an expensive gold/golden watch for her twenty-first birthday.

Put the adjectives in the correct order.

It's a 1) ...be:autlful larg~ (stone, beautiful, large) villa on the coast, with
spectacular views of the sea. You will love the 2) huge old marble {old, huge, marble) swimming
pool we have in our 3) colourful terraced mountainside (mountainside, terraced, colourful) garden.
There is a 4) sunny rectangular stone (sunny, stone, rectangular) patio at the front with many
5) circular terracotta flower-filled (terracotta, flower-filled, circular) pots. The house has five
6) elegant medium-sized white (elegant, white, medium-sized) bedrooms and three marble
bathrooms - each with its own 7) wonderful little antique (antique, little, wonderful) wall-painting.
The living room has a 8) lovely cool marble (cool, lovely, marble) floor with 9) expensive antique
Persian (expensive, Persian, antique) rugs and comfortable sofas. You can eat in the many
10) excellent traditional Italian (Italian, excellent, traditional) restaurants nearby and enjoy using
the facilities in the new sports centre.

Compound adjectives are formed with:


present partlclples. a smart-looking man, a sharp-cutting knife
past partlclples. a much liked colleague. a well-known singer
cardinal numbers + nouns. a one-month holiday, a seventy-km speed limit, a three-year degree
prefixes and suffixes. anti-social behaviour, a part time worker
badly, Ill, poorly, well + past partlclple. a badly-treated animal, a well-established firm

Make compound adjectives to describe the following.

1 A student who has been taught well. ... a we:lltaught etude:nt...


2 A letter that you have been waiting for for a long time. a long-awaited letter
3 A person who loves having fun. a fun-loving person
4 A garden which is tended perfectly. a perfectly-tended garden
_ Adiectives I Adverbs I Comparisons
5 A life that is free of trouble. a trouble-free life
6 Avisit that was not timed well. a badly-timed/an ill-timed visit
7 An action that is not advisable. an ill-advised action
8 A journey of seven days. a seven-day journey

Most common adjectives do not have a particular ending. However there are certain common endings for
adjectives which are formed from nouns and verbs. These are: -able (predictable) , -al (practical} , -ant
(observant) , -ar (polar) , -ary (reactionary) , -ate (passionate) , -ial (racial) , -ent (dependent) , -esque
(picturesque} , -ful (remorseful) , -ian (Albanian) , -ible (sensible) , -ic (dramatic) , -ical (economical) , -ious
(vicious) , -ish (selfish) , -ist (racist) , -ive (reactive) , -less (mindless) , -like (man like) , -ly (friendly) , -ory
(celebratory) , -ous (glamorous} , -some (lonesome) , -y (sunny) .

The most common prefixes used with adjectives are: a- (asocial) , ab- (abnormal) , anti- (anticlockwise) , dis-
(d1scontent) , hyper- (hypersensitive) , ii- (illegal) , im- (immortal) , in- (incredible) , ir- (irrational) , mal-
(malnounshed) , non- (non-violent) , over- over1ct1ve) , pre- (prepacked , pro- (pro-industry) , sub-
(subterranean) , super- (superconfiden , un- mapprec1ated) , under- (underfed) .

Use the words in capitals to form a word that fits in the space in the same line.

Choosing a holiday can be an (0) .. .exciting ... EXCITE


and (1 ) delightful experience. Imagining all the DELIGHT
places you might visit can add a (2) magical MAGIC
touch to the (3) repetitive routine of everyday REPEAT
life. Long , (4) sunny beaches and a hotel room SUN
with a (5) spectacular view is what many of us SPECTACLE
expect of an (6) enjoyable holiday. Some ENJOY
people prefer a calm, (7) relaxing time, while to RELAX
others a more active, (8) adventurous holiday is ADVENTURE
more (9) appealing. Whatever you choose, if you APPEAL
plan carefully, you're bound to have an
(10) unforgettable time. FORGET

Some adjectives can be used with the as nouns to talk about groups of people in general. These are : the blind,
the deaf, the disabled , the elderly, the homeless, the hungry, the living, the middle-aged, the old, the poor,
the rich, the sick, the strong, the unemployed, the weak, etc. Disabled people need help and undersranding
The disabled need help and understanding (refers to disabled people in general) The disabled people over there
are training for the Paralymp1c Games (refers to a specific group of disabled people)

~ Fill in the where necessary.

1 He takes ... the... disabled children in his area riding on Friday afternoons.
2 When the government decided to raise taxes - rich people were unhappy and the poor were devastated.
3 The elderly as well as - homeless people can very often suffer from loneliness.
4 We were relieved to hear that all the injured were recovered from the wreckage before the plane exploded.
5 The survivors carried the injured people to the ambulances.
6 The deaf communicate by using sign language.

162
Adiectives I Adverbs I Comparisons ____,
Adverbs normally describe verbs, adjectives, other adverbs or whole sentences. He swims very fast They tell
us how (adverbs of manner - carefully), where (adverbs of place - there), when (adverbs of time - tomorrow),
how often (adverbs of frequency - always), OR how much (adverbs of degree - completely) something
happens. There are also relative adverbs (when, where. why) and sentence adverbs (maybe) .

Order of Adverbs

Adverbs can be used in front, mid or end position in a sentence.

Front Mid End i


. All afternoon th;-y-p;;y;d. q~i~tiy i~ th.e sltting r~~~~!
Adverbs of manner can be used in any position ; in front position they give emphasis. She opened the letter
carefully Carefully. she opened the letter. (emphasis)
Adverbs of manner, place and time, when used in the same sentence, are usually placed as follows:

subject + verb manner place time


He was workmg , qwetly , m the shed : a// day.

Note that when there is a verb of movement, the order is place - manner - time.

subject + verb place manner time :

She went ........ ~~e:.~ . :J :.~~:.~~~. .~.X~st~'.d~y. '!


Adverbs of time usually go in end position. They also go in front position to emphasise the time.
.. ................._ ................. _.... ..
subject + verb place ~ manner time time subject + verb place manner
..
=
.. .. ...
..:... ..... .. . ,..;.,
;. .. ... ... .. ...:.
She goes
....................... ............
, to the gym ' on foot : every day. Every day :
=~.... ......:. ... ll she goes
...... . :. ........................: :.......................:.................................... : to the gym : on foot. .
.:. ........................:................... .

Adverbs of frequency (always, ever, occasionally, seldom, sometimes, usually, etc) go after the auxiliary
but before the main verb. She is always complaining. She always comes on time In short answers, however,
adverbs of frequency go before the auxiliary. Is he always so bad tempered?" 'Yes, he always is
Adverbs of degree (almost, hardly, quite, etc) go before the words they modify. Ive almost finished.

Rewrite the sentences putting the adverbs in the correct place and making any other necessary
changes.

1 Ferries sail to the island . (weekly, twice , only, during the winter)
.. .Ferries sail to the island only twice weekly during the winter....
2 He does the shopping. (reluctantly, at the supermarket, every week)
(Every week) he reluctantly does the shopping at the supermarket (every week) .
3 She waited for her test results. (anxiously, in the hospital, all day)
She waited anxiously in the hospital all day for her test results.
4 The clock strikes twelve times. (exactly, in the hall, at midday)
(At midday) the clock in the hall strikes exactly twelve times (at midday) .
5 My mother used to read to me. (aloud, always, in the evenings)
My mother always used to read aloud to me in the evenings.
6 The soldiers marched . (to the battlefield, bravely, yesterday)
(Yesterday) the soldiers marched bravely to the battlefield (yesterday) .
7 They go by car. (at weekends, to the leisure centre, sometimes)
(At weekends) they sometimes go to the leisure centre by car (at weekends) .
_____ Adiectives I Adverbs I Comparisons
8 We arrived after a bumpy flight. (in Scotland, eventually, safely, extremely)
(Eventually) we (eventually) arrived in Scotland safely after an extremely bumpy flight.
9 The detective had been following the suspect. (all day, carefully)
The detective had been (carefully) following the suspect (carefully) all day.
10 She walks. (quickly, every morning , to the station)
(Every morning) she walks to the station quickly (every morning).
11 The little boy ran. (excitedly, out of the room, suddenly)
(Suddenly) the little boy (suddenly) ran excitedly out of the room.
12 She turned up looking annoyed . (at the party, unexpectedly, terribly)
She turned up (unexpectedly) at the party (unexpectedly) looking terribly annoyed.
13 He studied. (hard , all morning, in his bedroom)
(All morning) he studied hard in his bedroom (all morning).
14 She looked at her reflection. (for ten minutes, carefully, in the mirror)
(For ten minutes) she (carefully) looked at her reflection (carefully) in the mirror (for ten minutes) .
15 The children sit and play. (in their room , for hours, happily)
The children sit (in their room) and play happily for hours (in their room).
16 He waved goodbye. (to his friend , at the airport, sadly)
He sadly waved goodbye to his friend at the airport.
17 The old boat sailed. (slowly, through the water, this afternoon)
The old boat sailed (slowly) through the water (slowly) this afternoon.
18 He ran to answer the phone. (down the stairs, to the hall , quickly)
He ran quickly down the stairs to the hall to answer the phone.
19 She sat reading a book. (all day, lazily, by the fire)
(All day) she sat (lazily) by the fire (lazily) (all day) reading a book (all day).
20 He looked to see if anyone was there. (out the window, nervously, this morning)
(This morning) he looked (nervously) out the window (nervously) (this morning) to see if anyone was there.

Rewrite the text putting the adverbs in the correct place.

Have you th ought about your child's future? (carefully) Have you thought about
sending your child to boarding school, but have been particularly worried about
how your child would react to being away from you? (particularly) On the 22nd and
23rd of this month, we, at St James, are opening our doors to parents like you. St
James is conveniently located near Chatwick main train station and sits picturesquely
on a mountainside overlooking the Menta Lakes. (conveniently/picturesquely)
Students sleep in twin rooms that have been tastefully decorated and are specially
designed to be as comfortable as possi ble. (tastefully/specially) Students work
hard all day and are supervised by experienced teachers. (all day) In the evening
they can sit in our comfo rtable canteen for a very nutritious meal prepared daily by our resident chef who
expertly selects only fresh ingredients. (daily/expertly) Once you 've spent the day with us, we can
guarantee you and your child wi ll want to reserve a place at once. (at once)
...Hav~ you thought oa~lly about your chlld'e futur~?. ..

There are certain adverbs which have the same form as their adjectives. These are: best, better, big, cheap*,
clean* , clear* , close* , cold, daily, dead , dear* , deep, direct, dirty, early, easy, extra, far, fast, fine* , free ,
further, hard, high, hourly, inside, kindly, last, late, long , loud* , low, monthly, past, quick*, quiet* , right,
slow, straight, sure, thin* , thick, tight, weekly, well , wide, wrong, yearly, etc. She was an early riser She
woke up early. Those adverbs with an asterisk (*) can be found with -ly ending without a difference in meaning,
but then they are more formal. I bought it cheap. (informal) ALSO I bought it cheaply (formal)

64
Adiectives I Adverbs I Comparisons .........
Identify the words in bold as adjectives or adverbs.

This year's road race was the 1) best (adj) I've ever seen . The
event is held 2) yearly (adv) , and entrance to the main stand
is 3) free (adj) . The race is always a 4) sure (adj) exhibition of
exceptionally 5) fine (adj) driving. It was a 6) cold (adj)
morning, and the teams had woken up 7) early (adv) to get
their cars ready. They had trained 8) long (adv) and 9) hard
(adv) to get here. The race was due to start at 11 o'clock, but
started 10) late (adv) as the track wasn't 11) clean (adj) .
There was a 12) loud (adj) roar when all the drivers started
their cars, then they proceeded 13) quickly (adv) to the starting line. The gun went off, and the cars
moved, as if in 14) slow (adj) motion. They drove 15) past (adv) the stands, and turned a 16) tight (adj) corner
onto the main circuit. On the fifth lap one driver made a 17) wrong (adj) decision, and his car stopped
18) instantly (adv) as it collided with a safety barrier. The race was 19) fast (adj) , and all the drivers drove
20) well (adv) , but it was 21) clear (adj) from the beginning who was going to win: an Australian driver had
taken the 22) inside (adj) lane and overtaken everybody in only the second lap. Over the rest of the race he
managed to distance himself 23) further (adv) from all the other cars. It was an 24) easy (adj) victory for him,
and he continued round the track for an 25) extra (adj) lap to celebrate his win.

Adverbs with two forms and differences in meaning


deep = a long way down fully = completely near = close wide = off-target
deeply = greatly hard = intently; with effort nearly = almost widely = to a large
direct = by the shortest route hardly = scarcely pretty = fairly extent
directly = immediately high = at/to a high level prettily = in a pretty way wrong = incorrectly
easy = gently and slowly highly = very much short = suddenly wrongly = unjustly
easily = without difficulty last = after all others shortly = soon (wrongly goes before
free = without cost lastly = finally sure = certainly verbs/past part. - wrong/
freely = willingly late = not early surely = without a doubt wrongly go after verbs)
full = exactly; very lately = recently

l'fil Underline the correct item.

1 I managed to get to New York easy/easily by flying there directly/direct.


2 She has been deeply/deep upset by his behaviour late/lately.
3 Lately/Late the cost of living has been increasing; things generally are not nearly/near as cheap as they
used to be.
4 It is wide/widely believed that she was wrong/wrongly accused .
5 Laura is a very shy person who rare/rarely goes out and she does not mix free/freely with the other students.
6 She is !!!9!!!.Y/high regarded in the school as people can get on with her easily/easy.
7 I was not full/fully satisfied with the doctor as he had wrong/wrongly diagnosed my previous illness.
8 "Do you intend to leave shortly/short?" "I think so. I've nearly/near finished."
9 He'll surely/sure get a good grade; he's been studying very hardly/hard for the past year.
10 I was prettily/pretty embarrassed when I realised that I had hardly/hard enough money to pay the bill.
11 He came last/lastly in the race and was ~/prettily disappointed with his performance.
12 The train goes direct/directly to Edinburgh without stopping so it will probably be full/fully.
13 She free/freely admitted that she had not been working very hard/hardly recently.-
14 The hotel's wide/widely range of sports facilities left the guests pretty/prettily satisfi ed.
15 Sure/Surely we must be near/nearly there by now.
~ Adie ctive s I Adve rbs I Com paris ons
before
Quite (= fairly, to some degree) is used in favourable comments . He's quite good at tennis. It is used
ian. Quite (= completely) is used with adverbs, some verbs and
a/an . Hes quite a successful business/T
certain, dreadful, different, exhausted , extraordin ary, false,
adjectives such as: alone, amazing, brilliant,
the
horrible, impossibl e, perfect, ridiculous , right, sure, true, useless, etc. It s quite certain he committed
crime I m quite sure he hasn't told us the truth.
Rather is used: a) in unfavourable comments . She's rather bad at Maths. b) in favourable comments
than we
meaning to an unusual degree. The mee11ng was rather interestin g. (it was more interesting
rather taller than me Rather is used before or after a/an.
expected) and c) with comparative degree. She's
a rather co day 1s rather a cotd da;
ty hard
Fairly/Pretty are synonymous with quite and rather. They can be used after a. She's a fairly/pret
wor ng e soi

Underline the words in bold which can be used. In some sentences all words might be possible.

1 Ann has four children , and they're all quite/rather/fairly/pretty well-behaved.


impressed .
2 That was quite/rather/fairly/p retty an interesting speech Jane gave. I was quite/rather/fairly/~
3 Life is quite/rath er/fairly/p retty more difficult now than it was in the past.
4 It was quite/rath er/fairly/p retty obvious that he was lying.
5 Ken is quite/rath er/fairly/p retty a good painter and quite/rath er/fairly/p retty imaginative too.
but they are
6 The supermarket stocks quite/rath er/fairly/p retty a wide variety of imported products
quite/rather/fairly/pre tty expensive .
sure to dress
7 It's quite/rath er/fairly/p retty colder today than it was yesterday . Be quite/rath er/fairly/p retty
up well.
to get on
8 She's quite/rath er/fairly/p retty an arrogant woman. I find her quite/rath er/fairly/p retty difficult
with .
9 Can we stop for a bite to eat soon? I'm feeling qu ite/rather/fairly/pre tty hungry.
10 The exercise took quite/rather/fairly/p retty longer than I expected.
can do it.
11 This exercise is quite/rath er/fairly/p retty difficult but I'm quite/rath er/fairly/p retty certain you
retty cheap.
12 The journey takes quite/rath er/fairly/p retty a long time but the ticket is quite/rath er/fairly/p

Regular Compara tive and Superlat ive Forms

Adjectives Positive Comparative Superlative


of one syllable add -(e)r/-(e)st to tall taller (than) the tallest (of/in)
form their comparative and close closer (than) the closest (of/in)
superlative forms sad sadder (than) the saddest (of/in)
of two syllables ending in -ly, -y, -w silly sillier (than) the silliest '(of/in)
also add -er/-est narrow narrower (than) .. the narrowest (of/in)
of two or more syllables take modern more modern (than) the most modern (of/in)
more/most beautiful more beautiful (than) the most beautiful (of/in)

their
Note: clever, common , cruel, friendly, gentle, narrow, polite, shallow, simple, stupid , quiet form
comparative and superlative forms with -er/-est or more/most.
o 1rro~ er - na1 rawest ALSO narrow more na o~ - most narrow

166
Adiectives I Adverbs I Comparisons _
Put the adjectives in brackets into the correct form.

Kinsale may be one of 1) ...the 5mallest... (small) towns in Southern Ireland but it's
also one of 2) the most famous (famous) . It is well known for its 3) wonderful (wonderful)
fish restaurants. Some of 4) the best (good) known chefs in the world have trained in
the restaurants there. The town itself is one of 5) the most picturesque (picturesque) in
Southern Ireland. It's situated by the sea, which ensures that it is 6) cooler (cool) in the
summer than other inland towns. A 7) huge (huge) cathedral overlooks the town and
it is one of 8) the most breathtaking (breathtaking) in the whole area. To the north of the
town lies one of 9) the highest (high) mountain ranges in the country. The town is very
10) beautiful (beautiful) , with its many craft shops and narrow cobbled streets. Most
tourists visit Kinsale for its fish restaurants, which are family owned . This means that
the service there is 11) better (good) than in other restaurants. The staff are 12) more
welcoming (welcoming) there than anywhere else. The food may be 13) expensive
(expensive) but you'll have one of 14) the most pleasurable (pleasurable) evenings of
your life there. So go ahead and visit Kinsale.

Adverbs ~ Positive ~ Comparative . Superlative


..................................................... 1-..t-1
adverbs having the same forms as their
. t. dd (e) (e)st
adiec 1ves a - r/-
l~ slow !~ slower l~ the slowest

e~~ly ~~.~~~::~i..:~.~#.: ~~~:~:~~~~~~~~~t::::.::::::::::::::r~~~!i.:::::::::::::::::: :::r~~~1:~~:~::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::r::~~:~: i.~~~~~~~::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::


two-syllable or compound adverbs take often more often ~ the most often
more/most (Compound adverbs are
adjectives + -ly. useful _ usefully) comfortably more comfortably I the most

comfortably

Irregular Forms
. .
Positive ~ Comparative ~ Superlative ~ a) further/farther (adv) = longer (in distance)
C ..............) .................... I
good I well better best ' His office is further/farther away than mine.
bad I badly worse worst further (adj) = more I need further information on this.
much more most i b) very + positive degree I'm very happy in my job.
many I a lot of ~ more most c) even/much/far/a bit + comparative degree The working
little less least cond;tions were even worse than we expected.
far farther farthest d) most + adj/adv of positive degree = very
She was waiting most patiently to see the doctor.
~ar. .. ................ f.~~~.~.~........-' ........!.~~~.~.~.~ ........: any + comparative (used in negatives and questions)
Well is the adverb of good. He is a good cookj e) Can't you drive any faster?
He cooks well. j

Change the words in brackets into adverbs and put them into the correct form.

Finally, a new washing powder that gets rid of stains 1) .. .effectively... (effective) and leaves your clothes
2) brilliantly (brilliant) white. New 'All-bright' cleans 3) more powerfully (powerful) than any oth er product on the
market. It gets the dirt out 4) quicker/more quickly (quick) and 5) more thoroughly (thorough) than any ordi nary
powder. Indeed, in no time at all new 'All-bright' will be selling 6) better (good) than any other brand at you r
supermarket. With a prize-winning formula that has been researched 7) more extensively (extensive) by our
scientists than any other product, s uccess is guaranteed . With new 'All-bright' your money will go 8) further (far)
and you' ll get the 9) best (good) possible results . So pick up your box of new 'All-bright' today!
Adiectives I Adverbs I Comparisons
filill Underline the correct item.

I am writing to request 1) farther/further information on the climbing holidays you run. I am 2) most/much
interested in climbing , but fear that I will be 3) most/much older than the other participants. Also, I am
4) far/very less fit than I used to be . Nonetheless, I am 5) even/very keener on the sport than ever. So my
question is, will there be climbs which are 6) a bit/most easier for older ones like me? In addition , do you do
discounts for pensioners? Your holidays are 7) very/even expensive for someone on a low income. I look
forward to hearing from you and receiving 8) any/more details.

Types of Comparisons

as ... (positive degree) ... as He is as handsome as everyone says he is!


not so/as ... (positive degree) ... as She isn't as tall as her sister.
such a(n)/so ... as Mrs Jones 1s not so friendly as she looks.
twice/three times, etc/half as ... She puts four times as much sugar in her tea as me.
(positive degree) ... as If he was half as lucky as you, he'd be extremely rich.
the same as He has the same views as his father.
look, sound , smell, taste + like That dress looks like an old sack.
less ... (positive degree) ... than This chocolate has less fat than that one but the Swiss chocolate
the least ... (positive degree) ... of/in has the least fat of all.
the + comparative ... , the + The easier the exam, the higher your marks will be.
comparative The more people who use buses, the better it is for the environment.
comparative + and + comparative It's getting colder and colder every day.
prefer + -ing form/noun + to + -ing I prefer eating healthily to eating junk food.
form/noun (general preference) Children usually prefer chips to vegetables.
would prefer + to-inf+ rather than I would prefer to go swimming rather than watch television all day.
+ inf without to (specific preference)
would rather/sooner + inf without to I'd rather walk than drive.
+ than + inf without to
clause + whereas/while + clause . This book says the battle was in 1066, whereas that book says it
(comparison by contrast) was in 1166.

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 As he gets older, he seems to become more sensible.


the The older he becomes, ... the more sensible... he seems.
2 The students would rather start early than finish late.
than The students would prefer to start early rather than finish late.
3 Wouldn't you rather have juice than water?
to Wouldn't you prefer juice to water?
4 I spent half as much money as my brother.
twice My brother spent twice as much money as I did.
5 Riding a bike is easier than riding a horse.
as Riding a horse is not as easy as riding a bike.
6 Wouldn 't you prefer to come out instead of staying at home alone?
rather Wouldn't you rather come out than stay at home alone?
7 I didn't think it would be so difficult.
more It was more difficult than I thought.

168
Adiectives I Adverbs I Comparisons
8 This building is older than the church .
so The church is not so old as this building.
9 His job is getting more hectic all the time.
and His job is getting more and more hectic all the time .
10 David and I have received the same number of presents.
many I have received as many presents as David .
11 I'd weigh a ton if I ate all you do.
as If I ate as much as you, I'd weigh a ton.
12 The post office was nearer than we thought.
far The post office was not as far as we thought.
13 If you work hard , the exam will be easy.
the The harder you work, the easier the exam will be.
14 The party will be better if many people come.
more The more people (who) come, the better the party will be.
15 I would rather eat chocolate than apples.
eating I prefer eating chocolate to (eating) apples.
16 My husband likes a cooked breakfast but I prefer just toast.
whereas I prefer just toast, whereas my husband likes a cooked breakfast.
17 Today I feel happier than ever.
as I've never felt as happy as (I do) today.
18 That dress is a third of the cost of the blue one.
much The blue dress costs three times as much as that one.
19 Chris finds Maths easier than Physics.
not Physics is not as easy as Maths for Chris.
20 I' m sorry but this is the fastest I can go.
any I'm sorry but I can't go any faster than this.

Like - As

Like is used : a) for similarities. She works like a slave (she isn't a slave), b) after feel, look, smell, taste,
sound + noun. It feels like velvet. It looks like Turner 1s going to win the race. and c) with nouns, pronouns
or the -ing form to express similarity. It 's like walking on a tightrope.
As is used: a) to say what somebody or something really is Gobs/roles) . She works as a clerk. (she's a clerk).
b) after accept, be known, class, describe, refer to, regard, use. He's known as an expert on antiques
c) in the expressions: as usual, as ... as, as much, the same as. Certain items such as scissors, knives etc
should be kept out of reach of children and d) in clauses of manner to mean in the way that. Do it as I
showed you.

\@ Fill in as or like.

1 Although it lives in the sea, the whale is classed ... atL a mammal. It may look
like a dangerous beast, but it can be as gentle as a lamb.
2 My friend George describes himself as a great singer. He thinks he has a
voice like an angel, but when he sings it sounds like a cat howling! He works
as a taxi driver and everybody keeps telling him not to give up his job!
3 McTaverty's Tavern has been described as the b est restaurant in
Perthshire, with dishes that smell delicious and taste like homemade food .
Surprisingly, the prices are not as high as you might expect.
4 Marjorie works as a criminal lawyer and is regarded as an expert in her field.
She works extremely hard and at the end of a long day in court all she feels
like doing is collapsing in front of the TV.
Adiectives I Adverbs I Comparisons
5 If. you want to go on a diet, do as your doctor tells you. There are some foods such as vegetables which you
can eat as much of as you want. Why not try soya meat? It tastes just like real meat and can be used in the
same way as mince, but is a low-fat food.
6 As I was saying , you look exactly like my cousin Hilary - you know, the one who works as an air hostess.
7 Nobody is as lucky as Josh. Last week he received an envelope that looked like an invitation. When Josh
opened it, he went as white as a sheet. He was sent a ticket for a 3-week holiday in Africa as a winning prize
for a comp13tition he had entered. Since the trip was scheduled for the following day, Josh ran like the wind
to pack his things and let his boss know of the unexpected journey.
8 Howard and Hugh aren't related but they look almost exactly the same as each other. They are referred to
as 'The Twins'. When they walk into a room , it's like seeing double.
9 For as long as I live, I'll never forget my first holiday in Hawaii. It was like paradise. I intend to return there as
soon as I can afford the air fare.
10 After Myrna left the beauty parlour she felt like a film star. Her hair wasn't as unruly as usual and her new
make-up gave her face a glamorous look. When her friends saw her they were so impressed that they kept
referring to her as 'The Diva' for the rest of the day!

CJJ

In Other Words
Kate is more intelligent than Ruth. Can't you find a faster car than this?
Ruth isn't as intelligent as Kate (is). Is this the fastest car you can find?
Ruth is less intelligent than Kate. I prefer (eating) olives to (eating) pickles.
I've never seen such a cute baby. I like olives more than pickles.
It's the cutest baby I've ever seen. I'd prefer to eat olives rather than (eat) pickles.
As he gets richer, he becomes more selfish. I'd rather eat olives than pickles.
The richer he gets, the more selfish he becomes. He's a good basketball player.
He's the best dancer of all. He plays basketball well.
No one else dances as well as he does. Ann is very motherly to her child.
He dances better than any other dancer. Ann behaves in a motherly way towards her child .
He's a better dancer than anyone else. That shirt is similar to this one.
He's better than any other dancer. That shirt and this one are alike.

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 Samantha is prettier than Julia.


as Julia ... is not as pretty as... Samantha.
2 He's the most amusing person I've ever met.
than He is more amusing than anyone I've ever met.
3 John can be a very good cook when he is in the right mood.
well John can cook very well when he is in the right mood.
4 As I get older, I become happier.
the The older I get, the happier I become.
5 Why didn't you find a cheaper restaurant?
cheapest Is this the cheapest restaurant you could find?
6 Laura has been a professional dancer for five years.
professionally Laura has danced/has been dancing professionally for five years.
7 Caroline is the meanest woman I've ever met.
never I've never met such a mean woman as Caroline.
8 We have got the same number of brothers.
many I have got as many brothers as you.
9 Charlotte and Elizabeth look very much alike.
similar Charlotte looks very similar to Elizabeth.
Adiectives I Adverbs I Comparisons __
10 Doctor Doyle is caring to all her patients.
way Doctor Doyle behaves in a caring way to all her patients.
11 We've never had such a wonderful holiday.
most This is the most wonderful holiday we've ever had .
12 He plays snooker very well.
good He is a very good snooker player.
13 Tracy eats more cheese than I do.
less I eat less cheese than Tracy does.
14 He likes reading more than watching TV.
rather He prefers to read rather than watch TV.
15 Jane is more artistic than I am .
less I am less artistic than Jane.

. Use the words in capitals to form a word that fits in the space in the same line .

\..!~
Coffee is o ne of the world 's (0) ... favourite.. . drinks. Legend has it th at it was FAVOUR
discovered in the 9th ce ntury by a shepherd when he no ticed his he rd of goats 'dancing' after
eating some red be rri es from a(n) (1) unusual tree. T oday. mo re than 500 b illio n cups of USUAL
coffee are cons umed (2) globally each year. In fact, coffee is the world's second most GLOBAL
(3) valuable traded product a fter oil. The coffee industry is worth 60 billion dollars VALUE
(4) annually. ANNUAL
The world 's la rgest coffee (5) produce r is Brazil. The country has a lmost 4 billio n coffee PRODUCE
trees a nd produces about 30% of the world 's supply. Brazil 's coffee industry is so
(6) significant to its econo my that in 2001, it sta rted producing an inte rnatio na l SIGNIFY
postage stamp which sme lt like coffee in orde r to promo te it!
Coffee is drunk in (7) virtually every country around the VIRTUAL
../ world. But different nations have very different
(8) preferences as to how they like to drink the ir coffee. PREFER
' In some countries espresso is very (9) fas hionable. In FASHION
t. - ~t h~r~, instant coffee is popular. However you drink
~ 1t, 1t 1s an (10) effective way to start your day. EFFECT

:--tJt tI1JU4t.1. 1;; t; 1C ------------------------------------------------~ ----------:


'I (See Suggested Answer section) ,I
Look at the pictures below, then talk about the animals using comparative and superlative :
forms. Use the suggestions given as well as your own ideas.
expensive to feed , intelligent, difficult, friend ly, beautiful , useful, good companion etc.

A dog is more expensive to feed than a budgie.


Folder lfil
Look at Appendix 2, then fill in the correct particle(s) .

1 Carpool lane penalties should be done ...away 9 Do up your shoe laces or you'll trip.
with .... 10 The house was so badly built that two walls fell
2 The car drew up at the side of the road . in/down after three months.
3 You shouldn't spend all your money as you may 11 Peter went to the bank to draw out 300 to pay for
need something to fall back on in the future. his new computer.
4 It was after midnight when the train finally drew in 12 Our holiday plans fell through due to lack of
at the station. money.
5 If you fall behind with your rent, you'll be evicted. 13 When the man approached her, she drew back in
6 The soldiers fell on the oncoming army and fear.
defeated them. 14 He wants to save up to buy a car so he'll have to
7 You shouldn't put your parents down. They do do without a holiday this year.
care for you. 15 She fell for his story and gave him all her money,
8 Joan is crying because she fell out with her best only to find he was a con man.
friend. 16 After a long discussion she fell in with our plan .

Look at Appendix 3, then fill in the correct preposition(s).

1 She's experienced ... in ... restoring paintings. 13 The receptionist had a little difficulty in
2 He was doubtful about passing his Physics tests. understanding the foreign tourist.
3 The athlete failed in his attempt to break the world 14 She is an expert at cooking Japanese food .
record . 15 Professor Davidson is an expert in Sociology.
4 Tom failed to pass his driving test for the fourth time. 16 He's an expert with this type of machinery.
5 London is famous tor its museums. 17 She's an expert in/on Greek history.
6 Mary found it difficult to cope with two children and 18 The memory of this computer is equal to that one.
a full -time job. 19 All the children are fond of their new teacher.
7 Diane argued with Sally about/over who would do 20 She remained faithful to her beliefs.
the ironing. 21 Most people believe that experiments on animals
8 After such a hard winter we are all eager for should be stopped.
summer to come. 22 Everybody congratulated him on his success.
9 Now that Jane is nine, she is capable of crossing 23 This music is familiar to me.
the street on her own. 24 A literature student should be familiar with Jane
10 He didn 't accept the job because he was Austen's novels.
dissatisfied with the wages offered . 25 All the students were enthusiastic about the school
11 I don't think there is any excuse for such bad trip.
behaviour. 26 She was envious of my diamond engagement ring .
12 The boss was furious with me about the mix-up in
the travel arrangements.

~ Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 The smell of burning wood reminds me of my childhood.


brings The smell of burning wood ... brings back memories... of my childhood .
2 He ought to have made up for his mistake.
better It would have been better if he had made up for his mistake.
3 The intensive course has exhausted them.
worn They were worn out by the intensive course.
4 His parents do not want him to become a musician.
opposed His parents are opposed to him/his becoming a musician.
5 Everybody went to the party except for Anna.
who Anna was the only one who did not go to the party.
6 She'll probably look for another flat.
likely She is likely to look for another flat.
7 She put on warm clothes so that she wouldn't catch a cold .
avoid She put on warm clothes to avoid catching a cold .
8 John said I could borrow his bike.
permission John gave me (his) permission to borrow his bike.
9 I didn't mean to offend you.
intention I had no intention of offending you.
10 He is proud of his collection of French impressionists.
pride He takes pride in his collection of French impressionists.
11 When did the earthquake happen?
is How long is it since the earthquake happened?
12 Train tickets aren't as expensive as plane tickets.
less Train tickets are less expensive than plane tickets.

Complete the sentences below with a suitable word or words from the box, then explain
D the idioms.
a brush , b rass , a bat, a feather, a mouse, life, gold , a fi ddle, clockwork, two peas in a pod
1 Old Mr Higgins is as fit as ...a fiddle... . He still jogs ten miles every morning. ... (in s very good phyelcsl etate). ..
2 She gets up at six every morning as regular as clockwork. (extremely regular)
3 My suitcase feels as light as a feather. I must have forgotten to pack something. (very light}
4 I wouldn 't take any notice of anything he says. He's as daft as a brush. (very silly)
5 My dad is as blind as a bat without his glasses. (unable to see clearly or well)
6 I thought John was abroad , but he turned up at the meeting as large as life. (causing surprise by one's
unexpected presence somewhere)
7 The twins are as alike as two peas in a pod. Nobody can tell them apart. (look exactly the same)
8 She marched to the front of the queue as bold as brass and demanded to be served at once. (lacking due respect)
9 The children were as good as gold. I didn't hear a peep out of them all night. (very well-behaved)
10 We have to be as quiet as a mouse so that we don 't wake up the baby. (very quiet)

Put a tick in the appropriate boxes. Then choose any three to make sentences.

a experience a living a prize a salary possession weight a game sb's heart


win ./ ./ ./
earn ./ ./
gain ./ ./ ./

b life a passport disease rumours a road the agony a building


spread ./ ./
extend ./ ./ ./
prolong ./ ./
Practice Test [! _ _ _ __
Part 1
For questions 1 - 12, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits
each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).
I
Example:
0 A show B make C write D put 0 ~
A
~
B C
~ -D

biJ'&:: ..~J
"
:!.~:t.~
-~. ~.~ ..-,~."-' .,:.Jo
,.., ~
,
;. Water is one Water
~~.. -"' ' of our most precious
~,.- >
'.: ...., resources; to (O) ... D... .1t
:\! : simply, without water there
would be no life. Unfortunately, many of
us seem to have forgotten this fact, and as a
result the world is (1) .............. the danger of running
(2) .............. fresh water. The actual amount of water on earth has
changed (3) .............. since the time of the dinosaurs. The problem has
been (4) .............. by people's misuse of our water supply. This not only
means that we have polluted our rivers and seas, but also that we are
(5) .............. a great deal of this precious resource. Unfortunately, the
destruction of the rain forests has (6) .............. this problem worse since much
of the rain that falls is (7) .............. because it runs off into the sea. The
population of the earth is increasing daily, so it is vital that we (8) .............. a
solution to this problem before it is too late. The first step is to educate people,
especially by reminding them of the (9) .............. of water. For most of us it is
available whenever we require it, (10) .............. to bathe in or to drink, so we
seldom bother to think about it. People then need to be taught how to reuse
or recycle water. One of the simplest ways of doing this is to reuse bath
or shower water for (11) .............. cleaning or watering the garden.
Ponds which filter used water are also becoming popular.
Whatever methods we might decide to use, we must
(12) .. .. .......... the value of water and do our
best to conserve it.

1 @ facing B witnessing c viewing D noticing

2 @ out of B into c off D away with

3 A lots B many little D few


4 A brought out @ caused c done D happened

5 A exploiting @ wasting c spending D throwing

6 A caused B done c created @ made

7 A missed B fallen lost D given up

8 A recover B discover c come up @ find


9@ value B cost c price D worth

10 A if only @ whether c weather D either

11 A housing @ household c housekeeping D housework

12 A focus B estimate c view @ appreciate

174
Part 2
For questions 13 - 24, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap.
Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided .

Example: 0 I TI0 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Shyness is a problem that is common (0) ............ ..


many people . According to Mr Zimbardo, a
distinguished psychologist at Stanford University,
eight (13) ot.:t of ten people are reported to have
(14) been shy at some time in their lives. Most
people (15) who have this extreme emotion suffer
feelings of discomfort and anxiety at the thought of
meeting others, especially at social gatherings
(16) like parties. Keeping away from such
situations is not really a solution , and if a shy
person (17) can manage to overcome their fears,
they can gain a feeling of self-satisfaction as
(18) well as improve their social life. However, ifthe
case of shyness (19) is severe , the label 'shyness'
is inappropriate. At this stage it is termed 'social
phobia'. Those suffering (20) from this condition
are very often bright, talented and sensitive
people. (21) But feelings of social isolation,
resulting from loneliness, can lead to additional
problems (22) such as eating disorders or
addiction to medication. Fortunately, (23) a
number of treatments are available and come in
the form of individual (24) or group therapy and
training. Therefore, a person who has social
phobia has an excellent chance of recovery.
Practice Test 9
Part 3
For questions 25-34, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of
some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an
example at the beginning (0).

Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

The (0) .......................... Olympic Games began in Greece ORIGIN


almost 3,000 years ago. They were held in the valley of
Olympia and were part of a (25) festival to honour the Greek FESTIVE
God Zeus. Only free, male citizens were given (26) permission to take part in the PERMIT
games . It is believed that a month before the games, a sacred truce was cal led over
the entire Greek world. All wars and hostilities had to stop so that (27) competitors COMPETE
and spectators could travel to Olympia in complete (28) safety. SAVE
(29) Initially, the Olympics consisted of just one event: a sprint. It was on ly in INITIAL
(30) later years that more events were added . Winners of events received a crown LATE
made of wild olive leaves. These crowns were (31) highly prized. HIGH
Just as it happens today, athletes who were (32) victorious in their events became VICTORY
celebrities and brought great glory to their cities of birth They would receive many
perks from their home cities such as (33) invitations to feasts, front-row seats at the INVITE
theatre, and free meals for life. Special privileges such as (34) exclusion from paying EXCLUDE
taxes or a position on the local council were also common.

176
Part 4
For questions 35-42, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to
the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use
between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the
beginning (0).

Example:

O Could I use your phone please?


MIND
Would ............................... .. ................... ............. ........ ..................... .................................... your phone?

Write the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the a nswer boxes provided.

35 Can't you think of a better excuse?


BEST
Is that the best excuse you can think of?

36 Would you mind if I turned down the volume?


TO
Would you object to me/my turning down the volume?

37 It's possible that they will call before they visit us.
LIKELY
They are likely to call before they visit us.

38 I'm sure he was trying to be kind.


BEEN
He must have been trying to be kind .

39 After the film finished the audience left through the back exit.
END
At the end of the film the audience left through the back exit.

40 Don't hesitate to call me if you need me.


TWICE
Don't think twice about calling me if you need me.

4 1 It was hard for her to get used to living abroad .


TIM E
She had a hard time getting used to living abroad .

42 She speaks Spanish fluently.


FLUENT
She is a fluent speaker of Spanish.
Revision 1
[@ Choose the correct item.

1 He greeted us and went on .......... for the delay. 14 Most children prefer watching TV .......... reading a
A have apologised @ to apologise book.
B apologise D apologising @ to C from
B but D than
2 Sheila stopped .. ........ the medicine, as it wasn't
doing any good. 15 She would prefer to go out ......... . stay at home.
A to take C take A of C from
B have taken @ taking @ rather than D to

3 I don't look .......... my mother at all. 16 The little girl admitted .......... some sweets from
A as C alike the jar.
B similar @ like A take C to take
@ to having taken D taken
4 He was made .......... the name of his accessory.
A revealing to reveal 17 She was dissatisfied .......... her exam resu lts.
B having revealed D reveal A from C of
@ with D about
5 It's .......... cold today to go surfing.
A much C very 18 Don't forget to congratulate Robin .......... passing
B far @ too her driving test.
@ on C of
6 I'd rather buy a silk dress .......... a cotton one. D in
B about
A of @ than
B from D rather than 19 She hasn't enrolled for the course .. ........ .
A until C already
7 The more carefully you read , .... .... .. you 'll D still
@ yet
understand the book.
@ the better C the best 20 Brian hates .......... ; he likes swimming instead.
B best D better A to jog @ jogging
B to jogging D been jogging
8 Mr Smith is as fit as a .......... despite his age.
A bat @ fiddle 21 It was .......... an uninspiring speech and we were
B glove D hat very disappointed.
A fairly C very
9 Is it worth .......... so much money on space travel? @ rather D pretty
A have spent C spend
B to spend @ spending 22 I'd sooner .......... to university than get a job.
A to go C having gone
10 We saw a great film at the cinema two weeks
@ go D going

A yet C before 23 My brother objects .......... me with my homework.


@ ago D still A to help C have helped
B help @ to helping
11 I regret .......... you that you haven 't passed.
A informing C inform 24 The journey was .......... longer than I thought it
B have informed @ to inform would be.
A farther C very
12 Do you fancy ......... . a pizza tonight?
B any @ even
A to order ordering
B have ordered D order
13 My exam results are nearly the same .......... yours,
that's a real coincidence!
@ as C of
B in D like

178
Revision 1
: Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

My father was very pleased when he 1) bought (buy) this house because he 2) had always wanted (always/want)
to own a house by the sea. My parents 3) have been living (live) here for twenty years now and they
4) have never regretted (never/regret) leaving the city. I 5) am staying (stay) here at the moment because I 6) need
(need) some sea air. It's wonderful. I 7) walk (walk) on the beach every day. I'm sure I 8) will be (be) sad to leave
this earthly paradise.

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

Next month, John 1) is starting/is going to start (start) a new job. He 2) decided (decide) to leave his old job when
his aunt, who 3) owns (own) a company, asked him to join her. He is sure that he 4) will enjoy (enjoy) the new
job as he 5) has always wanted (always/ want) to work in business. At the moment he 6) is going (go) through the
company files so that he can learn as much as possible. He 7) will be working (work) next to an experienced
accountant for the first two weeks. He hopes he will not let his aunt down as he 8) has not worked (not/work) in
a simi lar post before.

1 Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 Shall I bring your meal now?


me Would you like me to bring your meal now?
2 It is forbidden to walk on the grass.
must You must not walk on the grass.
3 His wife is the loveliest woman I've ever met.
never I have never met such a lovely woman as his wife.
4 She hasn't been to the gym for six months.
last The last time she went to the gym was six months ago .
5 It was hard for him to hear you as he was standing so far away.
found He found it hard to hear you as he was standing so far away.
6 Bob hasn't got his results yet.
still Bob still hasn't got his results.
7 Barbara hasn't had a break for hours.
since It's hours since Barbara (last) had a break.
8 Could you open the w indow?
mind Would you mind opening the window?
9 It was her intention to come but she had some important business to attend to.
going She was going to come but she had some important business to attend to .
10 She is likely to be at work.
will It is likely (that) she will be at work.
11 Johnnie is the nicest man I've ever met.
anyone Johnnie is nicer than anyone I've ever met.
12 He found the strenuous work tiring.
was He was tired from the strenuous work.
13 They were about to leave when the phone rang.
point They were on the point of leaving when the phone rang.
14 The policeman let the prisoner make one phone call.
was The prisoner was allowed to make one phone call.
15 His jokes were so amusing that we laughed for hours.
were We were so amused by his jokes that we laughed for hours.
16 Mike finds working on a word processor difficult.
used Mike is not used to working on a word processor.
Revision 1
17 Your watch and mine look very much alike.
similar Your watch is similar to mine.
18 Jenny spent more than was necessary on Bill's wedding present.
have Jenny needn't have spent so much on Bill's wedding present.
19 I'm sure the Smiths are on holiday this week .
must The Smiths must be on holiday this week.
20 I'm sure he didn't forget to invite them .
have He can't have forgotten to invite them .

[iID Fill in the blanks with the correct particle(s) .

1 It is not nice to put people down when they can't 5 This situation calls for immediate action .
defend themselves. 6 Sleeping Beauty will be on at the Royal Theatre for
2 The woman was brought round by having water three weeks.
splashed on her face. 7 If we fall behind with the rent, the landlord has the
3 An epidemic of measles has broken out at the right to evict us.
local primary school. 8 He bought a mansion after he came into a lot of
4 Access to several villages was cut off by the deep money.
snow.

(it] Fill in the blanks with the correct preposition(s).

1 We took advantage of the fine weather and went 5 Demand for sugar has fallen dramatically over the
for a picnic. past decade.
2 She's always dreamed of becoming a famous 6 The government has no choice but to comply with
singer. the workers' demands.
3 English people always comment on the weather. 7 The schoolboy put the blame on his friend so he
It's in their nature. wouldn't be punished .
4 My boss has given me more work than I can cope 8 Rio de Janeiro is famous for its carnival which
with. takes place every February.

Fill in the correct word derived from the words in bold.

1 Drivers should drive slowly in bad weather, particularly if there is fog. PARTICULAR
2 Mr Travers is retiring after a successful career in advertising . SUCCESS
3 Traffic jams are almost unavoidable during rush hour. AVOID
4 The location of the new office block will be in central London . LOCATE
5 The refugees fled the country with all their possessions in a single suitcase. POSSESS
6 A new organisation has been formed to combat air pollution . ORGANISE
7 The removal of her name from the list was an unexpected shock. REMOVE
8 John's father certainly won't let him use the car again after he crashed it. CERTAIN
9 His job is very stressful as it involves a lot of responsibility. STRESS
10 Everyone at the meeting made suggestions about how to raise money. SUGGEST
11 My grandfather was born in a distant village high in the mountains. DISTANCE
12 Because there was no proof, the suspect was found not guilty. PROVE

180
Clauses I Linking Words
Sentences can consist of main and subordinate clauses. Subordinate clauses can be: a) noun clauses
(/suppose that he 'll be back in an hour ), b) relative clauses (/ sa~ the f"'lan who stole your ring.) and
c) adverbial clauses i.e. clauses of manner, time, place, reason, concession, purpose, result, comparison,
condition. (Although she is experienced, she didn t get me job. )

Relative Clauses

They are introduced by: a) relative pronouns i.e. who, whom, whose, which, that or b) relative adverbs i.e. when,
where, why.

Relative Pronouns

Subject of the verb of the Object of the verb of the


Possession
relative clause relative clause
(cannot be omitted)
(cannot be omitted) (can be omitted)

used for
who/that r. . .
who/whom/that .... .....:.. whose
. ... j

That 's the glfl who 'that !


The boy (who 'whom 'that) he ! That's the ma ,vhose wife
people
/Jves next door .
..........J.~?.~~~.!.o i" my cousin. .............. .J..~::~ ini lfP.d fr ~~ ~c~:--ian~:..........
used for which/that ! which/that ! whose/of which
things/ I saw a film which.'that ! The dog (which 'that) you saw 1 That's the table the leg of
animals
. ~~~ .~'.r:~~:~ ~~. ~~!.~~:~':. . . !..~~.~:'.~:.'..~.::!~. ~.:'.~~~~.~:.:::. . . .....L~.~-~:.~!.~~.~~:.!.~.~ .'.~. ~.~~~~~.:.
Whom , which , whose can be used in expressions of quantity with of (some of, many of, half of, etc)
She received a lot of presents for her birthday Mos1 of hem were rom her fam; ry She rece p.J 1 s
or e; birthday most of which were from her 1afl1 /y
That can be used instead of who, whom or which but it is never used after commas or prepositions.
1e g who that go1 a 1ery good deg ee ~ re J ie bac <. who s sir. no n x o llf
(that is not possible)

Relative Adverbs

Time when (= in/on/at which) 2005 was the year (when) I finished my studies.
Place where (= in/at/on/to which) That's the place (where) we went last week.
Reason why ( = for which) That's the reason (why) I moved house.

Fill in: where, whose, who, which, when and why.

Buying a present for someone is often a tricky business. The first thing 1) ... 1c nic )... 1

you have to decide is what to buy and the shop 2) (where) you should go to buy it.
Then you might want to buy a joint present with a friend, so you have to find a time
3) (when) you are both free. It is probably most difficult buying a present for
someone 4) (who) you don't know very well and 5) whose tastes you know little
about. You have to try to find something 6) (which) you think they would like.
However, it is also no easy job buying a present for a close member of your family,
such as your mother. I never know what to tell my mother when I go out. I can't tell
her the reason 7) (why) I'm going out because I want to surprise her on the big day.
Still , it is worth all the trouble just to see the look of pleasure on someone's face the
moment 8) (when) they receive your gift.
i-.-- Clauses I Linking Words
Fill in: who, which, whose, when, where or why.

1993 was the year I) ... (when). .. I took my first holiday


abroad. We were students at the time, with very little money,
which is the reason 2) (why) we decided to go to Spain. We
booked through the local travel agent, 3) who went to a lot of
trouble to find us a resort 4) which was quiet by day but
5) which had a lively night life. I went with my friend Cynthia,
6) who has been my friend for many years now. The flight to
Malaga, 7) which took over five hours, was very comfortable.
Cynthia, 8) who was a little nervous, was comforted by an air
stewardess 9) who was very courteous and helpful. The hotel
I 0) where we stayed was just a I0-minute walk from the
centre . It had a swimming pool and a gym I I) which we used
every morning. We spent the first day of our holiday on the
beach, 12) which was beautiful. Unfortunately, when we got
back to the hotel that night my friend, 13) whose skin is very pale, realised that she had got badly burned. The
suncream 14) (which) she had applied was simply not strong enough. I explained the situation to the hotel manager,
I 5) who was very helpful. He telephoned the local doctor, 16) who arrived shortly afterwards. He advised my
friend to stay in bed for at least three days. After these three days, my friend, 17) who had fully recovered, was
ready to go out for the evening. We found a lovely restaurant 18) where we tried some local dishes. We had a
great time for the rest of our holiday.We found some very good discos 19) where we spent many of our evenings.
We also went to some places 20) which had live Spanish music.We made some good friends 21) (who) we are still
in contact with. Cynthia has learned her lesson, too. Whenever we go on holiday in a country 22) whose climate
is hotter than ours, she remembers to bring a high factor suncream with her.

Prepositions in Relative Clauses

We do not normally use prepositions before relative pronouns.


The office in which she works 1s in the town centre. (formal - not usual)
The office which she works in is in the town centre. (usual)
The office she works in is in the town centre. (more usual)

Rewrite the sentences in as many ways as possible.

1 The hotel where we stayed was in the mountains .


...The hotel in which we stayed was in the mountains....
...The hotel we stayed in was in the mountains....
2 That's the box where we keep the books.
That's the box in which we keep the books.
That's the box (which) we keep the books in.
3 The girl to whom John was talking is my sister.
The girl who John was talking to is my sister.
The girl John was talking to is my sister.
4 The house where I spent my childhood has been demolished.
The house in which I spent my childhood has been demolished .
The house (which) I spent my childhood in has been demolished.
5 That's the man to whom he spoke on the day of the party.
That's the man who he spoke to on the day of the party.
That's the man he spoke to on the day of the party.
6 The friend I was travelling with spoke German.
The friend with whom I was travelling spoke German.
The friend (who) I was travelling with spoke German.

182
Clauses I Linking Words _
Defining / Non-defining Relative Clauses

A defining relative clause gives necessary information and is essential to the meaning of the main clause. It
is not put between commas. People who drive carelessly should be banned from the roads.
A non-defining relative clause gives extra information which is not essential to the meaning of the main
clause. It is put between commas. Mr Jones, who helps me with the garden, was taken to hospital last night
Note how the commas change the meaning of a sentence. The players, who were involved in the fight, were
n off the pitch {All the players were sent off.) The players who were involved in the fight were sent off the
pitch. (Only the players who were involved in the fight were sent off.)

Fill in the relative pronoun or adverb, adding commas where necessary. Write 0 for defining,
ND for non-defining and whether the relative can be omitted or not.

1 The woman ... who/that... bought the house next door is very friendly. .. .D... ... not omitted ...
2 Ann, who is a generous person , took us all on holiday. ND not omitted
3 The hospital where he was treated is a very good one. D not omitted
4 People who don't eat meat are called vegetarians . D not omitted
5 The house where they live is very small. D not omitted
6 The book which/that I am reading at the moment is very interesting. D omitted
7 The hotel which/that is opposite the museum is very expensive. D not omitted
8 People who/that speak two languages equally well are called bilingual. D not omitted
9 Dublin, which has a population of one mi llion, is a very beautiful city. ND not omitted
10 People who/that hurt other people should be punished. D not omitted
11 My best friend, whose name is Sarah, is livi ng in Poland now. ND not omitted
12 Greece, which has many beautiful islands, is a great place for holidays. ND not omitted
13 People who/that drink and drive should be heavily fined . D not omitted
14 Women who/that are pregnant should not drink coffee. D not omitted
15 The flat which she lives in is very cold. D omitted
16 Majorca was the first place where we went on holiday together. D omitted
17 The man who/that the police arrested last night was charged with theft. D omitted
18 The newspaper which/that I buy is always full of interesting articles. D omitted
19 The velvet dress which/that she wore to the party was very expensive. D omitted
20 The students who/that were involved in the march were arrested . D not omitted

Combine the following sentences using relatives.

1 This is the house. Shakespeare lived here.


.. .This is the house where Shakespeare lived....
2 She bought a new dress. She wore it to my party. She bought a new dress which she wore to my party.
3 That's the woman . She got promoted last week. That's the woman who/that got promoted last week.
4 This is the vase. He bought it at an auction . This is the vase (which/that) he bought at an auction.
5 My friend has a new cat. Its name is Riley. My friend has a new cat whose name is Ailey.
6 This is the cinema. It was built in 1945. This is the cinema which was built in 1945.
7 This is Mary. I'm sharing a flat with her. This is Mary, who I'm sharing a flat with.
8 The cheque only arrived today. He posted it last week. The cheque (which/that) he posted last week only arrived
today.
9 I'm reading Wuthering Heights. It was written by Emily Bronte. I'm reading Wuthering Heights, which was written
by Emily Bronte.
10 Paul's new car has broken down. This car cost him 10 ,000. Paul's new car, which cost him 10,000, has broken
down.
11 Here's a photograph of the hotel. We stayed there last summer. Here's a photograph of the hotel where/in which
we stayed last summer.
...._.... Clauses I Linking Words
[(P Jn Other Words
That's the village I grew up in. This is Joan; her son is a footballer.
That's the village where I grew up. This is Joan , whose son is a footballer.
That's the village which I grew up in. That woman helped me find the way.
March is the month when she was born . That's the woman who helped me find the
March is the month in which she was born. way.
I've got some letters; two of them are yours. They released some men ; three of them are
I've got some letters, two of which are yours. Polish.
We missed most of the film, which was a pity. They released some men, three of whom are
It was a pity that we missed most of the film . Polish.

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 We met many people on holiday - many of them were from England.


whom We met many people ... on holiday, many of whom ... were from England .
2 That customer refused to pay his bill.
who That's the customer who refused to pay his bi ll.
3 We went to a very expensive restaurant.
which The restaurant which we went to was very expensive .
4 We had some visitors - three of them were Chinese.
whom We had some visitors , three of whom were Chinese.
5 Many tourists stay at Jury's Hotel.
where Jury's Hotel is where many tourists stay.
6 Members of the AA can ring this number when their cars break down.
w hose Members of the AA, whose cars break down, can ring this number.
7 There are eighty people working here - many of them are Irish.
whom There are eighty people working here, many of whom are Irish.
8 I lost my favourite earrings, which is a pity.
that It is a pity that I lost my favourite earrings.
9 My twenty-three year old brother is in India.
who My brother, who is twenty-three, is in India.
10 Matthew, with whom I went out, is from Wales.
who Matthew, who I went out with, is from Wales.

Clauses of Manner

Clauses of manner are introduced by: as if/as though (after act, appear, be, behave, feel, look, seem, smell,
sound, taste), as, how, (in) the way, (in) the way that, the way In which, (in) the same way, (In) the same
way as. Try to do it as I showed you
In clauses of manner introduced with as if/as though we can use were instead of was in all persons in formal
English . She aces as if she were was n ch1rge or n pro
Note how the tense forms are used after as if/as though :
as If/as though + any tense form (showing probability/similarity - how sb/sth seems)
Sf e el as 1f she has got a tempera ire (She may have a temperature.) She und1 d as if she had a cold.
(She may have had a cold.)
as If/as though + Past Simple/Past Continuous (unreal in the present) She acts as if she knew
everything (but she doesn't)
as If/as though + Past Perfect (unreal in the past) .he felt as if they had misjudged h r (but they hadn't)

184
Clauses I Linking Words ............,
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

1 He talked about Denmark as though he ... had been ... (be) there but we know he never has.
2 She looks as if she is (be) really ill.
3 It looks as though it is going to rain (rain).
4 She behaves as if she is (be) in trouble.
5 The weather here is so bad , it looks as though we will have to (have to) holiday abroad .
6 It smells as if you (have) put (put) lots of herbs in the stew.
7 Maeve looked as though she had had (have) little sleep the night before, but she had gone to bed quite
early.
8 When he speaks, it sounds as if English is not (not/be) his first language.
9 She spoke about university as though she had spent (spend) years there but in fact she'd only spent a
month there.
10 I spoke to Simon last night and he sounded as though he were/was (be) really upset about something.
11 She sounded as if she were/was (be) French.
12 This sauce tastes as if you have put (put) too much pepper in it.
13 My sister isn't rich but she spends money as though she had (have) loads of it.
14 She acts as though she were/was (be) very confident, but in fact she's quite shy.
15 She treats me as though I were/was (be) her child.
16 He talks about karate as if he had (have) a black belt but we know he's only just started lessons.
17 Little Tommy was trembling as though he had seen (see) a ghost.
18 She behaved as if nothing had happened (happen).
19 When Moira broke off their relationship, John behaved as if the world had ended (end).
20 That woman looks as though she is going to faint (faint) . Bring her some water.

: Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 Someone must have used too much garlic in the sauce.


if The sauce tasted .. .as if someone had used... too much garlic.
2 You look like you need a holiday.
if You look as if you need a holiday.
3 He seems to have lost weight since I last saw him.
as He looks as if/though he has lost weight since I last saw him.
4 She had a feeling she had met Gary before.
though She felt as though she had met Gary before.
5 She behaves like a beauty queen.
as She behaves as if/though she were/was a beauty queen.
6 She seems to need a rest.
if She looks as if/though she needs a rest.
7 I mowed the lawn as he had told me to.
way I mowed the lawn (in) the way he had told me to.
8 She isn't rich but she acts like a millionairess.
if She acts as if she were/was a millionairess.
9 I taught the class as she had instructed me to.
way I taught the class (in) the way she had instructed me to .
10 My grandfather seems to have got much thinner since I last saw him.
as My grandfather looks as if/though he has got much thinner since I last saw him.
11 I polished the si lver like she told me to.
way I polished the silver the way she told me to.
12 He orders me like his slave.
as He orders me as if/though I were his slave.
_ Clauses I Linking Words
Clauses of Time

Clauses of time are introduced by: after, as, as long as, as soon as, before, by the time (= before, not later
than), every time, immediately, just as, once, the moment (that) , until/till (= up to the time when), when,
while, etc. The castaway had to wait five years 11ntil he was resc 1ed.
Clauses of time follow the rule of the sequence of tenses; that is, when the verb of the main clause
is in a present or future form, the verb of the time clause is in the present form, and when the verb
of the main clause is in a past form, the verb of the time clause is in a past form too. Note that will/would are
never used in a clause of time. I'll cook dinner as soon as I've finished washing up. (NOT: as sooR as I 1A,t.f
f+RieR) She left her JOb as soon as she got mamed (NOT: as sooR as sfle get8)
When the time clause precedes the main clause, a comma is used. When the time clause follows, no comma
is used. By the time ho arrived, she had loft BUT She had left by the time he amved

Underline the appropriate time phrase and put the verbs into the correct tense.

Dear Friend,

The World Wildlife Fund is currently launching its most important campaign
ever to help protect our vanishing species of wildlife from extinction. 1) Before/As
soon as the turn of the century, there 2) were (be) more than 40,000 tigers in
India, while now there are around 3, 750. 3) Before/Until twenty years ago, the
numbers of Black Rhinos 4) exceeded (exceed) 60,000. Now, less than 2,500
remain. 5) As long as/As soon as animal habitats continue to be burnt, polluted
and destroyed, species 6) will continue (continue) to disappear. 7) While/When
there 8) is (be) still a demand for illegal rhino horns and tiger bones, the
hunting of wildlife will continue. 9) By the time/Every time people 10) become
(become) aware of the situation, it may be too late. We must act now
11) before/until these animals 12) disappear (disappear) forever. That's why
WWF is urging all governments to get tough on illegal traders. 13) Every time/While a crime against
wildlife 14) is exposed (be/exposed), we are one step closer to our goal. If, like me, you believe that we
must do all we can to stop this destruction, join the fight today and support the WWF campaign. Your
gift will go directly to our vanishing species programme. Please support this crucial work. WWF can't
fight alone.

When (time conjunction) + present tense. When I arrive, /'II call you.
When (question word) + will/would . When will he arrive?
When is used for things which are sure to happen. When he gets promoted, he'll be given more money.
If is used for things which may happen. If he works hard. he'll be promoted.

t Fill in if or when and put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

1 I will visit you ... when ... I ... finish ... (fin ish) work today.
2 The aeroplane will take off without us 1f we arrive (arrive) late at the airport.
3 If you haven't reached (not/reach) a decision yet, I'll call back tomorrow.
4 When will you finish (yo u/fin ish) this report?
5 When John returns (retu rn) from work , we can go shopping .
6 If Jack rings (ring) while I am out, tell him to be here at 12.00.
7 When I am (be) ready, I'll give you a call.
8 If we can't come up with the money soon , the deal will fall through (fall through) .
9 When the star arrives (arrive) at the hotel , she will be greeted by crowds of fans .
10 When will you stop (you/stop) lying about your age?

186
Clauses I Linking Words _
Complete the sentences in any meaningful way using an appropriate time word.

1 The shop had closed ... before/by the time they got there...
2 She went into the classroom while/as the teacher was speaking.
3 The baby cried for its mother whenever/every time it was hungry.
4 I recognised him as soon as I saw him.
5 The cake must be left to cool down before you cut it.
6 I will meet you as soon as I finish work.
7 She couldn't walk properly until she had an operation.
8 I want to see you when you've got some time.

Clauses of Place

Clauses of place are introduced by: where, wherever, everywhere, anywhere, etc. She 'll follow him wherever he
g11e Will/Would are never used in clauses of place. Everywhere Joan goes she gets into trouble (NOT: ~cery1i<Rer-0
cleaf1 will
> r rnvr fj0 ... )

Fill in: where, wherever, everywhere or anywhere.

1 ... Wherever/Everywhere.. . I looked , people were 5 I don't mind where we go to eat, as long as it's tasty.
dancing . 6 Have you seen my watch anywhere in the house?
2 Wherever Ruth goes, she always misses England. 7 You can see these advertisements anywhere/
3 Now that Hilary has a car she can go everywhere/ everywhere/wherever you go.
anywhere/wherever she wants. 8 I couldn't find a parking space anywhere close to
4 David tends to be happy wherever he is living. the office.

Clauses of Reason

Clauses of reason are introduced by: as, because, for, on the grounds that, the reason for, the reason (why)
etc. As they had no money to buy a ticket, they hitchhiked.
Because usually answers a why-question . "Why didn 't you mvite him?" Because I don't like him. "
For (= because) always comes after a comma in written speech or a pause in oral speech. I didn't invite him,
for I don 't /Ike him (very formal)
Because of/Due to + noun/-ing form Because of the train strike, no one could get to work last Tuesday.
Because of/Due to + the fact that ... Due to the fact that he had no money, he was unable to buy her a
birthday present

Join the sentences using the words in brackets.

1 It was raining . The match was called off. (due to) ... Due to the rain, the match was called off....
2 He left the country. He couldn't stand the weather. (for) He left the country, for he couldn't stand the weather.
3 We can't go on holiday. There's too much work to do. (since) Since there is so much work to do, we can't go on holiday.
4 I can't come with you . I have to visit my uncle. (as) I can't come with you as I have to visit my uncle.
5 She made mistakes. She wasn't experienced. (because) She made mistakes because she wasn't experienced.
6 I didn 't know that she had been married . She seldom talks about herself. (since) Since she seldom talks about
herself, I didn 't know that she had been married.
7 She took a break. She wasn 't feeling well. (because) She took a break because she wasn't feeling well.
8 She was soaked to the skin. It was raining very hard . (as) She was soaked to the skin as it was raining very hard.
9 He is in debt. He will have to drastically reduce his spending. (on the grounds that) On the grounds that he is
in debt, he will have to drastically reduce his spending.
10 They turned back. They didn't want to get stuck in the traffic. (for) They turned back, for they didn't want to get
stuck in the traffic.
Clauses I Linking Words
Clauses of Result

Clauses of result are introduced by:


that (after such/so ... ), (and) as a result, (and) as a consequence, consequently, so, etc. It was such bad
weather that we stayed in. He was ill and as a result he didn't go to work
such a(n) + (adjective) + singular countable noun. He is such a rude person that nobody likes him.
such + (adjective) + uncountable/plural noun . It was such lovely scenery that we took lots of photos.
such + a lot of + noun. There were such a lot of people on the train that we couldn't get on.
so + adjective/adverb. She drives so carelessly that she 's bound to have an accident.
so +few/little/many/much + noun. He had so much luggage that he couldn 't carry ir.
so + adjective + a(n) + noun. Its so hot a day that everyone is going to the beach (not usual)
as a result/therefore/consequently/so + clause. The cinema was crowded so we left.

~ Fill in: so, such or such a(n) .

A few years ago, I spent my holiday on the Greek island of Santorini. I


was 1) ... so ... worried about travelling alone that I became quite nervous.
However, about five minutes after the ferry had left I met 2) such a nice
American couple that I stayed with them for the whole holiday. When we
docked , we were pushed onto a bus that was filled with 3) such a lot of
people that we felt as if we couldn 't breathe. At the bus station there were
4) so many people waiting to offer us accommodation that we decided to
ignore them , preferring to walk along the main road to find somewhere to
stay ourselves. After an hour or so we started to think that not accepting
any of the offers of accommodation had been 5) such a bad idea that we
decided to ask someone for help. We asked an old man if he knew of
anywhere we could stay. He led us to a lovely little apartment on the edge
of a cliff. It was 6) such a gorgeous flat, and the view was 7) so good that
we took it immediately. We had brought 8) so few things with us, and it
took us 9) such a short time to unpack that we were on the famous black
sand beach in no time. We had 10) such a nice time together and we
became 11) such good friends that we sti ll keep in touch, exchanging letters and postcards. This year Scott and
Arianne are coming to Scotland to spend a few days with me. It will be great to see them again.

0 Rewrite the text using such/so ... that.

There were many_people in the station. I was unable to find the friend I had arranged to meet. It had also been
a long time since I'd seen her. I barely remembered what she looked like. Then, suddenly I heard a familiar voice
behind me. "Marilyn, is that really you?" Rachel smiled at me. "It's been terribly long. I've got an awful lot of
things to tell you. Come on! Let's go somewhere for coffee." I took her to a lovely cafe I know. It was a very nice
day so we decided to sit outside in the sun. We had a lot to say to each other. We didn 't notice the time fly. We
used to spend a lot of time together. I always knew what she was thinking. We had never kept secrets from each
other. Now, she seemed happy enough , but her ~yes looked re_filly sad. I was sure that there was something
she wasn 't telling me. When I confronted her, she said that everything was fine . "Don't try to pretend , Rachel,"
I said. "We've been YfilY_QOOd friends for ma_ny_years now. You can't possibly think I can't tell that you' re upset. "
There were so many people in the station that I was unable to find the friend I had arranged to meet. It had also been such
a long time since I'd seen her that I barely remembered what she looked like. Then, suddenly I heard a familiar voice behind
me. "Marilyn , is that really you? " Rachel smiled at me. "It's been so long that I've got an awful lot of things to tell you. Come
on! Let's go somewhere for coffee." I took her to a lovely cafe I know. It was such a nice day that we decided to sit outside
in the sun . We had such a lot to say to each other that we didn't notice the time fly. We used to spend such a lot of time
together that I always knew what she was thinking . We had never kept secrets from each other. Now, she seemed happy
enough, but her eyes looked so sad that I was sure there was something she wasn't telling me. When I confronted her, she
said that everything was fine. "Don't try to pretend , Rachel, "I said. "We've been such good friends for many years now that
you can't possibly think I can't tell that you're upset."

188
Clauses I Linking Words _
[(SJ In Other Words
She was so upset that she couldn't stop He missed the train so he was late for the
crying. meeting.
She was too upset to stop crying. He missed the train and as a result/consequently/
It's such a heavy box that I can 't lift it. therefore he was late for the meeting.
The box is too heavy for me to lift. The workers went on strike because they
It's so heavy a box that I can't lift it. weren't paid enough .
No one knows the reason for his leaving. The workers went on strike, for they weren't
No one knows (the reason) why he left. paid enough.

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 The town was so unfriendly that we left immediately.


an It was ... euch an unfriendly town that... we left immediately.
2 He couldn 't eat the food because it was very spicy.
for He couldn 't eat the food, for it was very spicy.
3 Do you know the reason for her being so upset?
why Do you know why she is so upset?
4 It was such a lovely summer in England that we stayed at home.
so It was so lovely a summer in England that we stayed at home.
5 The trip abroad was cancelled due to lack of interest.
of The trip abroad was cancelled because ~flack of interest.
6 She was rushing to the office so she couldn't talk to me.
consequently She was rushing to the office and consequently she couldn't talk to me.
7 It was such an interesting book that I stayed up all night to finish it.
so It was so interesting a book that I stayed up all night to finish it.
8 No one knows what caused his illness.
why No one knows (the reason) why he is/became/got/fell ill.
9 She lost her ticket so she had to buy another one.
result She lost her ticket and as a result she had to buy another one .

.--C1f 1114 [.JJ;; t; i,._________--------- - - - ----------- -- - -- - - :


(See Suggested Answer section) :
I

Use the notes below and your own ideas to talk about Bill Rogers. Try to link your ideas
together using relative pronouns/adverbs, time words and words introducing clauses of
reason, place or result.

Bill Rogers (Wales)

was fascinated by the sea


joined the National diving team
keen on protecting endangered species
participated in many expeditions
hard working - gained his colleagues' respect
found treasure on a ship - became famous
no time for a fami ly

Bill Rogere, who comee from Walee, wae eo faecinated ...


_ Clauses I Linking Words
Expressing Purpose - Clauses of Purpose

Purpose is expressed with :


L. to/in order to/so as to + inf ..........................: .Sh~ i;;;~dyf~g..t~ ..b~~d~~(;;: . ........................................................... 1
I so that + can/will (present/future reference) w~:;; h~.C~ a~~~rly.~fght~~ th.~t~~~~~:t b~t;~~;;/;;;;;o;;~~:~
i. so that + could/would (past reference) He employed a detective so that he could find the missing person.!

i;~~:;:~{~;~;~~~~~~~;~;: :~ ~: ~:.:i!~[~~:~f~~ft:f~ifff!J ; i.;i~ ~ m: : : : : :1


Negative Purpose is normally expressed with:
oo o o o oooo: o ooo oo o OOOUo oo ooo O HO O OOOooooo O OOO o O oooooo OOOooooooooooOO O OOOooooO OH ooOO OO OH O OOO O OOOH Oe oo oooo o o o u o o ooooo o oo oo oooo oo oo oooo:

L so as not/in order not + to -inf They spoke in whispers so as not to wake the children.
! so that + can't/won't (present/future reference) /'II invite her so that she won 't feel lonely.
j
:.
so that + couldn 't/wouldn't (past reference)
.:
They hid the letter so that he wouldn 't find out the truth.
......................................................................
:
.........~ .... . .... .......... ..a
: for fear/lest + might/should ! They put on their life jackets for fear they might drown. '
!
j.
for fear of sth/doing sth ! He left his money in the hotel safe for fear of losing 1t.
0000 ) oooouuoO ooooooooH ooooooO O O o o ooooooo oooooo o OOo - OooooOo OO o O oO U - 0 0 000000 ooooou ooouoo w ooo o o u o .,

1 prevent + noun/pronoun + (from) + -ing


form
I They put up notices to prevent people (from) walking on the:
1~~ l
I. ~ avoid + -ing form
: ::: : :.:: :::: . . . . . . ... . ... ....:::rB.~::~~?.~:~.~~?.::~~::~~?.~~:~!#.~~~.!.?.i.~:::::::::::. : : : :::. : : : : : :.:: : : :..:~
Clauses of purpose follow the rule of the sequence of tenses. She trains evel}' day so that she can enter the
compet1tlon She trained evel}' day so that she could enter the competition.

Join the sentences in as many ways as possible, as in the example.


(See Suggested Answer section)
1 We took some food. We might get hungry on the journey . ... We took 5ome food so that we wouldn't get
hungry on the journey. We took some food m ca5e we got hungry on the journey. We took 5ome food to
avoid getting hungry on the journey. We took some food 50 as not to get hungry on the journey. etc.. .
2 She studies hard. She wants to get a good job when she finishes university............................................... .

3 We flew direct to Rome. We didn 't want to get stuck in London............................................................ ........ .

4 He has joined a gym. He wants to be healthy and fit for the summer. ..................................... .. ....................

5 She didn't go to town yesterday. She didn't want to spend any money .................................... ....... ............. .

.. Join the sentences using the words in brackets .

1 He's taking driving lessons. He wants to be able to drive to work . (so that)
...He'5 taking driving /e5son5 50 that he'll be able to drive to work....
2 She left her jewellery in a safe deposit box. It may be stolen. (fear) She kept her jewellery in a safe deposit box
for fear it might be stolen.
Clauses I Linking Words __
3 The beekeeper put on a veil and helmet. He didn't want to be stung by the bees. (avoid) The beekeeper put
on a veil and helmet to avoid being stung by the bees.
4 She is on a strict diet. She wants to fit into her black dress for the party. (as) She is on a strict diet so as to fit
into her black dress for the party.
5 He left home early. He wanted to be at the restaurant on time. (in order to) He left home early in order to be at
the restaurant on time.
6 I'll bring something for dessert. We may want to eat something sweet later. (in case) I'll bring something for
desert in case we want to eat something sweet later.
7 This is a bread bin. You use it to keep bread fresh. (for) This is a bread bin, which is used for keeping bread fresh.
8 I brought my umbrella. The weather forecast said it would rain later. (in case) I brought my umbrella in case it
rained later.

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.
1 He had taken an anorak so he wouldn't get wet.
avoid He had taken an anorak ... to avoid g~tting ... wet.
2 Travellers are advised to take out insurance. Their luggage may go astray.
case Travellers are advised to take out insurance in case their luggage goes astray.
3 Lynn has just bought a new car. She plans to drive around Europe this summer.
aim Lynn bought a new car with the aim of driving around Europe this summer.
4 There are ramps in the road so that motorists won't drive too fast.
prevent There are ramps in the road to prevent motorists (from) driving too fast.
5 John took up karate. He wanted to become fitter.
view John took up karate with a view to becoming fitter.
6 I'll pack some juice for the picnic. We may be thirsty later.
case I'll pack some juice for the picnic in case we are thirsty later.
7 I went to the market early. I wanted to buy some fresh fish.
in I went to the market early in order to buy some fresh fish.
8 This is a hammer. You use it to bang in nails.
for A hammer is used for banging in nails.
9 Mary did her shopping early. She didn't want to leave it until the last minute.
avoid Mary did her shopping early to avoid leaving it until the last minute.
10 Dennis is saving money. He wants to go to Australia.
order Dennis is saving money in order to go to Australia.
11 She started an art and design course last year. She plans to open her own business.
view She started an art and design course last year with a view to opening her own business.

t Fill in an appropriate purpose word and put the verbs into the correct form.

Dear S ir/Madam,
We have produced this information sheet 1) ... with a 'ic\L. to ... making.. . (make) the reg istration
procedure easier for y ou. Read it carefully 2) so as to fa miliarise/so that you wi ll fami liarise/in order to
fam iliarise/to familiarise (familiarise) yourself with the procedure.
Each student must registe r at a certain time so pl ease do come on time 3) so as not to make/so that you
won' t make (not/make) the process more difficult. You must report to the registrar 's office 4) in order to
give/so as to g ive/to g ive (give) her your personal detail s. You must also bring your passport with you
5) so that they wil l be able to verify (verify) these details. After this you must go to the main section
6) (so as/in order) to have/so that you have (have) you r photograph taken. You will then be given your
student identification card which may be used 7) for taki ng out/to take out (take out) books. We have
included a map of the campus 8) so that you won ' t get (not/get) lost.
We look forward to seeing you on registration day.
Yours faithfully,
Jane Smith
_ Clauses I Linking Words
Clauses of Concession

Concession is expressed with:


Although/Even though/Though + clause. Although it snowed heavily, he came to the meeting. Though can
also be put at the end of the sentence. It snowed heavily. He came to the meeting, though.
Despite/In spite of + noun/-ing form. Desp ite his illness/being ill, he went to the party.
Despite/In spite of the fact (that) + clause . In spite of the fact that he was ill, he went to the party.
while/whereas/but/on the other hand/yet + clause. He worked hard, yet he failed to meet the deadline.
nevertheless/however + clause. He has lots of experience. however, he didn 't get the job
However/No matter how+ adj/adv+ subject(+ may) +verb. However fast he runs. he can't beat Tom.
adj/adv+ though + subject+ verb/(may + bare inf). Clever though he is, his laziness caused him to fail the
exam Much though I may want it. I can t afford a holiday this year.
adj/adv + as + subject + verb. Skinny as he is he can't fit into his son's jeans.
A comma is used when the clause of concession either precedes or follows the main clause.
Even though he was tired, he went to the party He went to the party, even though he was tired.

WJll Underline the correct item.

1 Yet/No matter what he does to please her, she always finds something to complain about.
2 Although/However I set my alarm clock for 7.00 am, it didn't go off.
3 Despite/Even though the bad weather forecast, Susan and Jim went climbing.
4 She tries hard, although/yet she makes little progress.
5 Tom's wife drives better than he does, whereas/although he won't admit it.
6 Lots of people drive fast, although/in spite of police warnings.
7 Bad mannered though/yet he is, he has got lots of friends.
8 She is a brilliant singer; while/nevertheless, she refuses to sing in public.
9 Rich as/even though they are, they own a small home.
10 However/While much she denies it, she does dye her hair blonde.
11 She speaks Japanese fluently, yet/despite she has never visited the country.
12 In spite of/However all the bacfPublicity, the film became a box office success.
13 Janine turned up at the wedding , even though/despite she wasn't invited.
14 However/Though hard he tries, he'll never outsmart Pat.
15 Much as/yet I admire her, I can't accept her point of view on this matter.
16 The northwest of the country gets a lot of rain, whereas/as the east gets more snow.

Fill in: although/though/even though, despite, while/whereas, but, however/no matter how, or
nevertheless.

After his retirement Mr Jones decided that he would write a book about
gardening , 1) despite never having written anything in his life before. 2) No
matter how/However hard his family tried to convince him otherwise, he was
determined to go ahead. He insisted that it would be a fun thing to do now
that he had all this free time; 3) nevertheless, what he hadn't anticipated was
the difficulty of the whole venture. 4) Althoughffhough/Even though he was
highly knowledgeable about taking care of a garden, he didn 't know the first
thing about writing a book. He asked his wife for help and she replied that she
would gladly help him in the garden, 5) but she wouldn't have anything to do
with his book. The difference between them was that Mr Jones was an overly
ambitious man who often walked around with his head in the clouds ,
6) whereas/while Mrs Jones was a little more down-to-earth.
Clauses I Linking Words ............,
Rephrase the sentences in as many ways as possible in order to express concession.
(See Suggested Answer section)
1 The weather was cold . They enjoyed the picnic . ... De!Spite the weather being cold,
they enjoyed the picnic.
Although the weather wa5 cold, they enjoyed the picnic. Cold as the weather wa5, they enjoyed the
picnic. In !Spite of the fact that the weather wa5 cold, they enjoyed the picnic. The weather wa5 cold.
They enjoyed the picnic, though. etc.. .
2 She is young . She is sensible ...........................................................................................................................

3 He is thin . He went on a diet. ............................................................................................................................

4 She had no qualifications. She applied for the job. .. ..................................................................................... ..

5 He is wealthy. He never spends money on himself . ....................................................................................... .

Complete the missing parts of the sentences using words expressing concession.

1 ... No matter what he says... , you mustn't believe him.


2 Despite the fact he was popular, he lost the election .
3 He didn't get the job although he had the right qualifications.
4 No matter how much he tries/Although he tries hard, he can't play the piano.
5 He wants to buy a new car, yet he hasn't got enough money.
6 Although the CD was damaged, the shop wouldn't replace it.
7 Even though he didn't mean to, he insulted her.
8 The film was boring ; nevertheless, we watched all of it.

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 Diamonds are expensive but people buy them.


though Even ... though diamonds are expensive.. ., people buy them.
2 The weather is so warm that we're wearing T-shirts, even though it's early December.
yet It's early December, yet the weather is so warm that we're wearing T-shirts.
3 He tried to solve the problem but he couldn 't find the solution.
how No matter how hard he tried to solve the problem, he couldn't find the solution.
4 He got a well-paid job even though he didn't have much experience.
of In spite of not having much experience, he got a well-paid job.
5 He read the book, although he found it boring .
fact He read the book , despite the fact he found it boring.
6 You can say what you like but I don't think he'll win .
matter No matter what you say, I don't think he'l l win .
7 Although she dislikes pets, she allowed her children to get a dog.
nevertheless She dislikes pets; nevertheless, she allowed her children to get a dog.
8 John is interested in computers. His wife enjoys gardening.
while John is interested in computers, while his wife enjoys gardening.
9 You can try all you want, but you'll never convince him to help you.
matter You'll never convince him to help you, no matter how hard you try.
10 She was very upset, but she managed to behave cheerfully.
though Upset though she was, she managed to behave cheerfully.
11 I like horror films; they frighten me, though.
even I like horror films, even though they frighten me.
,___ Clauses I Linking Words
--tJt 11J'2Jt .1.n; t4; 1 - ------------------------ -- ---------------
- - - - - - - - .. - -
---------- --- ~ - - --
(See Suggested Answer section)
Look at the pictures and notes below, then talk about them using words expressing
concession. You may use your own ideas.

Gymnastics Rafting
good body, patience, long hours of work, strong nerves, adventurous spirit, strong
fame, little time for personal life, control swimmer, accidents, contact with nature,
over one's body/mind, injuries willing to take risks, adventure activity

Gymnastics takes long hours of hard work whereas ra~ing is an adventure activity. etc

~ Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words .

1 She was very tired and as a result she fell asleep on the sofa.
that She was ... so tired that she... fell asleep on the sofa.
2 The player was disqualified because he had been caught cheating.
due The player was disqualified due to the fact that he had been caught cheating.
3 She received three letters this morning. All of them were from Tony.
wh ich She received three letters this morning, all of which were from Tony.
4 The way she behaves, you'd think she was the director.
as She behaves as if/though she were/was the director.
5 You are advised to book early so that you can be sure of a place.
order You are advised to book early in order to be sure of a place.
6 The match had already finished when I got there.
by The match had already finished by the time I got there.
7 It was an exciting match, even though our team lost.
despite It was an exciting match, despite the fact our team lost.
8 The film got several reviews; none of them were favourable.
wh ich The film got several reviews, none of which were favourable.
9 The children ran away to avoid being bitten by the dog.
fear The children ran away for fear the dog might bite them.
10 The mountain was too high for us to climb in one day.
such It was such a high mountain (that) we couldn't climb it in one day.
11 He is an impatient man who loses his temper very easily.
as Impatient as he is, he loses his temper very easily.
12 He didn't get the j ob because he did badly in the interview.
his He didn 't get the job due to his doing badly in the interview.
13 Be sure to arrive early if you don't want to miss the beginning of the play.
as Be sure to arrive early so as not to miss the beginning of the play.

194
Clauses I Linking Words _____,
Exclamations

Exclamations are used to express anger, fear, shock, surprise, etc. They always take an exclamation mark (!) .
Some exclamations are: Oh dear!, Ah! , Oh!, Good gracious!, etc.
What + a(n) + (adjective) + singular countable noun What a sweet baby!
What + (adjective) + uncountable/plural noun What nice weather! What beautiful paintings!
How + adjective/adverb How tall he is. How quickly she WA r.S
How + adjective + a(n) + noun How clever a boy (not common)
You + (adjective) + noun You lucky girl!
such (a/an) + (adjective) + noun She's such an arrogant person!
so + adjective/adverb She's so arrogant'
adverb/adverbial particle + subject + verb of movement Off the competitors wen'
Here/There + subject + verb Here h (But when the subject is a proper noun, it follows the verb. We say:
Here ts Ann')
Interrogative - negative question at the beginning of the sentence Aren't they nice children!

~ Fill in: what (a/an), how, so or such (a/an).

1 ... What a ... strange man he is! 11 What an awful day I had!
2 How inconsiderate of you! 12 What tasty biscuits!
3 It was such a lovely meal! 13 How high he j umps!
4 How sweet she is! 14 Her pies are so delicious!
5 What shiny hair she has! 15 They are such noisy neighbours!
6 The film was so boring! 16 How warm the sea is!
7 How cold it is! 17 What an odd thing to do!
8 What nice eyes he's got! 18 They had such a wonderful holiday!
9 The journey was so long! 19 How dirty Tommy is!
10 He's such an interesting person! 20 What nice weather we're having!

Rephrase the following as in the example.

1 It was such an exciting match! ...


Wasn't the match excitingl!What an exciting match//
How exciting a matchl!Waen't it an exciting match//
The match wae eo exciting/...
2 How expensive a coat! 7 What cold hands!
3 Isn't she clever! 8 How lucky John is!
4 It was such a waste of time! 9 He's so forgetful!
5 The water is so dirty! 10 She cooks so well!
6 Wasn't it a terrible storm! 11 Doesn't he talk nonsense!

Fill in: what (a/an), how, so or such (a/an).

John: Did you see that film last night? I've never seen anything as good as that!
Simon: The one with Harrison Ford? Yes, It was 1) .. .eo... well made!
John: And I couldn't believe 2) how funny it was in places!
Simon: And 3) what a lot of special effects!
John: Yes. The whole thing had 4) such a strong effect on me! Actually, I couldn't stop thinking about it.
Simon: I wonder how long it will be before there's a sequel.
John: I don 't know. Very soon , I imagine, as the film was 5) so good!
"""'-""'..- Clauses I Linking Words
Linking Words

Linking words show the logical relationship between sentences or parts of a sentence.

Rewrite the sentences from the table in as many ways as possible. Whenever this is not
ossible, make up a new sentence so that other linking words can be used.
(See Suggested Answer section)
He Is both rich and good looking. He's not only rich but also good looking. etc

......................
and, both .. . and , not only ... (but also/as
well), too, moreover, in addition to, :
Positive Addition He is rich and good-looking.
furthermore, further, also, not to mention
the fact that, besides, as well as + -ing
:OOOHO OOOooooooOIOOOOOOooooooHOOOooOHIOOoooooooOHOOOOoooOOOOOOOOOooooooooOOOoOooooooooOoOo:

Negative Addition neither ... nor, nor, neither, either i.................................................................................


Neither Tracy nor Maeve speaks Spanish. !
-i

but, not...but, although, while, whereas,


I can 't cook, whereas my husband can.
despite, even if, even though, on the
Contrast : Nick doesn 't like pop music, but he loves
other hand , in contrast, however, (and)
yet, at the same time, instead of + -ing
!. ~~~~~:.. . . . . . . . . . .-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .
Similarity
similarly, likewise, in the same way, i Cyclists should wear helmets; similarly.
equally ~ horse riders should. too.
..:.... ................ ...........
........................J
~ ..
but, even so, however, (and) still , (and)

Concession
yet, nevertheless, on the other hand ,
although, (even) though , even if,
despite/in spite of, regardless of,
!
London is a vef)' noisy city but I like it.
London is a very noisy city and yet I like it. ;
:
admittedly, considering, whereas, while, :

nonetheless ...........,.............................................................................................
Alternative
or, on the other hand , either ... or, ! We could either go to a restaurant or get l

:::~:::v:l~ng, not only this but ... also, as '. a .~~~:~.~~Y-:...................................................................1


Emphasis well, what is more, in fact, as a matter of She never even made the bed. let alone .
.i==,=

fact, to tell you the truth, actually, indeed, cleaned the house.
let alone, not only that, as well as + -ing
such as, like, tor example, for instance, , ~~J~~~;a;;~;~~~rl~~~..~;~~~~:~~~~~~:- ....,

.: :~~::::::~::r:p:~:::~I::. ~::::~::::~~ :::c:::~. ;:;:;:;;~~:~~:;~;;;~:;.


Exemplification

-====,=='.

to put it another way, I mean, it is


Clarification specifically, remembering the grammar
apparent that, it is evident that, evidently, rules.
it seems that

~~~~:=~~:i. ~:~~~~~h~i. ~~C:io~7nt~:w -, ~~~~~iz:.;:~i.~~ii~:~~ini:


!OOOUeHOooOOUH UUO O oO OOO

Cause/Effect/ ,.==
J=

Reason of, owing to, for, now that, so, such, by + had risen.
-ing, based on the fact that, enough, too

as, (in) the way, how, the way in which, (in) ~~ ..~~~~~~~..~~~;~~..~~~~~..t~~~lace, ~~~..j
Manner
the same way (as) , as if, as though he's only a waiter. 1
0 . . neeeo oe. i - o O-O-oeO oo o o Oeeeeeooo o ooo Ue e OOOOOOOOeooO OO OOOOeUeOOOOOOOOH OOOooOoOooOOUoOooo~

196
Clauses I Linking Words ......,....,

l :
if, in case, assuming (that) , on condition
~ (that), provided (that), providing (that) ,
Allen told the children they could
unless, in the event (that), in the event of,
' Condition : stay up late provided that they
i as/so long as, whether, whether ... or ; didn 't watch too much TV.
! ' (alternative condition), only if, even if,
, otherwise, or (else) , in case of
....................................................
. consequently, then, u.fndetr thosteh f ~ :~:~-~:~~~;;~~~~:~~--=~~~;:t=:~:~:1
, Consequence of a , circumstances, if so, 1 no so, ere ore 1n . f /' ~ d
I condition ! that case, otherwise, thus.' in doing so, '
' this way
i the car tonight. 1 not, m a rat we
won 't be able to go out =,,
:
i
!,.
.I ")
.
., lU uooo ...............
Purpose
' so that, so as (not) to, in order (not) to, in Louise went to bed early so as not !
l order that, for fear (that) , in case ' to be tired during the exam.
: : i
!.......................................................,.. ~.~~~/~~ ~::~~~~:~~~~~~u~~~;;:~~~t~i~ .. ........~.~;;~~~~~ :;;~:;, ~~~-;~~;~;~;~~~ .....,
Effect/Result reason , as a consequence, thus, therefore, Id 't t th
d . cou n go o e zoo.
, so, as a resu It o f + -mg, in omg so
....... . ..................... "'!"as"'::: a's, (mO're}''".': . than , haff"as .:'.
as, .~ ..~.........~~....~ ;~.............; ::.. ;~ .........
i Comparison ' nothing like the the twice as as less ven oug ey are ms, ey are
' than ' .. ' .. ' .. nothing like each other.
....................................................:
when, whenever, as, while, now (that) ,
: Time , before, until, till, after, since, for, by, by the , I will leave when I'm ready.
................................L~.i.~.~............ .................................................................. ........ =
~R;~ -;;~;d t~~d~ (; ;;;~"k~;;;~~"d~
' Place where, wherever
......... ......J,...~~.~rever ~':..~?.:~:. ...................... ........ ::
'. Exception ; When I was at school I was good at :
I
1 but (for) , except (for), apart from
.). ............... ............... ..
: most subjects except for maths.
............. ...... .............. .. ..... .. .. .. .. .. ....................
! ~

: Relative '. who, whom, whose, which, what, that ~ That woman over there 1s the one
~ who owns the hotel by the sea.
....................... ., ........ ,... .............................................................
r , beginning: initially, first ... , at first, to ~ Firstly, heat the oil in a pan.
~ start/begin with, first of all, firstly

' Chronological
: continuing: secondly ... , after this/ that, ; Then break the eggs and beat them. !
second .. , afterwards, then, next, before this
~ concluding: finally, at last, in the end , ' Finally, pour the eggs into the pan
. . eventually, lastly, last but not least : and stir them gently. :
I., f I . , ...,,,,,,,,,,,, .. I
: ~ concerning, regarding , with respect/ l :
' regard/reference to, in respect/regard/ i Write the report with reference to
Reference
, reference to this/to the fact that, taking into : the points we discussed last week.
; account that
i'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' ''''''''' : ............... .. :........................................ ....... ................ .

l ~
in conclusion, in summary, to sum up, as I
: All in all, I en;oyed the book,
, Summarising :
have said, as (it) was previously stated , on ! although found the plot hard to
,
the whole, in all, all in all, altogether, in 1

,
short, briefly, to put it briefly 1 follow in places.
: ....................................................... ........... ... .. '.
~ ' .......................... .... ....................................................................................
~
_ Clauses I Linking Words
.. ....... .. .. ........................................................

Linking words followed by -ing verbs a~d nouns ...... ........... ......... ........ j
................. r;~~tead of going to.the cinema, I stayed BUT I bought the red pullover instead of ;
: instead of ! at home . the blue one. (noun) 1
Dess_kpeitses/lpnesnpditnegomfobneeiyng ;i~"h:;,~ .. BUTWe went on the picnic despite/i~ .........
;. .. ~d
11 1
j::

: despite/in spite of spite of the cool weather (noun)


.................. .................. .............:!
as well as/ BUT I study French as well as German.
j As well as having three children, Mr
~ in addition to/ Besides French, I study German. (noun)
! Jones has two dogs.
:Ibesides
.. ............. .. ........................................... ............ ......................
~
.
.) .
! /n the event of us not completing the
BUT In the unlikely event of an error
, in the event of l project today, we will have to work at the
being made, the bank has promised to :
weekend. ! : give an immediate refund (noun) .............. j

rrh~;;:;~~thi~9.lik~ having -~;;~(/;;(-;;(~ My{;(;;~;is nothi~g like his !: BUT
j nothing like ..........!. :.~!~:.............................................................................. brothers. (noun) ..................................................:
!
after
! I was tired after climbing Mount BUT I went home straight after the party.

. . . .. .. . ...:. ~'.~~~~~!.~:.?:.. . . . . . .to. . .the


..................... (noun) :
BUT I am 9;~d~t~C~;;;ifii~g;-p~rlf;~;1
! Apart from going gym twice a

, apart from .. ................ .J..~.::~:. ~.~!~.?..~~~~.'..?.~~~~.~I ~~..~~.?...~:~.~~.~~:. Physics (noun) !


! When studying for exams, students BUT When Brad Pitt~(~;;1~~--;ii;:;;: . i--1
when
! should take regular breaks. always go to see it.
;. before r;b;~;he;/;;;y t~~th before g~ingt;-bed. BUT I took a nap before the ball. (noun)
.. .. .................... ........ .~ .

i' ~~;,~~~:~l;'.;:~l;,~:~:. ~. :.~~.~~.~~-~. ~.~~~.. ~~t~ ~;~;;_'.r.;ga%eo~n~ra~~~ ~: ~~~=~-~~- :,_!.


1
until
.. ..
Since taking up jogging last year. I have BUT I haven't seen you since our
since
........................ '. lost a lo~..~f weig~~:....................................................;..f!.~~.~-~~~.~~n (noun) .........................................!

while While watching TV, I realised that I had i~ .........!=.

forgotten to feed the cat.


..........................: ............................................ ........................ ........... .. ......... ........... .......... ...... .......... ........ ...........
1
~

Linking words and phrases immediately followed by a comma

Expressing contrast/concessio n/alternatives: However, ... I Nevertheless, ... I On the other hand, ... /
Admittedly, ... I Nonetheless, ... I Alternatively, ...
Expressing a point: As a matter of fact, ... I To tell you the truth, ... i
Clarifying and giving examples: For example, ... I For instance, ... I That is to say, ... I In other words, ... I l
To put it another way, ... I I mean, ... I
Adding information: Furthermore, ... I Moreover, ...
' Expressing effect/result: Consequently, ... I For this reason, ... I Therefore, ... I In that case, ... I As a
consequence/result , ... I Thus, ...
Summarising and sequencing ideas: Last but not least, ... I In all, ... I All in all , ... I In short, ... I Briefly, ... I
To put it briefly, ... I In conclusion, ... I In summary, ... I To sum up, ... I As I have said, ... I As was previously
stated, ... I On the whole, ... I First(ly) , ... I Second(ly) , ... I After this/that, ... I Next, ... /Finally, ... I In the end,
: ... I Lastly, ... .................
Note: If the linking word or phrase comes in the middle of a sentence, two commas are necessary!
There may, however, be other solutions to the problem
:.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................:

198
Clauses I Linking Words _
Join the sentences, then identify the function of the linking words in brackets.

1 Claire is reliable. She is conscientious too. (in addition to)


... In addition to being reliable Claire is also conscientious. (positive addition) ...
2 This is a new website. It has been designed to help teenagers. (specifically)
This new website has been specifically designed to help teenagers. (clarification)
3 Peter can't afford a holiday this year. Tom can't either. (neither ... nor)
Neither Peter nor Tom can afford a holiday this year. (negative addition)
4 Many famous people supported the cause. Tom Cruise and Brad Pitt did, for example. (such as)
Many famous people such as Tom Cruise and Brad Pitt supported the cause. (exemplification)
5 My nephew likes to wear a watch. He can't tell the time yet, though. (even though)
My nephew likes to wear a watch, even though he can't tell the time yet. (concession)
6 The film was good. The ending was a bit of a disappointment, though. (except for)
The film was good except for the ending. (exception)
7 The firefighter rushed into the blazing building. He didn't think of the danger. (regardless of)
The firefighter rushed into the blazing building, regardless of the danger. (concession)
8 Colin's mother is French. He can't speak a word of the language, though. (and yet)
Colin's mother is French and yet he can't speak a word of the language. (contrast)
9 The elderly woman walked very slowly and hesitantly. She was probably in great pain. (as if)
The elderly woman walked very slowly and hesitantly as if she was in great pain. (manner)
10 I would like to make an appointment with the bank manager. It's about my application for a loan. (concerning)
I would like to make an appointment with the bank manager concerning my application for a loan. (reference)
11 I suppose I can tell you. You mustn't tell anyone else. (providing)
I suppose I can tell you providing (that) you don't tell anyone else. (condition)
12 I always have some hot chocolate before I go to bed. It helps me sleep. (in order to)
I always have some hot chocolate before I go to bed in order to help me sleep. (reason)
13 Yesterday I found a wallet. It contained over a hundred pounds. (which)
Yesterday I found a wallet which contained over a hundred pounds. (relative)
14 I really enjoy surfing. It's difficult. (although)
I really enjoy surfing, although it's difficult. (concession)

Complete the sentences using linkers expressing positive addition , negative addition,
contrast and similarity.

1 ... Both ... Mozart and Beethoven were classical composers who lived in the 19th century.
2 It's such a pity I spent so long making paella as neither Kate nor Tim like seafood.
3 Not only do I like listening to classical music but I also like listening to pop.
4 I didn't get the job and Paula didn't either.
5 Her first album was a huge success and her latest single has likewise received good reviews.
6 I like Tommy, even if you think he is arrogant.
7 In addition to the project we were given to do for Friday, Mrs Jones has also given us an essay to write.
8 Maggie's English has improved a lot, while/whereas/but mine has got worse.
9 Mr Jenkins is one of the nicest and fairest teachers, not to mention the fact that he is patient.
10 The cost of living in the US is really high . In contrast, salaries are much higher in Europe.
11 "You can go to the party. However, I would like you to be home by 11 .30 ," mum said.
12 I don't study hard, yet I do well at school.
13 Not all children like watching TV. In the same way, not all adults like reading books.
14 I think travelling abroad will be great for Tom. Besides, he will get the opportunity to make new friends.
15 Barny speaks both Spanish and French equally well.
16 Neither Laura nor Mark enjoyed the party.
17 Instead of flying to Scotland we decided to go by train.
Clauses I Linking Words
Complete the sentences using linkers expressing concession, alternatives,
O emphasis and exemplification.

1 Finland is one of the most interesting countries I have ever visited . ... Even. .. so, I could never imagine
spending the rest of my life in such a cold place.
2 "Mary is the kindest and loveliest person you could ever meet." "She is indeed ."
3 John is a great skier. This is illustrated by him winning yet another gold medal at the Olympics.
4 Considering that he is not a native speaker, his accent is remarkable.
5 All people should be treated equally, regardless of race , age and gender.
6 I have never been in a foreign country, let alone spoken a foreign language.
7 My favourite places are islands such as Cyprus and Crete.
8 The shop assistant asked me if I was looking for anything in particular.
9 I bought a new pair of trousers and a pair of shoes as well.
10 We can have the party at our beach house. Alternatively, we can go out to a disco.
11 I plan to either study Medicine or Law at university.
12 I didn't get picked to play in the team but I'm going to the match nevertheless/nonetheless.
13 I told Jenny I wouldn't lend her any more money, (and) still/yet she keeps asking for some.
14 Uncle David is arriving tomorrow. To tell you the truth, I'm not really looking forward to listening to all his bad
jokes.
15 "Are you going anywhere nice this summer?" "As a matter of fact, I've just booked a holiday in the
Seychelles."

Complete the sentences using linkers expressing clarification, cause/reason ,


manner and condition.

1 She will be able to go to university .. .only.. . if she passes the entrance exam.
2 We 'd better go now, otherwise we might miss our flight.
3 He was allowed to spend the weekend with his friends on condition that he would tidy up his room first.
4 The engineer gave us instructions of what we should do in the event of a power cut.
5 I totally disapprove of the way in which she treats her pet cat.
6 They decided to move to a bigger house owing to the fact that they need more space for the newborn baby.
7 Smoking has been banned in public places on the grounds that it poses a public health hazard.
8 Assuming that I pass my driving test, I'll be able to get a car soon.
9 By adopting a healthy diet you are sure to get all the vitamins and minerals your body needs.
10 The data was thought to be inaccurate seeing that very few people had participated in the research .
11 I cannot dance (in) the same way as you do - we all have our own unique style!
12 In view of the recent changes, we will hold a meeting to discuss our plans for the future.
13 All those in favour, in other words those who support the project, please raise your hand.
14 It is evident that crime is increasing in our area as there have been three burglaries this month alone.

Complete the sentences using linkers expressing consequence of a condition, purpose,


effect/result, comparison, time and exception.

1 Keep training hard for another month or so. In ... doing... so, you will get stronger and fitter for the race.
2 Ben woke up late, consequently missing the plane to Amsterdam.
3 I got up really early for fear that I would be late for the interview.
4 Tim can type twice as fast as me.
5 The more I think about the exam , the more nervous I become.
6 There's nothing like a nice hot bath after a hard day at work.
7 In order not to offend Penny, I invited her to the party.
8 I hope I haven't upset you . If so, I apologise.
9 The weather was nice all week, except/but for Sunday morning when it rained.
10 But for the help of my neighbour, I wouldn't have been able to get into my house.
11 Since you are here, you can start now.

1100
Clauses I Linking Words -..........
12 Being ill, I shouldn't have entered the competition but I did quite well under the circumstances.
13 Come early. This way you will get the chance to meet everyone before we go out.

Complete the sentences using linkers expressing chronological order,


reference and summarising.

1 The famous actress refused to give any information ...concerning/regarding ... her private life.
2 We waited ages for a bus and eventually one came.
3 Initially, I didn't want to move to another city, but then I was glad I did.
4 I went to the wedding ceremony but I was too tired to go to the reception afterwards.
5 First, take a large pan and fill it with water. Next, place it on the stove and bring to the boil.
6 I would like to thank mum, dad, my brother, my sister Suzie and last but not least, my husband Harry for
making this such a special day.
7 On the whole, I was pleased with my exam results.
8 Students at Rowntree High have great choice with respect/regard to the sports on offer.
9 To sum up, language learning provides us with not only exciting opportunities to communicate with others,
but also the chance to broaden our minds.
10 There's lots I could tell you about my year in Ghana as a volunteer but I wouldn't know where to begin. To
put it briefly, I had the time of my life.
11 With reference to your recent application, I am pleased to inform you that you have been short-listed to come
for an interview.
12 Taking into account that it is difficult for the body to burn calories late in the evening, you should eat only
light snacks before you go to bed .
13 As (it) was previously stated in my last presentation, the company is ready to expand.

Fill in the gap with an appropriate linking word or phrase. Sometimes more than
one option might be appropriate.

1 ... Even though/Although ... Jim is 80, he insists on continuing to work.


2 Despite having a university degree, Sally is having difficulty finding a good job.
3 John works really hard, but/yet he gets poor marks in tests.
4 The U.K. gets very little sunshine in the winter. Greece, in contrast/however, gets plenty.
5 As well as/In addition to being a full-time teacher, Kerry is also a mum.
6 Knowing a foreign language can be good for your career. Furthermore/Moreover/In addition, it can introduce
you to another culture.
7 Besides having a large flat in London, the Smiths own a villa in Spain.
8 Harry sprained his ankle yesterday. Consequently/As a consequence/As a result/Thus{Therefore, he can't play in
today's match.
9 I am going to evening classes in order to/so as to improve my German.
10 A lot of her tiredness is due to/because of/owing to the pregnancy.
11 Because of/Due to/Owing to the bad weather, the road will remain closed .
12 After many attempts, I finally passed my driving test.
13 I waited ages for the bus. Eventually it came .
14 You wipe the tables, sweep the floor, and lastly, mop the whole dining area.
15 Before we finish , has anyone got any questions?
16 Beat the butter and sugar until it is soft and fluffy.
17 The children were playing happily in the garden while the grown-ups enjoyed a cup of tea.
18 Children need to get plenty of sleep ; similarly/likewise, adults should make sure they get a good night's rest.
19 Many students failed the examination . Some, however, obtained top marks.
20 You like buying designer labels, whereas/while I prefer shopping for bargains.
21 He is not only a good singer, but also a great song-writer too.
22 Diana performed well in the test considering she was ill.
23 On the one hand , it's good to eat out in restaurants but on the other hand, it's expensive.
24 I didn't want to go to the concert, but I enjoyed it nevertheless/nonetheless.
____. Clauses I Linking Words
25 The food at The Four Seasons tastes very good indeed.
26 On the whole/All in all , I enjoyed my trip to New York.
27 To sum up, there are many reasons why we should use renewable forms of energy.
28 As I have said before, eating a vegetarian diet is very healthy.
29 First, I will present the advantages of the proposal and then we will discuss any objections.
30 In short / Briefly/To put it briefly, we need to take action immediately before it is too late.
31 Everyone received a prize except for/apart from/but Kay.
32 I received a letter today concerning/regarding/with regard to my application to college.
33 It may seem an easy task, but in fact it is rather difficult.
34 I will let you read this book when/after I've finished reading it.

: Fill in each gap with one of the words in the box.

0 except, apart, besides, but for, instead

1 Everyone had a good time except for Jane.


2 I decided not to go shopping. I went swimming instead.
3 But for the support of my parents, I would never have got through university.
4 I really want you to come on holiday with us. Besides, you really deserve a break .
5 Do you read anything else apart from Shakespeare?

even if, even so, even though, only if

1 Even though these shoes are expensive, they are worth every penny.
2 Even if you hurry, you'll still miss the bus.
3 I'll lend you some money, but only if you promise to pay me back .
4 I saved my pocket money for six months. Even so, I still couldn't afford to buy a computer.

and , but, or, so

1 Which would you like - chicken or cheese?


2 I bought a jacket and a pair of trousers .
3 I'd like to go to the concert but I'm far too busy.
4 I wanted to get a good seat, so I arrived early.

() both ... and, not only ... but also, either ... or, neither ... nor, whether ... or

1 Not only did he turn up late for work, but he also took a long lunch break.
2 Neither Ann nor Kelly likes fish.
3 I've worked in both America and Australia.
4 If either my dad or my friends call , let me know.
5 When I heard the news I didn 't know whether to laugh or cry.

in the event of, in spite of, in addition to, in case, in order (not) to

1 Take a coat, in case it gets cold.


2 The teacher explained what we should do in the event of an earthquake.
3 In order to get into shape, you have to do regular exercise.
4 We went sightseeing in spite of the extremely high temperatures.
5 In addition to being a music teacher, Rebecca also plays in a band .

1102
Clauses I Linking Words _
0 whenever, when , while, until, whereas, wherever

1 Houses in the city are very expensive, whereas those in the country are slightly cheaper.
2 I always think of you whenever/when I hear Bon Jovi on the radio.
3 Dave waited until he was in his 30s to get married and have children.
4 While owning a pet is good for your health, it is also a big responsibility.
5 I made lots of new friends when I was in London.
6 Jason always feels at home wherever he is.

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 I haven't worn my blue dress for a long time.


since It's a long time ...since I last wore ... my blue dress.
2 There was a queue at the supermarket so I was late home.
due I arrived home late due to the fact (that) there was a queue at the supermarket.
3 James has decided to buy a motorbike; we can't stop him.
prevent We can 't prevent James from buying a motorbike.
4 She studied biology because she wanted to be a nurse.
view She stud ied biology with a view to becoming a nurse.
5 He was hard-working but he couldn't find a job.
though Hard-working though he was, he could not find a job.
6 She left all her money in the bank because she was afraid of being burgled.
fear She left all her money in the bank for fear of being/for fear she might be burgled .
7 I cashed a cheque because I might need more money.
case I cashed a cheque in case I needed more money.
8 Take some sandwiches. There may not be a cafe at the station.
in Take some sandwiches in case there isn't a cafe at the station.
9 My little brother is very different from me.
like My little brother is nothing like me.
10 He was the only one who didn't enjoy the film .
except Everyone enjoyed the film except (for) him.
11 Always drive carefully if you don't want to have an accident.
avoid Always drive carefully to avoid having an accident.
12 He won 't agree to modernising the office, not even to hiring more staff.
alone He won't agree to modernising the office let alone hiring more staff.
13 Whatever you say, I will never believe him.
what I will never believe him, no matter what you say.
14 You can come with me but only if you promise to behave yourself.
provided You can come with me provided (that) you promise to behave yourself.
15 Once everybody had arrived, the teacher began the lesson.
had The teacher waited until everyone had arrived before she started the lesson.
16 I used to work in that shop .
where That's the shop where I used to work.
17 She was so worried that she couldn't concentrate on her work.
too She was too worried to concentrate on her work.
18 I didn't tell him what I thought because I didn't want to upset him.
so I didn't tell him what I thought so as not to upset him.
19 It was such a loud bang that we all jumped.
so It was so loud a bang that we all jumped.
20 The music was too loud ; I got a headache.
such It was such loud music (that) I got a headache.
Folder O
1 Look at Appendix 2, then explain the phrasal verbs in bold.

1 They managed to get along despite their 8 The people couldn't get on the bus because it
difficulties . ... have a good relationship... was already full. enter, board
2 I don't understand what you 're getting at by 9 It took him three weeks to get over his chest
saying such things. mean/imply infection. recover from
3 She gets on with all her colleagues; she's such a 10 The student failed to get through the whole exam
nice person . be on friendly terms with in the time allowed. finish
4 He tried to get through to Ann but the phone was 11 The thieves had to give in when the police
engaged. reach by phone surrounded them . surrender
5 Although he caused the accident, he got away 12 She tried hard to give up eating sweets. abandon
with a small fine. escape punishment a habit
6 She's good at getting her ideas across ; everyone 13 The food supplies gave out after three days so
understands her. successfully communicate they had nothing but water. come to an end
7 She gives away all her old clothes to charity. give 14 The engine was dirty so the car gave off a lot of
free of charge fumes. emit

Look at Appendix 3, then fill in the correct preposition(s).

1 He was very jealous .. .of... his friend 's success. 14 Belinda has been really good to Mark, yet he is
2 The little boy was very frightened of the dog next rude to her.
door. 15 I've heard about him but I haven't met him.
3 To make a good impression on his employer he 16 He forgave me for insulting him.
volunteered to work late. 17 The man was found guilty of mu rder.
4 The actress was not impressed with/by the 18 The woman felt guilty about leaving her dog
role she was offered . outside all night.
5 The watch he bought from the man was identical 19 The boy was expelled from school for writing
to the one I had lost. graffiti on the walls.
6 The key to his success is his decisiveness. 20 There has been an increase in the price of fuel
7 The students were dismissed from class at the end recently.
of the lesson. 21 She is especially good at history at school.
8 The doctor was intent on helping the patient. 22 The man was not involved in the fight.
9 The baby had no intention of eating her food . 23 Mary was hopeless at Maths and asked her
10 He is very keen on playing computer games. teacher to help her.
11 They were keen to do something different at the 24 The ice-cream consisted of chocolate, bananas,
weekend. coconut and cream.
12 The girl had heard about the accident from an old 25 Susan is hoping to travel to Africa next year.
friend.
13 He has not heard from his penfriend in Russia for
ages .

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 You mustn't reveal anything to the press.


allowed You ... aren't allowed to reveal ... anything to the press.
2 It's your duty to check the progress of the project.
responsible You are responsible for checking the progress of the project.
3 She was too young to travel on her own.
old She was not old enough to travel on her own.
4 Josh emigrated to Britain . He wanted to start a new life there.
view Josh emigrated to Britain with a view to starting a new life there.

I104
5 People say he was the best opera singer of the century.
supposed He is supposed to have been the best opera singer of the century.
6 He only cleans his room because it makes his mother happy.
so He only cleans his room so as to make his mother happy.
7 May I take this chair?
mind Would you mind me/my taking/mind if I took this chair?
8 Although she had a headache, she carried on with her work.
spite In spite of having a headache, she carried on with her work.
9 He started learning Spanish three years ago.
been He has been learning Spanish for three years.
10 You mustn't miss the opportunity to attend this festival.
advantage You must take advantage of the opportunity to attend this festival.
11 How deep do you think this pool is?
of What is the depth of this pool , do you think?
12 I couldn't understand what the film was about.
clear What the film was about was not clear to me.
\_

Complete the idioms below using an appropriate word from the box, then explain the meaning
of the idioms.

dogs, cows , goat, bear, bird, elephant, cat, rat, horse, fish

1 I felt like a ... fieh ... out of water in my new job for the first few weeks .... uncomfortable ...
2 She eats like a bird - that's why she's so thin. to eat very little
3 The extension turned out to be a white elephant as nobody needed the extra space. something expensive but
useless
4 You 're flogging a dead horse trying to persuade me to come with you. You'll never get me to change my
mind. to waste time doing something that has no chance of succeeding.
5 I wouldn 't mind lending him money but what gets my goat is that he never pays me back. to annoy
6 Karen is like a(n) bear with a sore head this morning. What has made her so bad-tempered? in a very bad mood
7 The man told me he had come to mend the photocopier but I began to smell a(n) rat when I found him in
the director's office. to suspect somebody of something
8 The deal was supposed to be secret. Who let the cat out of the bag? to reveal a secret
9 Since the new manager took over, the business is really going to the dogs. The service is not up to standard
and the staff are inexperienced. to become less successful than in the past
10 I could stay and talk to you till the cows come home, but I really must leave now. for a very long time

~ Underline the correct item.

rise - rose - risen (int) = get higher; move upward \ lie - lied - lied = not to tell the truth
raise - raised - raised (tr) = cause to rise; make ~ lie - lay - lain (intr) = be in a horizontal position
higher or greater ; lay - laid - laid (tr) = cause to place down (ALSO lay the
arise - arose - arisen = (of problems) appear table; lay eggs)

1 You should raise/rise/arise your hand to get the teacher's attention.


2 She always lies/lays about her age so no one knows how old she really is.
3 We'll have to put off making a decision because a problem has arisen/risen/raised .
4 It's not good for you to lie/lay in bed all day. --
5 I always wake up just after the sun has arisen/risen/raised.
6 They lied/laid/lay the unconscious man on the bed .
7 Everyone arose/rose/raised to their feet when the judge entered the courtroom.
8 She laid/li ed/~ on the floor, groaning in pain.
Practice Test
Part 1
For questions 1-12, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits
each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).
I
Example:
A B C D
O A known B considered C told D reminded 0 - c:::::J c:::::J c:::::J

Ancient forests (also (0) ...A. .. as 'ancient woodlands' in the


U.K) are areas that (1) .......... of trees which can be as old as a
thousand years. Ancient forests are incredibly (2) .......... in
wildlife. In fact, they are (3) .......... to nearly two thirds of the
world's animal and plant species found on land. What is more,
ancient forests control the world's climate by absorbing large
amounts of water from rainfall. They also store carbon dioxide
which would otherwise (4) .......... the atmosphere.
(5) .......... , ancient forests covered most of central and western
Europe. Unfortunately, this is not the (6) .......... any more.
Today, ancient woodlands exist only in the far north of Europe.
Recent evidence indicates that only 17 per cent of the forest
that used to cover Europe remains; 3 per cent in Sweden and
Finland and 14 per cent in European Russia. This is worrying
because (7) .......... with the ancient trees that are destroyed,
rare plants and animals are becoming (8) .......... .
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) has decided to
(9) .......... attention to the importance of Europe's ancient
woodlands. They are calling for the remaining forests to be
protected through the control of the wood (10) ........... They
are also asking governments to regenerate forests and mana9e
them in a more nature-friendly way. By (11) .. .. ...... awareness
of the value of ancient forests, it is hoped that the remaining
areas will be (12) .......... .

1 A contain @ consist c include D involve


2 A wealthy B full c prosperous @ rich
3 A house I B place home D country
4@ pollute B infect c contaminate D spoil
5 A Then @ Once c Ago D Before
6@ case B instance c occasion D condition
7 A of @ along c next D alongside
8 A gone B dead c lost @ extinct
9@ draw B bring c carry D move
10 A business B job c exchange @ trade
11 A arising B rising raising D lifting
12 A released B kept c survived @ saved

106
Part 2
For questions 13-24, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap.
Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0) .

Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided .

Example: 0 IBI U IT J J J I J J J I J J J I I

Ot1r Moving Earth I


Geologi sts believe that the earth's top layer is not solid (0) ... ... .... .. ..... .. .......... is broken
up into a number of large pieces called 'plates '. These plates are not fixed in one spot
but are moving very slowly (about 1-10 cm a year) and independently of one (13)
another. That is, the plates are all moving (14) in different directions. Some plates are
moving towards each other, some are moving away from each other, and (15) some are
sliding past each other. As each plate moves, so (16) do the continents and oceans that
lie above it. It is this movement of the earth's pl ates (called ' Plate Tectonics') that
scientists believe explain s geological phenomena (17) such as mountain formation,
earthquakes, and the movement of continents (18) in/throughout time.
For example, when two pl ates (19) that/which are carrying continental crust above them
crash into each other, the continents can 'buckle' and 'fold ' to create mountain ranges.
This is (20) how the Himalayas formed. The plate which carri es India above it crashed
into the plate w hich carries Asia. In fact, the Himalayas are grow ing t aller (21) and taller
each year because t hese two plates are (22) constantly/still colliding.
The position of the continents is also explained by moving plates. Less than 100 years
ago, m any scient ists believed that the eart h's cont inents (23) had always been in t he
same place. M any people noted, however, the
strange coincidence that many coastlines .......11111111!!111'!15il
looked as if they could fit together. The
east coast of South America looked as
(24) -i.t' it could fit perfectly with the
west coast of Africa, for instance.
Practice Test ~

Part 3
For questions 25-34, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of
some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an example
at the beginning (0).

Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

Pur le - the colour of kings


Today, you can see the colour purple (0) .......................... But in EVERY
ancient times, purple was a(n) (25) exceptionally difficult colour to EXCEPTION
produce in a dye. Cloth which was dyed purple was (26) incredibly rare INCREDIBLE
and very (27) expensive. The only people who could afford to wear EXPENSE
purple clothes were kings, or very wealthy or (28) powerful people. In POWER
fact, for many centuries, purple was the colour of (29) royalty. ROYAL
Legend has it that purple was first discovered by the god Melkarth
BEAUTY
when his dog ate a sea snail. The snail left a (30) beautiful purple
colour around the dog's mouth. This snail (called Murex) became the
first source of purple dye. The dye was called 'Tyrian Purple' after the DISCOVER
place of its (31) discovery: Tyre. The city of Tyre became rich and very FAME
(32) famous in ancient times because its purple-dyed clothes were so HIGH
(33) highly prized. It took more than 12,000 Murex snails to produce VALUE
enough dye to colour just one robe. Purple dye was so (34} valuable,
that in ancient Rome one gram of purple dye was worth more than
twenty grams of gold!

1108
Part 4
For questions 35-42, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to
the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use
between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the
beginning (0) .

Example:

O The accident wasn 't his fault.


BLAME
He ............................................................................................................... ........................ the accident.

Write the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided .

35 The company rejected his offer.


DOWN
His offer was turned down by the company.

36 I can't believe that he managed to escape so easily.


DIFFICULT
I find it difficult to believe that he managed to escape so easily.

37 You'd better book a ticket well in advance.


WERE
If I were you, I would book a ticket well in advance.

38 He is less domineering than his brother.


NOT
He is not as domineering as his brother.

39 His parents won 't let him stay out late.


ALLOWED
He is not allowed to stay out late.
\
40 They won't make it to the final this year.
CHANCE
They have no chance of making it to the final th is year.

41 Nobody knows what the answer is.


ANYBODY
There is not anybody who knows what the answer is.

42 They invited both their relatives and their friends to the wedding.
ON LY
They invited not only their relatives but also their friends to the wedding.
Reported Speech
Direct Speech gives the exact words someone said. ! Reported Speech gives the exact meaning of what
We use inverted commas in Direct Speech. ; someone said but not the exact words. We do not use
"It's a nice song," he said. ! inverted commas in Reported Speech.
; He said it was a nice song.

Say - Tell - Ask - Speak - Talk

Say is used in Direct Speech. It is also used in Reported Speech when it is not followed by the person the
words were spoken to. "She won 't come," he said. He said (that) she wouldn't come.
Tell is used in Reported Speech when it is followed by the person the words were spoken to.
"She won't come," he said to me. He told me (that) she wouldn 't come.
Ask is used in reported questions and commands or in direct questions.
He said to me, "Please leave " He asked me to leave.
He asked, "Have you got any money?" He asked me if I had any money.
We use say + to - infinitive BUT never say about. We use tell sb, speak/talk about instead.
Ann said to call her at 12.00. He told them/spoke/talked about the incident.

Expressions with say, tell and ask


................ :.. ................................................................................ :
!
Expressions with say say good morning/evening etc, sa.y something, say one's prayers, say a few words,
: . . . . . . . . . .. . .!...~.~~.~-~.'. ~.~~-~o ~?.r~:. s~~. ~?.~ .~~.~~'.~ -~ ~~-f?~. ~~~~ ~~~ ..... ..... ..... ..... ....... . . ....... ......................
.E . 'th t [ tell the truth, tell a lie, tell (sb) the time, tell sb one's name, tell a story, tell sb a secret, l
: xpress1ons w1 e11 : . :
~ ! tell sb the way, tell one from another, tell sb's fortune, tell sb so, tell the difference etc ~
rE~p;~-~ ~i~~~--~11h ~-~kr~~k ~-1~~~-~;:~;k1h~11~~:~;k~ ~-~~~t1~~.--~~k th~p;i~~--~1~............ !
: ..................................... :. .... ..... ........... .. .... ....... .. ................................................................................................... .

Fill in: say, tell or ask in the correct form.

1 Tony ...said. .. he enjoyed the performance.


2 I can't say for sure, but I think she's divorced.
3 Never tell me a lie again.
4 The teacher said she was happy with our results.
5 She asked me for a loan of 50 .
6 Don't tell the secret to anybody else.
7 My neighbour always says "hello " whenever he sees me.
8 Please tell me if I look okay in this dress.
9 She asked the doctor how long she would have to stay in hospital.
10 He said he had never seen such a ridiculous film before.
11 "Of course I'll help you, " she said to me.
12 Can you tell me the way to the nearest bank?
13 Don 't say I didn 't tell you they were coming .
14 Mum promised to tell us a story before we go to bed.
15 I wish she'd stop asking favours .
16 She stopped to tell a passer-by the time.
17 The twins look alike. I can 't tell one from another.
18 She asked/told me to meet her at the cinema at 8 o'clock .
19 I remember her saying something , I just can 't remember exactly what.
20 And now I would like to say a few words about this year's competition .
21 To tell you the truth, this is the first time I've tasted blackberries.
22 She did tell me her name but I can't remember it now.
23 I don't teel like arguing so we'll say no more about the subject.
There are three types of Reported Speech: statements, questions and commands/requests/sugges tions.

Statements

Reported statements are usually introduced with say or tell. That is optional in the reported sentence.
Inverted commas are omitted in Reported Speech. "He 1s nch, Ann said Ann said (that) he was nch.
Personal pronouns and possessive adjectives change according to context.
I like your car, " he said to Mary. He told Mary that he liked her car
Tenses change as follows :
; . . . . .... .. .. . . iii.reci.speec.h. ............................................ . . .... ..........iiidireci.speecii.......... . . . . . . . ..........1
Present Simple .....{.''She works hard,;; he said .. ....................... ~.....Re"sa/'c{{that) she wo'ik'eci"fiard: ............................1
Present Cont. 1 "She is working hard, " he said. He said (that) she was working hard. 1
Past Simple !
"She worked hard," he said. He said (that) she had worked hard. !
Past Cont. ~ "She was working hard, " he said. He said (that) she had been working hard. i
Future Simple !
uShe will work hard, he said. He said (that) she would work hard. l
Future Cont. j "She will be working hard," he said. He said (that) she would be working hard. !
Present Perfect : "She has worked hard, " he said. He said (that) she had worked hard. i
..!
Present Perf. Cont. "She has been working hard," he said. He said (that) she had been working hard.
.. ...........
Past Perfect and Past Perfect Continuous do not change in Reported Speech.
Past Simple changes to Past Perfect or remains the same. When the reported sentence contains a time
clause, the tenses of the time clause remain unchanged. She came round to my house while I was doing my
shopping, he said. He said (that) she had come/came round to his house while he was doing his shoppmg.
If the reported sentence is out-of-date, the tenses change, but if it is up-to-date, the tenses can remain the
same. "She called last week, " he said. He said (that) she had called the week before. (speech reported after
she had called - out-of-date) He is seeing the dentist tomght, ' she said. She said he is seeing the dentist
tomght. (speech reported before he sees the dentist - up-to-date)
Tenses do not change In Reported Speech when:
the reporting verb (said, told, etc) is in the Present, Future or Present Perfect.
1can 't dnve, " he says He says (that) he can 't drive.
the speaker expresses general truths, permanent states or conditions.
"The sun rises m the east, " the teacher said. The teacher said (that) the sun rises m the east.
the reported sentence deals with conditionals type 2/type 3, wishes or unreal past.
"I wish I was flying to Brazil, " he said. He said (that) he wished he was flying to Brazil.
the speaker is reporting something immediately after it was said (up-to-date).
'The food is delicious. " he said He said (that) the food is delicious (up-to-date)
Note: If the speaker expresses something which is believed to be true, the tenses may change or remain the
same. "She likes seafood," he said He said (that) she likes/llked seafood. However, if the speaker expresses
something which is believed to be untrue, the tenses change. "India is a rich country," he said. He said (that)
India was a nch country.
Time words can change or remain the same depending on the time reference.
Direct Speech Indirect Speech
tonight, today, this week/month/year that night, that day, that week/month/year
now then, at that time, at once, immediately
now that since
yesterday, last night/week/month/year the day before, the previous night/week/month/year
tomorrow, next week/month/year the following day/the day after, the following/next week/month/year
two days/months/years etc ago two days/months/years etc before
"The report Is due m next week, the lecturer said. The lecturer said (that) the report was due in the
following week (out-of-date reporting) "I went to a party last night," she said. She said (that) she went to
a party last night (up-to-date reporting)
certain words change depending on the context: this/these that/those, here there, come go etc
"He isn 't coming to the meeting, " she said. She said he wasn 't going to the meetmg.
Reported Speech
[@ . Turn the following sentences into Reported Speech.
1 "They will have arrived in Bali by now," he said . (out-of-
date reporting) ... He said they would have arrived in Bali
by then .. ..
2 "I've always hated the music they play at this
disco," he said . (out-of-date reporting) He said he had
always hated the music they played at that disco.
3 "He' ll repair the car next Friday," she said . (up-to-
date reporting) She said he will repair the car next Friday.
4 "I'll be travelling home this time next week," she said .
(out-of-date reporting) She said she would be travelling
home that time the following week.
5 "He left last Monday," she says. She says he left last Monday.
6 "I haven't decided what type of car I'll buy," he said. (up-
to-date reporting) He said he hasn't decided what type of car
Bali - Indonesia
he will buy.
7 "It's time we went out," she said. She said it was time we/they went out.
8 "The earth is round," he said. He said the earth is round.
9 "When they were fishing they caught a trout," he said . He said that when they were fishing they caught a trout.
10 "Your reports are all typed up," the secretary said . (up-to-date reporting) The secretary said my/our reports are
all typed up.
11 "Dinosaurs are extinct," the teacher said . The teacher said dinosaurs are extinct.
12 "Paris is a small city," said Lucy. Lucy said Paris was a small city.
13 "I've been sunbathing all afternoon," he said . (out-of-date reporting) He said he had been sunbathing all afternoon.
14 "She looks very pretty today," said Paul. Paul said she looks/looked very pretty today/that day.
15 "If I were you, I'd enter the competition," he said. He said that if he were me he would enter the competition .
16 "If they had played well, they'd have won," the coach said. The coach said that if they had played well they would
have won.
17 "She doesn't seem to be enjoying herself," he said. (up-to-date reporting) He said that she doesn't seem to be
enjoying herself.
18 "Water freezes at 0C ," the professor said. The professor said that water freezes at oc.
19 "She ought to see a doctor," he said. He said she ought to see a doctor.
20 "Mum is making a cake now," said Tom. (out-of-date reporting) Tom said Mum was making a cake then.
21 "We went to Australia two years ago, " she said. (out-of-date reporting) She said they had been to Australia two
years before.
22 "He can't possibly be serious," Tim said . (up-to-date reporting) Tim said he can't possibly be serious.
23 "We were watching television when we heard the news," her father said . Her father said they had been/were
watching television when they heard the news.
24 "I am meeting Terry tomorrow," she said. (up-to-date reporting) She said she is meeting Terry tomorrow.
25 "Next time you' ll have to do better than that," my boss said. (out-of-date reporting) My boss said that I would
have to do better than that the next time.

Reported Questions

Reported Questions are introduced with ask, wonder, inquire, want to know etc. In reported questions we
use affirmative word order and the question mark becomes a full stop. Inverted commas are omitted . To report
a question we use: a) ask + question word (who, where, which, how etc) when the direct question begins
with a question word, and b) ask+ If/whether when the direct question begins with an auxiliary verb (can, do,
have etc) . Tenses, personal pronouns, possessive adjectives, time words etc change as in statements.

: Direct Speech Reported Speech


i
........ .................................................................. !;
, "What time is it?" she asked him. , She asked him what time it was.
:. .':~.~.X?.~.~.~~. '!!~~~.'..::.~.~~.~~~~~.~'.~:. . . .......l..~.~~.~s~~~..~;::1...~~!~~.~.~~~.~ .~~.~!.~.~:~.t. . '.
112
Turn the following sentences into Reported Speech.

1 "Will you take the dog out for a walk? " he asked me . ... He asked me if/ whether I would take the dog out
for a walk .. ..
2 "How much money have you got?" he asked me. He asked me how much money I had.
3 "Did you really write this poem?" she asked Tim. She asked Tim if/whether he had really written that poem.
4 "How did the operation go? " they asked the doctor. They asked the doctor how the operation had gone.
5 "Will you be going on holiday next summer?" he asked her. He asked her if/whether she would be going on
holiday the following summer.
6 "Is that your daughter walking along the pier, Mary? " Joan asked. Joan asked Mary if/whether that was her
daughter walking along the pier.
7 "Why is he acting this way? " she asked me. She asked me why he was acting that way.
8 "Can you let Joan know I'll be late?" she asked me. She asked me if/whether I could let Joan know she would be late.
9 "Which of these dresses suits me best?" she asked Lynn. She asked Lynn which of those dresses suited her best.
10 "Does this bicycle belong to anyone?" he asked. He asked if/whether that bicycle belonged to anyone.
11 "Who used my toothbrush?" he asked. He asked who had used his toothbrush.
12 "Do you want to join us at 6.00? " he asked me. He asked me if/whether I wanted to join them at 6.00.
13 "Why didn't you tell me about the party?" he asked me. He asked me why I hadn't told him about the party.
14 "Have you been to York before?" she asked Sue. She asked Sue if/whether she had been to York before.

Indirect questions are used to ask for advice or information. They are introduced with: Could you tell me
...?, Do you know ...?, I wonder ... , I want to know .. ., I doubt ... , etc and the verb is in the affirmative. If
the indirect question starts with "I want to know .. .", "I wonder ... " or "I doubt ... ", the question mark is
omitted. Question words (what, where, who, etc) or whether can be followed by an infinitive in the indirect
question if the subject of the question is the speaker .
.. ... ............................................. ........................ ... ....... .......................................
: Direct Speech j Indirect Speech

I::~~~:.i~(,~:?t~:~,~f~iis~=~~:::=::1 ~f}~~:~~::;~:~;,~:~~~had told ~: t~:;~;::-


1:.............................................................................................! He wanted to know what he should do/what to do next.
-1,
:................................................... _................................................................:
"What shall I do next?" he asked me.

Turn the following sentences into indirect questions. Omit question marks where necessary.

1 Where are you going? (I want to know ... ) ... I want to know where you are going....
2 Did he steal the money? (I doubted ...) I doubted that he had stolen the money.
3 Has she told anyone about our engagement? (He wondered ... ) He wondered if/whether she had told anyone
about their engagement.
4 What time does the train leave? (Could you tell me ... ) Could you tell me what time the train leaves?
5 Who did it? (She wondered ...) She wondered who had done it.
6 Where have you been? (He wanted to know ... ) He wanted to know where I/he/she/we/they had been.
7 Does he speak French fluently? (I wonder .. .) I wonder if/whether he speaks French fluently.
8 Will she be on time? (I doubt ... ) I doubt that she will be on time.
9 How long has he been working here? (Do you know ...) Do you know how long he has been working here?
10 Are they moving house? (I want to know ...) I want to know if/whether they are moving house.

Reported Commands/Requests/Suggestions

Reported Commands/Requests/Suggestions are introduced with a special introductory verb (advise , ask, beg ,
suggest etc) (see pages 103-104) followed by a to-infinitive, an -ing form or a that-clause depending on the
introductory verb.
'Watch out, he said to me. He told me to watch out. (command)
"Please, don't move. he said to me. He asked me not to move (request)
Let's play chess," he said. He suggested playing chess. (suggestion)
"You'd better see a doctor," he said. He suggested that I (should) see a doctor (suggestion)
Reported Speech
Turn the following sentences from Direct to Reported Speech.

1 ''Turn off the light please! " he said to us. ... He asked us to turn off the light....
2 "Wipe your feet on the mat!" mother said . Mother told me/us to wipe my/our feet on the mat.
'l " l?lea~e lQ~~l\{e mel." ~t\e ~ald. . St\~ a.~~d m~ t.,Q {Q~~l\(~ t\~~ .
4 "Could you babysit for me ton ight?" he said to me. He asked me if/whether I could babysit/to babysit for him
that night.
5 "You sho uldn't eat so much meat," she said to me. She advised me not to eat so much meat.
6 "Be here on time in future," Tom's boss said. Tom's boss told him to be there on time in futu re.
7 "Could you pass me the salt?" Barry said to her. Barry asked her to pass him the salt.
8 "Let's buy some new curtains! " Sally said . Sally suggested buying some new curtains.
9 "You'd better go to bed early," Hen ry said. Henry advised me/him/her/us/them to go to bed early.
10 "Don 't be horrible to your little sister! " his father said . His father told him not to be horrible to his little sister.

Modal Verbs in Reported Speech

Note how the following modal verbs change in Reported Speech when the reported sentence is out-of-date.
will/shall would, can could (present reference)/would be able to (future reference), may might/could,
shall should (asking for advice)/would (asking for information)/offer (expressing offers) , must must/had to
(obligation) (* "must" remains the same when it expresses possibility or deduction) , needn't didn't need
to/didn't have to (present reference)/wouldn't have to (future reference). Would, could, used to, mustn't, should,
might, ought to and had better remain unchanged in Reported Speech.
Direct Speech Indirect Speech
He said , "I will always love you ." He said (that) he would always love me.
He said , "I can't help you." He said (that) he couldn't help me.
He said , "We can come soon." He said (that) they would be able to come soon.
He said , "It may snow." He said (that) it might snow.
He said , "What time shall we leave?" He asked what time we would leave. (information)
He said , "Shall I buy a red one?" He asked (me) if he should buy a red one. (advice)
He said , "Shall I help you?" He offered to help me. (offer)
He said, "You must tell the truth. " He said (that) I had to tell the truth . (obligation)
He said , "She must have got lost." He said (that) she must have got lost. (deduction)
He said , "They should try a little harder." He said (that) they should try a little hard er.
He said , "She had better pay me back." He said (that) she had better pay him back.
He said, "You needn't hurry." He said (that) I didn't have to/didn't need to hurry.
He said , "You needn't come to work on Friday." He said (that) I wouldn't have to go to work on Friday.

Turn the following sentences into Reported Speech.

1 She said , "You needn't pay until next month ." ... She said (that) I wouldn't have to pay until the following
month....
2 She said, "When shall we let them know?" She asked when we would let them know.
3 She said, "Shall I carry your suitcase?" She offered to carry my suitcase.
4 She said, "I can't play chess very well. " She said (that) she couldn't play chess very well.
5 She said, "We must finish the work today." She said (that) they had to finish the work that day.
6 She said, "You needn't wear formal clothes." She said (that) I didn't have/need to wear formal clothes.
7 She said, "You should take more exercise." She said (that) I should take more exercise.
8 She said, "Shall I get you an aspirin?" She offered to get me an aspirin.
9 She said , "Tony must have missed the bus." She said (that) Tony must have missed the bus.
10 She said , "We' ll go to the zoo tomorrow." She said (that) they would go to the zoo the following day.
11 She said , "I may ta ke up skiing ." She said (that) she might take up skiing.
12 She said , "What shall I buy him for his birthday?" She asked me what she should buy him for his birthday.
13 She said , "They won't arrive on time." She said (that) they wouldn't arrive on time.
14 She said , "They needn't be at the meeting next week." She said (that) they wouldn't have to be at the meeting
the following week.
Special Introductory Verbs
Introductory verb Direct Speech Reported Speech
agree + to-inf "Yes, I'll come with you." He agreed to come with me.
demand "Tell me everything! " He demanded to be told everything.
offer "Would you like me to carry it?" He offered to carry it.
promise ''I'll study more." He promised to study more.
refuse "No, I won't come with you." He refused to come with me.
threaten "Behave yourself or I'll punish you." He threatened to punish me if I didn't
behave myself.
claim "I heard her say that." He claimed to have heard her say that.
- ........... .
advise + sb +to-inf
allow
ask
"You should take a coat."
"You can use my phone."
"Please, put it away." ---
He advised me to take a coat.
He allowed me to use his phone.
He asked me to put it away.
beg
command
"Please, please help me."
"Fire! "
-- He begged me to help him.
He commanded the soldiers to fire.

--
encourage "Go ahead, phone her." He encouraged me to phone her.
forbid "You mustn't eat sweets." He forbade me to eat sweets.
instruct "Insert your card and wait for the He instructed me to insert my card

invite sb
instructions to appear."
"Would you like to come to my
-and wait for the instructions to appear.
He invited me to go to his house.

order
house?"
"Sit down immediately."
--
He ordered me to sit down immediately.

---
permit "You may speak now." He permitted me to speak.
remind "Don't forget to pay the bill." He reminded me to pay the bill.
urge "Finish your work." He urged me to finish my work.
warn
want
"Don't touch that switch."
"I'd like you to study harder."
-- He warned me not to touch that switch.
He wanted me to study harder.
accuse sb of + -ing form
apologise for
adm it (to)
"You broke the vase!"
"I'm sorry I upset you ."
"Yes, I lied to her. " --- He accused me of breaking the vase.
He apologised for upsetting/having upset me.
He admitted (to) lying/having lied to her.
boast about
complain to sb about
"I am better than you."
"You never tidy up."
- He boasted about being better than me.
He complained to me about my never

---
tidying up.
deny "No, I didn 't steal the car." He denied stealing/having stolen the car.
insist on "You must wear warm clothes." He insisted on me/my wearing warm clothes.
suggest "Let's go to the theatre." He suggested going to the theatre.

---
.... .. .. ... .. .. ....... ................
agree + that-clause "Yes, that is a beautiful hat. " He agreed that it was a beautiful hat.
boast ''I'm a brilliant dentist. " He boasted that he was a brilliant dentist.

----
claim "I know the answer." He claimed that he knew the answer.
complain "You never listen to me." He complained that I never listened to him .
deny "I've never spoken to her." He denied that he had ever spoken to her.
exclaim "It's wonderful! " He exclaimed that it was wonderful.
explain "It's an easy recipe to follow. " He explained that it was an easy recipe to
follow.
inform sb "You will be called for an interview." He informed me that I would be called for an
interview.
promise "I won 't lie to you again." He promised that he wouldn't lie to me again.
suggest "You ought to take the other road. " He suggested that I take the other road .
.. . - ..
explain to sb + how "This is how you make it." He explained to me how to make it.
Reported Speech
Introductory verb Direct Speech Reported Speech
:
won.d er where/what l He asked himself, "How can she reach He wondered how she could reach
why/how + clause l the top?" the top.
(when the subject of the l He asked himself, "Where is Joan?" He wondered where Joan was.
introductory verb is not j He asked himself, "Why is she crying?" He wondered why she was crying.
the same as the subject l He asked himself, "What is she doing?" He wondered what she was doing.
in the reported question) !
wai1Cier +-wilei"her+1He;as.i<ed.illmseif."silaiir5uyth"axca;:?;;;;He.wond"e.reCi..wheitier.ta5uyffi.atcar:
.. ~~~i~-~..<!.~ ..~'.~ -~~7................i .........................................................................................~ ....~~- ~~~~.7.~~-~--~-~~-~~.~t.~~--~~-~~~9. ~.~Y.~~.c:i:!.~.~r......
wonder where/what/ ! He asked himself, "Where am I going?" He wondered where he was going .
how + to-inf (when the ! He asked himself, "What should I tell her?" He wondered what he should tell her.
subject of the infinitive is : He asked himself, "How can I fix it?" He wondered how to fix it.
the same as the subject :
of the verb)

First write an appropriate introductory verb, then report the following sentences.

1 "I'll be home early. " ... promise... - ... He promised to be home early....
2 "Press the button first. " instruct - He instructed me to press the button first.
3 "I didn't copy John's work. " deny - He denied copying/having copied John's work.
4 "He never tells the truth." complain - He complained to me about him never telling the truth./He complained that he
never told/tells the truth.
5 'Tm so good at Maths." boast - He boasted that he was very good at Maths./ He boasted about being very good at Maths.
6 "She's so beautiful! " exclaim - He exclaimed that she was very beautiful.
7 " Peter is unable to attend the meeting tomorrow. " inform - He informed me that Peter was unable to attend the
meeting the following day.
8 "No, I won 't tell you what happened." refuse - He refused to tell me what had happened.
9 "I think you should go home. " advise - He advised me to go home.
10 "That's how you fix it. " explain - He explained to me how to fix it.
11 "You really ought to see a doctor." suggest - He suggested that I (should) see a doctor.
12 "This is how I began my career." explain - He explained to me how he began his career.
13 "Yes, I told them everything." admit - He admitted telling/having told them everything.
14 "I'm sorry I shouted. " apologise - He apologised for shouting/having shouted.
15 "You lied to me. " accuse - He accused me of lying/having lied to him.
16 "I'd like you to carry the bag ." want - He wanted me to carry the bag .
17 "Don 't forget to ask Janet. " remind - He reminded me to ask Janet.
18 "Don 't touch this wire." warn - He warned me not to touch that wire.
19 "You may go now. " permit - He permitted me to go.
20 "Come on, try it again! " urge - He urged me to try it again.
21 "She really must attend more frequently. " insist - He insisted on her attending more frequently.
22 "Would you like to go to the theatre? " invite - He invited me to go to the theatre.
23 "You mustn't talk during the exam." forbid - He forbade me/us to talk during the exam.
24 "Go ahead, enter the race! " encourage - He encouraged me to enter the race.
25 "Run immediately! " command - He commanded us/me to run immediately.
26 " Please, please tell me the truth! " beg - He begged me to tell him the truth.
27 "James never told me he was working undercover." deny - He denied that James had told him he was working undercover.
28 "You can take my car." allow - He allowed me to take his car.
29 "I won 't do it again." promise - He promised that he wouldn 't do it again .
30 "Clean your room now or I'll ground you. " threaten - He threatened to ground me if I didn't clean my room.
31 "Would you like me to help?" offer - He offered to help.
32 "Give me everything ." order - He ordered me to give him everything.
33 "I'm sorry I was late. " apologise - He apologised for being/having been late.
34 "Yes, he is very handsome." agree - He agreed that he was very handsome.
35 "I know that musician well. " claim - He claimed that he knew/He claimed to know the musician well.
36 "Please, explain once more." ask - He asked me to explain once more.
37 "You are never on time." complain - He complained that I was never on time./He complained about me/my never being on time.
Reported Speech
Reporting a dialogue or a conversation
Everyday conversations and dialogues are a mixture of statements, commands and questions. To report these
we use: and, as, adding that, and he/she added that, explaining that, because, but, since, so, and then
he/she went on to say, while, then , etc or the introductory verb in the present participle form. Exclamations
such as: Oh! , Ouch! , Oh no! etc are omitted in Reported Speech.
Direct Speech Reported Speech
"Oh, it's a lovely evening. Shafi we go He said that it was a lovely evening and suggested going
for a walk? " he said. for a walk.
"I can 't wear it, " she said. "It's too tight. " She said that she couldn 't wear it because it was too tight.
"Let's take a taxi, " he said. "I want to He suggested that they should take/He suggested taking a taxi,
arrive on time." explaining that he wanted to arrive on time.

Exclamations - "Yes/ No" short answers - Question tags


Exclamations are replaced in Reported Speech with exclaim, thank, wish, say, cry out in pain, etc, give an
exclamation of surprise/horror/disgust/delight, etc. The exclamation mark becomes a full stop. Exclamatory
words such as Oh! , Eek! , Wow!, Oh dear!, Well!, etc are omitted in the Reported Speech .
"Wow!" she said when she saw the huge cake. She cried out in surprise when she saw the huge cake.
Yes/No short answers are expressed in Reported Speech with subject + appropriate auxiliary verb OR
subject + appropriate introductory verb. "Will you tell me? " he said. "No," she said. He asked her if she
would tell him but she said she wouldn 't. OR He asked her if she would tell him but she refused.
Question tags are omitted in Reported Speech. An appropriate introductory verb can be used if we want to
retain their effect. "She is stiff at work, isn 't she?" he said. He wondered if she was stiff at work.

Turn the following conversations into Reported Speech using special introductory verbs.

A "Carter, when are you taking your holidays this year?" said the
manager.
"Actually, I've already been on holiday, sir. Don't you remember? I
went on safari in Kenya," said Carter.
"Oh yes, of course. You went in March, didn 't you?"
"That's correct, sir," said Carter.
"Did you enjoy it?" the manager asked .
"Well, I didn't manage to see many animals. It was very disappointing,"
Carter replied .
"Have you got any plans to go back there?" the manager said .
"Well, yes, actually I've already booked tickets for next year. I'm going in February. I think it will be a
better time for seeing the animals," said Carter.
"So, we'll be looking for a new accountant then, if you come face to face with a lion ," said the manager .
... The manager asked Carter when he was taking his holidays that year.... Carter explained that he had
already been on holiday, reminding his boss that he had been on safari in Kenya. His boss then wanted to know
whether Carter had gone in March . When Carter said that that was correct, his boss asked whether he had enjoyed his
holiday. Carter explained that as he hadn't managed to see many animals, it had been (very) disappointing. The boss
then asked him if he had any plans to go back there. Carter informed him that he had already booked tickets for the
following year in February, adding that he thought it would be a better time for seeing the animals. The boss ended the
conversation by saying jokingly that they would be looking for a new accountant if Carter came face to face with a lion.
B "Let's spend the weekend in Scotland ," said Andrea. "We can find a cheap bed and breakfast in the
Highlands."
"And just what are we going to do all weekend with nothing but sheep for company?" Cathy asked .
"I'll teach you to ski ," said Andrea .
.. .Andrea suggested spending ... the weekend in Scotland adding that they would be able to find a cheap bed
and breakfast in the Highlands. Cathy wanted to know what they were going to do all weekend with nothing but
sheep for company. Andrea promised to teach her how to ski.
Reported Speech
C "James, have you written to the University of Madrid yet?" Mr Mills said.
"No, I'm sorry," said James. "I haven't had time."
"There's no point in apologising to me, James," said Mr Mills. "You see, you must apply early because
they fill their places very quickly."
"The thing is that I'm afraid I won't pass my Spanish exam," said James.
"Well, have you been working hard?" said Mr Mills.
"Yes, I have," said James, "but I'm much better at French, and I had hoped to apply to Paris."
"Yes, it's true you are better at French," said Mr Mills. "If I put your name down for the Sorbonne, will
you write tonight? "
"Yes sir, I'll write as soon as I get home," James promised .
... Mr Mi/Ir:; ar:;ked Jamer:; if he... had written to the University of Madrid. James apologised, explaining that he hadn't
had time. Mr Mills said that there was no point in apologising to him but he pointed out that James had to apply early
because the universities/they fill their places very quickly. James then admitted that he was afraid of not passing his
Spanish exam. Mr Mills asked him if he had been working hard. James said that he had but he had hoped to apply to
Paris as he was much better at French . Mr Mills agreed that James was better at French and wanted to know whether
he would write to the Sorbonne that night if he put his name down. James promised to write as soon as he got home.

Punctuation in Direct Speech

We capitalise the first word of the quoted sentence. The full stop, the question mark, the exclamation mark
and the comma come inside the inverted commas. The comma comes outside the inverted commas only
when he said/asked precedes the quoted sentence. '"She went out," he said. He said, ..She went out. " "She."
he said, "went out. " We do not use a comma after the question mark. "Can I speak to you?" I asked BUT I
asked, "Can I speak to you?"
When the subject is a pronoun, it comes before the reporting verb (said, asked, etc) but when the subject is
a noun, it often comes after said , asked, etc at the end or in the middle of the quoted sentence. "He moved
house," she said. "He moved house," said Sarah . ..He," said Sarah, " moved house." BUT She/Sarah said, "He
moved house." (NOT: Saifi Sam!?, "He moved house.")
Each time the speaker changes, we normally start a new paragraph.

Rewrite the following as a conversation . Mind the punctuation .


(See Suggested Answer section)
A Stephen denied having got them lost and refused to take responsibility for their situation . Catherine
accused him of not knowing how to read a map, and threatened to leave him if he didn't get them out of
the mess. Stephen complained that she always made him do all the work. Catherine apologised for not
helping but begged him to do something , adding that she didn 't want to spend the night out in the open .
Stephen promised that they would find somewhere to stay, and urged her to keep calm. He eventually
asked her to help him with the map reading. She laughed and suggested that perhaps he should try holding
the map the right way up.... "It's not my fault we got lost," Stephen said.... ........................................... ..

B The diver boasted about having found a shipwreck full of treasure on the ocean floor. His friend accused him
of lying as that part of the sea had been explored thoroughly, yet the diver still insisted , claiming that only he
had searched that particular area. Then his friend went on to tell him that if that was the case, he should notify
the authorities as soon as possible in order to lay claim to the treasure. She warned him that if he failed to do
this someone else might claim the treasure for themselves. It was at this stage that the diver admitted that the
wreck wasn't that old and that the treasure consisted of Monopoly money! ... "/ have found... ........................ .

118
Reported Speech
Subjunctive
The bare infinitive form of the subjunctive is used after certain verbs and expressions to give emphasis. These are:
advise, ask, demand, insist, propose, recommend, request, suggest, it is essential, it is imperative, it is
important, it is necessary, it is vital followed by (that) + subject. In British English we normally use should +
simple form instead of the bare infinitive form of the subjunctive. It 1s vital (that) you deliver the parcel today. (less
usual) It is vital that you should deliver the parcel today. (more usual)

t Rewrite the following sentences using the words in brackets.

1 "I would eat only the fish," he said . (suggest) ... He suggested (that) I (should) eat only the fish ....
2 "Let's go to the beach ," he said. (propose) He proposed (that) we/they {should) go to the beach .
3 "Why not paint the room blue?" said Dad . (recommend) Dad recommended (that) I {should) paint the room blue.
4 "Please bring me a cup of tea," she said. (request) She requested (that) I (should) bring her a cup of tea.
5 "You must do your homework," said Mr Smith. (insist) Mr Smith insisted (that) we (should) do our homework.

filID Turn the following dialogue into Reported Speech. (See Suggested Answer section)

Joan: Mmm, I'm really going to enjoy this sandwich . I'm so hungry. I haven 't
eaten anything since breakfast. Are you sure you don't want anything?
Geoffrey: Yes. I've eaten too much already today. I can 't eat another thing.
Joan: Why not just have a glass of milk then?
Geoffrey: Good idea.
Joan: I really enjoyed the visit to the aquarium this morning. What shall
we do this afternoon?
Geoffrey: Let's go to the folk museum. It looks very interesting.
Joan: Yes, but don 't forget we have to be back at the hotel by six.
Geoffrey: We definitely have enough time, don 't worry.
Joan: Oh no! I can't find my purse. I must have dropped it in the car park.
Geoffrey: I'll go back and look for it if you like.
...Joan said that she was going to enjoy her sandwich because....

Turn the following sentences into Reported Speech using special introductory verbs.

1 "Don't go near the bull. " ...She warned me not to go near the bull.. ..
2 "What a brilliant idea! " He exclaimed that it was a brilliant idea.
3 "I'll definitely take you to the park tomorrow." She promised to take me to the park the next day.
4 "Let's have the wedding in the spring." She suggested having/She suggested (that) they (should) have t he
wedding in the spring.
5 "Please, please don 't tell my father what happened. " She begged me not to tell her father what had happened.
6 "You are always late." He complained that I was always late.
7 "I'm sorry I wasn't there when you needed me." She apologised for not being/having been there when I needed her.
8 "You switched the reports, didn't you?" He accused me of switching/having switched the reports.
9 "No, I won't lend you the money." She refused to lend me the money.
10 "You can 't go to the party tonight. " He forbade me to go to the party that night.
11 "Shall I hang out the washing?" She offered to hang out the washing.
12 "Don 't forget to send Mum a birthday card." He reminded me to send Mum a birthday card.
13 "This is how you switch on the machine." She explained to me how to switch on the machine.
14 "I'm the best tennis player in the club." He boasted that he was/about being the best tennis player in the club.
15 "Go ahead, propose to her. " She encouraged me to propose to her.
Reported Speech
Turn the following text into Direct Speech.
(See Suggested Answer section)
Daniel asked the bank manager for a loan. The bank manager asked him exactly what he wanted the money for.
Daniel explained that he wanted to set up his own cleaning business. The bank manager agreed that it was a
good idea but urged him to be very careful before investing a lot of money. Daniel admitted that he'd never had
his own business before. The bank manager apologised for being unable to promise Daniel a loan immediately.
He suggested that Daniel write a business plan and come back in a week. Daniel agreed to return the following
Thursday .... ~,was wondering if it was possible for me to apply for a loan," Daniel said to the bank manager....

Rewrite the following sentences in Reported Speech.


(See Suggested Answer section)

1 "I'm learning French," he said. "I'm going to Paris for my holidays. "
... He said he was [earning French, adding that he was going to Paris for his holidays ... .
2 "Can you take the dog for a walk?" he said to her. "I'm busy." ............................... .................................... .. .
3 "You shouldn't eat too many sweets," she said . "It's bad for your health." ..... ............................................ ...
4 "Can I borrow your pen , please?" he said to her. "I need to write something. " .... ...................................... ...
5 "Please don 't talk," said the teacher. "This is a test. " ............................................................................. ........ .
6 "Why don 't you turn off the TV?" she said to him. "You aren't watching it. " .......... .........................................
7 "Come to our house tonight, Mary," he said . "Jim wants to see you. " ... ............... .. ...................................... .
8 "Have you read your newspaper?" he asked her. "I want to look at it. " ................ ............................. ........... .
9 "The baby should be asleep," she said . "It's ten o'clock." ............................................................................. .
10 "I don't want any more cake," she said . "I've had enough." ...........................................................................
11 "Don't play near the road ," their mother said . "It's too dangerous. " .............................................................. .
12 "I like Susan ," he said. "She's very friendly. " ........ ........................................................................................... .
13 ''I'm teaching Jane's class," she said. "She's on holiday this week." ............................................................ .
14 "Sarah would like to have the house," he said. "She's lived here a long time." .............................................
15 "You could become famous, June," he said. "You're a very good singer." ................................................... .
16 "Are you going to take the job?" he asked her. "Or will you wait for a better one?" .................... ..................
17 "Can you phone Julie?" she asked me. "I heard she has had a fight with Mark." ............................. ........... .
18 "Do you know when May will be back?" she asked. "She's been away all week ." ....................................... .
19 "Do you think we should try this new restaurant tonight?" he asked his wife. "I've heard it's very good."

20 "If anyone phones," she said , "tell them I won 't be here until tomorrow." ................ ....... ..................... ......... .
21 "I'd love to go to Venice, " she said. "I've never been there." ...................... ........... ........................................ .
22 "Don 't ask Simon how to use the computer," she said. "He doesn 't know a thing about them. " ................ .

23 "I must go now," said Samantha, "or I might miss the bus." .......................................................................... .
24 "I'm sorry I didn't phone you yesterday," said Charlotte. "I had to visit my aunt. " .........................................

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 "You should go to the dentist Tina," he said.


advised He .. .advised Tina to go... to the dentist.
2 "Try to remember your books tomorrow," she said .
urged She urged us to remember our books the next day.

120
3 "You took my pencil!" Mark said to Mandy.
of Mark accused Mandy of taking/having taken his pencil.
4 "Don 't forget to take your keys, " said Dad.
me Dad reminded me to take my keys.
5 "I hate the English weather," said Celine.
about Celine complained about the English weather.
6 "You must have another piece of apple pie, Laura," said Grandad.
on Grandad insisted on Laura having another piece of apple pie.
7 "I'll never let you down," Ian told Elizabeth.
promised Ian promised never to let/he would never let Elizabeth down.
8 "You never put the cap on the toothpaste, John," said Mary.
complained Mary complained that John never put/complained about John never putting the cap on the toothpaste.
9 "I'm the best-looking boy in the class," said Greg.
that Greg boasted that he was the best-looking boy in the class.
10 "Would you like to come to lunch next Friday?" Bill said to me.
invited Bill invited me to lunch the following Friday.
11 "I did not eat the biscuits," said Alex.
eating Alex denied eating the biscuits .
12 "Let's go out for dinner," said Amanda.
going Amanda suggested going out for dinner.
13 "You must not touch these ornaments, " said Lisa to us.
to Lisa told us not to touch/forbade us to touch the ornaments.
14 "He knows where the stolen paintings are," said Sue.
claimed Sue claimed (that) he knew where the stolen paintings were.
15 "You may now kiss the bride," said the priest to David .
permission The priest gave David permission to kiss the bride.
16 "Don't drive the car; the brakes aren't working," Dad said to me.
not Dad warned me not to drive the car because the brakes weren't working .
17 "It's a boy!" said the midwife.
exclaimed The m idwife exclaimed that it was a boy.
18 "Please, please don't tickle me," she cried.
not She begged him not to tickle her.
19 "Do give me the money!" she said to me.
urged She urged me to give her the money.
20 "Yes, I think you are right to complain ," said Lorna to me.
agreed Lorna agreed that I was right to complain.
2 1 "Please leave me alone," Clare said to them .
asked Clare asked them to leave her alone.
22 "I'm sorry I hurt your feelings, Jane," I said.
hurting I apologised to Jane for hurting her feelings.
23 "OK, it was me. I tore Mum's new dress," she said.
having She admitted (to) having torn Mum's new dress.
24 "Call an ambulance immediately! " said Bob to the passer-by.
to Bob asked/told the passer-by to call an ambulance immediately.
25 "Would you like me to do the washing-up? " said Dan.
offered Dan offered to do the washing-up.
26 "No, I won't go to the party with you," said Lena.
refused Lena refused to go to the party with me.
27 "You can use my credit card," Jake said to me.
me Jake allowed me to use his credit card .
28 "Go ahead, join the expedition ," he said to her.
encouraged He encouraged me to join the expedition.
29 "Go away or I'll lose my temper," he said to me.
his He threatened to lose his temper if I didn't go away.
30 "Yes, I'll paint the bathroom," said Catherine.
agreed Catherine agreed to paint the bathroom.
Reported Speech
. Think of the word which best fits each gap. Write only one word in each one.

The Kakapo (which means 'night parrot' in Maori) is (0) ... one... of the most unusual birds in the world. Not only is
it nature's only flightless and nocturnal parrot, (1) it is also its largest and longest living parrot. Sadly, the Kakapo is
one of the world's most endangered species: there are only 86 left (2) on the entire planet.
Kakapos are found only in New Zealand. They are incredibly gentle birds and can live more (3) than 60 years. They
have an owl-like face and exceptionally soft, moss-green coloured feathers on (4) their body. This green colour
provides them with excellent camouflage in the New Zealand bush. One of the (5) most striking characteristics of the
kakapo is their extremely strong smell. It is very sweet and (6) has been described as 'honey-like', 'fru ity', and
'flowery'.
There were once millions (7) of kakapos in New Zealand. The story of
their decline is a sad one. When kakapos feel threatened, they do not
(8) run away or attack. Instead, they try to hide. They do this by
standing completely still (9) to 'blend' in with their surroundings. When
humans arrived in New Zealand (bringing rats, cats and other
predators) the kakapo was an easy meal to catch.
Today, everything is being done to try to stop the kakapo from going
extinct. Hopefully, the effort to save them has not come (10) too late.

-t) iii I 114 (.).,,I tI tt ------------------------------------------------- ---~ ------


(See Suggested Answer section)

In pairs, students look at the first picture and make up a short dialogue based on the
situation given. Next, a pair of students act out the dialogue while the rest of the class take
notes. The students report the conversation. Do the same with the other picture.

Last month Monica and Philip went on a cruise. Sharon met her friend Joan last Monday.
What could they have been talking about? What could they have been talking about?
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4

1122
Folder ~
Look at Appendix 2, then fill in the correct particle(s).

1 Even though the police went ... after... the 8 Yes, of course - bring some friends with you .
criminals, they didn 't catch them . There should be plenty of food to go round.
2 "His line is engaged at the moment. Do you want 9 She held back some very important information
to hold on or ring back later?" which she refused to reveal.
3 John won't be at work today; he's gone down with 10 Even though Joe was very angry, he managed to
the flu. hold in/back his anger.
4 Sorry for being late but I was held up in the traffic. 11 Even though the police went over the evidence
5 Melanie is going to go in for the dancing many times, they didn 't find anything.
competition. 12 The villagers fear that the supply of water will not
6 The fire will go out if you don't put more wood on it. hold out for the summer.
7 The robbers held up the bank and escaped with
thousands of pounds.

. Look at Appendix 3, then fill in the correct preposition(s) .

1 The surgeon is going to operate ... on ... my father 13 His arguments are lacking in logic.
tomorrow. 14 John takes great pride in his new car.
2 Ireland qualified for the World Cup Finals in 1990. 15 Sally prides herself on being very honest.
3 He insisted on having his lawyer present. 16 Carmel is very proud of her daughter's
4 Mary has been married to John for nearly 5 years. achievements.
5 If he persists in coming to work late every day, I'll 17 She paid for her new dress by cheque.
have to speak to him. 18 As the shop didn't accept credit cards, I had to
6 Continuous neglect of our environment has pay in cash .
caused this problem. 19 You can 't expect Joe to know everything. He's
7 Frank is a very cheap person. He finds it very still relatively new to the job.
difficu lt to part with his money. 20 He was presented with a gold watch on his
8 There were many objections to the council retirement.
building another shopping centre. 21 I sometimes mistake Clare for her sister on the
9 Mary was very nervous about having a blood test. phone.
10 Many people are ignorant of/about the long-term 22 I'm hoping for a second interview next week.
effects of pollution. 23 John is notorious for telling lies.
11 He wrote a cheq ue for 250. 24 He's fortunate in having many good friends.
12 The student showed a complete lack of respect 25 She quarrelled with Andrew abouVover which
towards his teacher. television programme to watch.

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words .

1 We stayed in and didn't go to the cinema.


instead We stayed in ... instead of going ... to the cinema.
2 You didn't need to buy me this ring.
have You needn't have bought me this ring.
3 The director has called a meeting so that he can introduce the new manager.
order The director has called a meeting in order to introduce the new manager.
4 "Will they give me the job?" she kept asking herself.
wondered She wondered if/whether they would give her the job.
5 He lost his job because he was extremely disorganised.
result He was extremely disorganised and as a result he lost his job.
6 Mary isn't capable of taking over the company.
ability Mary doesn 't have the ability to take over the company.
7 They didn't want to spend a lot of money so they booked a self-catering holiday.
avoid They booked a self-catering holiday to avoid spending a lot of money.
8 Take your own pillow w ith you because Sue might not have enough in her house.
case Take your own pillow with you in case there are not enoug h in Sue's house .
9 Mrs Sm ith wasn't sure whether she should submit her proposal.
doubtful Mrs Smith was doubtful about submitting her proposal.
10 "Students are not allowed in the c lassrooms during breaks," the teacher said.
insisted The teacher insisted on students staying/remaining outside during breaks.
11 "Of course I didn 't give them your name," he said to me.
having He denied having given them my name.
12 David does not intend to move house soon.
intention David has no intention of moving house soon.

Explain the meaning of the idioms in bold.

1 Mary has agreed to help us raise the money but her heart isn't in it. She isn't very enthusiastic about it.
2 The students were told to learn the poem by heart as they would be asked to recite it in class the
next day. by memory
3 That's the third glass she's broken this morning. She's all fingers and thumbs. very clumsy
4 I don't know how Carla manages with two small children and a husband who never lifts a finger to help.
never does anything
5 My grandmother never looks at a recipe. She prefers to cook by rule of thumb. following her own practical
experience and not a set of rules
6 If you put your back into it, I'm sure you'll manage to finish all this work by tonight. make a great effort
7 Max has been drawing up contracts for so long that he can now do it standing on his head. very easily
8 Sue is looking very down in the mouth this morning. Has she had bad news? depressed
9 Larry never had to advertise his business as people heard about him through word of mouth. through
people telling each other about him
10 The employee was stealing company property right under our noses. openly but without having been noticed

Expressions with "Do" Expressions with "Make"

one 's best/worst, business with sb, a 1 allowances for, an appointment, an acquaintance, an arrangement,
crossword , damage (to), one's duty, an ~ a bargain, the beds, the best of, a cake, certain, changes, coffee, a
exercise, an experiment, somebody a 1 deal with sb, a decision, a difference, a discovery, an effort, an
favour, good, one's hair, harm, homework, 1 enemy of, ends meet, an excuse, friends with, a fortune, haste, fun
housework, a job, sth for a living, miracles 1 (of), a fool of sb, an impression, improvements, a joke, a mess, a
(for), research, right/wrong , a service, the 1 mistake, money, a note, a nuisance, (a) noise, an offer, peace,
shopping, a good turn , a translation, the 1 preparations, a profit, progress, sure, a translation, trouble, war, a
washing-up, wonders , work, etc l will, etc
~ Fill in do or make in the correct form .

1 I enjoy ... doing ... the crossword in The Guardian. 9 I made friends with some people from Germany
2 It's not a good idea to make an enemy of Clare. while I was travell ing to Budapest.
3 We had better start making preparations for the 10 They find it difficult to make ends meet.
party. 11 Mum has promised to make a cake for the party.
4 Pete has done a great deal of damage al ready. 12 A man phoned earlier to make an appointment.
5 It's your turn to do the washing-up tonight. 13 He asked me what I did for a living.
6 The boy promised to do his best in the test. 14 Our neighbours are always making noise.
7 She does her exercises every morning before 15 Can 't you at least make an effort?
work. 16 It appears that she made a fortune when she was
8 Pat doesn't appreciate being made a fool of. living in Japan.

I124
Practice Test
Part 1
For questions 1-12, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits
each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).
I
Example:
A B C D
0 A to B for C like D as 0 c:::::J c:::::J c:::::J -

America 's national symbol is that great bird which is known (0) ... D...
the bald eagle. However. the number of this species has dropped
from 50,000 in the 1940s to less than 300 today. Fortunately, America has
taken (1) ............. by starting to breed these eagles. This takes place at a
research centre in Oklahoma , where 300 eagles have been bred and then
released into the wild. The eggs are (2) .......... .. . from wild eagles' nests, found (3)
..... .. ...... the country, and are flown straight to the centre by aeroplane. During the journey,
they are kept (4) ............ . in a special container which (5) ............. them from sunlight, which
c ould easily kill them. Once they are at the centre , they are continually (6) .. ..... ... ... until they
hatch. Eight hours after the birds emerge, they are given their first meal, consisting of little
pieces of a special meat. At 6 weeks old, they are taken outside to get used to the cooler
temperature. The (7) .... .. ... ... . stages of the bird 's introduction to the wild take place at the top
of a(n) (8) ..... .. .. .... tower. where they are kept in a big cage and fed on fish. As time (9) ............ .
by, the cages are removed and the birds eventually (10) .. .... .. ..... to fly. All would agree that
the (11) .. ........... of these beautiful birds flying high in the southern skies makes all the
(12) ............. worthwhile.

1 A measu re B move action D step


2 A assembled B concentrated c pi led @ collected
3 @ throu ghout B all c among D through
4 A certain @ safe c sure D harmless
5 A avoids B prevents c hinders @ protects
6 A cont rolled @ observed c seen D noted
7 A end @ final c latest D finished
8 A eminent B deep c outstanding @ high
9 A passes B flies c runs @ goes
10 learn B train c teach D practise
11 A vision B picture sight D view
12 A attempts @ effort c trial D experiment

1251
Practice Test ~L.-------------~---
Part
2
For questions 13-24, read the text below and think of the word ~hi~h
best fits each gap.
Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the begmnmg (0) .

Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETIERS in the answer boxes provided .

We all love to eat between meals, (O) .................. ..... it's a


bar of chocolate after breakfast or a packet of crisps
before dinner. But when we think (13) about it, most of
these 'snack' foods are (14) full of fat, salt and sugar and
thus contain a (15) lot of calories. Another disadvantage is
that after (16) having consumed these foods, there is a
temptation to eat more (17) as they still leave you feeling
hungry. But who says snack foods have to be bad (18) for
you? They can, in fact, be very healthy if you just choose
carefully.
One of the best and healthiest snack options is dried
fruit. It's really tasty and makes a brilliant, easy-to-eat
snack, as (19) well as leaving you satisfied. There is
also a (20) great/wide variety to choose from, with
dried bananas, apricots, grapes and apples
available at (21) all/most/many supermarkets. You
can enjoy dried fruit during morning and
afternoon breaks, at school or at work, in the car
or (22) while watching television . Dried fruit also
makes the perfect fast food for late-night homework
sessions. So next time you fancy (23) something sweet, try
the healthy option and you'll (24) be pleasantly surprised.

I126
Part 3
For questions 25-34, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of
some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an example
at the beginning (0).

Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

Rice
the world 's most important crop
It is (0) ................................. when and where humans first started CERTAIN
farming rice, but (25) historians agree it was being grown in Asia at HISTORY
least 10,000 years ago. Today, rice is the most (26) valuable food VALUE
crop in the world. About 3 billion people (27) totally depend on it for TOTAL
(28) survival. SURVIVE
The (29) significance of rice is reflected worldwide in many myths and SIGNIFY
legends. One Chinese legend tells of a time when a (30) terrifying flood TERRIFY
destroyed all the crops . One day, (3 1) starving people saw a dog with STARVE
(32) unusual yellow seeds on its tail. USUAL
They planted the seeds in the
waterlogged soil and rice grew.
The importance of rice can also
be seen in language and culture
(33) worldwide. In Japan and China, WORLD
the words for 'rice' and 'food' are
identical. In Asia, wedding guests
throw rice to bring (34) prosperity PROSPER
and fertility to the bride and
groom. And in China, cheering
people welcome in the New Year
with the words "May your rice
never burn!"
Practice Test m
Part 4
For questions 35-42, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to
the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given . You must use
between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the
beginning (0).

Example:

O "Jack never tells the truth," Pat said.


NOTORIOUS
Jack ................................. ............ ........ .......................................... ............................ , according to Pat.

Write the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

35 It was thoughtless of her to treat Dan with such rudeness.


so
She should not have been so rude to Dan.

36 He couldn't run fast because of his swollen ankle.


PREVENTED
His swollen ankle prevented him (from) running fast.

37 "I'm sorry I spoilt your plans," he said.


FOR
He apologised for spoiling my plans.

38 He wishes he hadn't rented a house which was so big.


REGRETS
He regrets renting/having rented such a big house.

39 The doctor won't let him do any strenuous exercise.


ALLOWED
He won't be allowed to do any strenuous exercise .

40 Peter prefers skiing to going on hiking trips .


RATHER
Peter would rather ski than go on hiking trips.

41 Helen's daughter has sufficient talent to become a successful actress.


ENOUGH
Helen's daughter is talented enough to become a successful actress.

42 It's unlikely that I'll reach my destination on time.


TO
I'm not likely to reach my destination on time.

1128
Passive Voice I Causative Form
Passive Voice

The passive is formed with the appropriate tense of the verb to be + past participle. Only transitive verbs (verbs
which take an object) can be put into the passive.
..............................................................................................................................................................................................
~ Active Voice !
Passive Voice !
~--P~~~~~t51~pi~iH~91;~~--i~~t~~-~~.r-L~~t~-~~~-~~~91~~~::
l Present Continuous l He is giving a lecture. l A lecture is being given. '
! Past Simple l He gave a lecture. ! A lecture was given.
! Past Continuous ~ He was giving a lecture. ! A lecture was being given .
! Future Simple l He will give a lecture. ! A lecture will be given.
! Present Perfect ~ He has given a lecture. ! A lecture has been given.
! Past Perfect l He had given a lecture. ! A lecture had been given.
! Future Perfect ~ He will have given a lecture. ! A lecture will have been given.
l Present Infinitive l He should give a lecture. ! A lecture should be given.
l Perfect Infinitive l He should have given a lecture. ! A lecture should have been given.
l -ing form l She remembers him giving a lecture. l She remembers a lecture being given.
! Perfect -ing form l Having given the lecture, ... ! The lecture having been given, .. .
:..~~~~-~....................................~ ...~.~--~~~-~--~i~~--~--~~-~~-~~-~:.......................................l...~.~:~~~~~--~~~~--~-~--~~~~-~:.......................................:
Present Perfect Continuous, Future Continuous and Past Perfect Continuous are not normally used in the
passive.
Get is used in colloquial English instead of be to express something happening by accident.
She'll get in trouble if she goes on driving like that.

Use

The passive is used: a) when the person who performs the action (agent) is unknown, unimportant or obvious
from the context. Her flat was broken into yesterday. (by a burglar - obvious agent) b) to emphasise the agent.
Her wedding dress was delivered to her by the dressmaker herself yesterday. c) to make statements more
formal or polite. My dress has been ruined. (more polite than saying "You have ruined my dress.) and d) when
we are more interested in the action than the agent, such as in news reports, formal notices, instructions,
processes, headlines, advertisements, etc. The meeting will be held tomorrow.

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct passive form .

1 Holland .. .is said ... (say) to be one of the prettiest countries in Europe.
2 I hate being told (tell) lies.
3 My television will be delivered/is being delivered/is going to be delivered (deliver) tomorrow.
4 Their telephone was installed (install) yesterday.
5 Teachers ought to be paid (pay) a higher salary.
6 Hotel rooms must be vacated (vacate) by 12 noon.
7 The villa will be sold/is being sold/is going to be sold (sell) by public auction next week.
8 She hopes her home will have been built (build) by May.
9 Heartbreak House was written (write) by George Bernard Shaw.
10 My car is being resprayed (respray) at the moment.
11 Hopefully, she will have been promoted (promote) by the end of next month .
12 I wish I had been taught (teach) how to type when I was at school.
13 Your application should have been handed in (hand in) last Monday. It's too late now, I'm afraid!
14 The wedding reception must be booked (book) a month before the wedding.
15 The building had been evacuated (evacuate) ten minutes before the storm hit.

129
Passive Voice I Causative Form
BABY BOY RESCUED
Read the following headlines and write full sentences. BY DOG IN
@ BRIGHTON.
Smoking banned Extensive droughts and extreme @ Mobile phones
CD in public places in weather conditions caused by @ Air pollution and considered
responsible for
Europe. global warming. processed foods believed
to cause- an increase in causing
VINCENT VAN GOGH'S asthma attacks. headaches.
@ PAINTING SOLD FOR 20 Remains of 111clenl cHJ
MILLION AT AUCTION IN
LONDON LAST WEEK.
discovered in Chino.
NEW JAMES BOND FILM
@ NEW EDUCATIONAL LAW BROUGHT TO PARLIAMENT NEXT WEEK. SCREENED NEXT MONTH.

1 Smoking has been/is banned in public places in Europe. 6 Mobile phones are considered (to be) responsible for
2 Extensive droughts and extreme weather conditions causing headaches.
are caused by global warming. 7 Vincent van Gogh's painting was sold for 20 million at
3 Air pollution and processed foods are believed to auction in London last week.
cause an increase in asthma attacks. 8 A new educational law will be brought to parliament
4 A baby boy was rescued by a dog in Brighton. next week.
5 Remains of an ancient city have been discovered in China. 9 The new James Bond film will be screened next month.

Changing from Active into Passive


The object of the active verb becomes the subject in the passive sentence. The active verb changes into a passive
form and the subject of the active verb becomes the agent, which is either introduced with by or is omitted.

:.......................~~~.i.~~.Y.~~~.~......................: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::~~:~~!~~: Y~!~~:::::::::::::::::::::::::i


! subject l verb l object :
l l -> I
!1
subject ! verb ! agent l
=11
!......~'!~.~.....!... P?.~~~? ..1. .~~~. (~~~'..~:. .i i.. T~~. ~~.~~'..~.l . ~~:.~. P.'!~'..~~.. t.. ~Y...~'!~.~:..1
By + agent is used to say who or what did the action. She was knocked down by a car. With + instrument/
material is used to say what the agent used or after past participles such as coloured, crammed , crowded,
filled, flavoured, packed, etc. She was injured with a hammer. By + agent is omitted when the agent is
unknown, unimportant, obvious from the context or referred to by words such as: someone, people, I, etc.
They revealed the truth. The truth was revealed. (by them is omitted)
Verbs which take two objects (give, offer, etc) form their passive in two ways; it is more usual to start the
sentence with the animate (person) object, not the inanimate (thing) object. They offered Ann a bunch of
flowers. Ann was offered a bunch of flowers. (more usual than: A bunch of flowers was offered to Ann.)
Verbs followed by a preposition (accuse of, take down, etc) take the preposition immediately after them when
turned into the passive. She took down the minutes of the meeting. The minutes of the meeting were taken down.
In passive questions with who, whom or which we do not omit by. Who gave you this information? Who
were you given this information by?
Hear, help, make, see are followed by a to-infinitive in the passive. She made me work overtime. I was
made to work overtime. Note that hear, see, watch can be followed by a present participle in the active and
passive. We saw her crying. She was seen crying.

Change the sentences from the active into the passive. Omit the agent where it can be omitted.
1 Professor White will give a lecture on the benefits of technology tomorrow .... A lecture
on the benefits of technology will be given by Professor White t omorrow.. ..
2 Bad organisation spoiled their holiday. Their holiday was spoiled by bad organisation.
3 Teachers mark hundreds of exam papers every year. Hundreds of exam papers are marked
by teachers every year.
4 Who wrote Romeo and Julien Who was Romeo and Juliet written by?
5 You should dry your hair before you go out. Your hair should be dried before you go out.
6 You mustn't tell him the truth. He mustn't be told the truth/The truth mustn't be told to him.

130
Passive Voice I Causative Form
7 She likes people taking her to the theatre. She likes being taken to the theatre.
8 Why didn 't they give her the job? Why wasn't she given the job?
9 She told them not to tell anyone. They were told not to tell anyone.
10 They should have given us a bonus. We should have been given a bonus.IA bonus should have been given to us.
11 The doctors will bring him in for an examination. He will be brought in for an examination (by the doctors).
12 Fog has delayed all flights. All flights have been delayed by fog.
13 She didn 't send me any parcels. I wasn't sent any parcels./No parcels were sent to me.
14 She had cleaned the house before I got there. The house had been cleaned before I got there.
15 When we arrived at the hotel, they had filled all the rooms. When we arrived at the hotel, all the rooms had been filled.
16 Why haven't you invited Mary to the party? Why hasn't Mary been invited to the party?
17 Paula will help you finish your project. You will be helped by Paula to finish your project.
18 The mayor is opening the new community centre next week. The new community centre is being opened by the
mayor next week.
19 We heard her complaining strongly to the manager. She was heard complaining strongly to the manager.
20 You can leave your bags with the left-luggage service. Your bags can be left with the left-luggage service.
21 Workmen found some antique vases in the old house. Some antique vases were found in the old house (by workmen).
22 The architects have drawn up plans for the new library. Plans for the new library have been drawn up.
23 Who gave him the new car? Who was he given the new car by?/By whom was he given the new car?
24 They are going to set the lion free next week. The lion is going to be set free next week.
25 What time do you expect him to arrive? What time is he expected to arrive?

Change the sentences from the passive into the active.

1 Who was the Mona Lisa painted by? ... Who painted the Mona Lisa?. ..
2 The old barn has been pulled down. They have pulled down the old barn.
3 The results will be published in July. They will publish the results in July.
4 The trip was ruined by bad weather. Bad weather ruined the trip.
5 The letter should have been posted last week. They should have posted the letter last week.
6 Who was the money raised by? Who raised the money?
7 Why hasn't the house been painted yet? Why haven't they painted the house yet?
8 She was heard shouting. They heard her shouting.
9 How much were you paid? How much did they pay you?
10 His car has been stolen. Someone has stolen his car.
11 I can't bear being cheated. I can't bear people cheating me.
12 A famous actress will be chosen to advertise the product. They will choose a famous
actress to advertise the product.
13 John was made to do the washing up. They made John do the washing up.
14 The ozone layer is gradually being destroyed by pollution. Pollution is gradually destroying the ozone layer.
15 A bring-and-buy sale is being held next month . They are holding a bring-and-buy sale next month.
16 Our house was done up by a famous interior decorator. A famous interior decorator did up our house.
17 The cracks in the wall were caused by the earthquake. The earthquake caused the cracks in the wall.
18 Thousands of rare birds are killed by hunters every year. Hunters kill thousands of rare birds every year.
19 Her purse was stolen on the bus. Someone stole her purse on the bus.
20 When will we be told the time of his arrival? When will they tell us the time of his arrival?
21 An ancient village has been uncovered by archaeologists. Archaeologists have uncovered an ancient village.
22 Why hasn't the dishwasher been repaired yet? Why haven't they repaired the dishwasher yet?
23 A new drug is being developed by scientists. Scientists are developing a new drug.
24 A new breed of cow is to be introduced into the country by farmers. Farmers are to introduce a new breed of
cow into the country.
25 The furniture will have been removed by noon. They will have removed the furniture by noon .
26 Who were you going to be replaced by? Who was going to replace you?
27 The island is being ruined by tourists. Tourists are ruining the island.
28 Two rooms had been booked for her by her travel agent. Her travel agent had booked two rooms for her.
29 She was seen to leave the building . They saw her leave the building.
30 Seats should have been reserved a week ago. They should have reserved seats a week ago.

131
Passive Voice I Causative Form
lm) . Fill in by or with.
1 The Magus was written .. . by... John Fowles. 6The glass was cut with a special tool.
2 Who was the radio invented by? 7Her hair is coloured with henna.
3 The cyclist was knocked down by a bus. 8'Born in the USA' was s ung by Springsteen.
4 Soup is eaten with a spoon. 9The roast was flavo ured with wine.
5 The car was fixed by a mechanic. 10 Music will be played by the local band .

l@l Change into the passive.

A Police are investigati ng a series of break-ins in t he Hat tersby area . Residents have heard noises, but nobody has
actually seen anything suspicious. The recent rise in crime in the neighbou rhood has shocked residents. Locals are
discussing mat ters of security with the police and they have requested greater police presence in the area .

... A series of break-ins... in the Hattersby area are being investigated by the police. Noises have been heard by
residents, but nothing suspicious has actually been seen. Residents have been shocked by the recent rise in crime in
the neighbourhood. Matters of security are being discussed with the police and greater police presence in the area has
been requested.

B A wealthy businessman has just bought the Black Swan Hotel. The Barrett family owned it fo r many years and
they should have restored the building many years ago, but t hey couldn't find enough money. The new owner is
closing the hotel for a few months for redecoration . At t he moment, w orkmen are polishing the floors and
redecorating all t he rooms.
The Black Swan Hotel has just been bought by a wealthy businessman. It was owned by the Barrett family for many
years, and the building should have been restored many years ago, but not enough money could be found. The hotel
is being closed for a few months for redecoration. At the moment the floors are being polished by workmen, and all the
rooms are being redecorated .

The verbs believe, expect, feel, hope, know, report, say, think, etc are used in the following passive patterns
in personal and impersonal constructions. The police report that she is in France.
subject (person) + passive verb + to -inf (personal construction) She is reported to be in France.
it + passive verb + that-clause (impersonal construction) It is reported that she is in France.

Turn the following sentences into the passive, as in the example.


1 They think he is lying. 6 They expect he will pass his driving test.
He ... is thought to be lying .... He is expected to pass his driving test.
It ... is thought that he is lying .... It is expected that he will pass his driving test.
2 They believe he got lost in the forest. 7 They said she was wrongly accused.
He is believed to have got lost in the forest. She was said to have been wrongly accused .
It is believed that he got lost in the forest. It was said that she was wrongly accused.
3 They say she has been very ill. 8 They believe he is leaving soon.
She is said to have been very ill. He is believed to be leaving soon.
It is said that she has been very ill. It is believed that he is leaving soon.
4 They said the president had been in a meeting. 9 They say his health is very poor.
The president was said to have been in a meeting. His health is said to be very poor.
It was said that the president had been in a meeting. It is said that his health is very poor.
5 They believe she was respons ible for the accident. 10 They report that some papers have been stolen.
She is believed to have been responsible for the accident. Some papers are reported to have been stolen.
It is believed that she was responsible for the accident. It is reported that some papers have been stolen.

132
Passive Voice I Causative Form
.complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.
1 Many people believe that eating too fast causes indigestion.
believed It ... is believed that eating ... too fast causes indigestion.
2 The teacher will send you out if you keep on talking.
be You will be sent out by the teacher if you keep on talking.
3 They are going to transfer him to Portugal.
be He is going to be transferred to Portugal.
4 They will have completed the construction by September.
been The construction will have been completed by September.
5 They are holding the caretaker responsible for the problems.
is The caretaker is being held responsible for the problems.
6 A journalist is going to cover the story.
be The story is going to be covered by a journalist.
7 They will have appointed a new director by the end of the week.
been A new director will have been appointed by the end of the week.
8 They gave him a gold watch when he retired.
was He was given a gold watch when he retired.
9 The mother told her son off for shouting.
was He was told off by his mother for shouting.
10 They are opening the new restaurant this evening.
is The new restaurant is being opened this evening.

Rewrite the following text in the passive.

Mr Owen Gibbon has discovered a valuable oil painting in the attic of


his house in Rochester. George Stubbs, a famous animal artist, painted
the work in 1760. Mr Gibbon's great-grandfather bought the picture in the 1890s, but after his death the
family stored it away in the attic. Art historians are examining the painting and have valued it at 500,000.
Mr Gibbon has offered the work to the National Gallery, where experts will restore the picture to its former
glory. They will have finished the restoration work by June.
A valuable painting has been discovered by Mr Owen Gibbon in the attic of his house in Rochester. The work was
painted by George Stubbs, a famous animal artist, in 1760. The picture was bought by Mr Gibbon's great-grandfather
in the 1890s, but after his death it was stored away in the attic by his family. The painting is being examined (by art
historians) and has been valued at 500,000. The work has been offered to the National Gallery (by Mr Gibbon), where
the picture will be restored to its former glory. The restoration work will have been finished by June.

li!!1 Rewrite the following texts in the passive.

A The Winter Production Company has finally released the film which the public has been waiting for so long:
The Hawk. The Winter Company was originally going to release the film in August but they decided to wait
until October as they know that fewer people go to the cinema in the summer. Richard Able directed The
Hawk and critics are encouraging people to see it. Cinemas report that British audiences have bought a lot
of tickets and that they are sure The Hawk will be a success.
The film which the public has been waiting for for so long, The Hawk, has finally been released by the Winter Production
Company. It was originally going to be released by the Winter Company in August but they decided to wait until
October, as it is known that fewer people go to the cinema in the summer. The Hawk was directed by Richard Able and
people are being encouraged (by critics) to see it. British audiences are reported to have bought a lot of tickets, so the
Hawk is sure to be a success.
Passive Voice I Causative Form
B Over the past ten years oil spills have polluted the seas surrounding Britain. Tankers spill oil onto the coast
and this harms many forms of wildlife. Environmentalists say that they need a lot of volunteers if they are to
minimise the damage. In future, the government has promised that it will prosecute the owners of any
tankers that pollute the North Sea in this way. The government also hopes that they can prevent such
incidents by building more lighthouses along the coastline.
Over the past ten years the seas surrounding Britain have been polluted by oil spills. Oil is spilled onto the coast (by
tankers) and many forms of wildlife are harmed . It is said by environmentalists that a lot of volunteers are needed if the
damage is to be minimised. It has been promised by the government that in future the owners of any tankers that pollute
the North Sea in this way will be prosecuted. It is also hoped that such incidents can be prevented if more lighthouses
are built along the coastline.

-{Jti I1424t. 1fl :t4 aI:---------------------------------------------------.--------


- - - - --- - - - 1 (See Suggested Answer section)
A fire broke out yesterday at Chelsea. Look at the notes below, then
report the incident. You may use ideas of your own. Use passive forms.
fi re - department store - 11 .00 pm last night
passer-by notice flames 2nd floor
call firefighters - try to put it out
2 night watchmen trapped - taken to hospital
now treated for third-degree burns
half building destroyed
reason for fire : electrical fault

A fire broke out at 11.00 pm last night. Flames were noticed 0t1
the 2 nd floor by a passer-by ...

Causative Form (have sth done)

We use have + object + past participle to say that we arrange for someone to do something for us. He asked
Sally to type the letters. He had the letters typed. (He didn't do it himself - Sally did it.)
:.,;~~~~15i~pi~1sh~ ~~k~~ci~~~~~~: 1sh~h~~ci~~~~-~~~~ci~.:
! Present Continuous ! She is making a dress. ! She is having a dress made. !
! Past Simple ! She made a dress. ! She had a dress made. !
! Past Continuous ! She was making a dress. ! She was having a dress made. !
! Future Simple ! She will make a dress. ! She will have a dress made. !
! Future Continuous ! She will be making a dress. ! She will be having a dress made. !
! Present Perfect ! She has made a dress. ! She has had a dress made. !
! Present Perfect Continuous ! She has been making dresses. ! She has been having dresses made. !
! Past Perfect ! She had made a dress. ! She had had a dress made. !
! Past Perfect Continuous ! She had been making dresses. ! She had been having dresses made. !
l Infinitive l She can make dresses. l She can have dresses made. l
!. ~~~~.~~~~. . . .... ... . ...... . ....... ...... l. ~~-~. .~~:~ ~~~i~~ ~~.~ ~.~~.~:............l. ~~.~. ~~~.~~. ~~.~!.~.~. ~.~:~~.~.~. ~~~.~:.............:
1
..

The verb to have, used in the causative, forms its negations and questions with do/does (Present Simple) or
did (Past Simple) . He doesn 't have his shirts ironed. Did he have the brakes checked?
Get is often used in the causative instead of have. Did you have/get your nails polished?
The causative can be used instead of the passive to express accidents and misfortunes. He had his nose
broken in a fight. ( = His nose was broken in a fight.)

I134
Passive Voice I Causative Form
_Write the sentences in the causative, as in the example.
1 The reception was organised by caterers .
.. . They had the reception organised by caterers ....
2 I'll ask her to make the appointment for Friday. I will have the appointment made for Friday.
3 He was mending the table for Sophie. Sophie was having the table mend~d .
4 He took his boots to be re-heeled. He had his boots re-heeled .
5 Has your leg been X-rayed? Have you had you leg X-rayed?
6 I will tell James to cancel the meeting tomorrow. I will have the meeting cancelled tomorrow.
7 Don 't ask them to post the letters. Don't have the letters posted .
8 I'll get the men to move this for you by this evening. I'll have this moved for you by this evening .
9 The mechanic is repairing her car. She is having her car repaired by the mechanic.
10 They renovated the Smiths' house last year. The Smiths had their house renovated last year.
11 They are going to clean our swimming pool. We are going to have our swimming pool cleaned.
12 Where do they take their photographs to be developed? Where do they have their photographs developed?
13 He doesn't mind the barber cutting his hair short. He doesn't mind having his hair cut short.
14 You should ask someone to water your plants while you 're on holiday. You should have your plants watered
while you're on holiday.
15 Will she get someone to deliver the computer? Will she have the computer delivered?
16 She prefers sending her clothes to the dry cleaner's. She prefers having her clothes dry cleaned .
17 My father likes people taking his photograph. My father likes having his photograph taken.
18 Our cooker was being repaired when the lights went out. We were having our cooker repaired when the lights went out.
19 Would you like someone to do the shopping for you? Would you like to have the shopping done for you?
20 The beautician polished the model's nails. The model had her nails polished.

Write the sentences in the causative, as in the example.

1 The doctor examined Paul's ankle. What did Paul do? ... He had hie ankle examined....
2 Someone delivers her groceries once a week. What does she do?
She has her groceries delivered once a week.
3 A hairdresser has cut and styled Pamela's hair. What has she done?
She has had her hair cut and styled.
4 Someone will repair our leaking roof. What will we do?
We will have our leaking roof repaired.
5 Someone cut the lawn for them while they were away. What did they do?
They had their lawn cut while they were away.
6 Somebody had serviced their car before they went on holiday. What had they done?
They had had their car serviced before they went on holiday.
7 A builder will do up Jan's attic. What will Jan do?
Jan will have her attic done up.
8 Someone is designing some furniture for him. What is he doing?
He is having some furniture designed.
9 A detective investigated the case for her. What did she do?
She had the case investigated by a detective.
10 Someone has written the actor's life story for him. What has he done?
He has had his life story written .
11 Someone is organising a birthday party for her. What is she doing?
She is having a birthday party organised for her.
12 The secretary had prepared the agenda for him before the meeting. What had he done?
He had had the agenda prepared before the meeting.
13 He was building their swimming pool. What were they doing?
They were having their swimming pool built.
14 He had someone paint his daughter's portrait. What did he do?
He had his daughter's portrait painted.
Passive Voice I Causative Form
. Make/Have + object + bare infinitive are used to express that someone causes someone else to do
something, but their meaning is slightly different. She made John do the shopping. (She insisted that John
should do the shopping.) She had John do the shopping. (She asked John to do the shopping.)
Get + object + to-inf shows that someone persuades someone else to do something. She got Ann to
tidy her room. (She persuaded Ann to tidy her room.)

Rephrase the following using have, get or make, as in the example.


1 She insisted that they go to the meeting . ... She made them go to the meeting ....
2 We are going to ask the plumber to install a new shower. We are going to have the plumber install a new shower.
3 We persuaded Paul to lend us some money. We got Paul to lend us some money.
4 The teacher asked Sam to open the window. The teacher had Sam open the window.
5 The dentist insisted that George sit still. The dentist made George sit still.
6 Mrs Jones will ask the attendant to fetch her car. Mrs Jones will have the attendant fetch her car.
7 The doctor persuaded her to go to the hospital. The doctor got her to go to the hospital.
8 My brother insisted that I give him back his book. My brother made me give him back his book.
9 She persuaded her friend to help her with the cleaning. She got her friend to help her with the cleaning.
10 We'll ask the receptionist to give him his key. We'll have the receptionist give him his key.
11 He insisted on them keeping quiet. He made them keep quiet.
12 My father persuaded me to help him wash his car. My father got me to help him wash his car.
13 Mr Smith insisted that Jane stay late at work. Mr Smith made Jane stay late at work.
14 I'll ask Pam to turn down the radio. I'll have Pam turn down the radio.
15 Sue persuaded the caretaker to fix the door. Sue got the caretaker to fix the door.

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.
1 The hairdresser will have to cut your hair.
have You'll ... have to have your hair... cut.
2 A large dog has attacked my cat.
been My cat has been attacked by a large dog.
3 Her mother insisted that she buy a new dress for the party.
made Her mother made her buy a new dress for the party.
4 Someone will steal your purse if you don 't look after it.
be Your purse will be stolen if you don't look after it.
5 Jane insisted that I have some more cake.
made Jane made me have some more cake.
6 They are resurfacing our drive tomorrow.
resurfaced We are having our drive resurfaced tomorrow.
7 Our furnace will need servicing soon.
have We will need to have our furnace serviced soon.
8 Someone cleans my house every week.
have I have my house cleaned every week.
9 How did he persuade you to do it?
get How did he get you to do it?
10 She got a friend to make her an evening dress.
made She had an evening dress made by a friend .
11 Their house had been burgled when I last saw them.
had They had had their house burgled when I last saw them .
12 I asked my parents to pay for my flight home.
had I had my parents pay for my flight home.
13 Hooligans attacked Barney outside the stadium.
got Barney got attacked by hooligans outside the stadium.
14 She doesn 't like ironing so the cleaner does it for her.
done She doesn't like ironing so she has it done by the cleaner.
15 He arranged for a friend to bring his books over from England.
had He had his books brought over from England.

1136
Passive Voice I Causative Form
- ~~iiiiiiiiiiii~~
I
{See Suggested Answer section)

The local council has decided to improve the children's park. Read
the notes below, then make sentences using the causative. You can
also use your own ideas.
things already done things to be done
build swimming pool, put up tile toilets, paint walls, hire
climbing frame, plant lawn supervisors

things being done things that will have been done by


put up swings, install benches, paint the end of the month
roundabout complete first-aid room, put in
drinking fountain
They have had the isw/mmlng pool built.

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 Lucy persuaded Andrew to take her out to dinner.


got Lucy ...got Andrew to take her... out to dinner.
2 Our heater needs repairing.
have We have to have our heater repaired.
3 A beautician does her nails every week.
done She has her nails done by a beautician every week.
4 The dentist is extracting her tooth now.
extracted She is having her tooth extracted now.
5 I'll ask Mark to fetch my laundry.
have I will have Mark fetch my laundry.
6 His car was badly damaged in an accident.
had He had his car badly damaged in an accident.
7 Shopkeepers are forced to work on Sundays.
made Shopkeepers are made to work on Sundays.
8 He got someone at the office to send the fax.
sent He had a fax sent by someone at the office.
9 She insisted that we come home early.
made We were made to come early.
10 The gardener had mowed the lawn for Jane.
had Jane had had the lawn mowed (by the gardener).
11 They can get someone to groom the dog next week.
have They can have the dog groomed next week .
12 He used to pay someone to do his accounts once a month.
done He used to have his accounts done once a month.
13 Why did he insist that I buy this dress?
make Why did he make me buy this dress?
14 Did he ask the nurse to dress the wound?
get Did he have the nurse dress the wound?
15 The boxer broke his arm in a fight.
broken The boxer had/got his arm broken in a fight.

16 I must have someone look at this painting - it might be valuable.
looked I must have this painting looked at - it might be valuable.
17 The contract will have been drawn up for you by the time you get back.
had We will have had the contract drawn up for you by the time you get back.
18 The police ordered him to tell them what had happened.
made The police made him tell them what had happened.

137
Folder b
m Look at Appendix 2, then substitute the underlined words with keep, let or look and the
appropriate particles.

1 Mary had to stay away from school as she was ill. .. .to be kept away...
2 You should sta awa from fattening foods. keep off/keep away from
3 They continued climbing despite the heavy snowfall. kept on
4 He had to run to move at the same speed as the boys. keep up with
5 You have to continue to be informed of the latest news. keep up with
6 It was raining so heavily that I thought it would never become less strong. let up
7 We thought we would be fined but fortunately the policeman didn't punish us. let us off
8 Sarah is growing so chubby that I have to make her clothes bigger. let her clothes out
9 He really disappointed us by not keeping his promise. let us down
10 Can you take care of my children this afternoon? look after
11 My grandfather fondly remembers the days of his youth. looks back fondly on
12 She looked guickly at her notes before entering the office. looked through
13 Do visit us some day! look in on
14 She despises people who don't have a university degree. looks down on
15 They examined the flat before they rented it. looked round
16 She examined the contract before she signed it. looked over
17 If you don 't understand a word , look for it in a dictionary. look it up

\J4 Look at Appendix 3, then fill in the correct preposition(s).

1 Ireland relies ... on ... tourism to boost its economy 15 The builders have submitted their plans for
and provide employment. approval by the council. .
2 My teeth are very sensitive to cold things such as 16 Joe succeeded in reaching the airport on time
ice-cream. despite the heavy traffic.
3 Her family have always abstained from meat and 17 Jim is such a horrible person - he's rude to
fatty foods. everyone.
4 Several diseases may result from not getting 18 I had to lean against/on the wall because I felt as
enough vitamin C. if I was going to faint.
5 The quarrel resulted in Catherine leaving the house. 19 The police searched the premises for weapons .
6 The results of the competition were announced 20 The burglars ransacked the house in search of
yesterday. valuables.
7 Carrots are rich in vitamin A. 21 Although they spoiled our plans, they weren't a
8 Everyone joins in with the choir at the end of the bit sorry about it.
service. 22 Don 't say you're sorry for annoying me if you
9 Doctors are meant to be sympathetic to/towards don't mean it.
their patients' fears. 23 I'm really counting on all the family being there.
10 Sally was able to sympathise with my situation as 24 I don't think they'll offer her the job. I thin k her
she'd been through something similar before. age will count against her.
11 Has it ever occurred to you that you need more 25 The relationship between a mother and her baby
interests in your life? is a very special one.
12 The reason for the closure of the club was lack of 26 John has got such a great relationshi p with Clare.
membership. 27 Spain is very popular with British holiday makers.
13 I tried to reason with David but he was just too 28 Children are prone to illnesses such as chickenpox,
upset to listen. mumps and measles.
14 I decided to leave the club rather than submit to
its new rules.

138
Q ~omplete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.
1 John became extremely angry with the waiter after getting his order wrong twice.
temper John ... lost his temper with ... the waiter after getting his order wrong twice.
2 He is the worst singer of all.
badly No one else sings as badly as he does.
3 He asked his mum to shorten his trousers.
shortened He had his trousers shortened by his mum.
4 Alex finally managed to persuade his father to buy him an iPod.
succeeded Alex finally succeeded in persuading his father to buy him an iPod.
5 It's pointless to argue about it any more.
worth It's not worth arguing about it any more.
6 The President's hotel room was full of flowers.
filled The President's hotel room was filled with flowers.
7 He hates his mother telling him off.
told He hates being told off by his mother.
8 If you don't know her phone number, check the phone directory.
look If you don't know her phone number, look it up in the phone directory.
9 George is the most boring person I've ever met.
such I've never met such a boring person as George.
10 They expect that he will announce what he's decided soon.
decision He is expected to announce his decision soon.
11 Could you give me your opinion on the new project I prepared for school?
know Could you let me know what you think about the new project I prepared for school?
12 Eilleen doesn't get on well with Helen.
terms Eilleen is not in good terms with Helen.
13 It doesn't matter what you say, because I still won't change my mind.
difference It makes no difference what you say, because I still won't change my mind.

Choose the correct verb to complete the sentences.

1 I don 't like doing business with him because he 7 The doctor may be able to help you, but don't
... B... such a hard bargain. expect him to ...................... miracles.
A makes B drives C leads D arranges A create @ work C turn D develop

2 The audience ...................... their breath until the 8 Surely you know it's rude to ..... people names?
acrobat was safely down from the highwire. A shout @ call C insult D give
A took B caught C wasted @ held
9 I think we ought to ...................... a party for Tim's
3 I don't think Robert is responsible enough to birthday.
...................... a business on his own. A drop B put throw D cast
@ run B do C bear D make
10 Just because Louise makes a lot of money, we
4 They're trying to help their child ...................... the shouldn 't expect her to always ................... the bill.
habit of telling lies. @ foot B stand C run D carry
A finish B end C change @ break
11 He was found guilty of burglary and had to
5 Don 't ................. heart - I'm sure you 'll succeed if ...................... time in prison.
you keep trying . A have B make do D take
A take B cross lose D sink
12 I don't mind if you come home late, but
6 We have enough problems without you .......... . ...................... the line at your staying out all night.
trouble all the time. A mark @ draw C rule D colour
A falling B getting C being @ making
Practice Test
Part 1
For questions 1-12, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits
each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Example:
A B C D
O A hear B listen C attend D observe 0 - c:::J c:::J c:::J

Visitors to th e famous Tate Gallery in Lo ndo n can now (O) ... A. .. the
Briti sh artist Da vid Hockney t alk abou t o ne of his pain tings, which
is (1) .............. The Bigger Splas h. Following the e xa mp le of the
French . w ho have ( 2) ... ..... ...... such a syste m in the Louv re in
Paris, technology is coming to both the Tate a nd th e National
Ga llery, two of Britain's (3) .............. prestigi o u s art insti tuti o ns .
The Tate is now offering Tate inform , a persona l aud io g uide to
the paintings and sculpt ures on (4) .............. ,and to t he th emes
of certa in disp lays. At the (5) .............. of a b utt on visitors ca n
listen to artists, art crit ics and gallery curato rs ex plaining an y
wo rk that (6) ............ .. the ir interest; they can stop, start , rewind
o r fa st-forward their electron ic devices (7) .. ........ .... the y want.
Man y of the co mm e ntari es on works of a rt (8) .......... .... severa l
layers of information . Sty le, co nt en t and sy mbols may be expla ined,
or you ma y even be given detail s of partic ul ar paints the art ist has
used. Some of the art ists (9) .............. on th e ins pirati on for the ir ow n
works. David Hock ney, fo r (10) ........ .. .... , ta lks abou t his interest in the
s urface and moveme nt of wa te r in his co mm enta ry for The Bigger Sp las h.
The (11) .............. of audi o guides is a great help to peo ple want ing to (12) ............. .
a better underst anding of art.

1 A told B said c announced @ called


2 @ brought in B brought on c brought about D brought along
3 A much B wholly most D great
4 A presentation B exhibition show D sight
5 A switch @ touch c press D push
6@ catches B opens c turns D fills
7 A any B every c each @ whenever
8@ offer B say c propose D tell
9 A aim @ focus c look D direct
10 A illustration B sample instance D case
11 A start @ introduction c presentation D discovery
12 A earn B take gain D win

140
Part 2
For questions 13-24, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap.
Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

,.

For thousands of years, cultures across the world have


(0) ....................... special significance to the owl. In (13)
fact, owls are probably the most interesting and
intriguing birds (14) on earth! They have been
associated with everything from wisdom, wealth and
courage (15) to bad luck, dishonesty and death. There
are fewer animals (16) that have captivated our
imagination so much.
In ancient Rome, the sight of an owl was believed to be
an extremely unlucky omen . So much (17) so, that
Ancient Romans thought that hearing the call of an owl
(18) may mean death. Roman legend has it that owls
were heard screeching before Julius Caesar was killed.
In ancient Greece, on the other (19) hand, owls were
associated with wisdom. If an owl flew above soldiers
before a battle, the Greeks believed it was a sign that
they would (20) be victorious.
Today, owls are (21) no longer regarded with such fear
and superstition. Owls are incredibly beautiful and
fascinating birds with many special characteristics, such
(22) as huge eyes, excellent hearing, and noiseless
flight. Owl feathers have very special fluffy edges
(23) which muffle the sound of their wings and make
their flight virtually silent. This allows owls to 'creep' up
on (24) their prey.
Practice Test fJ
Part 3
For questions 25-34, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of
some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an example
at the beginning (0).

Write your answers IN CAPITAL LE!fERS in the answer boxes provided.


,,

The Sabre-toothed cat, often (0) ... ....... .. ..... called the CORRECT
Sabre-toothed tiger, was commonly found in the
(25) grassy plains of North and South America. It became GRASS
extinct about 10,000 years ago as a result of the
(26) environmental changes after the last Ice Age. It ENVIRONMENT
shared many (27) similarities with the modern-day lion. It SIMILAR
was about the same size but it was more (28) powerfully POWER
built. They were known as (29) frightening predators due FRIGHTEN
to their two enormous teeth which could grow up to
20 cm in (30) length . With front legs powerful enough to LONG
(31) enable them to spring up on prey, they had no ABLE
difficulty finding food. However, the Sabre-toothed cat's
bite was only one third of the (32) strength of a lion. In STRONG
addition, Sabre-toothed cats were social animals. They
lived and hunted in groups, (33) unlike other cats that are LIKE
solitary hunters. But, their life was not always
(34) peaceful. They often fought over food or mates as PEACE
lions do today.

----~ -~-- -~- -~- - - --~~-


Part 4
For questions 35-42, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to
the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use
between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the
beginning (0) .

Example:

O Everyone believes that she's planning to take over the company.


BELIEVED
She ................................................................................................................ to take over the company.

Write the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided .

35 The children can't wait for the summer holidays to begin.


LOOKING
The children are looking forward to the summer holidays.

36 Is it OK if I park my car here?


OBJECTION
Is there any objection to me/my parking my car here?

37 Since no one was interested, the meeting was cancelled.


INTEREST
Due to lack of interest, the meeting was cancelled.

38 Why did the clients insist that we sign a new contract?


MADE
Why were we made to sign a new contract by the clients?

39 I haven't been to the theatre for ages.


TIME
The last time I went to the theatre was ages ago.

40 Josh went abroad in order to earn more money.


VIEW
Josh went abroad with a view to earning more money.

41 He is too cowardly to start an extreme sport.


BRAVE
He is not brave enough to take up an extreme sport.

42 It's a good idea to avoid foods with too much fat, if possible.
AVOIDED
Foods that are rich in fat should be avoided, if possible.
Conditionals I Wishes I Unreal Past
Conditionals
. .
. If-clause (hypothesis) l
Main clause (result clause) [ Use
1~-~~1rit-~--~~~-~;~~~-~ ~--f~;~-iF~~~;~;i~~~-~~~;~~r~-~~-~--~~-i;k~i~-~~
real present j (Present S., Present Cont. j can/may/might/must/should j happen in the
j + bare inf/Present Simple j present or future
,j...............................................................
or Present Perteet)
.:. .......................................................................; ........................................................................

j If you play with matches, you will burn yourself.


j If you have taken the books, you can start working on your essay.
j If you see him, tell him to come immediately.
('..
Type 2 1 If + Past Simple ! would/could/might + bare ! untrue in the present; also
unreal present [ or Past Continuous [ infinitive [ used to give advice

Il~f~~:rg:;i:~~t{~~~~f~jf~~~~~f~; '
:r;~-~ 3ri1 ~p~~t-r~-rt~~1 ~~:~~-~ici/~~~-icii~i~ht~h~~~:1~~9i~~~--~it~~!i~~--~~~ 1;~~-
unreal past l Past Perteet Continuous i + past participle j to facts in the past; also used
1 i 1 to express regrets or criticism
r;,;;~h~d-;~;1~-~~d-hi~;;~;~~,;;~d~i~~~--h~--~~~-;d~;ih~-~;;~;i-~1;t;1~;;;~~~;;:
When the if-clause precedes the main clause, we separate the two clauses with a comma. If you are ill, you must
stay in bed. BUT You must stay in bed if you are ill. (no comma)
Conditionals are usually introduced by If. Other expressions are: unless, (=if not) , providing, provided (that) ,
as long as, in case, on condition (that) , but for + -ing form/noun, otherwise, or else, what if, supposing ,
even if, only if. Unless she stops eating like that, she'll have heart problems. Get up now or else you'll be late
for school. Note that when only If begins a sentence, the subject and the verb of the main clause are inverted.
Only if you have a ticket will you be allowed in.
In conditionals type 2 in formal English we normally use were instead of was after if for all persons. If he
were/was rich, he would travel round the world.
We do not normally use will , would or should in if-clauses. If you buy this, you may regret it. (NOT: ifye1:1 vii/I l3t:JY.)
However, will , would or should can be used in if-clauses to make a request or express annoyance,
doubt/uncertainty or insistence. If she should call, put her through to me. (doubt/uncertainty - I doubt that she
will call ...) If you will/would be quiet, we'll watch the video. (request - Will you please be more quiet?)

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense, then identify the types of conditionals.

1 If you ...don't do ... (not/do) your homework, you won't be allowed to go out. ... (Type 1) ...
2 If he took out (take out) a loan , he'd be able to buy a car. (Type 2)
3 Keep the noise down or else someone will hear (hear) us. (Type 1)
4 The state of the economy will improve (improve) provided that there is a change of government. (Type 1)
5 I won't go on holiday unless you come (come) with me. (Type 1)
6 If you talked (talk) less, you would be able to concentrate on your work. (Type 2)
7 If she had read (read) the newspaper, she would have known about the earthquake. (Type 3)
8 If the food hadn't been (not/be) so good, we wouldn 't have eaten so much. (Type 3)
9 If you stopped (stop) complaining, we would be able to get some work done. (Type 2)
10 Even if I had phoned (phone) them, it would have been too late to change their minds. (Type 3)
11 Unless you turn down (turn down) the music, I won't be able to concentrate on what I'm doing. (Type 1)
12 Unemployment will decrease provided the government takes (take) appropriate measures. (Type 1)
13 If you continue to threaten me, I will have to (have to) seek legal advice. (Type 1)
14 I would speak (speak) to her if she apologised for her appalling behaviour. (Type 2)

144
Conditionals I Wishes I Unreal Past
15 I wouldn't have been able to pass the exam if you hadn't helped (not/help) me. (Type 3)
16 What would he say (he/say) if you told him the truth? (Type 2)
17 If you watch this film, you will get (get) an idea of how difficult life is for these tribes. (Type 1)
18 If you had returned (return) the product within the time limit, we would have given you a full refund . (Type 3)
19 If she had realised how late it was, she wouldn't have rung (not/ring) us. (Type 3)
20 We would have some fresh air if you opened (open) the window. (Type 2)

Complete the text by putting the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

Chris Isles often thinks how different his life 1) ... would become... (become) if he 2) were (be) more adventurous .
He's a rather cautious man who 3) will take (take) risks only provided that they 4) do not unsettle (not/unsettle)
his cosy, well-organised life. Yet he sometimes feels that if he 5) made (make) braver decisions, his life 6) might
change (change) for the better, although deep down he knows that there's not much li kelihood of this
happening. For example, three years ago they offered him a job in Africa. If he 7) had accepted (accept) the offer,
he 8) would have had (have) to live in Africa for two years and he 9) would have enjoyed (enjoy) an enormous
increase in his salary as well. But Chris is not the type of person who will give up the security of his home unless
he 10) feels (feel) even more secure about his new circumstances. Only if that job offered to him 11) had been
(be) close to home, 12) would he have taken (he/take) it. His friends try to convince him that he 13) would
discover/will discover (discover) the fun in life if he 14) decided/decides (decide) to be a little more daring. Yet
Chris says that as long as he 15) remains (remain) happy with the way things are, he 16) will not make/will not be
making (not/make) any dramatic changes to the way he lives.

Rewrite the following as conditional sentences.

1 You have to go to Athens to see the Acropolis.


If ...you go to Athens, you can see the Acropolis....
2 You need to pass your driving test before you can drive.
Unless you pass your driving test, you can't drive.
3 You must study harder to pass your exams.
If you don't study harder, you won 't pass your exams/If you study harder,
you will pass your exams.
4 As long as the rain continues, we can't play football.
Unless the rain stops/it stops raining , we can 't play football.
5 Tom had to ask for a pay rise or he wouldn't have got one.
Unless Tom had asked for a pay rise, he wouldn't have got one.
6 You need all the right spices to make an authentic Indian meal.
If you have all the right spices, you can make an authentic Indian meal.
7 Going there by bus will be cheaper than going by train.
If you go there by bus, it will be cheaper than going by train.
8 Entering this competition could win you a mountain bike.
If you enter this competition, you could win a mountain bike.
9 We will have to leave without him if he doesn 't arrive in the next 10 minutes.
Unless he arrives in the next ten minutes, we will have to leave without him .
10 We will be able to go swimming if the weather improves.
Unless the weather improves, we won 't be able to go swimming .

Rewrite the following as conditional sentences.

1 As long as it rains, I'll stay at home .


...If it rains, I'll stay .a t home. Only if it rains will I stay at home. I won't stay at home unless it rains ....
2 I'll save money, then I'll go to France on holiday. I'll go to France on holiday only if I save enough money. If I save
enough money, I'll go to France on holiday. Only if I save enough money will I go to France on holiday. I won't go to
France on holiday unless I can save enough money. As long as I can save enough money, I'll go to France on holiday.
I must save enough money, otherwise I won't be able to go to France on holiday.

145
Conditionals I Wishes I Unreal Past
3 Wait five minutes and I'll give you a lift. If you can wait five minutes, I'll give you a lift. I'll give you a lift if you can
wait five minutes. Provided you can wait five minutes, I'll give you a lift. Only if you can wait five minutes will I be able
to give you a lift. As long as you can wait five minutes, I'll give you a lift. I won't give you a lift unless you can wait five
minutes. You must wait 5 minutes, otherwise I can't give you a lift.
4 I'll cook and you can do the washing-up afterwards. If you do the washing-up afterwards, I'll cook. I'll cook if you
do the washing-up afterwards. Provided you do the washing-up afterwards, I'll cook. Only if you do the washing-up
afterwards will I cook. As long as you do the washing-up afterwards, I'll cook. I won't cook unless you do the washing-
up afterwards. You must do the washing-up afterwards, otherwise I won't cook.

Omission of " if"

If can be omitted in if-clauses. In this case should (conditionals type 1), were (conditionals type 2) , and had
(conditionals type 3), come before the subject.
If he should win the race, he will receive 1,000. Should he win the race, he will receive 1,000.
If I were him, I wouldn 't eat meat. Were I him, I wouldn 't eat meat.
If I had seen her, I would have spoken to her. Had I seen her, I would have spoken to her.

Rewrite the following sentences omitting if.

1 If I were you, I wouldn't apply for the post of firefighter .


... Were I you, I wouldn't apply for the post of firefighter....
2 If you should go to the post office, could you buy me some stamps?
Should you go to the post office, could you buy me some stamps?
3 If anyone should ring, will you take a message?
Should anyone ring , will you take a message?
4 If you had turned off the oven sooner, the pizza wouldn't have burnt.
Had you turned off the oven sooner, the pizza wouldn't have burnt.
5 If I were younger, I'd accept his offer.
Were I younger, I'd accept his offer.

Mixed Conditionals
All types of conditionals can be mixed. Any tense combination is possible if the context permits it.

i:::::::::::::::::::::::::1::::~~~:
: Type 2
~~~~~~::: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :she
~ If she was sleeping all day,
: : : : :will
~.~~.feel
~::~.i.~better
.~~~:.-.:now.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..J.""""""""'
: Type 1 :
"""""""""'.]
: j (She was sleeping all day so she feels better now.) : :
l+yi>e21;,;~e~~;i~h: . i;;~~1dh~~e "b~~9hi~;~~~~~: . -::rvj>"e..i . 1

I ' E~l~fr::~:=~t7:~n, ~E~~~=~t=~~=s~~~~)such amess. I


...........................; ................................................................................................................................................................................................,
i
[ Type 3 [ If I had been invited, I would go tonight. i Type 2 l
: [ (I wasn't invited so I' m not going tonight.) : l
:..... ... ...~ ... ~ ................................................................................................................................ .:. .....................:

Rewrite the following as mixed conditionals.

1 He's not a good worker, so he wasn't promoted .


.. .If he were a good worker, he would have been promoted....
2 They walked 40 kilometres, so they're exhausted now.
If they hadn't walked 40 kilometres, they wouldn't be exhausted now.

146
Conditionals I Wishes I Unreal Past
3 You didn't make an appointment, so we can 't see you tomorrow.
If you had made an appointment, we would see you tomorrow.
4 She didn't take the medication and now she's ill again.
If she had taken the medication, she wouldn't be ill now.
5 The flight left on time, so they will be in Moscow by now.
If the flight left on time, they will be in Moscow by now.
6 They were working in the rain all day, so they're soaking wet now.
If they hadn't been working in the rain all day, they wouldn't be soaking wet now.
7 Jake was cleaning all morning so his room must be very tidy now.
If Jake was cleaning all morning, his room will be tidy now.
8 He's so gullible that he believed everything you said.
If he weren 't so gullible, he wouldn't have believed everything you said.
9 She was talking all day, so her throat is sore now.
If she hadn't been talking all day, her throat wouldn 't be sore now.
10 He doesn't listen to anyone's advice, so he didn't do what you suggested.
If he listened to anyone's advice, he would have done what you suggested.

Complete the following sentences with an appropriate conditional clause.

1 If you want an exotic holiday, ...you 5hould go to Singapore ....


2 Unless you give him enough notice, he won 't have it ready in time.
3 If you hadn't overfed the cat, it wouldn't have been sick.
4 Had I known she was in trouble, I would have tried to help her.
5 Only if he apologises will I speak to him again.
6 The argument wouldn 't have started if you hadn't been rude to him.
7 If I had more time, I would take up a hobby.
8 You wouldn't have had so much trouble if you had been more
careful.
9 Should I meet her again, I'll try and get to know her better.
10 Had I known how late I was going to be, I would have rung you.
11 Only if we start recycling will we solve the problem of waste.
12 If you had tried harder, you would have done better.
13 Had he given me clearer instructions, I wouldn 't have made so many
mistakes.
14 If we leave at six o'clock, we should get there by ten.
15 Should she ring while I'm out, tell her to ring back later.

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.
1 You'd better cut down on sugar.
were If I ... were you, I would ... cut down on sugar.
2 Tom got lost because we didn't give him clear directions.
have Tom wouldn 't have got lost if we had given him clear directions.
3 If you don't tell him what he is doing wrong, he'll never improve.
unless He'll never improve unless you tell him what he is doing wrong.
4 She doesn't have many friends because she is shy.
were If she were not shy, she would have many friends.

147
Conditionals I Wishes I Unreal Past
5 We'll only sign the contract if he changes that clause.
will Only if he changes that clause will we sign the contract.
6 He's afraid of heights, so he won't come climbing.
were If he were not afraid of heights, he would come climbing.
7 Lucy can prepare the report, but she'll have to be given instructions.
only Lucy can prepare the report only if she is given instructions.
8 As long as you give it back by Friday, you can borrow my book.
provided You can borrow my book provided you give it back by Friday.
9 If you don't lend us some money, we won't be able to go to the theatre.
unless We won't be able to go to the theatre unless you lend us some money.
10 She missed the meeting because her car broke down.
broken She wouldn 't have missed the meeting if her car had not broken down.
11 I need to get this to her, but I haven't got her fax number.
had If I had her fax number, I could get this to her.
12 He forgot about the invitation so he didn't go to the dinner.
not Had he not forgotten about the invitation, he would have gone to the dinner.
13 I think Bill should look for a better job.
were If I were Bill, I would look for a better job.
14 We didn't take a map so we got lost.
taken If we had taken a map, we wouldn't have got lost.
15 Mark didn't tell her it was a secret so she told Pam.
have If Mark had told her it was a secret, she wouldn 't have told Pam.

Wishes
Form ......... ~ ........................................................
.............................................................................. ~ ................................ Use .
I wish (if only) l + Past tense ! wish/regret about a present
(wish/regret about the present) l l situation we want to be different

r::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::x~~~~:~~::~~!~::?.~:~?.~~i.~i..: :~!~:~::~: ~~o/:~~::~~~:~'.~x:: : : : : : : ::: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : i


I wish (if only) ~ + could + bare infinitive ! wish/regret in the present
(wish/regret about the present) ~ ! concerning lack of ability
:...............................................................................:
::..........................................................................................
l I wish I could speak French. (BUT I can't) ~
.... . .
; ~;~~ (;~ ~~;~)' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T. . ~ ~~~~~~~~~~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l. . . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~i~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ .. ...
(regret about the past) l l didn't happen in the past

[;~i~:i~i~:~f~r i~~~;[!~~~~~~1;~iE.~~~~~ ici!,~'.l:ji:~;~;t~~~1~s~to j I wish I would, He wishes he would ete polite request implying
J
l b) wish + Inanimate subject + would l dissatisfaction or lack of
l is used to express the speaker's ! hope
~ disappointment or lack of hope ~
t.. i..~1;;;. ;;~. ~~~'d. ~.i~;;1;;i~9:. (aur"i"ci~~;1thi~k. h~..~1i1..~~i.~h1~~ ~fu1~~~~h~~~~. ~~1ik~iv. i~h~pp~~)..................................j
! I wish they would take this-more seriously. (dissatisfaction) ~
! I wish it would stop snowing. (BUT I'm afraid it won't stop snowing. - wish implying disappointment) ~
L~. ~!.~~..r.9.~.. ~~~~~~'.~.~.~.~~~.!!.~~'...?.~..~~~..'.~9.9.~:...(~~~.~~.~!..~.~~.'.~.~~.~~~..~~~~.~..?..~ .~~.~..~?.~E:..: .. ~.~g~.~.~~..i.~piy~.~~.!.~~.~..?.~.~~.P..~~j
After I wish we can use were instead of was in all persons. I wish he were/was more helpful.

148
Conditionals I Wishes I Unreal Past
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

I've had a long career. If I 1) ... hadn't been chosen ... (not/be/chosen) to play the
lead in my school play, I 2) wouldn't have become (not/become) w hat I am today. I
was only nine and I'm sure I 3) would have felt (feel) nervous if I 4) hadn't had
(not/have) my parents' support. They encouraged me to take dancing classes
after that. If only I 5) hadn't refused (not/refuse)! I love dance now and if I
6) were/was (be) younger, I 7) would study (study) ballet. Apart from that, I don't
have many regrets about my career. I wish I 8) had performed (perform) more in
the theatre, but I suppose if I 9) had (have), I 1O) wouldn't have had (not/have)
time to do so many film roles.

[fil Write sentences, as in the example.

1 You didn 't watch the news so you didn't know there was a train strike .
... I wish I had watched the news. If I had watched the news, I would have known there was a train
strike....
2 You work long hours and you can't spend much time with your family.
I wish I didn't work long hours. If I didn't work long hours, I could spend more time with my fami ly.
3 You wanted to travel abroad but you forgot to renew your passport.
I wish I had renewed my passport. If I had renewed my passport, I could have travelled abroad.
4 You can't drive a car so you can't get around easily.
I wish I could drive a car. If I could drive a car, I could get around easily.
5 You wanted to play tennis but you broke your racquet.
I wish I hadn't broken my racquet. If I hadn't broken my racquet, I could have played tennis.
6 You want to go swimming but you have lost your swimming costume.
I wish I hadn't lost my swimming costume. If I hadn't lost my swimming costume, I could go swimming.
7 You want to climb the mountain but you are afraid of heights.
I wish I weren't/wasn't afraid of heights. If I weren't/wasn't afraid of heights, I could climb the mountain.
8 You didn 't set your video correctly so you didn't record the film.
I wish I had set my video correctly. If I had set my video correctly, I would have recorded the fi lm.
9 You want to go out tonight but you haven't got enough money.
I wish I had enough money. If I had enough money, I could go out tonight.
10 You want to cook an Italian meal but you have no pasta left.
I wish I had some pasta. If I had some pasta, I would cook an Italian meal.

Rewrite the text using wishes or if-clauses, as in the example.


(See Suggested Answer section)

80 8
Dear Mary,
I just had to write and let yo u know what a terrible day I've had toda y. As my neighbour 1s ill I offered to take
her dog, Rex, for a walk. My neighbour did warn me that Rex is very energet ic but I d idn't listen. He dragged me
all around the park. W hat a disaster! He was so excited that he kn ocked another neighbour off her bicycle.
Unfort unately, she hurt her leg and she was ve ry angry wi th me. I shouldn't have taken the dog for a wa lk. To
make matters worse, I had forgotten to lock the front door as we'd left the house in a rush . My house was
burgled . Why was I so stupid? l hadn't even renewed our house insu rance. My husba nd keeps going on about it.
Well , hopefu ll y tomorrow will be better.
Wi th love,
Lisa

... I wish I hadn't had such a terrible day today....


Conditionals I Wishes I Unreal Past
Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.
1 It's a pity I can't go to the cinema today, but I have to babysit.
could I wish ... /could go to the ... cinema today, but I have to babysit.
2 It's a shame we didn't go out for dinner.
gone I wish we had gone out for dinner.
3 I don't have many friends here.
had I wish I had more friends here.
4 It's a pity I can't go out tonight, but I have to work late.
could I wish I could go out tonight, but I have to work late.
5 It's a shame we didn't go to Italy for our summer holidays.
gone I wish we had gone to Italy for our summer holidays.
6 If it weren't raining, we could go for a walk.
stop I wish it would stop raining, so we could go for a walk.
7 It's a pity that I wasn't given the position.
been I wish I had been given the position .
8 I've been offered a job in Spain , but I can't speak Spanish.
speak I wish I could speak Spanish because I've been offered a job in Spain.
9 If it weren't snowing , we could go for a drive.
stop I wish it would stop snowing , so we could go for a drive.
10 It's a shame we missed the beginning of the film.
missed I wish we hadn't missed the beginning of the film.

m Complete the following sentences.


1 If Bob hadn't broken his leg , ... he could have come with us....
2 If only he hadn't lied to Sally, she wouldn't be so upset.
3 If John is in trouble, we should help him.
4 If only she had more patience, she would have a better relationship with her children.
5 If she had won the competition , she would have gone to Hawaii.
6 If Ann had set the alarm, she wouldn't have been late for work.
7 If I hadn't left the oven on too long , I wouldn't have burnt the dinner.
8 If only I had written down her phone number, I could phone her now.
9 If she hadn't been sitting in the sun all afternoon, she wouldn't have got sunburnt.
10 If Tom hadn't forgotten to lock the door, he wouldn't have had his money stolen .

Unreal Past
The Simple Past can be used to talk about imaginary, unreal or improbable situations in the present and the
Past Perfect can be used to talk about imaginary, unreal or improbable situations in the past. This is called
Unreal Past. Unreal Past is used as follows:

Past Slmple Past Perfect


Conditionals Type 2 (unreal in the present) Conditionals Type 3 (unreal in the past)
If I were you, I would leave now. If I had known before, I wouldn't have come.
wish (present) wish (past)
I wish she worked more efficiently. If only he hadn't lied to me.
I'd rather/sooner sb ... (present) I'd rather/sooner sb ... (past)
I'd rather you left the files here, please. I'd rather you had not spol<en like that yesterday.
Suppose/Supposing Suppose/Supposing
Suppose you found money in the street, what Suppose she hadn't reminded you, would you
would you do with it? have remembered?
as if/as though (untrue situation in the present) as if/as though (untrue situation in the past)
He acts as if he were a genius. She looked at me as if she had never seen me
it's (about/high) time ... before.
It's about time you learnt to drive.

I150
Conditionals I Wishes I Unreal Past
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

1 Suppose they ... had not turned up... (not/turn up) to meet you, what would you have done?
2 If only I hadn't eaten (not/eat) so much last night.
3 If she had told (tell) me it was a secret, I wouldn't have told anyone.
4. Suppose you had missed (miss) the train , how would you have got home?
5 Suppose the teacher caught (catch) you cheating, what would you do?
6 I'd rather W left (leave) now.
7 If only I hadn't stayed (not/stay) out so late last night.
8 It's high time you took (take) some responsibility for your actions.
9 Supposing you had tailed (fail) your exams, what would you have done?
10 It's time you lit (light) the fire - it's getting very cold.
11 She spends money as if she had (have) loads of it, but I know she's in debt.
12 If we had installed (install) a burglar alarm, this wouldn 't have happened.
13 I'd rather we went (go) home now.
14 I wish she studied/would study (study) harder instead of watching TV all the time.
15 I'd rather she hadn't worn (not/wear) my dress last night. She's ruined it.

had better = should


I had better + present bare inf (present/future reference)
He had better not wait any longer. (= He should not wait any longer.)
It would have been better if + Past Perfect (past reference) .
It would have been better if he had phoned us' to tell us not to wait. (= He should have phoned us to tell us
not to wait.)

would rather = I'd prefer


when the subject of would rather is also the subject of the following verb
I'd rather + { Present bare infinitive (present/future reference) I'd rather stay in tonight.
Perfect bare infinitive (past reference) I'd rather not have taken the bus, but I had no choice.

when the subject of would rather is different from the subject of the following verb
I'd rather sb + { Past Simple (present/future reference) I'd rather you didn't shout so much.
Past Perfect (past reference) I'd rather you had come with me yesterday.

prefer + gerund/noun + to + gerund/noun (general) I prefer watching TV to reading books.


prefer + full infinitive + rather than + bare infinitive (general preference)
I prefer to eat what I want rather than count calories.
would prefer + full infinitive + rather than + bare Infinitive (specific preference)
I'd prefer to play football rather than watch it.
would rather + bare Infinitive + than + bare infinitive I'd rather ski than skate.

Read the following situations, then make sentences using would rather or had better.

1 You want to play tennis not squash . ... / would rat her play t ennis than play squash ....
2 You don 't want her to invite him to the party. I would rather she didn't/She had better not invite him to the party.
3 You want to be left alone to read and don 't want to go to the cinema. I would rather be left alone to read than
go to the cinema.
4 It would be more sensible for you to go and rest for an hour. You had better go and rest tor an hour.
5 I woul prefer to spend more time in Spain and not go home. I would rather spend more time in Spain than go home.
6 We stiould have waited for him at home. It would have been better it we had waited tor him at home.
7 Mary always wears horrible orange lipstick. You wish she wouldn 't. I would rather Mary didn't wear that horrible
orange lipstick.
8 Your friend turns up late and you are angry with him. I'd rather you didn't always turn up late.
____ Conditionals I Wishes I Unreal Past
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

1 I'd rather ... go... (go) fishing this afternoon.


2 I'd rather you didn't wear (not/wear) my red dress to the dance tonight.
3 I'd rather you had said (say) that you didn't want to come!
4 I'd rather have gone (go) by plane but I couldn't afford the air fare.
5 I'd rather you didn't use (not/use) such bad language! It upsets people.
6 We prefer watching (watch) films to watching (watch) political programmes.
7 I'd rather you didn't tell (not/tell) them the news yet.
8 I prefer to cook (cook) dinner rather than eat (eat) in that restaurant.
9 We'd prefer to call (call) our child David, rather than call (call) him Stephen.
10 We would rather recycle (recycle) our rubbish than use (use) the bin for everything.
11 He had better not tell (not/tell) her or I' ll be furious!
12 After a lot of thought, we've decided that we would prefer to get married (get/married) in Portugal rather than
in England .
13 It would have been better if she had given (give) us the information sooner.
14 You'd better not wake (not/wake) her up because she hasn't slept for two days.
15 I would prefer to pay (pay) in cash rather than by credit card.

Fill in the gaps with the appropriate auxiliary verb.

1 She had her hair permed and now she wishes she ... hadn't...
2 Her husband spends a lot of money and she wishes he didn't/wouldn't.
3 I suspect they'll be late again but I wish they wouldn't.
4 She always forgets people's names but she wishes she didn't.
5 He invited 20 people for dinner and now he wishes he hadn't.
6 She doesn't know how to use a computer but she wishes she did.
7 They never ring before coming round but I wish they would/did.
8 You're always interfering in my affairs and I wish you wouldn't/didn't.
9 We didn't invite the Smiths but I wish we had.
10 You told them I could do the job but I wish you hadn't.

.. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form .

Dear Sarah,
I'm having an absolutely fabulous time here in Geneva! I wish you
1) ... had decided... (decide) to come with me. It 2) would be (be) even
better if you were here. I wish I 3) had tried (try) harder to persuade you
to come with me. If only you 4) would change (change) your mind!
I'm sure you could get time off work if you 5) asked (ask). If you can't
come to Geneva, 6) will you consider (you/consider) meeting in Rome
at the beginning of next month? Of course if you 7) had come (come)
with me in the first place, we 8) would be having (have) a great time
right now. Anyway, if you 9) give (give) me a ring, I 10) will tell (tell)
you exactly what my plans are and then you can decide what you
want to do.

Love,
Julia

1152
Conditionals I Wishes I Unreal Past ..-..
0 Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 Jo was about to get on the train when she realised it was the wrong one.
if Jo would have got on the train ...if she hadn't realised ... it was the wrong one.
2 He didn't go to the party because he didn't know where it was.
known If he had known where the party was, he would have gone.
3 I think you should have your hair cut.
were If I were you, I would have my hair cut.
4 You'd think she was a film star.
though She behaves as though she were/was a film star.
5 It would have been better if you had arrived on time.
only If only you had arrived on time.
6 He shouldn't have used my mug.
used I'd rather he hadn't used my mug .
7 We should leave now if we want to get the bus.
time It's time we left if we want to get the bus.
8 It would have been better if you hadn't told her that.
only If only you hadn't told her that.
9 It's a pity you missed the performance.
had I wish you hadn't missed/had seen the performance.
10 If John doesn't turn up, we won't be able to finish the project.
should We won 't be able to finish the project should John not turn up.
11 She didn't buy a ticket for the theatre, so she is not coming with us tonight.
if She would come with us tonight if she had bought a ticket for the theatre.
12 I am afraid John won't accept our offer.
would I wish John would accept our offer.
13 You should have told me the truth.
would It would have been better if you had told me the truth .
14 As long as you have a ticket, you'll be allowed on the train.
not Unless you have a ticket you will not be allowed on the train.
15 You had better take an umbrella with you.
were If I were you, I would take an umbrella.

--t>ti141z4t.1.uIt; 1Ir11------------------------------------------------------.-----
(See Suggested Answer section)
Look at the pictures, then make sentences using conditionals or wishes to say what each
person is thinking.

S1: I wish I didn't have so much homework. etc


Folder rEJ
au . Look at Appendix 2, then fill in the correct particle(s).

1 Let's make ...for ... that island and wait for the 8 "I'll pay you back for that! " shouted Johnny to a
storm to pass. friend who had played a trick on him.
2 Can't you use a different pencil? I can hardly 9 I'll have to pay off my Visa bill or I'll be charged a
make out your writing. fortune in in.terest.
3 Instead of reading books to her, Mary's father 10 If you get caught, you'll have to pay for your
used to make up stories. crime.
4 He offered to make up for all the inconvenience by 11 We watched the demolition men pull down that
sending them on a free holiday. old building.
5 After shouting at each other for an hour, they 12 He waited excitedly on the platform for his
decided to make up. friend 's train to pull in.
6 She passes out every time she sees blood . 13 Pull yourself together and stop crying.
7 We were very sorry to hear that your grandfather 14 The company pulled through despite the
passed away last week. economic crisis .

em Look at Appendix 3, then fill In the correct preposltion(s).

1 She has a talent ... for... music so we try to 15 I feel obliged to be nice to Jack because he's given
encourage her as much as possible. me so much help.
2 Why do you waste so much money on phone 16 I tried to warn you about him but you wouldn't
calls? listen.
3 My season ticket is valid for three months, so I 17 Your dress is really similar to the one I've just
don 't have to renew it until February. bought!
4 My student card gives me a 10% discount, but it is 18 Could you please refrain from talking in the
only valid in certain shops. theatre?
5 She spent a lot of time in explaining the project to 19 Feel free to make use of any of the books on the
us. shelves.
6 I like to spend my money on clothes and foreign 20 Now that I've become used to all the noise I quite
holidays. enjoy living here.
7 Peter has terrible taste in clothes. He wears flowery 21 If you don't stop teasing me, I'll throw this book at
shirts with green and orange striped jeans. you.
8 I don't like the taste of this juice - it's too sweet and 22 If you throw the fish to the seals, they are sure to
has a funny smell too. come to eat them.
9 You should not worry about your exam results. 23 You shouldn't let yourself get upset about such
After all , there's nothing you can do now to silly things.
change them. 24 Her role in the film is definitely worthy of an Oscar.
10 I'm very suspicious of that man in the corner - I'm 25 If you subscribe to this magazine now, you get a
sure he's been following me! 30% discount.
11 How is your statement relevant to this discussion? 26 After threatening the shopkeeper with a knife, the
12 John said he would vouch for me if anyone were to thief escaped with a bag full of jewellery.
suggest that I committed the crime. 27 As Tom saw Julia at the airport, she promised to
13 Harry Potter is my favourite film. I could never tire write to him.
of watching it. 28 The teacher asked the students to write about their
14 I'm tired of listening to you moaning about him all summer holidays.
the time.

fll Complete the sentences using the words In bold. Use two to five words.

1 She said she was sorry she had lost her temper.
losing She ... apolog/e;ed for losing ... her temper.
2 You were wrong to keep these facts from me.
have You should not have kept these facts from me.

I
154
3 I had never tasted chocolate before.
first It was the first time I had ever tasted chocolate.
4 People say he is very moody.
said He is said to be very moody.
5 You'd better hurry up!
were If I were you , I would hurry up.
6 I find his tone of voice really irritating.
gets His tone of voice really gets on my nerves.
7 He couldn't contact us because our phone line was cut off.
prevented He was prevented from contacting us because our phone line was cut off.
8 I changed my plans because you asked me to.
would If you hadn't asked me to, I wouldn't have changed my plans.
9 I am not in the mood for going out tonight.
feel I don't feel like going out tonight.
10 People believe she is planning to go freelance.
believed She is believed to be planning to go freelance.
11 We lost our way to the centre because we didn't follow the map.
have We wouldn't have lost our way to the centre if we had followed the map.
12 You have to be lucky to find a well-paid job these days.
if Only if you are lucky can you find a well-paid job these days.
13 I don't want to interfere in their business.
rather I would rather not interfere in their business.

Match the following idioms with the correct definition, then complete the sentences with an
appropriate idiom from the list.

1 dead beat a snobbish 1 ...e...


2 big-headed b excited 2 j
3 loud-mouthed c stubborn 3 g
4 stuck-up d comfortably rich 4 a
5 cheesed off e exhausted 5 h
6 pig-headed f short of money 6 c
7 well-off g talking too much , often offensively 7 d
8 hard-up h annoyed 8 f
9 full of beans honest 9 b
10 above board arrogant 10

1 The business entrepreneur assured us that the deal was above board.
2 It's no good trying to persuade her to change her mind . She's too pig-headed.
3 Alan was extremely cheesed off when Barbara cancelled their date.
4 She must be quite well-off. She's just bought an expensive new car.
5 You're full of beans this morning. You must really be looking forward to the school trip.
6 Her husband is an unpleasant, big-headed man who always thinks he knows best.
7 At the end of the marking weekend all of the examiners were dead beat.
8 Don 't worry about Mrs Norton. She's just a loud-mouthed old lady who thinks she knows everything and
never stops telling everyone off.
9 I find Pat very difficult to get on with. She's stuck-up and thinks she's too good for the
likes of us.
10 Kevin always seems to be hard-up. He's forever asking if he can borrow money.
Practice Test
Part 1
For quesUons 1-12, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits
each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).
I
Example:
A B C D
O A opened B made C launched D come 0 - c=i c=i c=i

Egyptomania
'Egyptomania' is a new art exhibition which has (0) ... A. .. at the Louvre
Museum in Paris. It shows just how many images of Egypt have emerged
through the (1) ............. and examines why this ancient culture has
(2) ............. to have such a powerful influence on the western
imagination. It has (3) ............. all of the arts, from opera and
cinema to architecture and furniture design. It (4) ............. five years
to prepare the exhibition, which includes more than 300 items,
many of which are on (5) ............ from international museums as
far (6) ............. as Australia. It has generally been thought that
European (7) ............. in Egypt started with Napoleon
Bonaparte 's military campaign which lasted from 1798 to
180 I, but the exhibition shows that this is not the
(8) ............. . There are examples of Egyptian influence
(9) ............. back to the early 17th century. Queen Marie
Antoinette, well known for her (10) ............. of strange
and exotic things, (11) ............. an important role in
starting the (12) ............. for Egyptian art in France. Her
bedroom ceiling in Versailles is painted with
Egyptian images, and there are chairs and
tables decorated with small statues of young
Pharaohs.

1 A periods @ ages c times D history


2 A persisted B remained c lasted @ continued
3 A moved B directed c impressed @ influenced
4@ took B needed c used D was
5 A credit B advance loan D gift
6 A from @ away c along D abroad
7 @ interest B attention c attraction D curiosity
8 A situation B event c state @ case
9 A moving B turning going D coming
10 A affection love c care D like
11 A did B affected played D took
12 A custom B style c convention @ fashion

I156
Part2
For questions 13-24, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap.
Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

Example: ~ IA ISI I I I I I I I I I I I I I

T he ancient Egyptians used a form of wn tmg


known (O) .................. .. .. ' Hierogl y phics' fo r over
three thousand years. But with time, hieroglyphics
became replaced (13) by another fo rm of writing and
, event uall y no one (14) could rea d it a n y m ore. This
meant that the things the Egyptians had w ritten
(15) o n the s ides of their pyramids and tombs,
(16) we re a mystery.
Then, in 1799, t he 'Rosetta Stone' was fo und in Lower
Egypt on (17) whi ch Egyptian scribes had w ritte~ the
same piece o f informati o n three tim es: once in
hieroglyphics, once in (18) another ancient Egy ptian
script and o nce in Gr eek. The discover y of the Rosetta
Stone enabl ed linguists to (19) work/figure o ut how to
read Egyptian hierogl yp hi cs. By read in g t he te x t
w ritten in Greek, th ey were able to und erstand
(20) what the other texts stood for.
Th e key perso n in the b reak th rough was Jean Francois
Champolli on. He cou ld speak over (2 1) a dozen
lang uages by the time he was a teenager. Before the
Rosetta Stone was discovered, many people were trying
to und erstand hieroglyp hi cs but no o n e was havi ng
(22) any luck. Finall y, Champoll ion rea lised that
Egyptian hi erogly phics r epresented so unds of th e
Egyptian langu age. (23) Due/Than ks to this rea lisation,
the mystery of (24) this ancient script was solved.
Practice Test EJ
Part 3
For questions 25-34, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of
some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an example
at the beginning (0).

Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

Egypt is the most (0) ....................... populated country in the HEAVY


Middle East with (25) approximately 80 million people. Located in North APPROXIMATE
Africa, Egypt is an extremely dry land as the (26) majority (96%) of it is MAJOR
desert. The (27) remaining 4%, consists of the famous river Nile and its REMAIN
rich fertile banks. The Nile runs the entire (28) length of the country. LONG
Almost the entire Egyptian (29) population lives along its banks. POPULATE
Every year, millions of tourists travel to Egypt because of its truly
(30) remarkable history. Egypt gave rise to one of the greatest REMARK
(31) civilisations and richest cultures the world has ever seen. Ancient CIVILISE
Egyptian society lasted for more than 3,000 years and left magnificent
(32) archaeological wonders behind, such as the Great Pyramids and ARCHAEOLOGY
The Sphinx at Giza.
Egypt is a (33) fascinating country which remains just as vibrant FASCINATE
and (34) culturally rich today as it was in the past. CULTURE

1158
Part 4
For questions 35-42, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to
the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use
between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the
beginning (0).

Example:

O Brad and Angie are the same age.


OLD
Angie ........................................................................................................................,. ...................... Brad.

Write the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

35 He will probably be late for the interview.


UNLIKELY
He is unlikely to be on time for the interview.

36 The detective asked the witness to describe the suspect in detail.


FULL
The detective asked the witness to give a full description of the suspect.

37 It's a two-hour drive to the seaside.


TAKES
It takes two hours to drive to the seaside.

38 You won't get promoted if you don't work hard.


BY
Only by working hard will you get promoted.

39 I was completely unaware of Sue's decision to leave school.


IDEA
I had no idea that Sue had decided to leave school.

40 Shall I help you with the washing-up?


LIKE
Would you like me to help you with the washing-up?

41 They're advertising a new detergent at the moment.


BEING
A new detergent is being advertised at the moment.

42 I'd prefer you to see to it personally.


~.. RATHER
I would rather you saw to it personally.
~ Choose the correct item.

1 He was accused of ............. from the supermarket. 13 It's time the children ............. to bed.
A steal C stole @ went C go
B stolen @ stealing B have gone D would go

2 Stop ............. sweets or you'll get fat. 14 She wishes she ............. to see that play last night.
A to eat eating A would have gone C went
B eat D having eaten @ had gone D would go

3 It was bad weather that we stayed 15 I prefer watching television ............ reading books.
indoors. A than C rather
@ such C such a B from @ to
B so D that
16 If he were better off, he ........... a house of his own.
4 I wish he ............. talk to me but he never does. A buys would buy
A had C can B bought D will buy
@ would D will
17 I don't know how to ............. people's fortunes.
5 Can 't you work ............. harder than that? A ask C speak
A very C too @ tell D say
B such @ any
18 If she behaved better, people .......... her a lot more.
6 I ............ my mother to sew ~the hole in my shirt. @ would like C will like
A made \) got B would have liked D like
B had D insisted
19 She would rather go shopping than ............. at
7 Unless you ............. how to swim, you have to home.
wear a life jacket. A to stay stay
@ know C don't know B to staying D staying
B will have known D will know
20 Do you know when Sarah ............. here?
8 I don't know when she ............. to you about it. A get C had got
A speaks C had spoken B has got @ will get
@ will speak D has spoken
21 He goes on ........... even though it annoys everyone.
9 ............. helpful people they are! @ whistling C whistle
A So C Such B have whistled D to whistle
B How @ what
22 She ............. her father to collect her from school.
10 Suppose you .......... the exam, what would you do? A said C talked
@ failed C had failed B spoke @ asked
B would fail D have failed
23 ............. she couldn't afford it, she bought a new
11 He ............. his house broken into last week. dress.
@ had C will have A But Although
B has D is having B However D Despite

12 The house in ............. I grew up is in Brighton. 24 The new theatre ............. next month.
A whQra C wh~ A has been opened will be opened
B that @ which B is opened D was opened

1160
Revision 2
Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verb in brackets.

I wish I 1) had (have) more money. Life 2) would be (be) much easier if I 3) had (have) some savings in the bank.
If only I 4) had saved (save) my money when I was young. At the time, though, I lived only for the moment. I wish
I 5) had known (know) then what I know now. If I 6) had been (be) careful , then I 7) would have made (make) my
life much easier. If only I 8) could turn (turn) back the clock.

Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verb in brackets.

Jennifer wishes she 1) were/was (be) a vet. "If I 2) had studied (study) biology at school, maybe things 3) would
have turned out (turn out) differently," she says. However if she 4) were/was (be) honest with herself she 5) would
admit (admit) that being a vet was never a possibility. Lots of people wish they 6) did/could do (do) something
for which they are not qualified. If Jennifer 7) were/was (be) more realistic, she 8) would tell (tell) you that in reality
she's allergic to animals.

1 Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 Never behave badly in class if you don 't want to be sent out.
avoid Never behave badly in class if you want to avoid being sent out.
2 He regrets ever having met her.
wishes He wishes he had never met her.
3 I didn't buy a new car because I didn't have enough money.
would If I had had enough money, I would have bought a new car.
4 "I thought the food was delicious too," said Mark.
agreed Mark agreed that the food was delicious.
5 "You never listen when I talk to you," said Pat.
complained Pat complained that I never listened when she talked to me.
6 My father pays someone to wash his car every week.
washed My father has his car washed every week.
7 She was miserable because it had been raining all weekend.
due She was miserable due to the fact (that) it had been raining all weekend.
8 He asked the landlord to change the lock.
had He had the lock changed by the landlord.
9 Somebody took my car keys while I was in the shop.
had I had my car keys taken while I was in the shop.
10 "Yes, I left the door unlocked ," said Daisy.
having Daisy admitted (to) having left the door unlocked.
11 She worked hard because she wanted to be promoted.
view She worked hard with a view to being promoted.
12 "Would you like me to help you with your homework?" said my mother.
offered My mother offered to help me with my homework .
13 She was friendly, but Peter didn't like her.
though Friendly though she was, Peter didn't like her.
14 Mike insisted that I do the washing-up.
me Mike made me do the washing-up.
15 He said he was sorry he had forgotten my birthday.
for He apologised for forgetting my birthday.
16 She wouldn't walk home alone because she was afraid of being mugged.
fear She wouldn't walk home alone for fear of being/she might be mugged.
17 "Don't touch the wires because you might get electrocuted," he said to us.
not He warned/told us not to touch the wires because we might get electrocuted .
Revision 2
18 He isn't a famous actor but he acts like one.
though He acts as though he were/was a famous actor.
19 Someone must have cleaned the hotel room while we were out.
if The hotel room looked as if it had been cleaned while we were out.
20 She said she hadn't put my papers in the rubbish bin.
throwing She denied throwing away my papers.

Ilfil Fill in the correct particle(s).

1 The butter was left out of the fridge and now it's gone off.
2 Jake and Simon get on well with their cousins.
3 I keep up with current affairs by reading the newspapers.
4 My grandfather was very good at making up stories.
5 All passengers got ready to get off the train as it pulled in at the station.
6 You mustn't give in to temptation.
7 They were held up by heavy traffic on the roads.
8 I want to look round the house to see if I like it.

~ Fill in the correct preposition(s).

1 I'm relying on you to get the job done.


2 Students must refrain from talking during the exam.
3 His heroic act resulted in his being awarded a medal.
4 I can't vouch for him; I've never met him.
5 She had no intention of going to meet him, though she said she would.
6 They might have to operate on him. He's very ill.
7 The soldier was presented with a medal after the war.
8 John claimed that he was not guilty of committing the crime.

Fill in the correct word derived from the words in bold.

1 Trains run frequently throughout the day. FREQUENT


2 We picked a scenic spot to sit and have our picnic. SCENE
3 Our electricity was cut off because we hadn't paid the bill. ELECTRIC
4 They use very sophisticated machinery in this factory. SOPHISTICATE
5 He has changed dramatically since the last time I saw him. DRAMATIC
6 Young children need their parents' protection. PROTECT
7 The weather is considerably better today than it was CONSIDERABLE
yesterday.
8 He goes to the dentist regularly. REGULAR
9 It is not economically viable to buy out that company. ECONOMIC
10 The company's production of shoes has doubled in the past PRODUCE
year.
11 She listened sympathetically to her friend's problems.
12 The new equipment they have ordered is technologically advanced.

I162
Nouns I Articles
Nouns

Nouns are: abstract (happiness, love, etc), collective (crowd, group, etc)., common (radio, chair, etc),
concrete (doctor, client, etc) and proper (James, Tangiers, India, etc) .
Gender: Nouns can be masculine (men and boys), feminine (women and girls) and neuter (inanimate things,
animals and babies whose sex we do not know) . When we refer to ships, vehicles (when regarded with
affection or respect) and countries, we consider them feminine. Most nouns remain the same whether they are
masculine or feminine (doctor, painter, etc). There are some nouns, though, which have different forms
according to gender. These forms can be expressed in two ways:
a) by changing the ending (actor - actress, conductor - conductress, duke - duchess, emperor - empress, heir -
heiress, hero - heroine, host - hostess, policeman - policewoman, prince - princess, waiter - waitress,
widower - widow). In modern usage, however, many gendered forms are avoided. We use neutral forms
instead. eg. police officer, flight attendant, etc.
b) by changing the word (bachelor - spinster, boy - girl, bridegroom - bride, father - mother, gentleman - lady,
man - woman, nephew - niece, son - daughter, uncle - aunt, etc)
Some domestic animals and wild animals have different forms according to gender: bull - cow, cock - hen,
dog - bitch, drake - duck, gander - goose, lion - lioness, ram - ewe, stag - doe, stallion - mare, tiger - tigress,
BUT gorilla - gorilla, etc.

Noun Formation

To describe people we add -ar, -er, -ee, -or to the end of verbs, or-ian, -ist to the end of nouns or verbs making any
necessary spelling changes. beg - beggar, train - trainer/trainee, invent - inventor, magic - magician, typ'e - typist
Suffixes used to form nouns from verbs:
-age break - breakage -ence neglect - negligence -sis hypnotise - hypnosis
-al remove - removal -ion inspect - inspection -ti on abolish - abolition
-ance attend - attendance -ment commit - commitment -y injure - injury
-ation deprive - deprivation -sion revise - revision
Suffixes used to form nouns from adjectives:
-ance tolerant - tolerance -ion desperate - desperation -ment content - contentment
-cy pregnant - pregnancy -iness happy - happiness -ty anxious - anxiety
-ence independent - independence -lty pure - purity -y honest - honesty

[ID Fill in the correct noun.

To be a good teacher, a teaching (0) ... qualification ... is QUALIFY


not all you need. Your (1) personality plays a big PERSON
part in the (2) effectiveness of your work, so it's best to EFFECTIVE
make a thorough (3) examination of your own EXAMINE
character before taking the (4) decision to take up this DECIDE
challenging (5) occupation. Apart from OCCUPY
(6) patience, you also need the PATIENT
(7) ability to accept others' ideas and a ABLE
(8) willingness to learn from your own mistakes. WILLING
(9) Sensitivity to the needs of your students is also SENSITIVE
important. (10) Knowledge is not enough - who you are is KNOW
much more important.
Nouns I Articles
~ . Complete each pair below by adding the male or female equivalent.

1 husband ... wife ... 14 widower widow


2 gentleman lady 15 uncle aunt
3 emperor empress 16 nephew niece
4 hero heroine 17 policeman _ policewoman
5 count countess 18 landlord landlady
6 bachelor spinster 19 bridegroom bride
7 father mother 20 host hostess
8 duke duchess 21 actor actress
9 heir heiress 22 conductor conductress
10 manager manageress 23 steward stewardess
11 salesman saleswoman 24 lion lioness
12 king queen 25 waiter waitress
13 prince princess 26 dog bitch

The Plural of Nouns

Nouns are made plural by adding:


-s to the noun. (cat - cats, etc)
-es to nouns ending in -ch, -s, -sh, -ss, x. (torch - torches, bus - buses, bush - bushes, glass - glasses, fox -
foxes, etc)
-ies to nouns ending in consonant + y. (baby - babies, lady - ladies, etc) BUT -s to nouns ending in vowel +
y. (toy - toys, boy - boys, etc)
-es to nouns ending in -o. (tomato - tomatoes) BUT -s to nouns ending in : vowel + o (video - vi(leos), double
o (zoo - zoos) , abbreviations (photograph/photo - photos), musical instruments (piano - pianos) and proper
nouns (Navajo - Navajos). Note that some nouns ending in -o take either -es or -s. These are: buffaloes/
buffalos, mosquitoes/mosquitos, volcanoes/volcanos, zeroes/zeros, tornadoes/tornados, etc.
-ves to some nouns ending in -f/-fe. (self - selves) BUT chiefs, cliffs, roofs, safes, etc
Some nouns of Greek or Latin origin form their plural by adding Greek or Latin suffixes. (basis - bases, crisis -
crises, criterion - criteria, medium - media, terminus - termini, etc)
Compound nouns form their plural by adding -s/-es:
to the second noun if the compound consists of two nouns. (schoolboy - schoolboys)
to the noun if the compound consists of an adjective and a noun. (frying pan - frying pans)
to the first noun if the compound consists of two nouns connected with a preposition or to the noun if the
compound has only one noun. (sister-in-law - sisters-in-law)
at the end of the compound if this is not made up of any nouns. (runaway - runaways)
Irregular Plurals: man - men, woman - women, foot - feet, tooth - teeth, louse - lice, mouse - mice, child - children,
goose - geese, person - people (BUT peoples = ethnic groups), sheep - sheep, deer - deer, fish - fish (ALSO
fishes), .trout - trout, ox - oxen, salmon - salmon, spacecraft - spacecraft, aircraft - aircraft, species - species,
hovercraft - hovercraft

~ Write the plural of the following words.

1 day - ... days ... 9 thief - thieves 17 foot - feet 24 child - children
2 box - boxes 10 fly- flies 18 life, - lives 25 cliff - cliffs
3 kilo - kilos 11 tooth - teeth 19 passer-by - passers-by 26 lady - ladies
4 tomato - tomatoes 12 medium - media 20 country - countries 27 wife - wives
5 knife - knives 13 shelf - shelves 21 steering wheel - 28 kiss - kisses
6 donkey - donkeys 14 photo - photos steering wheels
7 man - men 15 baby - babies 22 brush - brushes
8 person - people 16 corkscrew - corkscrews 23 piano - pianos

1164
Nouns I Articles
Countable - Uncountable Nouns

Nouns can be countable (those that can be counted) 1 book, 2 books, etc or uncountable (those that can't be
counted) bread, wood, etc. Uncountable nouns take a singular verb and are not used with a/an. Some, any,
much , no, etc can be used with them. Heavy rain caused the match to be postponed. I need to buy some food.
BUT a help, a knowledge (of sth), a pity, a relief, a shame, a wonder. What a relief! What a pity! What a shame!
Uncountable nouns are:
Mass nouns (fluids, solids, gases, particles): blood, bread, butter, air, oxygen, corn, flour, etc
Subjects of study: Accounting, Chemistry, Economics, History, Literature, Maths, Physics, etc
Languages: Chinese, French, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese, Spanish, etc
Sports: baseball, billiards, cricket, cycling, darts, football, golf, rugby, etc
Diseases: chickenpox, flu, measles, mumps, pneumonia, tuberculosis, etc
Natural phenomena: darkness, fog, gravity, hail, snow, sunlight, shade, etc
Some nouns: accommodation, advice, anger, applause, assistance, behaviour, business, chaos, countryside,
courage, dirt, education, evidence, homework, housework, information, intelligence, knowledge, luck, music,
news, peace, progress, seaside, shopping, traffic, trouble, truth, wealth, work, etc
Collective nouns: baggage, crockery, cutlery, furniture, jewellery, luggage, machinery, money, rubbish,
stationery, etc
Notes: a) Words for drinks are mass nouns but can be used as countable nouns when we order or offer
drinks. Would you like a coffee? Two sodas, please.
b) With expressions of duration, distance or money meaning 'a whole amount' we use a singular
verb. Five thousand pounds was his prize for winning the competition.
Many uncountable nouns can be made countable.
a piece of advice/cake/furniture /information/paper; a glass/bottle of milk/water/juice; a jar of jam; a b.ox/sheet of
paper; a packet of tea; a slice/loaf of bread; a pot of yoghurt; a pot/cup of tea; a kilo/pound of meat; a tube of
toothpaste; a bar of chocolate/soap; a bit/piece of chalk; an ice cube; a lump of sugar; a bag of flour; a pair of
trousers; a game of soccer; a(n) item/piece of news; a drop/can/litre of oil; a can of Coke; a carton of milk; a
block of wood; a flash/bolt of lightning; a clap/peal of thunder; etc

Plural Nouns

objects consisting of two parts: garments (pyjamas, trousers, etc), instruments (binoculars, compasses,
etc) , tools (pliers, scissors, etc)
arms, ashes, barracks, clothes, congratulations, earnings, (good) looks, outskirts, people, police,
premises, riches, stairs, surroundings, wages, etc. Where are my clothes?
Group nouns (army, audience, class, club, committee, company, council, crew, crowd, headquarters,
family, jury, government, press, public, staff, team , etc) can take either a singular or a plural verb depending
on whether we see the group as a whole or as individuals. The team was chosen as the most promising. (the
team as a group) The team were given bonuses for their performance. (each member of the team separately)
Note: Certain nouns can be used in the singular and plural with a different meaning:
:51~9~i~~ r F>i ~~~i .................................................1
:5;;,~'i1~~t;~~~iii~i.tiii~kJ;;~~~t;~i;.rM;;;,~(t,~;'1~~i;i~ ~/g;~yh~i;~: .. .................................................!
!Could I have a glass of lemonade? !She bought a new pair of reading glasses. !
l Only people with experience may apply for this job. l If you go travelling, you are sure to have many exciting experiences. l
l The face of the clock is made of wood. l I love walking in the woods. l
l The rain is falling really heavily now. l The people were praying for the rains to come. l
l Ca// me when you 've finished work. !The exhibition includes many works of Boudin. l
l Draw a chart on graph paper. !Many papers have been written on the benefits of daily exercise. !
: On a scale of 1-20 I'd give that joke a 5. : Use these scales to weigh that - they are more accurate. :
1 It is not a custom to kiss your friends in Japan. 1 We had nothing to declare at customs. 1
!Take a compass in case you get lost. !Use the compasses to make a perfect circle. !
: . .1. .. :
Nouns I Articles
~ Underline the correct verb form.

1 Chemistry are/is my least favourite subject. 11 Most people worry/worries about the effect of
2 Your bathroom scales is/are not very accurate. pollution on the environment.
3 2000 is/are far too expensive for that stereo. 12 Water is/are necessary for plants to grow.
4 Table tennis is/are sometimes referred to as ping- 13 In the summer my hair becomes/become dry.
pong. 14 The rubbish has/have been taken away.
5 The police is/are coming to the rescue. 15 The information is/are inaccurate.
6 Paper is/are made from wood. 16 Binoculars is/areneeded to see that far.
7 Children likes/like playing games. 17 His luggage was/were left on the platform.
8 The scissors don't/doesn't work very well. 18 The stairs is/are very dangerous.
9 These trousers is/are terribly unflattering. 19 Mumps is/are contagious.
10 Education are/is considered to be very important 20 The news was/were unexpected.
by almost everyone. 21 His experience of travel is/are limited.

Put the ver s in brackets into the correct form.

1 The water in this lake ... looks ... (look) very clean.
2 Making mistakes is (be) only natural.
3 Maths doesn't interest (not/interest) me very much.
4 All of our furniture is (be) brand new.
5 Sugar damages (damage) your teeth.
6 Snow rarely falls (fall) in this part of the country.
7 The applause was (be) very loud.
8 The news they brought us was (be) good.
9 Your trousers don't match (not/match) your shirt.
10 The team discuss (discuss) strategy before every game.
11 Chickenpox gives (give) you an itchy rash.
12 Billiards is (be) his favourite game.
13 The accommodation here seems (seem) very expensive.
14 The pliers are (be) in the tool box.
15 Knowledge of other languages helps (help) people in business.
16 Ten minutes is (be) too little time to finish this report.
17 Every time I travel , some of my luggage gets (get) damaged.
18 Welsh is (be) difficult to learn.
19 The staff are/were (be) happy with the pay rise.
20 Sophisticated machinery costs (cost) a lot of money.

Finish the second sentence so that it has the same meaning as the first sentence.
1 An official found her luggage near the check-in desk. Her luggage ... was found by an official near the
check-in desk...
2 They are teaching Physics in room 2A. Physics is being taught in room 2A.
3 Traditional craftsmen have used the best wood to make these ornaments.
The best wood has been used by traditional craftsmen to make these ornaments.
4 You need to have experience if you wish to apply for this job. Experience is needed if you wish to apply for this job.
5 Rangers protect the woods. The woods are protected by rangers.
6 He tore his trousers in the fight. His trousers were torn in the fight.
7 We give exam advice at the end of the course. Exam advice is given at the end of the course.
8 He classified the information as 'Top Secret'. The information was classified as "Top Secret".
9 A security guard protects our property. Our property is protected by a security guard.
10 That shop is selling wedding dresses at half price. Wedding dresses are being sold at half price in that shop.
11 We need new members for our tennis club. Our tennis club needs new members.
12 You can always find cheap silver jewellery in Portugal. Cheap silver jewellery can always be found in Portugal.
13 One doesn't need money to be happy. Money isn't needed for one to be happy.

1166
Nouns I Articles
14 He used his experiences in Africa to write his book. His experiences in Africa were used to write his book.
15 The crime is being investigated by the police. The police are investigating the crime.

A couple of, several, a few, many, a (large/great/good) number of, both are followed by a countable noun.
(Too) much, a little, a great/good deal of, a large/small amount/quantity of are followed by an uncountable noun.
A lot of, lots of, hardly any, some, no, plenty of are followed by a countable or uncountable noun.

[ill Underline the correct items.

1 We've had a great deal of, many, a few, plenty of, a little rain this year.
2 She drinks too much , several, a lot of, too many, a little cups of tea every day.
3 The proposal got a lot of, a few, some, several, a good deal of support from the public.
4 We spend a number of, several, a lot of, plenty of, many time at our country house.
5 There is many, hardly any, no, little, several milk left - could you buy some?
6 He wastes many, lots of, few, a great deal of, too much money.
7 They couldn't give us hardly any, a few, much, a lot of, a large number of evidence so we had to release
the suspect.
8 She left many, plenty of, a large quantity of, a few, some jewellery to her grandchildren.
9 There were several, both, a little, a lot of, a small quantity of people at the meeting.
10 She bought a few, several , some, plenty of, lots of new cutlery.
11 I've enjoyed a number of, no, both, some, a good deal of his films.
12 He's made several, a good dearof, a little, a few, a lot of progress in his studies.
13 She always takes several, both , plenty of, a great quantity of, a number of luggage when she travels.
14 He gave us a couple of, some, no, many, plenty of useful advice.
15 There were much, a couple of, no, a good deal of, a few rooms available on the island.

A/An (indefinite article) - The (definite article)

A/An is used with singular countable nouns to talk about indefinite things. There 's a boy leaning on the
fence. (indefinite) Some can be used in the affirmative with plural countable nouns or uncountable nouns and
any in questions and negations. There are some glasses on the table. There 's some butter in the fridge. Is
there any flour left? There aren't any strawberries in the fridge.
We use a/an before Mr/Mrs/Miss/Ms when we refer to an unknown person. A Mr Brown called you this
morning. (A person that we don't know.)
A/An can also be used meaning per. She goes to the cinema twice a/per week.
We do not use a/an: a) with uncountable nouns or plural countable nouns. We use some instead of a/an. We
need some butter and some sugar. They bought some cakes. b) before an adjective if it is not followed by a
noun. This room is big. BUT This is a big room.
The is used with singular and plural nouns, countable and uncountable ones, to talk about something
specific or when the noun is mentioned for a second time. The boy in jeans is my brother. (Which boy? The
one in jeans; specific.) There's a bicycle outside. The bicycle is Tony's.
A/An or the is used before singular countable nouns to refer to a group of people, animals or things.
A/The cat is a domestic animal. (We mean all cats) . A/An or the is never used before a noun in the plural
when it represents a group. Cats are domestic animals. (NOT: TF1e eats are domestic animals.)

: Fill in: a, an, the, any or some where necessary.

1 "Have you got ...any... smoked salmon? " "I ordered some last week, but the supplier had run out so it'll be
a while before I have any." "Oh, okay. How much is the smoked trout?"
2 When I opened the door this morning, a man was standing there with some flowers in his hand. When I asked
him if I could be of any help, he blushed, saying, "I've got the wrong house," and ran away.
3 He's been in the country for - six months but he can 't speak - English yet. Give him some help with learning
the language, please.
Nouns I Articles
A(n)/One - One/Ones
We use a/an to refer to an unspecified thing with the meaning any one. We use one when we are counting,
to put emphasis on number. She bought a dress. ryve are not talking about a specific dress.) She bought one
dress. (She didn't buy two dresses.)
We use one with the words day, week, month, year, winter, morning, night, etc or with a specific day or month
to say when something happened, usually in narration. One summer, the Smiths decided to go to Italy. One
Friday, Ben was working late. We can use one day to refer to the future. One day, you will be proud of me.
We use one or one of ... when we mean one person/thing out of many. It usually contrasts with
another/other(s). One train was fast, but the others were slow. One of my friends is from Russia.
We use a/an or one with no difference in meaning with money (a/one dollar). fractions (a/one quarter),
weighVmeasures (an/one inch), whole numbers (a/one million), price/weight (3 a litre), frequency/time (twice
a month), distance/fuel (BO miles a gallon), distance/speed (BO km an hour) and illnesses (a cold, a fever, (a)
toothache, (a) stomachache, (a) backache etc) .
We use one in the singular and ones in the plural to avoid repeating the noun when it is clear what we mean .
My jacket is the one with the hood.
We use a/an with one when there is an adjective before one. I want to buy a sofa. I want a red one. BUT I
want to buy a sofa. I want one in red.
We use one/ones with this/that. I don't like this pair of jeans, but I like that one.
We use which one(s) in questions. I like the blue shirt best. Which one do you like?

0 Fill in with a, an, one or ones.


1 The recommended maximum speed on motorways is 130 km an hour.
2 He bought her a very expensive ring as a gift for her birthday.
3 After trying on various shoes, she decided to buy the most expensive ones.
4 One morning , Sue woke up to find out that her bicycle had been stolen from the back yard.
5 You need only a cup of sugar for the cake or else it will be too sweet to eat.
6 Peter's dog is a German Shepherd.
7 The first story was terribly boring but the second one was actually quite interesting .
8 We visit granny at least once a week, although we live quite far from each other.
9 Do you see those two musicians over there? They are the ones who won all the top awards in last year's
competition.
10 A Mrs McGregor called earlier on and left a message for you.
11 Bill needed a rest so badly that he couldn 't keep his eyes open.
12 I can 't believe that she paid a/one thousand pounds for a pair of shoes.
13 I am going to make a hot drink. Would you like one?
14 As they walked past the old building they heard the voice of an old woman asking for help.
15 Rob can't afford a new car so he decided to buy a second-hand one.

\iO Fill in a/an, the, one or ones.


1 I helped an old lady cross the road .
2 One day, you'll thank me for making you work hard!
3 I like the cotton dress best. Which one do you like?
4 Penny goes to the supermarket every Friday.
5 Mum wouldn't let us get a puppy.
6 The person with the moustache is Mr Floyd , my English teacher.
7 I have two English dictionaries at home: One is pocket-sized , the other is huge.
8 I liked both of the paintings, but I could only afford to buy one.
9 One Friday, Kelly was walking home when she saw something unusual in the park.
10 The best time to do exercise is in the morning .
11 A Mr Jenkins called while you were out.
12 All of the shoes look great, but the ones I like best are the platforms.

I168
Nouns I Articles
'The' is used before 'The' is omitted before

nouns which are unique. the Moon, the Tower of proper nouns. Amy, Liverpool
London
names of sports, games, activities, days,
names of cinemas (The Odeon), hotels (The Ritz) , months, holidays, colours, drinks, meals and
theatres (The Theatre Royal) , museums (The languages (not followed by the word language). I
Museum of Modern Art), newspapers/magazines love tennis. Can you speak French? BUT The
(The Times) , BUT (Time) , ships (The QE2) , Chinese language is fascinating to study.
institutions (The Royal Academy of Art) , galleries
names of countries (France) , BUT the Philippines,
(The National Gallery) .
the Netherlands, (the) Sudan, the Hague, the
names of rivers (the Thames) , seas (the North Vatican, cities (Manchester), streets (Bond Street),
Sea) , groups of islands/states (the Orkney Islands, BUT the High Street, the Strand, the Mall, the A 11,
the USA) , mountain ranges (the Alps) , deserts (the the M4 motorway, squares (George Square),
Gobi desert) , oceans (the Pacific) , canals (the Suez bridges (Tower Bridge) BUT the Bridge of Sighs,
Canal) and names or nouns with 'of'. (the King of the Forth Bridge, the Severn Bridge, the Golden
Spain, the Queen of England) Gate Bridge), parks (Central Park), stations (King's
Note: the equator, the Arctic/Antarctic, the South of Cross Station), individual mountains (Mount
France, the South/West/North/East Everest), islands (Corsica), lakes (Lake Geneva),
continents (Africa)
musical instruments, dances. the flute, the tango
possessive adjectives. That is my book.
names of families (the Smiths) , nationalities ending
in -sh, -ch or -ese (the Welsh, the Dutch, the two-word names whose first word is the name of
Chinese, etc). Other plural nationalities are used a person or place. Glasgow Airport, Edinburgh
with or without 'the'. (the South Africans, the Castle BUT The White House (because the first
Australians etc) word White is not the name of a person' or a place)

titles (the President, the Prince of Wales, the Queen). pubs, restaurants, shops, banks and hotels
The is omitted before titles with proper names. which have the name of their founder and end in
Queen Elizabeth II -s or -'s. Jim 's Cafe; Harrods; Baring 's Bank BUT
the Queen 's Arms (hotel) (because Queen's Arms
adjectives used as plural nouns (the blind, the is not the name of the founder)
elderly, the rich, the poor, etc) and the superlative
degree of adjectives/adverbs. He's the most bed, college, court, hospital, prison, school,
intelligent one here. university when we refer to the purpose for which
they exist. He is at school by 8.30 every morning.
Note: most used as a determiner followed by a BUT We have to be at the court at 2.00 for the trial.
noun, does not take 'the'. Work (= place of work) never takes the.
Most students pass the exams. BUT The most I have to go to work now.
Interesting article was on Nostradamus.
the words home, father/mother when we talk
the words: beach, cinema, city, coast, country(side), about our own home/parents. Mum is at home
earth, ground, jungle, radio, pub, sea(side) , sky, now.
station, shop, theatre, village, weather, world, etc but
not before man (= people). / went to the shop to buy means of transport: by bus/by car/by train/by
bread. plane etc BUT in the car, on the bus/train etc. She
Note: 'the' is optional with seasons. (the) autumn came by plane. BUT She was on the bus when the
accident happened.
morning, afternoon , evening, night. I'll come
We say: flu/the flu, measles/the measles, mumps/
round in the morning. BUT at night, at noon, at
midnight, by day/night, at 5 o'clock, etc the mumps BUT He's got pneumonia.

historical references/events. the French Revolution,


the Second World War BUT World War II
only, last, first (used as adjectives).
As always, you are the first person to arrive.
Nouns I Articles
m. Fill in the where necessary.
1 ... The ... Great Wall of China is said to be the only man-made structure seen from - space.
2 The Prince of Wales visited a shelter for the homeless yesterday.
3 The Rock Garden Cafe is half way up - Queen Street, off - George Square.
4 The Quins are holding a ball in the Sherbrooke Castle Hotel on the fifth of June.
5 When we arrived at - Manchester Airport, Rachel was waiting for us at the arrivals gate.
6 James went to the hospital to pick up his wife, who is a surgeon there.
7 It's interesting to look at - old maps of the world and see how (the) borders have changed.
8 If you go to - New York, you must visit - Central Park, the Guggenheim museum and the Statue of Liberty,
but don't bother to visit - Times Square.
9 I was thinking of making - lasagne, but if you prefer we can go to a restaurant for - lunch.
10 As soon as Jim got home from - school, he went straight to - bed because he felt as if he had (the) flu.
11 Margaret Thatcher, who was the Prime Minister of - Great Britain for 12 years, is now known as - Baroness
Thatcher of Kesteven.
12 We've decided to go to the Canary Islands on holiday. Last year we went to - Crete and liked the people
there very much.
13 I was born in the North of England, but when I was in - infant school we moved to - Lewes, which is in -
East Sussex.
14 In the office where I work - most people have a degree in - English, but my boss, who is the nicest person
I've ever worked for, has a PhD in - astronomy.
15 Many people enjoy - snowboarding and - hiking in the Alps and the Pyrenees.

fg\ Fill in a/an or the where necessary.

1 On ...the ... first of April, it is the custom for British people to make - jokes and play - tricks on each other.
2 Of all the countries on the continent of - North America, Phil has only visited - Canada.
3 The universities of Oxford and Cambridge are two of the most famous universities in - Europe.
4 If you want to work abroad , why don't you contact the agency I went to in - Lamb Street?
5 The capital city of - Spain, - Madrid, is to the north of Seville.
6 The holiday I took in - Rome was the best I've ever had.
7 - Detective Sherlock Holmes and his assistant, - Doctor Watson , solved a lot of mysteries.
8 I would love to spend a/the/- summer cruising in the Caribbean.
9 Mrs Hamilton holds a flower arranging class on - Wednesday evenings.
10 The highest mountain in the world, - Mount Everest, is in the Himalayas.
11 There is a wonderful 1920s style restaurant-cafe in - Glasgow, which has some of the most charming and
helpful waiters I've ever met.
12 Belfast is the capital of - Northern Ireland and Dublin is the capital of the Republic of - Ireland.
13 The Balearic Islands lie to the east of Spain .
14 Julia is an extremely patient girl. She will have no problem in her career as a nanny.
15 Stephen has a seminar on - Saturday morning, so we won't be able to go to the ski slopes until - Sunday.
16 On Sunday we decided to go to the beach by - train , but by the time we got to the station the weather
looked so threatening that we went to the cinema instead.

--(.1f iI141t.] .1; Iti i1111---- ----- - - -- ----------- -- --- ---------- -- ---------------- ---
Look at the following list, then say each item using the where necessary.
the British Museum, St. Pancras Station , Kew Gardens, the Mendip Hills, Red Lion Square, the Dutch
language, King George VI , the East River, the High Street, the Andes, Lake Windermere, Flamenco
music, UNESCO, the Uffizi Gallery, Macy's, Harrods, the Red Sea, the Duchess of Devonshire,
Regent Street, the Virgin Islands, Mount Etna, Charles de Gaulle Airport, Malta, the Atlantic, the
Queen of Spain

1170
[ii _Look at Appendix 2, then fill in the correct particle(s).

1 If you like, I'll put ... away... all your winter clothes 9 After her death, a statue was put up in the town
for next year. square to honour her.
2 The army was called in to put down the rebellion. 10 I can't stand him, but I'll have to put up with his
3 He puts his success down to being in the right being there because John likes him.
place at the right time. 11 You'll never guess who I ran into in the supermarket
4 The idea Ian put forward is the best so far. - your friend Tom!
5 The cricket match was put off until the weather 12 Can you believe that he ran away with all our money?
had improved. I didn't think he was capable of theft.
6 Over the winter I've put on at least 3 kilos. 13 He runs people down all the time. He never says
7 At home we have two fire extinguishers in case we anything nice about anyone.
have to put out a fire. 14 We've run out of bread . Go and get some, please!
8 Of course sir, I'll just put you through to Mrs
Thomson's office. Please hold the line.

Look at Appendix 3, then fill in the correct preposition .

1 ...At... the age of eight months I took my first 15 We decided to go by bus, but we had to wait for
steps, much to everyone's amazement. an hour at the bus stop. The next time we go, we'll
2 At the top of the street there's a baker's that sells go by taxi for sure.
the most delicious bread. 16 I was sitting on the bus reading my book, when
3 At/In the beginning we got along very well, but Dave sat down beside me.
now all we seem to do is fight and argue. 17 We saw her sitting in the taxi and waved at her, but
4 At the end of the story the murderer was caught. she didn't notice us.
5 We had decided to go to France, but in the end we 18 He must have reached Israel by now.
went to Rome. 19 Don 't worry, I won't post it. I'll make sure the letter
6 At first I thought he was very rude, but now I quite is delivered by hand.
like him. 20 The teacher asked the children to learn the poem
7 The computer chooses data at random, so that by heart.
there is no bias or discrimination involved. 21 Although she seems to be a selfish old woman,
8 At my request, they ordered me a taxi. she must be kind at heart.
9 " By popular request, I proudly present comedian 22 I'm sorry, but I did the wrong exercise for
Dave Jones," said the announcer. homework by mistake.
10 Our babysitter lives close at hand, so it's no 23 We took him by surprise by arranging a party for
problem calling her at a moment's notice. his 50th birthday.
11 We haven't heard from Diane for ages. 24 She told me that she had sent the letter by post a
12 Put your essay on top of that pile over there. week ago.
13 The sports shop is at 31 , Pine Street. 25 The ship was lost at sea.
14 From/By all accounts, she was a well-behaved little
girl.

m Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 You must contact the headquarters as soon as you get the information .
touch You must ... get in touch with ... the headquarters as soon as you get the information.
2 Raymond started driving ten years ago.
been Raymond has been driving for ten years.
3 "You had better take a raincoat" said the group leader.
advised The group leader advised us to take a raincoat.
4 They failed to win the elections.
succeed They did not succeed in winning the elections.
Folder ~
5 Mary can't see at all without her glasses.
blind Mary is (as) blind as a bat without her glasses.
6 The thief wore gloves in order not to leave fingerprints.
that The thief wore gloves so that he would not leave fingerprints.
7 She joined a university course in order to study business.
aim She joined a university course with the aim of studying business.
8 She never seems to have the time to write letters.
round She never seems to get round to writing letters.
9 D~spite being rich and famous, she is unhappy.
though She is unhappy (even) though she is rich and famous.
10 How long is it since you moved back home?
ago How long ago did you move back home?
11 We found the new Harry Potter film fascinating.
were We were fascinated by the new Harry Potter film.
12 The food is so spicy that I can't eat it.
me The food is too spicy for me to eat.

Explain the meaning of the idioms in bold.

1 She is head and shoulders above her colleagues, which is why she is soon to be made a company director.
much better than
2 Even with five children and two dogs to take care of, Margaret's house is always spic and span. clean and
tidy
3 She was very embarrassed when she realised she had gone to the party with her pullover on inside out.
the wrong way round
4 The new house has its problems, but by and large it's an improvement on the old one. on the whole
5 Even though the carpet was well made, after ten years it was unable to stand up to the wear and tear of
continual use. damage caused by everyday use
6 I'm sick and tired of listening to his excuses. fed up with
7 After falling off her horse Laura was black and blue all over. covered with bruises
8 The nervous customer paced back and forth outside the bank manager's office. first in one direction and then
in the opposite one
9 The student was only pretending to read - he was holding his book upside down. the wrong way up
10 The footballer was covered in mud from head to foot. all over his body

m Choose the correct item.


1 When you ...... the traffic lights turn left. 7 From my point of ...... , there is no point in remaining
A arrive @ reach C get D come here.
A idea B opinion @ view D belief
2 My favourite ...... of car is the Ferrari.
A style @ make C trademark D class 8 His injuries turned out to be ...... - he died the day
after the accident.
3 The colour of this shirt will ...... if you wash it with
bleach.
@ fatal B final C solemn D lethal
@ fade B soften C weaken D faint 9 I'm really ...... about this situation so I hope we can
find a solution.
4 It's very rude to .... .. at people.
A see B glance C glimpse @ stare
@ anxious B careful C watchful D afraid
10 She ...... all her classmates and finished the race
5 With lots of time and patience you can ...... dogs first.
to be obedient.
A guide B instruct C learn @ train
@ beat B earned C gained D won

6 Could you leave me ......? I have to study.



alone B only C single D lonely

1172
Practice Test
Part 1
For questions 1-12, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits
each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Example:
A B C D
0 A well B right C good D functional 0 c:::::J c:::::J - c:::::J

(
When summer comes and the sun appears, it's (0) ... C... to have a hat. Many people have traditionally
(1) ........... for the panama hat. Stylish, light and cool on the head, these palm leaf hats are flexible enough to
roll up and put in a pocket or bag. Nowadays panamas can be found in fashionable shops (2) ........... over the
world, sometimes at exorbitant (3) ........ ... . However the hat itself (4) .......... .
in rather humble surroundings in the jungles of South America. In a long
tradition (5) ........... down from generation to generation, the palm leaves are
gathered by the men and the hats are woven by the women. It can (6) .......... .
up to 12 palm leaves to make a (7) ........... quality hat. Each leaf is split up to
25 times to obtain a straw that is fine enough to be woven into a hat. The
women's job is dictated by the weather and visibility: there must be enough
light for them to (8) ........... the fine straw, but the air must be moist enough
for it to (9) ........... flexible. This means that the women can usually only work
in the (10) ........... morning. (11) ........... panama hats are expensive, back in
the villages the craftsmen and women are struggling to keep the tradition
(12) ........... and often receive only a fraction of the price you pay in the
shops.
(

1 A sought B got @ gone D tried


2 A on B at C throughout @ all
3 A prizes B amounts prices D costs
4 A born B came originated D produced
5 @ handed B past C given D delivered
6 A need B be @ take D want
7 A great @ top c height D grade
8 A watch @ see c look D attend
9 A continue B endure c persist @ remain
10 A prompt @ early c soon D fast
11 Although B Still c But D Even
12 A live B existing @ alive D lively
Practice Test H
Part 2
For questions 13-24, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap.
Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

Example: ~ IL I0 ITISI I I I I I I I I I I I

With its warm sunshine, sparkling seas and serene landscapes, Cyprus
offers (O) ........................... of reasons to escape the grey winter days.
Cyprus has so (13) many attractions as a holiday island. The sun shines
most days of the year and even in the (14) middle of winter the days are
warm and inviting. The shoreline of rough cliffs, sandy beaches and old
harbours (15) is washed by the Mediterranean. Inland, you (16) will/can
discover another world of ancient mountains and green valleys with neat
fields, orange and lemon groves, vineyards and old villages built out (17)
of stone. Legend has it that Cyprus was the place (18) where the ancient
Greek goddess of love, Aphrodite, was born . The exact spot is (19)
believed/said/supposed/thought to be the Rocks of Romiou, a beautiful C
beach just along the coast from the old port and town of Paphos. This is
(20) the largest town in Cyprus and is located (21) in the south western
part of the island. Paphos has developed into a thriving modern city and
is a large tourist resort, but even (22) so, it has managed to preserve its
ancient past. The old harbour is still the central part of the town with
tavernas lining the waterside. (23) There are also excellent shops and
restaurants in the modern part of town (24) where visitors can enjoy
shopping and traditional food.
I

(_
Part 3
For questions 25-34, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of
some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an example
at the beginning (0).

Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

Saudi Arabia
The (0) ......................... of Saudi KING
Arabia lies on the Arabian Peninsula in
Southwest Asia. It is one of the
driest countries on earth and the
(25) majority of its landscape (95%) is MAJOR
desert. Saudi Arabia is a Muslim
country with a (26) population of about POPULATE
27 million, roughly 20% of which are
resident (27) foreigners (or 'expats'). It FOREIGN
is home to two of Islam's holiest cities:
Mecca and Medina, where every year,
an estimated two million Muslims
make a pilgrimage. Saudi Arabia is
the world's largest (28) producer and PRODUCE
(29) exporter of oil. Huge oil reserves EXPORT
were discovered near the capital,
Riyadh, in 1937, and oil now provides
(30) approximately 90% of the country's APPROXIMATE
income. Because Saudi Arabia has no
lakes or rivers and very low and
(31) irregular rainfall , it has invested REGULAR
(32) heavily in seawater desalination HEAVY
technology. It is now the world's
largest (33) manufacturer of MANUFACTURE
desalinated water. Over one billion m3
of fresh water are produced each year
from seawater, providing about 70%
of the Kingdom's (34) drinking needs. DRINK
Practice Test ~

Part 4
For questions 35-42, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to
the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use
between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the
beginning (0).

Example:

O It rained a lot last year.


DEAL
We had ............................................................................................................................... rain last year.

Write the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

35 We enjoyed the party very much.


FUN
We had lots of/great fun at the party.

36 Not all political parties completely agreed with the new policy.
FULL
Not all political parties were in full agreement with the new policy.

37 If we are told earlier, we'll make the necessary arrangements.


ADVANCE
Provided they let us know in advance, we'll make the necessary arrangements.

38 But for the help of my friends I'd never have survived.


FOR
If it hadn't been for my friends' help, I'd never have survived.

39 "You broke my camera" she said to me.


ACCUSED
She accused me of breaking her camera.

40 She tried to pay the rent on time.


FALL
She tried not to fall behind with the rent.

41 They will be selling tickets for the performance at the school canteen.
SALE
Tickets for the performance will be on sale at the school canteen.

42 One has to hear it to appreciate it.


HEARD
It has to be heard to be appreciated .

1176
Determiners I Pronouns
Determiners are: indefinite article (a/an), definite article (the), demonstratives (this - these/that - those),
possessive adjectives (my, your, his etc), quantifiers (some, any, every, no, both, each, either, neither,
enough, several, all, most etc) and numbers (one, two etc).

Demonstratives (this - these I that - those)


This/These are used That/Those are used
for people or things near us. for people or things not near us.
This dress is mine. That woman over there is the director.
for present/future situations. for past situations.
I'm seeing George this Friday. That month was the best.
when the speaker is in or near the place he/she is to refer back to something mentioned before.
referring to. "We 're getting engaged in June. " "That's
This room is quite spacious. (The speaker is in the marvellous! "
room.) when speaking on the phone to ask who the other
to introduce people or to identify ourselves on the person is.
phone. "Liz, this is Mary." "Hello? This is James Smith. Who's that, please?"

This/These - That/Those are not always followed by nouns. That's how he survived the shipwreck.

Q Fill in: this, these, that or those.

1 Look at ... those ... hot air balloons. Aren't they spectacular?
2 James and Claire have decided to get married this year.
3 Look! This is the fabric I want for our bedroom curtains.
4 Those people over there come from Swansea.
5 That girl over there is going to move in next door.
6 Those buildings in the centre of town need to be pulled down. They
are an eyesore.
7 "Those were the best days of my life! " grandpa said.
8 "Is your sister in, Jane? This is Diana speaking. "
9 "Marilyn and Ian are engaged!" "Isn't that brilliant! "
10 "Rachel, let me introduce you to Stephen . Stephen , this is Rachel. "
11 I wish I'd bought one of those jackets we saw last week.
12 "I'll get these earrings. " "That is a good choice. The others don't really suit you. "
13 That car parked over there belongs to my boss.
14 "This is one of his earlier works," explained the guide as we all looked at the painting.
15 Do you know that boy who has just walked past?
16 "Did you know that the director earns over 500,000 a year? " "That is scandalous! "
17 Those peaches were extremely juicy, weren 't they?
18 "Jason and Caroline were chosen for the lead roles." "That is impossible! "
19 Do you remember our holiday in Spain? That was one of the best times of my life.
20 Could you take these bags? I'm about to drop them.
21 "So you see, that is how we met, " she explained as she reached the end of her story.
22 Hello, this is Stephen. Can I speak to your mother, please?
23 "This is the house where Wordsworth lived," said the guide as she stood outside the front door.
24 That curry we had last night was delicious, wasn 't it?
25 Can you reach those jars on the top shelf?
Determiners I Pronouns
A lot of - many - much - (a) few - (a) little
!
countables ~ uncountables .
:: :
Positive i a lot (of)/lots of/ i a lot (of)/lots of/ i There are a lot of books in the library.
.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. ~.~.~~.~!?.~~~~~............ 1. ~.~~.~. ~!?.~~~~~. ...........i. .!.~~.'.~.!~.~.!.~.~. ~~..~~!.~.!.~..~~!.~..?.'!!.~~~.~~:.... ..................................
Interrogative ! many ! much ! Are there many paintings in the museum?
i i i Did you have much time to talk to him?
'''' ' ''' ' '''' ' '''' ' '''''''''''''''''''~''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' ' ''' ''' '''''''~''''''''''*'' ' '''''''''' ' '''''''"'''''''''''' : '''''''''' ' ''' ' '''' ' '''' ' '''' ' ''' ' ''' ' ' '' ' ' ' '' ''''' ' '''' ' '''' 0000000000

Negative ! many ! much ! There aren 't many tickets left.


. ....... ... . . . . . . . . . . .l. . . . . .... . . . ... . . . . . . . . J. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .l...~..~~~.:~..~.~~..~~.~~:..~..~.?.~:~.~.~~~. ~.~.~~. '!!.?.~~.~:..........................
i a few (= some)/ i a little (= some)/ i A few people were invited to the party.
i very few (= not i very little (= not i Very few people are billionaires.
j many, not enough) j much, not enough) j A little sugar will make the pie sweeter.

A lot (of)/Lots of are followed by countable or uncountable nouns and are normally used in positive sentences.
There were a lot of people at the reception. He 's got lots of patience. A lot of can also be used in questions
and negations in informal English. Were there a lot of arguments caused by the election?
Many is followed by countable nouns and much is followed by uncountable nouns. They are normally used in
negations or questions. There isn't much sugar left. Are there many boxes? Many and much are often used in
positive sentences after how, so, too or in formal English. He didn't realise how much food he had eaten. You
should go on a diet. You're eating too much.
A few (= some, a small number) is followed by countable nouns. A little(= some, a small amount) is followed
by uncountable nouns. Both a few and a little have a positive meaning. Ann has a little flour left so she'll make
a few cakes.
Few(= not many, almost none) is followed by countable nouns. Little(= not much, almost none) is followed by
uncountable nouns. Both few and little have a negative meaning and are rather formal. Very few/very little, only
a few/only a little are more usual. Few people are allowed to meet the Queen. I've had very little response to
my offer. She had few doubts about marrying him even though she had known him only a little while.
Many, much, (a) few, (a) little, most, all, some, any, several, both, one, two, etc are followed by of when a
noun follows, preceded by possessives or words such as: this, that, these, those, the or a. How much of the
money you earn do you need for food? I have lent her so many of my books that I have nothing to read.

{SJ Fill in: a lot (of) , much or many.

1 Not ... many... people attended the opening ceremony.


2 It takes a lot of hard work to get a university degree.
3 I haven't got much money at the moment so I can't go shopping.
4 He ate too much food last night so today he's not feeling well.
5 I have too many books to carry so my bag is very heavy.
6 He must have a lot of money if he has a big car like that.
7 I haven't got much time, so please hurry up.
8 There were too many misprints in the letter.
9 Have you invited many guests to your dinner party?
10 She doesn't have much of an appetite - that's why she's so thin.
11 Are there many English people living in Germany?
12 How much milk do you need?
13 She's working overtime as she's got so much to do.
14 The house isn't finished yet; there's still a lot of work to be done.
15 There was so much traffic that we were delayed for an hour.

1178
Determiners I Pronouns
Q Underline the correct item.

1 There are much/many/a lot skyscrapers in Chicago.


2 We spent a lot of/many/few money on holiday.
3 A lot/ Much/Few visitors are disappointed by our hotel.
4 If you add a little/a few/many salt, it will taste better.
5 There are much/a lot of/ little people on this bus.
6 We've had many/ little/too many rain this winter.
7 Few/ Much/A little people are as pretty as she is.
8 There's been few/very little/a few news about the
earthquake.
9 You must pay many/lots of/few attention to understand
this.
10 Lots of/Much/ Little flowers were planted in the garden.
11 A few/A little/ Little students here have passed the
exam.
12 There was many/few/much annoyance caused by her
outbreak of anger. --

Some - Any - No
Adjectives Pronouns Adverbs
................................................... r .. rp~~~i~ .. .. -r.. ~hi~~~ rpI~~~~ .. ..

p~~iti~~t~-~~-~1~~~~~~~i~~~-~b~dyt~~~-~thi~9t~~~~~h~;~~ . .
! any ! anyone/anybody ! anything ! anywhere
i~t~~~~g~ti~~ . t~~;;1~~~~~~/~~yb~dy . t~~~h1~9t~~~h~;~ . . .
.. ................................................ ~ ........................................i........................................................i.................................. .:. ..................................................................
Negative j no/not any j no one/not anyone j nothing j nowhere
j j nobody/not anybody ! not anything i not anywhere
........j;~~iii~~iN~~-~ii~~;t~~~~. 1....~~~~b~ci~--(~iiP~~~i~)t . ~~~~hi~~. t~~~;;;h~~~ . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interrogative I j everyone j (all things) j (in all places)

Some is used before countable or uncountable nouns. I want some strawberries. She asked for some help.
Some and its compounds (somebody, something, etc) are normally used in positive sentences. They can also
be used in questions to make an offer, a request or when we expect a positive answer. There's someone in the
kitchen. (positive) Would you like something to drink? (offer) Could I have something to eat? (request) Is there
someone in the garden? (I expect there is.) BUT Is there anyone in the garden? (I'm asking in general)
Every is used before singular countable nouns. Every candidate has to complete a form. (all the candidates)
Every and its compounds take a verb in the singular. Everything he does is wrong. (all the things) Every
person working in the laboratory has to wear a uniform. (all persons)
Any is used before countable or uncountable nouns. Are there any apples left? Is there any milk in the fridge?
Any and its compounds (anyone, anything, etc) are normally used in questions. /s there anything for me?
They can also be used in positive sentences meaning "It doesn't matter how/whaVwhen/which/where/who".
Take anything you like. Any and its compounds can be used after if in a positive sentence. If you let anyone
in, you'll be in trouble.
No/not any are used before countable and uncountable nouns. There are not any pens in the drawer. There's
no news from him. No/not any and their compounds (no one/not anyone, nothing/not anything, etc) are used
in negations. He did nothing to help me. He didn't do anything to help me. Any and its compounds are used
with negative words (hardly, never, without, seldom, rarely, etc). She seldom goes anywhere these days.
(NOT: She seff.JeFR gees Raw"1e."O these days.)
__ Determiners I Pronouns
EJ . Underline the correct item.

1 Don't worry, I said nothing/anything. 6 Is there any/some sugar in th is coffee? It's very
2 Pete didn't see anyone/no one come out of the bitter.
building. 7 We didn't go nowhere/anywhere this year.
3 We need to take some/any food with us. 8 Can I have some/any water, please?
4 It took him any/some time to recover from his 9 The doctor told her there was anything/nothing
illness. wrong with her.
5 Anybody/Everybody was pleased with their exam 10 He does his homework any/every evening before
results. dinner.

Fill in: some, any, no, every or their compounds.

1 Ron knows ... everything ... there is to know about computers.


2 Everyone/Everybody knows Charlie but no one/nobody really likes him.
3 We could hardly see anything in the dark.
4 I'm so tired! I just want to go somewhere to relax for a few days.
5 I've never been anywhere more exciting than London.
6 Are you doing anything at the moment? I need to ask you something.
7 Michael never does anything without asking someone/somebody first.
8 Is there any milk in the fridge or shall I go and get some?
9 Everyone/Everybody was very pleased with their results; no one/nobody was disappointed.
10 Has anyone/anybody told you anything about what you have to do?
11 There is nothing that anyone/anybody can say to make me feel better.
12 They looked everywhere for Helen but they couldn't find her.
13 Everyone/Everybody is wondering why no one/nobody noticed anything before.
14 I want to go somewhere this weekend. I haven't been anywhere for ages.
15 Has anyone/anybody seen my pen? I've looked for it everywhere but it's nowhere to be found.

Both refers to two people or things. It has a e Either (= any one of two) I Neither (= not one
positive meaning and takes a verb in the plural. It and not the other) refer to two people or things
is the opposite of neither/not either. James and and are used before singular countable nouns.
Robin are students. Both James and Robin are Neither boy likes spaghetti. Neittrer' of/Either of
students. They are both students. Both of them take a verb either in the singular or plural.
are students. Both boys are students. Neither of them is/are married.
All refers to more than two people or things. It Every is used with singular countable nouns. It
has a positive meaning and takes a verb in the refers to a group of peop le or things and means
plural. It is the opposite of none. All the children all, everyone, everything, etc (it refers to three
laughed. All of them laughed. They all laughed. or more). She cooks lunch every day.
All three of them laughed.
Each is used with singular countable nouns. It
All + that-clause ( = the only thing) takes a means one by one, considered individually (it
singular verb. All that she did was to stare at him
usually means only two).
without speaking.
Each student was awarded a diploma.
None refers to more than two people or things. It Note that every one and each one have of
has a negative meaning and isn't followed by a constructions. Every one of/Each one of the
noun. "Are there any biscuits left?" "No, none. " workers will be given a bonus.
None of is used before nouns or object
Whole(= complete) is used with countable nouns.
pronouns followed by a verb either in the
We always use a, the, this, my etc + whole +
singular or plural. It is the opposite of all. None
countable. the whole morning = all morning
of the boys/them know(s) how to ride a bike.
Note: no + noun. There 's no place safer than One/Ones are used to avoid repetition of a
one's own house. countable noun. "Which car is yours?" "That one. "

I1so
Determiners I Pronouns
Q Underlin e the correct item.

1 Both/ All Margo and Steve are excellent skiers.


2 Neither/Either Julie nor Lucy enjoyed the film.
3 He goes to the gym either/every afternoon.
4 Both/Neither Rebecca and Charlie are teachers.
5 You will have to talk to each/both person alone to find out what happened.
6 All/Each eight men are working really hard.
7 None/Every of the applicants he interviewed were suitable for the job.
8 Every/All that he needs is a good rest. He's very tired.
9 Neither/Either the bride nor the groom arrived on time. They were all/both late.
10 There's no/none need to do the washing up. The maid will do it. --
11 He spent whole/all evening studying for the exam.
12 Jim speaks neither/either French nor German. He only speaks English.
13 There was a good film on television yesterday but all/none of us saw it.
14 Sam plays football nearly each/every weekend. --
15 I like both of these skirts but I'll take this ones/one because it's cheaper.
16 Each/All flat will have central heating installed before November.
17 Sally and Andrew all/both enjoyed themselves.
18 Jane did not utter a single word the whole/all time she was here.
19 Annette takes the bus to work neither/every day.
20 Either/Neither you start doing some work or I'll fire you.
21 "Do you like these trousers?" "No, I prefer those ones/one actually. "
22 I spent all/whole day answering the phone and had no time to do anythi ng else.
23 All of/None of us wanted to go to the party, but we couldn't refuse the invitation.
24 Joe had no/none time to waste; the boat was leaving in five minutes.
25 Both/Either Sonia and Rachel are nurses.
26 A teacher should know the names of every/all his students.
27 None of/All of us eat meat so we went to a vegetarian restaurant. /
28 Each/Both time I try to call Jenny her phone is engaged .
29 "Which perfume do you like best? "" I don't really like either/neither of them ."
30 The twins' grandfather gave them all/each five pounds for their birthday.

Both ... and ... + plural verb. Both Frank and Terry enjoy scuba diving.
Either ... or ... I Neither ... nor ... I Not only ... but also ... + singular or plural verb depending on the
subject which follows nor, or, but also. Neither Paula nor Sue and Clare are in the office at the moment.

Rewrite the sentences using both ... and, neither ... nor, either ... or, not only ... but also.

1 Joe likes swimming and so does Tom . ... Both Joe and Tom like swimming ....
2 Molly is going to the cinema tomorrow and so are the Smiths. Not only Molly but also the Smiths are going to
the cinema tomorrow.
3 James and Alex like riding horses. Both James and Alex like riding horses.
4 Jane has never been on an aeroplane and Victoria hasn't either. Neither Jane nor Victoria has ever been on an
aeroplane.
5 Nick worked late; so did Sue and Fiona. Not only Nick but also Sue and Fiona worked late.
6 Dr Green will see you or else Dr Howe will. Either Dr Green or Dr Howe will see you.
7 Daniel is going to Brighton by train and so is Guy. Both Daniel and Guy are going to Brighton by train.
8 Justin doesn't watch television. Andrew doesn't either. Neither Justin nor Andrew watch television.
9 Katie will give you directions or else Paula will. Either Katie or Paula will give you directions.
10 Pete is a lawyer and so is Kathy. Both Pete and Kathy are lawyers.
11 Paul works as a cashier and so does Bob and Fred. Not only Paul but also Bob and Fred work as cashiers.
12 Jill is having her hair cut and so is Sally. Not only Jill but also Sally is having her hair cut.
13 Cath could give us a lift or else Laura could. Either Cath or Laura could give us a lift.
Determ iners I Pronou ns
Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 My father doesn't like cheese and neither does my brother.


nor Neither my father ...nor my brother like(s) ... cheese.
2 William is a dentist; John is too.
are Both William and John are dentists.
3 Debbie enjoys scuba diving and so does her husband.
enjoy Both Debbie and her husband enjoy scuba diving.
4 Sandra can speak Portuguese and Spanish.
only Sandra can not only speak Portuguese, but she can also speak Spanish.
5 You can ask Tim for a lift to work or you can ask Sam.
either You can ask either Tim or Sam for a lift to work.
6 It is believed that Jack is guilty and that Pam is too.
both It is believed that both Jack and Pam are guilty.
7 We didn't realise that Tina wasn 't there and that Ann wasn't either.
nor We didn't realise that neither Tina nor Ann was there.
8 The bank manager explained that Terry could co-sign the account or else Janet could .
either The bank manager explained that either Terry or Janet could co-sign the account.
9 He told me that Chester is worth a visit and so is York.
and He told me that both Chester and York are worth a visit.
10 Did you know that Carole is getting married this year and so is Amanda?
not Did you know that not only Carole but also Amanda is getting married this year?

Ever can be added to question words to mean 'any'. These are: however(= in any way that) ,
whatever (= anything that), whenever (= any time that), wherever (= any place that), whichever
(=any of), whoever(= anyone who} . Whoever did this must be punished. (anyone who ditl it)

Fill in: whatever, whichever, whenever, wherever, whoever or however.

1 My dog follows me ... wherever ... I go. He never leaves my side.


2 That chair is going to break again however well you fix it.
3 Whatever happens, I'll still be his friend.
4 Whenever I try to talk to Kate, she just ignores me.
5 The bus is leaving. Whoever wants a ticket must buy one now.
6 Sam has a Spanish friend. Whenever he goes to Spain , he stays with him.
7 However hard I try, I can't seem to forget that awful night.
8 Whenever we go to the cinema, Julie pays for me.
9 Whichever package you choose, you're guaranteed a fabulous holiday.
10 I won't accept that behaviour from anyone, whoever they may be.

Else (= more; different) is followed by a singular verb and can be used with indefinite pronouns and
words such as everyone, something, nobody etc. I don't really like Pam and I don't think anyone else
does either. Else can also be used with what, where, who and how to refer to people, places, things etc.
Who else can work on the project?
Else forms its possessive case with 's. That notebook isn't yours, it's someone else's.
Or else means 'otherwise'. Get a taxi or else you'll be late.

t Complete the blanks using else constructions .

1 I'd better get some money out of the bank ... or else... I won't be able to pay the rent.
2 Someone told me that Jim was leaving and then someone/some body else told me that he wasn 't.
3 I went shopping on my own because no one/nobody else wanted to come with me.

1182
Determiners I Pronouns
4 You'd better be in bed by ten o 'clock or else there'll be trouble.
5 Why don't you agree with this plan? No one/Nobody else does.
6 We always go to Nice on holiday; can't we go somewhere else this year?
7 I'm afraid I can't answer that question. You'd better ask someone/somebody else.
8 Why did they put a parking ticket on my car? No one/nobody else has one.
9 You'd better write your essay, or else you'll fail.
10 That bag isn 't mine - it must belong to someone/somebody else.

'Other' structures

the other(s) = the rest Only those books are mine; the others are from the library.
others = several more apart from the ones already mentioned At weekends some people like to go out and
dance, while others prefer to stay at home and relax.
each other = one another Her two small children are always fighting with each other.
=
every other alternate I clean the house every other day.
the other day = a few days ago I saw Joe the other day. I went to his house for dinner.
the other one(s) = not this/these but something else I quite like this dress, but I liked the other one better.
another = one more apart from those already mentioned May I have another slice of cake, please?
Another can be used with expressions of distance, money and time It will take us another two hours before we
get to Plymouth.

m Fill in: (the) other(s), each other, every other or another .


..... .........
1 Lisa goes riding ... every other... week.
2 I need another pair of shoes; these are falling apart.
3 There was a good film on TV the other night. Did you see it?
4 We're leaving now; the others will join us later.
5 My mother telephones every other day to see how I am.
6 He has to write another two pages before the article is finished .
7 Have you got another book I can read? I've finished mine.
8 Some couples are very dependent on each other for companionship.
9 I was the only one who liked the film; the others hated it.
10 It'll be another few weeks before I see my brother again.
11 Although they work together, they don't get on with each other.
12 Sue has to go to the supermarket every other day to buy food.
13 Simone came to see us the other day; she looked very well.
\ 14 There's only another week to go before the summer holidays begin.
\ 15 This was the only house that we could afford; all the others were too expensive.

. Replace the underlined words with an expression containing other/another.

1 He plays football once a !ortn[gh~ . ... He plays football every other week.. ..
2 I would like one more piece of meat, please. I would like another piece of meat, please.
3 Sam left a few days ago. Sam left the other day.
4 I've only got these two dresses with me - the re$t are at home. I've only got these two dresses with me - the
others are at home.
5 This car is certainly value for money but I'd prefer som~Jtiin_g_~le. This car is certainly value for money but I'd
prefer another one.
6 Some guests turned up with presents while se:l.!eral more came empty-handed. Some guests turned up with
presents while others came empty-handed.
7 The Butlers went to Ohio a few we~ks agq. The Butlers went to Ohio the other week.
8 Do you think I could borrow 5 mq~ this week, please? Do you think I could borrow another 5 this week, please?
9 Pat visits her mother on alternate d(!YS. Pat visits her mother every other day.
10 I would like Gill and Tom to stay behind after class, but the rest of you can go home. I would like Gill and Tom
to stay behind after class, but the others can go home.
Determiners I Pronouns

(SJ In Other Words


Sally, Sue and Liz work as secretaries. Lynn is an actress. Sharon is an actress too.
All three of them work as secretaries. Both Lynn and Sharon are actresses .
Jim, Ted and Phil hate squash. Sheila doesn't like milk. Paula doesn't like
None of them like/likes squash. milk either. Neither of them like(s) milk.
There isn't anyone in the room. Neither Sheila nor Paula like(s) milk.
There is no one in the room. Nothing can be compared to this.
He's the best dancer of all. There isn't anything that/which can be
No one dances as well as he does. compared to this.

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 Bob speaks French. Sam speaks French too.


speak Both ... Bob and Sam Bpeak... French.
2 No one knows what the outcome will be.
anyone There is not anyone who knows what the outcome will be.
3 There isn't anything to watch on television tonight.
nothing There is nothing to watch on television tonight.
4 The girls all dislike playing tennis.
likes None of the girls likes playing tennis.
5 Lucy is a doctor. Fiona is a doctor too.
are Both Lucy and Fiona are doctors.
6 There isn't anything I would like better.
is There is nothing I would like better.
7 No one dances the way she does.
anyone There is not anyone who dances the way she does.
8 These exercises are not hard to do.
of None of these exercises is/are hard to do.
9 Tony lives abroad. Sylvia does too.
live Both Tony and Sylvia live abroad .
10 There isn't anything Joanne can do to help me.
nothing There is nothing Joanne can do to help me.

--C1t tI 1JU4t.t1; It; iI f -------------------------- ------------ -------------.--------


(See Suggested Answer section)
Use both, all, neither and none as well as the cues below to compare the three animals. You
can use ideas of your own.
tails, legs, ears, teeth, horns, paws, furry skin, fly, walk, talk, run fast, mammals,
carnivorous, small, big, etc

All three animalB have tailB. etc.

I184
Determiners I Pronouns
Pronouns
Personal pronouns
~=f~~t;~~~~sr:~e~~:~~:T~~;;~~-~~--~;~~~-~~
Possessive adjectives
... l Possessive pronouns ! Reflexive-Emphatic pronouns
r~-~~-;~;;~~~~--~;~~~-~~r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
:<-<--:
I ! me ! my ! mine ! myself
you i you i your ! yours i yourself
he i him j his j his j himself
she j her i her i hers i herself
it : it l its l i itself

:~ i r~."m I ~~: I f~.~;~ I r~~E~~::.


Fill in the correct pronouns or possessives.

1 The Smiths really enjoyed ... their... trip to Disneyland.


2 Your camera is not as good as mine. I have a bigger lens.
3 We were told to help ourselves to whatever we wanted for breakfast.
4 Samantha, you are such a good friend!
5 My parents and I are looking forward to seeing you on Saturday.
6 I told him to be careful but he didn't listen.
7 Helen didn 't want any help with the cooking . She did it all herself.
8 The heating switches itself off automatically.
9 I didn't see the twins so I couldn't thank them for the present.
10 Donna, Ben, Kim and I are going to the party. Please come with us, Jenny!
11 Mr and Mrs Jones said no-one's garden is as good as theirs is.
12 The boys really enjoyed themselves at the summer camp.
13 Is this your bike, Garry?
14 Please forgive me for forgetting your birthday. I will try to remember it next year.
15 The bird made its nest out of twigs and leaves.
16 Has John already left? I think that's his scarf.
17 My friends and I like to go shopping together. We have so much fun!
18 I bought myself a new pair of shoes yesterday.
19 I really like Jane. She has such a good sense of humour.
20 George didn't take the car to the garage. He fixed it himself.

We use the instead of a possessive adjective with parts of the body after prepositions. Verbs used in this
pattern include: bite, hit, kiss, pat, punch, slap, sting, touch, etc. He punched his opponent on the
nose. (NOT: &R !:its Rase)
Possessive adjective + own is used to emphasise the fact that something belongs to one person and
no one else. They've got their own house. or They've got a house of their own.

Fill in the blanks with the or possessive adjective ( + own) .


1 The boxer was disqualified after kicking his opponent in ... the ... leg.
2 Now that they have their own computer at home, they've stopped going to the Internet cafe .
3 Someone hit him in the face on his first day of school.
4 She kissed her father on the cheek before she went to bed.
5 A bee stung her on the arm while she was sunbathing.
6 A dog bit Sharon on the leg.
7 He used to share a room with her brother, but now he has his own room.
8 A brick fell and hit her on the head, so she had to spend two weeks in hospital.
9 She patted her daughter on the back and told her not to worry.
10 She hasn't got a car of her own, so she has to borrow her mother's.
Fill in: of one's own, on one's own or one's own .
1 She enjoys being ...on her own ... .
2 I can borrow my father's car, but I'd really love to have a car of my own .
3 He couldn't afford to rent a flat on/of his own, so he had to share with a friend.
4 He's quite a sociable person, but there are times when he just want~ to spend some
time on his own.
5 I'd love to set up my own business one day. I think I'd find it very challenging.
6 Thank you for your offer of help, but this is my problem and I shall handle it on my own.
7 He couldn't paint the house on his own, so he asked his brother to help him.
8 I offered to help her, as she wouldn't have been able to prepare all that food on her own .
9 They're saving all their money so they can buy a car of their own.
10 She started her own hairdressing business when she was only sixteen.

Reflexive - Emphatic Pronouns (myself - yourself etc)


Reflexive pronouns are used after certain verbs (behave, burn, cut, enjoy, hurt, kill, look at, etc) when the
subject and the object of the verb are the same. Did you enjoy yourself? They can also be used after be, feel,
look, seem to describe emotions or states. She doesn't seem herself these days. Reflexive pronouns can be
used after prepositions but not after prepositions of place. He is ashamed of herself. BUT She looked in front of
her. (NOT: iR freRt at /:iersetf)
Certain verbs (wash, shave, dress, undress, meet, rest, relax, stand up, get up, sit down, wake up, etc) do
not normally take a reflexive pronoun. She sat down and relaxed. (NOT: She sat down and relaxed~.) Wash
or dress can be used with a reflexive pronoun to talk about young children or animals. The little boy is trying to
dress himself. The cat is washing itself.
Emphatic pronouns have the same form as reflexive pronouns but a different meaning. They give emphasis to
the noun , or the fact that a certain person performs an action. She booked everything herself. They can also
mean without help. He repaired the car himself. (without help)
Note these idioms: Enjoy yourselves! (= Have a good time!) Behave yourself! (= Be good!) He likes being
by himself. (= He likes being alone.) He lives by himself.(= He lives on his own.) By myself, by yourself, by
himself, etc (= on my own, on your own, on his own, etc) Help yourself to tea. (= You're welcome to take
some tea if you want some.) Do it yourself. (= Do it without being helped.) Make yourself at home! (= Feel
comfortable.) Make yourself heard. (= Speak loudly enough to be heard by others.) Make yourself
understood. (= Make your meaning clear.)
Note: a) Each other means one another. Compare: Brother and sisters look after each other. Children without
brothers or sisters have to look after themselves.
b) On (my) own means alone and is the same as by (my)self. Own can also be used in the same way
as myself. I painted my own room. or I painted my room myself.

Fill in the correct pronoun, then identify them: reflexive or emphatic.


1 There was nobody to help me so I had to do all the cleaning ... myself. .. . (emphatic)
2 If you don't behave yourselves, I shall put you all to bed early. (reflexive)
3 The music at the party was so loud that I had to shout to make myself heard. (reflexive)
4 The teacher tried to make herself understood but she failed to get the class to understand. (reflexive)
5 We painted the room ourselves. (emphatic)
6 She was very pleased with herself when she got such a good job. (reflexive)
7 My mother warned my brother to behave himself at the wedding. (reflexive)
8 I think I'll get a cat. They're very clean animals which are always washing themselves. (reflexive)
9 She prepared all the food by herself. (emphatic)
10 I think I'd go back to Austria. We really enjoyed ourselves there. (reflexive)
11 My sister is very vain. She never stops looking at herself in the mirror. (reflexive)
12 I don 't feel myself today. I don 't know what's wrong with me. (reflexive)
13 My father decorated the house himself. (emphatic)

I186
Determiners I Pronouns
There - It
There + be is used for something mentioned for the first time or to say that someone or something exists.
There are several parcels to be delivered before noon.
We use a personal pronoun + be/other verb to give more details about something or someone already
mentioned. There's someone in the waiting room. He wants to give you something.
It + be is used for identification or to talk about the details of something mentioned before. There 's someone in
the sitting room. It's your aunt.
It + be ... to-inf/that-clause is used to begin a sentence. It's nice to be with you. It's a pity that he didn 't come.
It is also used for distance, temperature, time expressions, weather and in the following expressions: It seems
that, It appears that, It looks like, It is said that, It doesn't matter etc. It's freezing today, isn't it? It appears that
he's been promoted; he's just bought a new car. It seems that there is a problem with the machine. (BUT we
also say: There seems to be a problem with the machine. It looks like it's going to rain.)

\\ill Fill in: there or it.

1 ... /t.. .'s such a pity you can 't come with us. It is said that
Rome is beautiful at this time of the year.
2 It's such a lovely day today - let's go for a picnic. There's a
good picnic site only 5 km from here.
3 We'd better take our anoraks. There are lots of clouds in the
sky. It looks like it's going to rain.
4 Let's go by car. It will only take us 2 hours to drive there.
5 There's nothing on the television tonight. It's a shame we
didn't go to the cinema.
6 Mum, there's a man at the door. He wants to talk to you.
7 It's so nice to see you. It seems that we haven't had a proper
chat in ages.
8 It's a pity you can't come to the cinema tonight. There's a new
film on.
9 There's someone waiting to see you.
10 There are some new magazines on your desk.
11 It appears that she has quit her job.
12 This fax machine doesn't work properly. It seems to be faulty.
13 There seems to be heavy traffic. We may be late.
14 It's a shame he lied to you.
15 There are several letters for you on your desk.
16 It's another thirty miles to Brighton.

Possessive case
's I s' (people or animals) of (inanimate things)
~1~9~j~;~-~~~+;~th~9i;;;~--~kirt: (;,~d;9;;t~~th: r~ +i ~~~i;;;~t~thi~9i~b~t;~~t~~~~ ..........................
my mother-in-law's flat the heel of the shoe, the top of the stairs
regular plural noun t ' the farmers' tractors of + possessive case/pronouns when there is a
irregular plural noun not ending in -s + 's determiner (this, any, etc) before the noun Listen
the women's department, the children 's bedroom to this record of Jo's. (one of Jo's records), a hat
compound noun + 's a police officer's duty of hers (one of her hats)
's after the last of two or more names to show of+ people (in longer phrases) She 's the mother
common possession Jane and George's house of one of my friends.
(they share the same house) BUT Jane's and 's/of to talk about places or organisations
George's houses (each one has got a house) Britain's history/the history of Britain
phrases of place + 's (at the dentist's) time/distance expression + 's/' (last month's issue, three months' work)
Determiners I Pronouns
Rewrite the following in the correct possessive form .

1 the child - the toys ... the child'B toyB ... 17 Brian and Jack - the father Brian and Jack's father
2 the women - the clothes the women's clothes 18 Katy and Sarah - the cars Katy's and Sarah's cars
3 the cats - the kittens the cats' kittens 19 the key - the house the key of the house
4 the fridge - the door the door of the fridge 20 Emily - the hair Emily's hair
5 my parents - the car my parents' car 21 the doctors - the conference the doctors' conference
6 the house - the roof the roof of the house 22 the box - the lid the lid of the box
7 the man - the trousers the man's trousers 23 the twins - the mother the twins' mother
8 the dogs - the kennels the dogs' kennels 24 my father-in-law - the garden my father-in-law's garden
9 the teachers - the room the teachers' room 25 my brother's friend - the yacht my brother's friend's
10 the woman - the money the woman's money yacht
11 the men - the changing rooms the men's changing 26 the boy - the shirt the boy's shirt
rooms 27 my sister's husband - the office my sister's husband's
12 the train - the windows the windows of the train office
13 the old man - the wheelchair the old man's wheelchair 28 the apples - the price the price of the apples
14 the club - the rules the rules of the club 29 the old woman - the umbrella the old woman's umbrella
15 the girl - the eyes the girl's eyes 30 the gate - the garage the gate of the garage
16 the water - the temperature the temperature of the water

t Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.
1 In the company where I work, Mr Jones is the boss.
of Mr Jones ...if; the: boss of... the company where I work.
2 This jumper used to belong to my mother.
was This was my mother's jumper.
3 It takes twelve hours to drive to Scotland .
hour It is a twelve-hour drive to Scotland.
4 I know that John dislikes playing golf and so does Simon.
nor I know that neither John nor Simon likes playing golf.
5 In the USA the President lives in the White House.
of The President of the USA lives in the White House.
6 Are you sure that you can drive to London on your own next week?
yourself Are you sure you can drive to London by yourself next week?
7 There are only a few people here tonight.
not There are not many people here tonight.
8 She wanted to sit down but another person had taken her seat.
someone She wanted to sit down but someone else had taken her seat.
9 He doesn't know very much about cars.
knowledge He has little knowledge of cars.
1O I enjoy being alone sometimes.
by I enjoy being by myself sometimes.
11 He enjoys reading books as well as going to the cinema.
both He enjoys both reading books and going to the cinema.
12 Bob doesn't like playing football and Sam doesn't either.
likes Neither Bob nor Sam likes playing football.
13 You must do the work on your own if you want to pass the exam.
yourself You must do the work by yourself if you want to pass the exam.
14 She waited all evening for him to come.
whole She waited the whole evening for him to come.
15 She had done everything except the ironing.
thing The only thing she hadn't done was the ironing.
16 The journey to France takes four hours.
is It is a four-hour journey to France.
17 At my school, Mrs Forrester is the headmistress.
of Mrs Forrester is the headmistress of my school.

1188
Determiners I Pronouns
18 There were very few guests at Sharon's wedding.
many There were not many guests at Sharon's wedding.
19 She went alone to see the film .
own She went on her own to see the film.
20 They just sat on the beach all day.
nothing They did nothing but sit on the beach all day.
21 She spent all evening at her friend 's house.
whole She spent the whole evening at her friend 's house.
22 You are free to leave at any time you choose.
whenever You are free to leave whenever you choose.
23 He has been to every continent except Asia.
continent The only continent he hasn't been to is Asia.
24 We could go to Holland. Alternatively, we could stay in England.
or We could either go to Holland or stay in England.
25 I was supposed to meet Tony a few days ago but he didn't turn up.
the I was supposed to meet Tony the other day but he didn't turn up.
26 We haven't had any time to see each other.
no We have had no time to see each other.
27 We invited both Diane and her fiance to the party.
only We invited not only Diane, but also her fiance to the party.
28 She finished the book in one night.
whole She finished the whole book in one night.
29 She drank from another person's cup by mistake.
someone She drank from someone else's cup by mistake.

Use the words in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the
0 space in the same line.

Nowadays, a (0) .. . growing .. . number of travel companies are GROW


adding adventure holidays to their list of getaways. The reason? More
and more people are looking to do something a bit (1) different when DIFFER
they go on holiday. Today's traveller is (2) increasingly likely to be INCREASE
unsatisfied with simply lying on a beach all day or visiting the usual
(3) tourist/touristy spots. Instead, he/ she is seeking a more unique TOUR
experience. One that might involve travel to an (4) isolated or ISOLATE
(5) unexplored area for example, or one which offers activities that EXPLORE
provide an adrenaline rush. In short, today' s traveller wants a holiday
where he/she can expect a little more (6) excitement. EXCITE
Trekking, mountaineering expeditions, bungee jumping, rock
climbing, safaris, (7) conservation work, overland journeys, cultural CONSERVE
exchanges, deep sea diving; all these are just a few of the types of
adventure holidays that are growing in (8) popularity. In fact, the different POPULAR
types of adventure holiday are limited only by the (9) imagination. So, if IMAGINE
you are the type of traveller who loves new experiences, enjoys
challenges, and seeks (10) inspiration, why not consider an adventure trip INSPIRE
for your next holiday?
Determiners I Pronouns
Read the text below and decide which word A, B, C or D best fits each space.
There is an example at the beginning (0).

Many young people choose to (0) ... C. .. a year or two of their lives while they are still (1) ........... .
living in a foreign country and working as a volunteer. Working as a volunteer means that you can not
only help others, but also develop a (2) ............ understanding of the world and yourself.

You must have a university degree and (3) ............ at least one year's experience before you can
(4) ............. Suitable applicants are invited to (5) ............ a series of interviews and are then sent on
a training programme. Applicants are usually offered a post (6) ............ months and can be sent
anywhere from the Sahara to Siberia.

The advantages of being a volunteer far (7) ............ the disadvantages. Being a volunteer can enable
you to get (8) ............ experience that you would otherwise not have had. It can help you move up the
career ladder faster. You will make (9) ............ friends and return with a(n) (10) ............ of another
culture and language.

However, volunteering is not for everyone. It can be difficult being (11) ............ from friends and
family. Living on a (12) ............ allowance is challenging. But, if you do choose to go, you will return a
stronger, wiser person.

0 A take B pass spend D stay


1 A individual B alone c unique @ single
2 @ greater B longer C larger D bigger
3 A win B earn C deserve @ gain
4 A write B enter apply D compete
5 A visit @ attend C go D come
6 A during B by within D before
7 @ outweigh B outrun C outdo D outgrow
8 A worthless B invalid invaluable D worthwhile
9 A lifeless B long-lost C life-saving @ lifelong
10 A gratitude B recognition appreciation D enjoyment
11 A cut back @ cut off c cut out D cut across
12 A middle B mixed C minimal @ modest

1190
Look at Appendix 2, then fill in the correct particle(s).

1 My brother left for France last night so the whole 8 We set off/out at 6.00 a.m. in order to reach
family went to the airport to see him ... off. .. . Birmingham by lunchtime.
2 "The butler will see you out," said Lord Thornton 9 In the north of Scotland, once bad weather sets
to his visitor as he stood up to leave. in it usually lasts for a long time.
3 We asked if we could see over the vacant house, 10 A problem at the Nantes office has set the
thinking we might want to buy it. programme back by about three months.
4 "I'm going to see to it that you never work in this 11 It wasn 't his fault that he lost his job - somebody
town again!" shouted John's boss. had set him up.
5 James was not fooled by Helen 's charm. He 12 If we want to get this done by five o'clock, we'd
could see right through her. better set to work immed iately.
6 "Don 't worry about your university fees. We've 13 He said he would set his dogs on the boys if they
got some money set aside for your education, " came into his garden again.
said David to his son.
7 It took only a few weeks to set up the business.

Look at Appendix 3, then fill in the correct preposition.

1 I won the competition more ... by... luck than 16 When the teacher opened the door to the
... by... skill. classroom he was pleased to see all the pupils
2 Jane's bad behaviour left everyone at a loss for hard at work.
words. 17 As the time came for Daniel and Jessica to part,
3 The old building was in danger of collapsing. they promised each other that they would stay in
4 We must catch this man at all costs! He is armed touch.
and dangerous. 18 "I pushed Sarah over by accident. I didn 't mean to
5 "For once in your life think of someone besides hurt her," cried Tina.
yourself! " said Tom to his brother. 19 "You'll be in charge of the children until 12.00
6 My name's William but people call me Bill for short. when we get back," I told the babysitter.
7 Before a plan is carried out, it must be studied in 20 This diet seems to work fine. Take Mrs Jones, for
detail to make sure everyone knows what they instance. She has lost three kilos in a week.
have to do. 21 When I went to make a phone call all the
8 The sign by the beach said "Motorboats and telephones were in use, so I had to wait.
jetskis for hire". 22 "This time I'm back for good. I'm never going back
9 When Jenny went to buy the dress she had been to Australia again," Nick's brother assured him.
saving up for, she was disappointed to find that 23 Jane was in a hurry and didn 't notice she had
the shop did not have her size in stock. dropped her purse.
10 It was only by chance that Kathy learned about 24 Dora was still in pain after her operation ; she
her friend 's wedding. couldn't even get out of bed.
11 "I wonder if we could discuss my salary in private," 25 "Until I know for certain that I've passed my
said Bob to his boss. driving test, I won't buy a car."
12 I've never been introduced to Patricia but I know 26 The room was in a mess because Joanna had not
her by sight. had time to clear it up.
13 In our hi-tech world there are many things that we 27 I would like to see your proposal in writing before
take for granted. I make a decision.
14 Ann collapsed in tears upon hearing of her 28 She's staying with her aunt for the time being,
grandfather's death. until she finds a flat.
15 Why don't we do something else for a change? 29 Most shops sell goods at a profit because they
I'm tired of going to the cinema every Saturday. have bought them very cheaply.
Folder rnJ
Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 "You ruined my dress! " she said to me.


of She ... accused me of ruining ... her dress.
2 It takes 2 hours to reach the countryside by car.
drive It is a two-hour drive to the countryside.
3 It was luck and not talent that helped Judy get the leading role in the play.
more Judy got the leading role in the play more by luck than because of her talent.
4 According to the news report, the demonstrators were taken away by the police.
been The demonstrators were reported to have been taken away by the police.
5 Mark took care of his sister during their parents' absence.
looked Mark looked after his sister while their parents were away.
6 Perhaps he forgot our date.
have He may/might have forgotten our date.
7 In my opinion, these two paintings are completely different from each other.
comparison In my opinion, there is no comparison between these two paintings.
8 Police are diverting the traffic.
diverted The traffic is being diverted by the police.
9 He didn't leave the office until his secretary photocopied the report.
had He had the report photocopied before he left the office.
10 These chairs and coffee tables are so lovely! How did you get them?
come How did you come by such lovely furniture?
11 If only someone hadn't stolen Tom's wallet!
pity It is a pity Tom had his wallet stolen.
12 Is it OK with you if I lower the volume of the radio?
turning Would you mind me/my turning down the radio?
13 In all honesty, I was the one responsible for cancelling the wedding.
who To be honest, it was I/me who cancelled the wedding .
14 She arrived late because she missed the 8 o'clock bus.
turned If she had caught the 8 o 'clock bus, she would have turned up on time.
15 You should always write down the errands you have to run every day.
note You should always make a note of the errands you have to run every day.

Complete the sentences below using an appropriate idiom from the list,
then explain the idioms.

at a loose end, on all fours , over the moon, down the drain , from scratch ,
on the house, under the thumb , for donkey's years, out of the b lue, for a song

1 When the model fell to pieces Mary had to build it again .. .from scratch ... . ...(from the beginning) ...
2 That's the second bad film we've seen in two weeks. Another 5 down the drain. (wasted)
3 He bought the house for a song ten years ago before property prices started to rise. (at a very low price)
4 Please get what you want for dinner. Meals are on the house tonight. (paid for by the restaurant)
5 I haven 't heard from Diane for donkey's years. I wonder where she may be. (for a long time)
6 The news of the wedding came quite out of the blue. Everyone thought they had split up. (unexpectedly)
7 When Pauline finally retired she was at a loose end as she didn't know what to do all day. (have nothing to do)
8 Gath was over the moon when her team won the championship. (extremely happy)
9 Charlie is really under the thumb of his wife. He does whatever she says. (completely under one's control/influence)
10 Young children very often walk on all fours for a while before they get strong enough to make their first
steps. (on one's hands and knees)

I192
Practice Test
Part 1
For questions 1-12, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits
each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).
I
Example:
A B C D
O A stays B places C lies D keeps 0 c:::::J c:::::J - c:::::J

VIETNAMESE CUISINE
Shaped like an elongated 'S', Vietnam (0) ... C... on the fresh ingredients. Dishes are (7) .. .. .. .... with vegetables
eastern part of Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. such as bean sprouts, carrots, water spinach, eggplants,
Vietnamese cuisine differs cucumbers and bok choy, and
(1) .......... radically in the north, seasoned with herbs like lemon
centre and south of the country grass, coriander, basil, chilli and
but two key features stand out. mint. The characteristic flavours
Firstly, rice (2) .......... an essential of Vietnamese food are sweet,
role in the nation's diet and so do spicy and sour. As in many Asian
noodles. In fact, the Vietnamese countries, the Vietnamese do not
are crazy about noodles! Made eat their meals in (8) .. .. ...... .
from wheat, rice or mung beans, Instead, all the food is served at
noodles are eaten at any time of once and people (9) .......... from
the day. They come in (3) .......... the dishes in the centre of the
shapes and thicknesses and are table. Vietnamese cuisine has
eaten in soups, as (4) .... ...... been growing in (10) ........ ..
dishes or simply plain. Secondly, worldwide because it is not only
fresh vegetables and herbs are a delicious but also extremely
major focus of every meal. healthy. Food is rarely fried .
(5) ......... ., most Vietnamese (11) .......... it is steamed or
shop for food at least twice a day simmered. Salads are oil free. It is
which (6) .......... why their cuisine is famous for its use of thus very light and, (12) .. ........ of its focus on vegetables,
incredibly nutritious.

1 A slightly B fu lly c mainly @ quite


2 A holds @ plays c acts D gives
3 A unlike @ different c uncommon D altered
4@ side B accompanied c aside D beside
5 A True B Although c However @ Indeed
6@ explains B justifies c accounts D reasons
7 A handed B given c introduced @ presented
a@ cou rses B proportions c parts D starters
9 A divide @ share C split D portion
10 A esteem B recognition popularity D attraction
11 A However @ Instead C And D Still
12 A than ks B since because D due

1931
Practice Test rnJ
Part 2
For questions 13-24, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap.
Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0) .

Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

Example: ~ IA ISI I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Lake Baikal, known (O) ....................... the 'Blue Eye


of Siberia', is located in south-east Siberia near the
Mongolian border. Not (13) only is it the world's largest
freshwater lake holding almost 20% of all the fresh water
on earth, (14) it is also the world's deepest and oldest lake.
It has 30 islands, the largest (15) one being Olkhon Island.
Lake Baikal is famous for its crystal clear waters (16) which are
rich with aquatic life. The average temperature of the water is
+4C (17) but varies depending on location and season. Recently
scientists (18) have discovered thermal springs, which may explain
why the water is so full of oxygen.
Lake Baikal's isolation has produced one of the (19) most varied and
unusual collections of wildlife. Many of these species are unique to the lake
and found nowhere (20) else on earth. Lake Baikal is home to some interesting
(21) but inedible fish. Many of these consist of more (22) than 50% fat.
The fact t hat Lake Baikal is millions (23) of years old leads some scientists
to believe that it (24) may not just be a lake, but the beginnings
of what wil l one day be an ocean.

1194
Part 3
For questions 25-34, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of
some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an example
at the beginning (0).

Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

Kiev (or Kyiv I is the (0) .............................. LARGE


city in Ukraine and also its capital. Kiev
was founded in the 5th century AD. It
is one of Eastern Europe's oldest cities
and has a truly (25) remarkable history. REMARK
Over the centuries, Kiev has suffered
(26) terribly under invaders but it has TERRIBLE
also experienced periods of great glory
and (27) prominence. Indeed, Kiev was PROMINENT
at several points throughout its history,
one of the greatest political, cultural
and (28) commercial centres of Europe. COMMERCE
Today, Kiev is a bustling city of three
million (29) inhabitants. It is full of INHABIT
magnificent architecture, museums,
vibrant nightlife and much more. It is
an (30) incredibly beautiful city, its CREDIBLE
charm being in part due to its many
trees and parks. In fact, Kiev is one of
the greenest cities in the world with
about 20 square metres of green per
(31) resident! Cultural life in Kiev is both RESIDENCE
rich and varied, with the theatre and
music scene being (32) particularly PARTICULAR
strong. Wandering about Kiev, you will
see a city with a strong sense of
(33) pride in its past. But you will also PROUD
see a modern city that is (34) firmly FIRM
establishing itself in the 21st century.
Practice Test rnJ
Part 4
For questions 35-42, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to
the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use
between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the
beginning (0).

Example:

o The last time anyone saw them was two months ago.
SEEN
They ............................................................................................. ................................. two months ago.

Write the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided .

35 "Shall I call them later?" he asked himself.


WHETHER
He wondered whether he should call them later.

36 The shoes we bought John no longer fit him.


GROWN
John has grown out of the shoes we bought him.

37 She won't tell us her reasons for quitting, despite our insisting.
EVEN
She won't tell us why she quit, even though we insisted.

38 They say that the treasure was discovered by a young diver.


SAID
The treasure was said to have been discovered by a young diver.

39 They bought a large house because they planned to start a family.


VIEW
They bought a large house with a view to starting a family.

40 Leslie would rather read books than watch television.


PREFERS
Leslie prefers reading books to watching television.

41 Everyone did the exercise except Ann.


ONLY
The only one who did not do the exercise was Ann.

42 That's the house where I was raised.


WHICH
That's the house in which I grew up.

I196
Questions I Short Answers
Questions I Short Answers
Yes/No questions (questions which require Yes/No Wh-questions begin with a question word (what,
in the answer) are formed by putting the auxiliary or which, when, where, who, why, whose, how, etc)
modal verb (be, have, can, etc) before the subject. "Who is he?" When there is a verb followed by a
She can do it. Can she do it? With all other verbs preposition , the preposition usually goes at the end
we form Yes/No questions with Do/Does (Present of the question. In formal English it can be put before
Simple) or Did (Past Simple) He works hard. the question word. Who did she get married to?
Does he work hard? Yes/No questions are asked (more usual) To whom did she get married? (formal
with a rising intonation. Do you enjoy cartoons? _,, English)

We use questions to ask for information or permission. We can also use them to make offers, requests,
suggestions or invitations. Do you know what time the train leaves? (information), May I see the manager?
(permission), Would you like me to do the ironing? (offer) , Could you show me how to fix the tap? (request),
Shall we go to the opera? (suggestion) , Would you like to have dinner with me? (invitation)

Form questions, then identify the speech situation for each question .

1 (you/pick up children from school?) ... Could you pick up the children from school? (request) ...
2 (I/use the car today?) May I use the car today? (permission)
3 (you/like/come over to my house?) Would you like to come over to my house? (invitation)
4 (you/do my shopping tomorrow?) Could you do my shopping tomorrow? (request)
5 (what time/shops close today?) What time do the shops close today? (information)
6 (we go/concert this evening?) Shall we go to the concert this evening? (suggestion)
7 (I borrow/some money?) Could I borrow some money? (request)
8 (we/go/the cinema tonight?) Shall we go to the cinema tonight? (suggestion)
9 (you like/go to the beach tomorrow?) Would you like to go to the beach tomorrow? (suggestion)
10 (I use/your pen for a minute?) May I use your pen for a minute? (permission)

We normally use the following question words to ask about:


.
!p~~pi~ 1th1~9~;~~i~~i~rpi~~~r t1~~ 1q~~~111vr~~~~~;l~~~-~~~ :
<-->"-<><i i
: What ! What : Where : How long : How many : How : Why :
! Which (of) j Which (of) j ! How often ! How much ! ' :
: Who : : : What time : : :
!...~~?.~~...~P..?.~~:~~.i.?.~~...l. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . l. . . . . . . . . . . . .l. . .~~.~~. . . . . . . 1. . . . .. . . .... . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . .. . .....:. . . . . . . . . . l
Who is used to ask about people. "Who is the author of this book?"
Whose is used to express possession. "Whose is this car?" "It's Paul's."
Which is used for people, animals or things, alone or before nouns, one/ones or of. Which bag is yours?
Which of these books do you want? Which is normally used when there is a limited choice. "Which is your
car - the Mercedes or the Volvo?" (there are only two cars we are talking about - limited choice.) It can also
be used with the comparative and superlative. "Which is faster, a Ferrari or a Porsche?" "Which is the
tallest building in America?"
What is used alone or before a noun to ask about things. "What can I say?" "What books do you enjoy
reading?" What is used when there is an unlimited choice. "What kind of food do you enjoy eating? " (there
are many kinds of food to choose from - unlimited choice) What can also be used in the following
expressions: What ... look like? (asking for a description of physical appearance), What ... for?, What
colour ... ?, What size?, What kind/sort?, What time?, What is he like? (asking for a description of
character) , What is it used for? , etc "What is your brother like?" "He's very nice." "What does Jack look
like?" "He's very tall and thin." "What colour is his hair?" "Dark brown."
What and which are sometimes both possible. What/Which fruit shall we have for dessert?
Questions I Short Answers
Fill in: who, whose, which, what, where, how long, how often, what time, when, how many,
[fl . how much, how or why.
1 " .. .What... does she do for a living?" "She's a florist."
2 " Whose bag is this?" "It's Mary's."
3 "Which skirt do you prefer, the black one or the green one?"
"The green one."
4 " How many people work in this office?" "Thirty."
5 " When is your mother coming back?" "Next week."
6 " Why didn't you tell me that you were leaving?" "I forgot. "
7 "How much does a ticket to Edinburgh cost?" "50."
8 " How long have you been living in London? " "Three years."
9 " How many times a week do you go to the gym?"" Four."
10 "Which is the cheapest way to get to Liverpool, by bus
or by train?" "By bus."
11 " What kind of films do you like?" "Adventure stories."
12 " Which bus goes to the airport?" " The number 24. "
13 " What time does the plane arrive at Heathrow? " "Twelve o'clock. "
14 "Why don't you come with us to the theatre?" "I'd love to."
15 " How do you get to work?" "By bus."
16 "Who is that tall man over there? " "My uncle."
17 "How many times have you been to France? " 'Three."
18 " How often do you see your parents?" "Every month."
19 " Where were you born?" "In Brighton."
20 "Whose car is that parked outside?" "John's."

Subject/Object Questions

If what, which or who are the subject of the question, the word order is the same as in statements (subject
questions). If they are the object of the question, the verb is in question form (object questions).
l~~bj~~t!:~bj~~.-! l~~bi"~~1:r~b1~~ !
(.. f : . j ( : . : .. j

~ Ian : met ! Sally. : !:........................


Sally !:........................
met !:........David. !
+'
'i ';...................... :

Who met Sally? (NOT: W/:le fife meet Sa#y?) J ho did Sally meet?

Write questions for the sentences below. The words in bold should be the answer.

1 James arrived late . ... Who arrived late?... 14 The car belongs to Barbara. Who does the car
2 Tina cooked the food. Who cooked the food? belong to?!To whom does the car belong?
3 She likes ice-skating. What does she like? 15 I have five brothers. How many brothers do you have?
4 My father drove me to school. Who drove you to 16 The ticket cost 5. How much did the ticket cost?
school? 17 Nick lives in London . Where does Nick live?
5 It was Ann's fault. Whose fault was it? 18 My favourite food is pizza. What is your favou rite
6 He bought a new tie. What did he buy? food?
7 Shakespeare wrote that play. Who wrote that play? 19 Simon likes Julie. Who likes Julie?
8 Daniel shouted at Sarah . Who did Daniel shout at? 20 Dennis was born in 1970. When was Dennis born?
9 Sheila didn't talk to Diane. Who didn't talk to Diane? 21 My favourite pet is the cat. Which/What is your
10 Henry arrived at ten o'clock. What time did Henry favourite pet?
arrive? 22 Tom is getting married to Lisa. Who is Tom getting
11 My sister had a baby. Who had a baby? married to?!To whom is To m getting married?
12 Paul gave the parcel to Mary. Who did Paul give the 23 Paul gave the parcel to Barbara. Who did Paul give
parcel to?!To whom did Paul give the parcel? the parcel to?!To whom did Paul give the parcel?
13 Anita opened the window. Who opened the window? 24 The film lasted three hours. How long did the film last?

1198
Questions I Short Answers
Negative Questions
Negative questions are formed with not, but there is a difference in word order for the short and full form.
(short form) auxiliary + n't + subject+ verb Haven 't they reached Hawaii yet? (everyday speech)
(full form) auxiliary + subject + not +verb Have they not reached Hawaii yet? (emphatic)
Negative questions are used to express: annoyance/sarcasm (Hasn 't stie come back yet?) , surprise (Don't
you know she was fired?) , a wish to persuade someone (Won 't you help me do the exercises?) and
expectation of a "Yes" answer (Don't you know they got engaged?)

Use the prompts below to make a negative question, then give a suitable reply.

1 A: Why didn't you come to school yesterday? ... Weren't you feeling well ...? (you/feeling well)
B: ... No,... I wasn 't.
2 A: There was a good film on TV last night. Didn't you watch it? (you/ watch it)
B: No, I was too tired.
3 A: The meeting's been cancelled, Mr Bright. Didn't anyone tell you? (anyone/tell you)
B: No, they didn't.
4 A: It's getting late. Shouldn't he be here by now? (he/should be here by now)
B: Yes, he should.
5 A: You look very tired. Didn't you sleep well last night? (you/sleep well last night)
B: No, I'm afraid not.
6 A: Why is John at home today? Shouldn't he be working? (he/ should be working)
B: No, he has the day off.
7 A: Why weren't you at the party last night? Weren't you invited? (you/be invited)
B: Yes, but I didn't feel like going.

Question Tags
Question tags are short questions added to the end of a statement to ask for confirmation of, or agreement
with, the statement. They are formed with an auxiliary verb and the appropriate personal pronoun. They take the
same auxiliary verb as in the statement if there is one, otherwise they take do/does (Present S.) or did (Past S.).
He is in hospital, isn't he? She didn't come, did she?
Questions tags can be said with a rising intonation when we are not sure and expect an answer, or a falling
intonation when we are sure and don't really expect an answer.
She is lying, isn't she? .- (not sure) He bought a new car, didn't he? ' (sure)
A positive statement is followed by a negative question tag, and a negative statement is followed by a positive
question tag. She sings well, doesn 't she? He won't tell, will he? Note that everyone/someone/anyone/no one
form their question tags with an auxiliary verb + they. Everyone attended the meeting, didn't they?

Study the following question tags.

- "lam" "aren 't I?" I am shorter than you, aren 't I?


- "I used to" "didn't I?" He used to be your best friend, didn 't he?
- Imperative "will you/won't you?" Write to me, will you?/won 't you?/
"can you/could you?" can you?/cou/d you?
- "Let's" "shall we?" Let's go for a walk, shall we?
- "Let me/him " etc "will you/won 't you?" Let her come with us, will you/won't you?
- "Don't" (negative imperative) "will you?" Don't forget to call me, will you?
- "I have" (= possess) " haven't I?" He has a nice house, hasn 't he?
- "I have" (idiomatic use) "don't I?" We had a great time, didn 't we?
- "There is/are" "isn't/aren't there?" There is room for me, isn't there?
- "This/That is" "isn't it?" This is your pen, isn't it?
--..-- Questions I Short Answers
\ml . Fill in the appropriate question tag.

1 You have got enough money, ... haven't you... ? 11 You have been invited, haven't you?
2 He will be on time, won't he? 12 There are a lot of people here, aren't there?
3 There is enough food for everyone, isn't there? 13 She left an hou r ago, didn't she?
4 She used to fight with her brother, didn 't she? 14 He hates pizza, doesn't he?
5 Everyone felt embarrassed, didn't they? 15 That was your father, wasn't it?
6 I am dressed smartly enough, aren't I? 16 Tell me, will you/won't you?
7 That's your car. isn't it? 17 Let me know, will you/won 't you?
8 You will pick me up, won't you? 18 Ann can't speak French, can she?
9 Let's eat dinner now, shall we? 19 She has a brother, doesn't she?
10 Don't leave without me, will you? 20 I am older than you, aren't I?

Question tags can also be affirmative-affirmative. If said with a rising intonation , we ask for more
information. She is always late, is she? If said with a falling intonation, we express negative feelings such
as disappointment or disapproval. We don't expect an answer. He'll be angry, will he?

Echo tags are a response to an affirmative or negative sentence. They are used in everyday speech to ask
for more information or to show anger, concern, confirmation, interest, surprise, etc.
Affirmative: He left. - He did, didn 't he? (confirmation) He left. - He did?/Did he? (surprise)
Negative: He didn't come. - He didn 't, did he? (confirmation) He didn't come. - He didn't? (surprise)

Add an appropriate response expressing disappointment, surprise or confirmation.

1 "He is in India." " ... He is ... ?" (surprise)


2 "It is very cold today." "It is, isn't it?" (confirmation)
3 "It's five o'clock already." "Is it?" (surprise)
4 "She failed the exam. " "She didn't, did she?" (disappointment)
5 "Mary's ill." "Is she?" (surprise)
6 "He missed the bus." "He didn't, did he?" (disappointment)
7 "Jack's her cousin." "He is, isn't he?" (confirmation)
8 "I haven't read that book." "Haven't you?" (surprise)
9 "He's a very quiet child." "He is, isn't he?" (confirmation)
10 ''They have seven children." "Have they?" (surprise)

Short Answers
Short answers are used to avoid repetition of the question asked before. Positive short answers are formed with
Yes + personal pronoun + auxiliary verb (the verb that is found at the beginning of the question do, can , have,
will , etc) "Did he do it?" "Yes, he did." Negative short answers are formed with No + personal pronoun +
negative auxiliary verb (auxiliary+ n't is always one word). "Did she see you?" "No, she didn't."

Add question tags and short answers to the following.

1 "You used to play the piano, ... didn't you ...?" "Yes, ... /did... ."
2 "She's got a loud voice, hasn't she?" "Yes, she has."
3 "Walk a bit slower, will you?" "No, I won 't."
4 "He works for Laura, doesn't he?" "No, he doesn't."
5 "You've been to Japan , haven't you?" "Yes, I have."
6 "You're coming to the party tonight, aren't you?" "No, I'm not. "
7 "They had been told about it, hadn't they?" "Yes, they had."
8 "Don't repeat what I told you, will you?" "No, I won't."

1200
Questions I Short Answers
9 "They won't be very happy, will they?" " No, they won 't. "
10 "You have an appointment this morning, don't you?" "Yes, I do."
11 "They bought that car last year, didn't they?" "Yes, they did."
12 "He's going to be surprised, isn't he?" "Yes, he is."

.--t1tiI1Jjt.'.,, It; IIf-----------------------------------------------------------


(See Suggested Answer section)
Look at the pictures, then make sentences using question tags and short answers.

SI: He seems to be working hard, doesn't he?


S2: Yes, he does.

So - Neither/Nor - But
So + auxiliary verb + personal pronoun/noun (positive addition to a positive sentence)
She plays tennis. So do I. (I play tennis too.) Sarah went to university. So did Bill. (Bill went to university too.)
Neither/Nor+ auxiliary verb + personal pronoun/noun (negative addition to a negative sentence).
James can 't swim. Neither/Nor can Jim. (NOT: Se saR't ,}iFR.)
But + personal pronoun/noun + affirmative auxiliary verb (positive contrast to negative statement)
Daniel hasn't seen that film, but I have. He hasn't read that book, but she has.
But + personal pronoun/noun + negative auxiliary verb (negative contrast to positive statement)
Mike looks sad, but Jim doesn't. He has been to Paris, but she hasn't.

: Rephrase the sentences using so, neither/nor or but as in the example.

1 Both Simon and Joe play football. ... Simon plays football. So does Joe....
2 Peter can't drive and I can't either. Peter can't drive. Neither/Nor can I.
3 I've been to America. David hasn't. I've been to America, but David hasn't.
4 Sally and Ann don't want to come. Sally doesn't want to come. Neither/ Nor does Ann.
5 Both Mary and Sam are at school. Mary is at school. So is Sam.
6 Mark doesn't speak French and Tim doesn't either. Mark doesn't speak French. Neither/Nor does Tim.
7 Jane saw the play. Kate did too. Jane saw the play. So did Kate.
8 I don't like watching c ricket. Daniel does. I don't like watching cricket, but Daniel does.
9 Sean hasn't done his homework. Pam hasn't either. Sean hasn't done his homework. Neither/Nor has Pam.
10 I passed the exam. My friend didn't pass. I passed the exam, but my friend didn't.
11 Both Peter and I are going to the concert. Peter is going to the concert. So am I.
12 I don't approve of smoking. My friends don't either. I don't approve of smoking . Neither/Nor do my friends.
13 Paul has been informed. Louise has too. Paul has been informed. So has Louise.
14 Tom doesn't like Thai food. His wife does. Tom doesn't like Thai food , but his wife does.
15 Charlie won't come and Dan won't either. Charlie won't come. Neither/Nor will Dan.
16 I can play the violin. My brother can't. I can play the violin, but my brother can 't.
Questions I Short Answers
When we wish to express surprise at what somebody has said we use so + subject + auxiliary verb.
George: Mary looks upset. Ann: So she doest

Add an appropriate response to the following sentences.

1 That's Harry over there! (surprise) .. .So It isl ...


2 She's found a job! (surprise) So she has!
3 George doesn 't like strawberries. (addition - I) Neither/Nor do I.
4 Diana has gone on holiday. (addition - Alice) So has Alice.
5 Rebecca doesn't like Caroline. (addition - I) Neither/Nor do I.

So - Not

So and not can be used in short answers after: think, hope, expect, suppose, I'm afraid, guess, it seems,
say, tell sb, it appears, believe or imagine.
I'm afraid so - I'm afraid not I imagine so - I don't imagine so/I imagine not
It appears so - It doesn't appear so/It appears not He says so/He said so - He doesn't say so/He didn't say so
I believe so - I don't believe so/I believe not It seems so - It doesn't seem so/It seems not
I expect so - I don't expect so/I expect not I suppose so - I don't suppose so/I suppose not
I guess so - I guess not He told me so - He didn't tell me so
I hope so - I hope not I think so - I don't think so/I think not

"Will she marry him?" "/ think so." "Shouldn't he have been here by now?" "I don't think so."

Fill in the blanks using the verb in brackets and so or not.

1 A: Will Bill come to the races? (think) 7 A: Will you be at home this evening? (expect)
8: ... /don't think so ... . He's not very well. B: I expect so. I haven't made any plans.
2 A: Will you go away for half-term? (hope) 8 A: Do you think Caroline likes Sophie? (imagine)
B: I hope so. I need a rest. B: I imagine not/I don't imagine so. They don't
3 A: Will your grandmother have to go to hospital? seem to get on very well together.
(afraid) 9 A: Can you lend me some money? (afraid)
B: I'm afraid so. She's very ill. 8 : I'm afraid not. I haven't been paid yet.
4 A: How do you know that John will be late? (tell) 10 A: Do you think it will rain tomorrow? (hope)
B: He told me so. He mentioned it before leaving. B: I hope not. I want to go on a picnic.
5 A: Are you going shopping tomorrow? (suppose) 11 A: Will he approve of the plan? (expect)
B: I suppose so. There's no food in the house. B: I expect so. He's accepted all our ideas so far.
6 A: Is the whole family invited to the reception? 12 A: Will you be at the wedding? (afraid)
(appear) B: I'm afraid not. I'll be in Glasgow that weekend.
8: It appears not/It doesn't appear so. The hall is
too small.

1202
Questions I Short Answers
Asking for permission / Making requests j Giving/Refusing Permission/Answering requests
c;~~;1co~iCi'i''f1a~05c,;,~ihi~9 i~ ~~i?;-:;;:;~i~;:;i~9" . ....................1.ves:yc;~~~:ries;c,;cc,~;s0(-yc,~c;1~>:1No;rc,~ . ..
May I/Might I borrow your eraser? 1can't. Yes, you may./Yes, of course (you may)./ No,
1you may not.It'd rather you dldn't. /l'm afraid not
..................................................................................................................................; .................................................................................................................
Making suggestions/invitations 1Answering suggestions/invitations
........................................................................................................ ~ ............................................................................................................
Will you/Would you/Would you like to go for a coffee? 1t'd like to.It'd love to./Yes, all rlght. /l 'm afraid I

. ~~~.~~..~.~. ~.?.. ~?.~~~.~~~.~~~~.....................................................................l.~~.?..'.~:.'. .~.'.~ .~.~~~. ~.~. ~~!.~. ~.~~~~:'. ~.'.~. ~.?.~'Y~ . ~..~.~~'.~..........
Making offers !Answering offers
................................................................... .............................................................. '>''"' "'"'""''" '""'"' ""'"""' "'"'"''"''"''""''"''""'"' ""' """'''""""""' ""''""
Shall I/we, Can I/we, Would you like me to come with you? ! Yes, please./No, thank you. /No thanks.

N]l Fill in short answers as in the example.

1 A: Shall w e go rafting this Sunday? 6 A: Would you and Bill like to c ome over on
B: ... I'd love to .... Who else Saturday night?
is going? B: We'd love to but we can't.
2 A: Would you like another glass of water? We've been invited to a party.
B: Yes, please. 7 A: Could you go and buy some fruit?
I'm very thirsty. B: Yes, of course.
3 A: Shall I w ash your shirt for you? I have nothing to do at the moment.
B: No, thanks. I'll do it later. 8 A: Can I wear your blue jumper today?
4 A: Will you be able to drive me to work? B: I'd rather you didn't.
B: I'm sorry, I can't. I' m going to wear it.
The car's broken down. 9 A: May I borrow this book?
5 A: Shall we go out for a meal tonight? B: Yes, you may.
B: I'd love to. I've read it already.
We haven't been out for ages. 10 A: Will you be coming tomorrow?
B: I'm afraid I can't.
I have to go to the dentist.

Use the words in capitals to form a word that fits in the space in the same line.

Dinosaurs were land animals that walked the Earth for over 160
million years (from 230 to 65 million years ago). They were an
1ncred1bly vaned group of animals there w ere (O) .. .literally... LITERAL
thousands and thousands of species of dinosa urs. The largest
were over 30 metres in (1) length and 15 metres tall and the LONG
smallest were about the size of a chicken . All dinosaurs were
reptiles and most hatched from eggs. Whi le many dinosaurs
were meat-eaters, the (2) maJonty (about 65%) were actually MAJOR
plant-eaters . Why dinosaurs (3) suddenly became extinct 65 SUDDEN
million years ago remains one of the most (4) fascinating questions in paleontology. FASCINATE
Many scientists believe that an asteroid from (5) outer space hit the Earth 65 OUT
million years ago and that the dust from the (6) coll1s1on blocked out the sun's COLLIDE
light. This possibly caused (7) dramatic changes to t he Earth's climate and the DRAMA
dinosaurs starved. Nevertheless, most paleontologists think that one group of
dinosaurs did survive. Indeed, they are alive today! Most (8) sc1ent1sts believe that SCIENCE
birds are the direct (9) descendants of dinosaurs. So next time you look out your DESCEND
window and see a (10) feathered friend, just think: you are looking at a dinosaur ! FEATHER
Folder liiil
m Look at Appendix 2, then fill in the correct particle(s).

1 Don't worry, I'll stand ... by... you whatever 12 One of my colleagues was ill yesterday so I stood
problems you may have. in for her.
2 Even though they knew he was innocent, no one 13 I was taken in by her; she fooled me completely.
stood up for him. 14 She had to take her skirt in because she had lost
3 Tom's taken up fishing; it's a very relaxing pastime. a lot of weight.
4 Joanna really stands out with her red hair. 15 This is quite compl icated, so you might not take
5 You take after your father; you're a lot like him. in all the information the first time.
6 Their business is being taken over by a bigger 16 Work is going well; we've taken on a lot of new
company. clients.
7 Simon is too young to take on such a big 17 Military nurses were told to stand by in case of an
responsibility. attack.
8 RAC stands for Royal Automobile Club. 18 I don't know why she stands for that sort of
9 Everyone was taken aback when the manager behaviour. I wouldn't tolerate it.
stood up and walked out of the meeting. 19 If washing powder doesn't take that spot out,
10 As the plane took off we had a wonderful maybe bleach will.
view of Hong Kong. 20 When we heard he had no place to stay, we
11 Why don't you take some time off? You look offered to take him in.
exhausted.

\00 Look at Appendix 3, then fill in the correct preposition(s).

1 The miners are ... on... strike again. They want 16 Suddenly, without warning, a car pulled out from a
better pay. side road and crashed into her car.
2 He hid the file on purpose so that no one would 17 The house is on fire! Call the fire brigade!
find it. 18 This information is off limits to all but authorised
3 When Tom is off duty he does a lot of sport to relax. personnel.
4 She accepted the prize on behalf of her father, 19 The police officer said, "You are under arrest. "
who was abroad. 20 Welcome on board this flight to Rome.
5 The drinks machine is out of order; you'll have to 21 Strawberries are out of season at the moment, so
go out and buy something. they're very expensive.
6 Everything is under control. There is no need to 22 It is against the law to let your dog run loose.
panic. 23 We sat down in a field to have our picnic.
7 The plate fell on the floor and smashed into little 24 We live on the outskirts of town, not in the centre.
pieces. 25 I am not on good terms with my brother; we're
8 I'm sorry, but that item is out of stock. We have always fighting.
sold them all. 26 I've heard this song so many times that I know it
9 Don't buy those shoes now - wait till they're on sale. by heart.
10 I see their house is for sale - they must be 27 The bridge is under repair; it collapsed last night.
planning to move away. 28 You're getting off the point; that's not what we're
11 With regard to your question, the answer is "yes". talking about.
12 I was under the impression that you like football, 29 He started from scratch and built up an empire.
but I was wrong. 30 I was late for work on account of the bus strike.
13 He discovered, to his surprise, that it was already 31 Visitors to the farm receive free food and
ten o'clock. accommodation in exchange for some light work.
14 There are a lot of animals on our farm in Devon.
15 I'm telling you this off the record, so you mustn't
print it.

1204
Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 This is the best stew she has ever eaten.


better She has ... never eaten better ~tew than ... this.
2 She seems to have lost weight since I last saw her.
if She looks as if she has lost weight since I last saw her.
3 If it weren't raining , we could go for a walk.
stop I wish it would stop raining so that we could go for a walk.
4 Don 't you think you should be getting ready for school?
high It's high time you got ready for school.
5 That cheese will spoil unless it's put in the fridge.
off That cheese will go off if it's not put in the fridge.
6 People considered Mozart to be a prodigy.
regarded Mozart was regarded as a prodigy.
7 Doctors say it's all right to eat chocolate occasionally.
wrong Doctors say there's nothing wrong with eating chocolate occasionally.
8 He cooked too much food, which was not necessary.
have He needn't have cooked so much food .
9 I'm sure it was Tony who stole the money.
have Tony must have stolen the money.
10 Their bank account was virtually empty.
left There was almost/virtually nothing left in their bank account.
11 He said he was not in the mood to stay out late.
like He said he didn't feel like staying out late.
12 Our parents will support us, whatever happens.
stand Our parents will stand by us, no matter what happens.
13 I don't think it's worth learning a language if you are not going to speak it.
point I can't see the point in learning a language if you are not going to speak it.

Replace the underlined words in each sentence with a suitable idiom that includes the
word in bold .

1 Jill and her husband are always quarrelling . They never seem to agree about anything.
(loggerheads) Jill and her husband are always at loggerheads. They never seem to agree about anything.
2 I kept my daughter at home yesterday because she wasn't feeling very well. (sorts)
I kept my daughter at home yesterday because she was feeling out of sorts.
3 The minister has a reputation for understanding things and reacting quickly. (ball)
The minister has a reputation for being on the ball.
4 Peter heard from someone who has secret information about the factory's financial situation.
(know) Peter heard from someone who is in the know about the factory's financial situation.
5 I think David's version of what happened was a bit of an exaggeration. (top)
I think David's version of what happened was a bit over the top.
6 Felicity asked to leave early because she felt slightly unwell. (weather)
Felicity asked to leave early because she felt under the weather.
7 Gillian felt slightly annoyed when she wasn't asked to speak at the conference. (cheesed)
Gillian was cheesed off when she wasn't asked to speak at the conference.
8 Nobody has told me we are moving offices. I was told nothing about it. (dark)
Nobody has told me we are moving offices. I was kept in the dark.
9 This essay will have to be rewritten. It isn't good enough. (mark)
This essay will have to be rewritten. It isn't up to the mark.
10 After Peter failed to meet the deadline, he was thought poorly of at the office. (cloud)
After Peter failed to meet the deadline, he was under a cloud.
Practice Test
Part 1
rn
For questions 1-12, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits
each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).
I
Example:
A B C D
0 A found B discovered C traced D detected 0 - c::::::J c::::::J c::::::J

h e Sted elijk Museum, w hi ch can be


T (O) ... A. .. in Am sterdam , is (1) .. ........ as
on e o f th e most inte resting mu seums of
m odern art in the world. The museum first
ope ned its (2) ........ .. on l 4 September, l 895 and it was controversia 1 from the s tart. The French poet
A ppo linaire (3) ..... ..... it as "the onl y place in the world where you can see trul y m odern art ''. From the
begin n ing , its main (4) .......... was to di splay the best of new art w h ether it was acce pted by the
esta blis hment o r n ot. Back in 19 0 5, its decision to s how th e work of Ya n Gogh (5) .... ...... a pro bl em
wi th city authorities, as his work was 'little valued' at th e time . But the (6) ....... ... tro u ble started after
the Wa r whe n they d ecided to exhibit even more experimental wo rk. Rudi Fuchs, the (7) .......... director
of the mu seum , h as decided to be a bit m ore cau t ious in his ch oice of exhibits, as (8) .......... to previo us
directors. He believes it is his (9) ....... ... t o care for the o ld collectio n of paintings as well as to continue
en couraging new art. As (1 O) .. ....... . as the futu re is con cerned , he h as decided to dis play a (11) ..... .... .
collectio n of m od e rn classics, including art dating back to the 19 th centu ry, but he w ill also continue
to (12) .......... for m ore unus ual and da ring work to dis play at the Stedelijk.

B considered regarded D thought


1 A said
2 @ doors B hands c entrance D windows

3 A illustrated B defined c characterised @ described

4 A cause @ purpose c reason D view

5 A made B did c brought @ caused

s @ real B true c apparent D virtual


@ present C now D contemporary
7 A topical
B contrasted opposed D unlike
8 A different
9@ duty B charge c intention D aim

10 A long @ far c soon D well

11 A continual B constant c fixed @ permanent

12 A view @ search c investigate D explore

1206
Part 2
For questions 13-24, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap.
Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

Example: 0 IwlHIYI I I I I I I I I I I I I

Keeping W.ar.rn in Winter


Do you feel the cold? If the answer is 'yes', then (0) ......................... not try a cold bath or
shower? This unusual advice (13) comes from a natural health therapist in Germany,
(14) who for the last 30 years, has been studying the effects of cold water. Most people are
brought (15) up to believe that it's important to keep warm during the cold weather, with
extra clothing and heaters, (16) but research shows that the opposite is true. At a German
health centre, hundreds of visitors take their first cold bath at 6 am, which results (17) in them
feeling very energetic. This is (18) due to the fact that the cold water increases blood sugs;ir
levels, the heart beat and breathing rate. New research at the medical centre of Hanover has
shown that (19) those/people taking daily cold baths have 50% (20) fewer colds and breathing
problems than those who don't. Studies in London have also proven that (21) such treatment
will help protect against heart attacks. For those people who find (22) the idea of such
behaviour unthinkable, then regular exercise such (23) as running or cycling is a good
alternative. (24) So, next
time you're suffering from the cold, don't sit and complain, take action!
Practice Test m
Part 3
For questions 25-34, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of
some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an example
at the beginning (0).

Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

The inteHigent Odopus


Octopuses are highly intelligent. Both in (0) ... captivity... and in the CAPTIVE
wild, they have been observed solving problems, using tools, and
learning simple, (25) uncomplicated tasks - all behaviours which COMPLICATE

e
indicate (26) intelligence. INTELLIGENT

Octopuses in public aquariums have been caught sneaking out of


their tanks at night to visit (27) neighbouring tanks to eat the fish in NEIGHBOUR
them before returning to their own tanks. (28) Employees at one sea- EMPLOY
life centre couldn't figure out why their crabs kept disappearing so
they set up a video camera. What they found was quite
(29) astonishing! ASTONISH

People who keep octopuses as pets also have trouble


keeping them in their tanks, no matter how secure
they may seem to be. When presented with
glass (30) containers with lids, octopuses have CONTAIN
found out how to unscrew them. Even child-
proof bottles - those which require
downward (31) pressure to open - do not PRESS
fool octopuses.

How do they learn these skills?


(32) Certainly not from their parents, with CERTAIN
whom they have very little contact. While
biologists continue to debate about the
exact extent of their learning
(33) capability, there is no doubt that the CAPABLE
octopus is a truly (34) remarkable creature. REMARK

1208
Part 4
For questions 35-42, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to
the fi rst sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use
between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the
beginning (0).

Example:

O "I'm sorry I kept you waiting," she told me.


FOR
She ........................................................................................................................................ me waiting.

Write the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

35 My teachers disliked the way I dressed.


APPROVED
None of my teachers approved of the way I dressed.

36 Rose might have a professional train her dog.


TRAINED
Rose is thinking of having her dog trained by a professional.

37 I believe walking is the best way to stay slim.


SHAPE
In my opinion , the best way to keep in shape is to go walking.

38 She was late due to the heavy traffic.


ON
She didn't arrive on time because of the heavy traffic.

39 Nina was unable to tolerate his horrible behaviour.


PUT
Nina could not put up with his horrible behaviour.

40 I'm sure she didn't intend to ruin my shirt.


INTENTION
I'm sure she had no intention of ruining my shirt.

41 The actor disguised himself so that no one would recognise him in public.
FEAR
The actor disguised himself for fear of being recognised in public.

42 Rather than walk to work, we took the bus.


FOOT
Instead of going on foot to work, we took the bus.
Inversion I Emphatic Structures
Inversion
We can invert the subject and the auxiliary verb in the sentence to give emphasis. If there is no auxiliary verb, we
use do/does (Present S.) or did (Past S.) in the interrogative. This happens:
after certain expressions when they are placed at the beginning of a sentence. These are: Barely, Hardly (ever)
... when, In no way, In/Under no circumstances, Little, Never (before) , Nor/Neither, No sooner ... than, Not
even once, Not only ... but also, Not since, Not till/until, Nowhere, Only by, Only in this way, On no
account, On no occasion, Only then, Rarely, Scarcely (ever) ... when, Seldom, etc. Under no
circumstances should you open the door. Seldom do we see him these days. Only after, only by, only if,
only when, not since, not till/until used at the beginning cause inversion of the subject and the auxiliary verb
in the main clause. Only when they had left did he burst into tears.
in conditionals when should, were, had (Past Perfect) are placed at the beginning of the sentence. Note that if
is omitted. Should you come early, we'll go to the theatre. (If you should come, ... - Type 1) Were I you, I would
see a doctor. (If I were you ... - Type 2) Had he been asked, he would have helped. (If he had been asked ... -
Type 3)
after so, such, to such a degree (in result clauses) placed at the beginning of a sentence. So short is she that
she can 't reach the shelf.
after so, neither/nor, as to express agreement. "He likes trout. " "So does his wife." (So is used to agree with
an affirmative sentence.) "She doesn't like fish." "Neither/Nor do I. " (Neither/Nor are used to agree with a
negative statement.) His schoolmates admire him, as do his teachers.

In the following structures we invert the subject and the main verb.
after adverbs of place. Here comes Ann! (BUT Here she comes!) Here is her bag! (BUT Here it isl)
in Direct Speech when the reporting verb comes after the quote and the subject is a noun.
"What awful weather! " said Mary. (Mary said is also possible.) (BUT "What awful weather!" she said.)

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 We can get into the house only if you have a key.


can Only if ... you have a key can ... we get into the house.
2 If the weather gets any colder, we'll turn on the heating.
get Should the weather get any colder, we'll turn on the heating.
3 He had just entered when the telephone rang .
sooner No sooner had he entered than the telephone rang.
4 He visits us so rarely that I can hardly remember what he looks like.
visit So rarely does he visit us that I can hardly remember what he looks like.
5 Mark works so hard that I'm sure he'll be promoted soon.
does So hard does Mark work that I'm sure he'll be promoted soon .
6 If you had been there, you would have enjoyed it.
been Had you been there, you would have enjoyed it.
7 He spoke to me only after I spoke to him.
speak Only after I spoke to him did he speak to me.
8 Janet won 't get on a plane under any circumstances.
will Under no circumstances will Janet get on a plane.
9 I realised who she was only after a few minutes.
realise Only after a few minutes did I realise who she was.
10 She didn't know that her wish would come true.
did Little did she know that her wish would come true.
11 He didn't laugh once all evening .
did Not once did he laugh all evening .
12 They scarcely talk to each other any more.
do Scarcely do they talk to each other any more.

1210
Inversion I Emphatic Structures
13 This restaurant rarely gets so crowded.
get- Seldom does this restaurant get so crowded .
14 If he had left earlier, he would have been on time.
he Had he left earlier, he would have been on time.
15 She was so happy that she decided to celebrate.
she So happy was she that she decided to celebrate.
16 This is the only way that we can be sure we are right.
in Only in this way can we be sure that we are right.
17 If he notices anything, we'll be in trouble.
notice Should he notice anything, we'll be in trouble.
18 Sarah forgot to take her purse and her handbag too.
did Sarah didn't remember to take her purse; nor did she remember to take her handbag .
19 He was so scared that he could hardly breathe.
fear Such was his fear that he could hardly breathe.
20 She performed so well that she won an award.
perform So well did she perform that she won an award.
21 Thailand is warmer and cheaper than England.
only Not only is Thailand warmer than England, it's cheaper too.
22 If I were you, I would try calling her again.
you Were I you, I would try calling her again.
23 The weather hasn't been this warm since last summer.
has Not since last summer has the weather been this warm .
24 You must not miss the plane on any account.
no On no account must you miss the plane.
25 She had just left when the boss asked to see her.
sooner No sooner had she left than the boss asked to see her.
26 He will only understand you if you speak French.
will Only if you speak French will he understand you .
27 If you don't apologise, he will never forgive you .
not Should you not apologise, he will never forgive you.

Rewrite the sentences using so or such at the beginning of the sentence.


1 The weather was so bad that they stayed at home. So ...bad was the weather that they stayed at home....
2 The house was so big that he almost got lost. So big was the house that he almost got lost.
3 He was so surprised to see her he could hardly speak. Such was his surprise to see her that he could hardly
speak.
4 She was so bored by the play that she fell asleep. So bored was she by the play that she fell asleep.
5 He was so angry that he shouted at everyone. Such was his anger that he shouted at everyone.

Fill in so, neither/nor and the appropriate verb.

1 "I'd like to go to Belgium one day."


"... So would I. ... I've never been there."
2 "I really enjoyed that film last night. "
"So did I. It's one of the best I've ever seen. "
3 "I've used up all my money."
"So have I. My purse is empty."
4 "We didn't like the food they served yesterday."
"Neither/Nor did I. It was overcooked."
5 "I feel like going to the beach today."
"So do I. Let's go! "
6 "I can't remember how to make souffle. "
"Neither/Nor can I. Let's look in the recipe book. "
7 "I don't believe he's telling the truth."
"Neither/Nor do I. The facts don't add up."
Inversion I Emphatic Structures
Emphatic Structures

Emphatic structures are used to emphasise a particular part of a sentence.


it is/was (not) + subject/object + who(m)/that (used in statements and negations)
It wasn't John who/that called last night. It wasn 't her bicycle that was stolen.
It was his house that was burgled. It's David who is modelling for Fendi.
is/was it + subject/object + who(m)/that (used in questions)
Was it my fault that it happened? Was it her sister who got a first at university?
e that is/was + question word (used in statements) That's why she left the party so early.

is/was that + question word or question word + is/was it + that (used in questions)
Was that why she was crying? Why was it that he got so angry?
question word + subject + verb + is/ was (used in statements) What I need is some time alone.
We can use do/does/did + bare infinitive in the Present Simple, Past Simple or Imperative to give emphasis.
I do hope he will be all right. Do have another piece of pie. He did tell me he was coming.
To express admiration, anger, concern etc we use question words with ever.
Whatever shall I do? Whoever is that?

Rewrite the sentences as in the example giving emphasis to the words in bold.

1 Mary sent this card . ... It was Mary who sent this card....
2 Judy baked the cake. It was Judy who baked the cake.
3 Did you lock the front door? Was it you who locked the front door?
4 You need a long rest. What you need is a long rest.
5 Johnny needs a new pair of shoes. What Johnny needs is a new pair of shoes.
6 Mary came round last night. It was Mary who came round last night.
4
7 Where did you go on holiday last year? Where was it that you went on holiday last year? 4
8 Why are you always biting your nails? Why is it that you're always biting your nails?
9 It doesn't matter what he does, he always makes mistakes. Whatever he does, he
always makes mistakes.
10 He bought a new ring for her. What he did for her was to buy her a new ring.
11 Are you angry with Jim? Is it Jim you are angry with?
12 Mr Brown called the police. It was Mr Brown who called the police.
13 When are you moving house? When is it that you're moving house? ,,,.. ~~,,!![1~1
14 Jane needs a lot of support at the moment. What Jane needs at the moment is a lot of support.
15 How will I get there so early in the morning? However will I get there so early in the morning?

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 You haven't paid last month's phone bill.


that It ... is you that/who hasn't... paid last month's phone bill.
2 Mr Jones is the manager of the supermarket.
is It is Mr Jones who is the manager of the supermarket.
3 Did they go to the Caribbean for their honeymoon?
them Was it them who went to the Caribbean for their honeymoon?
4 The bus driver himself doesn't want to let any more passengers on board .
who It is the bus driver who doesn't want to let any more passengers on board.
5 Julie doesn't want to invite Malcolm to her party.
is ' It is Malcolm who(m) Julie doesn't want to invite to her party.
6 My father didn 't let me go out last night.
who It was my father who didn't let me go out last night.

1212
Inversion I Emphatic Structures
7 Mum, you p rom ised to buy me a new pair of jeans.
did Mum, you did promise to buy me a new pair of jeans.
8 She said that she might be late for dinner.
say She did say that she might be late for dinner.
9 You were the one who wanted to come here.
was It was you who wanted to come here.
10 Did he fail his driving test?
failed Was it him/he who failed his driving test?

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 You should never press the red button on the telephone.


circumstances Under ... no circumstances should you ... press the red button on the telephone.
2 He didn't know that Jack had planned a surprise party.
did Little did he know that Jack had planned a surprise party.
3 Tom is the person who made all this possible.
who It was Tom who made all this possible.
4 He seldom goes out at the weekends.
go Seldom does he go out at the weekends.
5 I won't be at home before Monday.
after Only after Monday will I be at home.
6 Why were you late for work today?
that Why was/is it that you were late for work today?
7 It is impossible for him to find 50,000 to pay the ransom.
can On no account can he find 50,000 to pay the ransom.
8 You'll only find a good job if you're lucky nowadays.
will Only if you are lucky will you find a good job nowadays.
9 His father cooked dinner on Thursday night.
who It was his father who cooked dinner on Thursday night.
10 He met his wife while on holiday in Italy.
that It was while he was on holiday in Italy that he met his wife.

Think of the word which best fits each gap. Write only one word in each one.

The Lonely Planet series (0) ... of. .. travel guide


books is a publishing phenomenon. Founded (1) in the early seventies
by Tony and Maureen Wheeler, Lonely Planet books (2) were the first travel guides
aimed specifically at backpackers (3) and other low-budget travellers. The idea of the book
began after a year-long overland journey (across Europe and Asia and onto Australia) taken by the
Wheelers. (4) So many travellers approached them asking them questions about (5) their trip that they
decided to self-publish a book about it. That first book- 'Across Asia on the Cheap' - giving tips and advice
for independent adventure travellers became an instant local bestseller. The money from the sales of that book
allowed them to take (6) another overland journey. This resulted in a second guidebook - South-East Asia on a
Shoestring. This book went on to become (7) one of the most popular guidebooks ever published.
Today, Lonely Planet publishes over 650 titles in 118 countries and annual sales top six million titles. It is without question
(8) one of the most influential travel guides ever published. Lonely Planet opened up the world of independent adventure
travel. It made people feel they could truly travel (9) anywhere. The books were unique because they gave information on
travel spots (10) thaVwhich were not in other guidebooks. Today the books still give up-to-date advice, invaluable tips,
information (11) on/about must-see spots, and encourage travellers to explore new places. It is still the book most
backpackers turn to (12) when/before they go travelling.
Folder liEI
: . Look at Appendix 2, then fill in the correct particle.
1 We weren't expecting Bob to turn ... up... so we 7 There's no one else I can turn to - you're my last
were very surprised when he did. hope.
2 He's turning out work of a very high standard 8 The lettering on the monument has been worn
these days. away by acid rain.
3 I'm going to turn in now; I have to get up early 9 You'll get worn out if you don't stop working so
tomorrow. hard.
4 Please turn off the lights when you leave. 10 I couldn't turn down his offer; it was too good to
5 The new detergent is claimed to work on even the refuse.
most difficult stains. 11 I felt sick yesterday morning but the feeling had
6 I'm sure you 'll be able to work out your problems worn off by lunchtime.
with each other. 12 Please turn over to the next page and do the
exercise.

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words .
1 I have no doubt that she was lying about her intentions.
been She ...must have been lying about... her intentions.
2 The residents of the area found the proposed changes alarming .
were The residents of the area were alarmed by the proposed changes.
3 I am sorry you didn't come to my graduation.
had I wish you had come to see me graduate.
4 He'll become exhausted unless he stops working the night shift.
worn He'll become worn out if he does not stop working the night shift.
5 He got his university degree when he was twenty-two years old .
age He got his university degree at the age of twenty-two.
6 "I'll ask Jane to book us two tickets," he told me.
have He said he would have Jane book two tickets for them.
7 Peter suggested that idea.
forward It was Peter who put forward that idea.
8 Marian is not usually so absent-minded .
like It's not like Marian to be so absent-minded.
9 I'm sure he didn't know what the consequences would be.
aware I'm sure he was not aware of the consequences.
10 From what I know, Tina doesn 't eat meat and Shawn doesn 't either.
nor From what I know, neither Tina nor Shawn eats meat.
11 "You must read the form carefully," John said to me.
insisted John insisted that I read/on me/my reading the form carefully.
12 Rita and Sam had an argument while they were on holiday in Paris.
fell Rita and Sam fell out during their holiday in Paris.

IIQ Explain the meaning of the idioms in bold.

1 Our grandmother is nearly 95 years old but she is still alive and kicking. (well and active)
2 They could come to an agreement only if there was a bit more give and take. (spirit of compromise)
3 She knew that her husband was a devoted man who would stay with her through thick and thin. (through
good and bad times)
4 There was nothing dishonest about the deal. I told you fair and square what the terms were. (honestly and
without doubt)
5 I don't need to know all the details, so try to keep your explanation short and sweet. (without too many details)
6 I'm afraid that since you've broken several terms of the contract, it is now null and void. (invalid)
7 After a week in bed with flu Sandra is now up and about again. (recovered and out of bed)
8 He can't be eating properly; he's all skin and bone. (extremely thin)

1214
Fill in the correct prepositions of place or movement.
between, down, on top of, over, in/inside, above, in front of, past, up, among , next to/by/beside,
from ... to, through , under, below, behind , along, opposite, at, round/around, near, outside, on,
against, onto, out of, across, to/towards/in the direction of, into

1 ... in/inside ... 2 on 3 under 4 near 5 under 6 above 7 on top of 8 below

9 (a)round 10 through 11 among 12 between 13 behind 14 in front of 15 up

16 down 17 opposite 18 next to/by/ 19 against 20 off 21 out of 22 onto


before

23 into 24 over
/~r;/
25 along 26 across 27 from ... to 28 past 29 to/towards/in the
direction of

Fill in the correct word derived from the words in bold.

1 Not all students truly understand the need for rules and discipline. TRUE
2 When I understood the enormity of the problem I was facing I wanted to cry. ENORMOUS
3 Many of the town 's inhabitants protested against the building of a nuclear plant in their area. INHABIT
4 There is a saying that 'curiosity killed the cat'. So, try not to ask so many questions. CURIOUS
5 He sold all his possessions to pay his debts. POSSESS
6 She usually faints at the sight of blood. SEE
7 I don't remember much about my early childhood but it must have been a happy one. CHILD
8 People should understand and value the importance of a clean environment. IMPORTANT
9 Many old people have feelings of isolation and loneliness. ISOLATE
10 Occasionally I like to go fishing with my uncle Tony. OCCASION
11 Polly spoke confidently when she delivered her presentation to the class. CONFIDENCE
12 When you order things on line you don't always have to pay for delivery. DELIVER
13 I got the impression that you didn't really enjoy your trip to France. IMPRESS
14 It is unlikely that I will live to one hundred. LIKE
15 Steve is still dangerously ill after developing pneumonia. DANGEROUS
16 The mother spoke calmly to her son and told him everything would be all right. CALM
17 Luckily for me, I wasn't hurt in the accident. LUCK
18 Children first learn spoken language and later learn how to write it. SPEAK
19 On the day of my graduation I felt both nervous and excited about finally getting my degree. GRADUATE
20 New Year's Day is an international celebration. NATION
21 Naturally, we are all concerned about the future of the planet. NATURE
22 I spent ages looking in the shops for the ideal present to give my mum for her birthday. IDEA
Practice Test
Part 1
For questions 1-12, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits
each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Example:
A B C D
O A biggest B largest C greatest D grandest 0 c::::::::::J c::::::::::J - c::::::::::J

1\ Jf'ohandas Gandhi (known as Mahatma - o r 'Great Soul -


l VL andhi) was one of the (0) ... C... figu res of the 20th century.
Gandhi was the man w ho (1) ... ..... .. India o n the pat h to
independence fro m British rule. He (2) .......... freedom for his country
thro ugh actio ns w hich were always (3) .... .. .... on the ideas of no n-
vio le nce and peace.
Gand hi was born in India o n 2 October 1869. He (4) .......... his
child hood in India and at 19 he went to study law in England . At the
age of 23. Gandhi got a o ne-year conrract to do legal (5) .......... in
South Africa. In South Africa. Ga ndhi was s hocked to see how badly
Ind ian people were treated . Gand hi believed that the best (6) .......... to
achieve po litical and social change was peaceful pro test. He always
re mained true to the ideas of no n-violence. even in the (7) ... .......
extreme situatio ns.
Gand hi evenrually returned to India after 21 years in South Africa.
When he got back home, Gandhi saw how bad life was for people in
Ind ia so he began to fight for improved rights the re too. He was
especially (8) .......... with improving the life of India s lower classes.
Gandhi soon became the leade r in the movement to free Ind ia from
the rule o f the British. and he (9) ..... ..... . In I947, the British gra nted
Ind ia its independe nce. Tragically, six months afte r India gained
inde pendence. Gandhi was assassinated . He was 78 years old .
Today, Gandhi is loved and admired by mill ions o f people
(10) .......... the world.The people of Ind ia (11) .......... him as the father
of the ir natio n and his birthday is a( n) (12) .......... holiday in India.

1 led B managed c ran D directed


2 A won gained c earned D found
3 A put based c found D supported
4 A took B held spent D finished
5 A vocation B employment c job @ work
6 @ way B manner C direction D aspect
7 A main most C large D very
8 A interested B worried concerned D eager
9 A gained B achieved C managed @ succeeded
10 throughout B through C during D cross
11 A observe B look regard D think
12 A international @ national C local D internal

1216
Part 2
For questions 13-24, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap.
Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

Example: 0 IHIA ISI I III II I I I I I I

Poland is the eighth largest


country in Europe and (O) ......................... a
population of approximately 38.5 million. It is bordered
(13) by seven countries: Russia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine,
Germany, Slovakia and the Czech Republic.

Poland bridges western and eastern Europe and in many (14) ways this is reflected
in its culture. It is a modern, vibrant and progressive country, (15) yet it still retains its
traditional values and charm. Each year, (16) more than sixty million tourists visit Poland.
They come to see Poland's picturesque landscape, beautiful cities, and numerous historic
sights. Poland's (17) most popular city for tourists is Krakow. Krakow's magnificent
architecture makes it (18) one of the top tourist attractions in Europe. The capital of Poland
is Warsaw. It is the principal business centre of the country and has many cultural
attractions (19) such as the National Opera and National Theatre. Many nature tourists
(20) are attracted to Poland because the Polish landscape is spectacular and varied. There
are mountains, lagoons, lakes, beaches, forests and (21) even more. You can see
wolves and bears wandering in the wild . Poland is even home (22) to the last
remaining bison in Europe.

The Polish people are very hospitable. They (23) have a saying:
When a guest is in the home, God is in the home'. This saying
reflects the importance Poles (24) place on
providing guests with a very warm
welcome.
Practice Test fE
Part 3
For questions 2534, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of
some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an example
at the beginning (0).

Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

Example: ~ IA IB I / IL I / ITI y I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

c
The fastest land mammal on earth is the cheetah. It has the
CO> ..... ...................... to run at speeds of up to 114 km an hour. ABLE
Every part of the cheetah's body is in some way adapted for
C2S> running . A full sprint lasts about twenty seconds and never RUN

more than one minute. This is because at full speed, the cheetah's
body temperature gets raised to such a high level it would be too
C26> hazardous to continue for long. Still, cheetahs chase their prey HAZARD
over very long C27l distances, up to 3 km. This is C28l unlike other big DISTANT
cats which chase their prey for only a few hundred metres. LIKE
While most of the big cats like to hunt under cover of C29> darkness.
DARK
cheetahs hunt during the daytime. They mainly rely on C30> sight to SEE
catch their prey. When hunting alone. they can remain
C31> motionless waiting for their prey to come close enough before MOTION
they attack. They eat a C32> variety of small animals such as small
VARY
antelope, game birds and rabbits. Once they have made a kill,
cheetahs eat very quickly. C33) Interestingly, the cheetah is an animal
INTEREST
which has C34l unusually 'delicate' eating habits. Cheetahs never USUALLY
return to a kill nor do they eat other animals' kills. Also. they always
leave the skin, the bones and the insides of their prey.

1218
Part 4
For questions 3542, complete the second sentence so that It has a similar meaning to
the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use
between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the
beginning (0).

Example:

0 You must not ride a bike without a helmet.


PROHIBITED
It ........................................................................................................................ a bike without a helmet.

Write the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

35 It's pointless to argue with her.


WORTH
It's not worth arguing with her.

36 We couldn't get the holiday we wanted because we booked late.


UNABLE
We were unable to get the holiday we wanted because we booked late.

37 He has been fired because he was late for work too often.
SACK
He got the sack for being late for work too often.

38 I don't find Maths at all interesting.


IN
I have no interest in Maths at all.

39 His aggression surprised us.


ABACK
We were taken aback by his aggressive behaviour.

40 The noise outside made it difficult for him to focus on his work.
DIFFICULTY
He had difficulty {in) focusing on his work because of the noise outside.

41 Is it OK for me to borrow your car?


OBJECT
Would you object tome/my borrowing your car?

42 Sandra is not angry with Tom, despite his revealing her secret.
THOUGH
Sandra is not angry with Tom , even though he gave away her secret.
~ Choose the correct item.

1 Let's go round to Duncan 's house, ..........? 13 My father .......... China but I haven 't.
A will we e
shall we has been to
B has gone in
C has been at
D has gone at
B do we D may we

2 He spent the .......... evening studying. 14 He swims .......... a fish and is only five years old .
A all C each A as C similar
whole D every like D same

3 There was hardly ..... ..... food left. 15 .......... of these two records do you like best?
C some @ Which C What
A every
B no @ any B Who D Whose

4 It is said that ......... . Harrods is one of the best 16 Don't forget to call Jenny, ..........?
A shall you C don't you
shops in the world.
@ will you
A an - B do you
B a D the 17 .. .. ...... shall we do this evening ?
....... ... purse is this? I must have picked it up by A Who What
5
B Where D Which
mistake .
A What C Who 18 "I don't like chocolate ice-cream." " .......... do I."
B Which @ Whose A But C Either
6 No sooner .......... his umbrella than it began to Neither D So
rain again. 19 We all failed the exam because .......... of us had
had he closed C will he close studied for it.
B has he closed D does he close A both C neither
B either @ none
7 My house .......... at the moment.
A will be painted C was painted 20 She spends .......... money on clothes .
is being painted D has been painted a large amount of C a great number of
B a couple of D several
8 The tourists were given a guided tour of ......... .
Houses of Parliament. 21 I prefer eating out .......... cooking at home.
A an the A than to
Ba D - B from D of
9 No one enjoyed the show very much, ......... .? 22 .......... seem to be a lot of people here today.
A had they C didn't they A They C It
B hadn't they @ did they There D These
10 She liked .......... of the two presents I gave her. 23 Her condition is . ...... .. .... better than it was
A either C all yesterday.
both D none A many far
B very D any
11 Peter is my oldest friend - I met him a long time
24 Hurry. There is very .......... time left.
A before ago @ little C several
B until D yet B few D many
12 Tommy is very spoilt and is used .......... his own
way.
A getting C to get
B get @ to getting

1220
Revision 3 &I
- Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 She started taking French lessons two weeks ago.


been She has been taking French lessons for two weeks.
2 The holiday was too expensive for me to book.
that The holiday was so expensive that I didn't book it.
3 I found his account of the accident very confusing.
confused I was very confused by his account of the accident.
4 She regrets inviting him to her party.
wishes She wishes she hadn't invited him to her party.
5 There wasn't anything we could do to improve the situation.
nothing There was nothing we could do to improve the situation.
6 This is her landlady. She returned from Mexico last week.
came This is her landlady, who came back from Mexico last week.
7 I haven't seen her for two months.
time The last time I saw her was two months ago.
8 Despite being hungry, he didn 't have anything to eat.
was He didn 't have anything to eat although/even though he was hungry.
9 John fixed the leaking tap for me yesterday.
had I had the leaking tap fixed by John yesterday.
10 Jim and Brian went to the same school.
as Jim went to the same school as Brian.
11 It wasn't necessary for her to ask my permission to do that.
asked She needn 't have asked my permission to do that.
12 I' ll take a towel because we might go for a swim .
case I'll take a towel in case we go for a swim.
13 All the members agreed with the changes.
disagreed None of the members disagreed with the changes.
14 A girl from the beauty salon does my nails every week.
done I have my nails done every week.
15 "Why don't you stay for dinner, Ann?" said Martin.
suggested Martin suggested (that) Ann (should) stay for dinner.
16 She had never been so offended.
before Never before had she been so offended .
17 This is Paul's problem . He should deal with it himself.
whose Paul, whose problem this is, should deal with it himself.
18 This crossword is very easy, but I can't complete it.
though Easy though this crossword is, it is difficult for me to complete.
19 "Don't forget to buy some milk, Cathy," said Angela.
reminded Angela reminded Cathy to buy some milk.
20 Bella is saving up her money because she wants to buy a car.
view Bella is saving up her money with a view to buying a car.
21 It would be better for you to come with me tomorrow.
rather I would rather you came with me tomorrow.
22 Michael is so unreliable that he can't be trusted to deliver important messages.
too Michael is too unreliable to be trusted to deliver important messages.
23 "It wasn 't me who broke the vase," said Mary.
broken Mary denied having broken the vase.
24 It is likely that she'll be home late tonight.
to She is likely to be home late tonight.
25 I don't like rock music so I'm not going to the Rolling Stones' concert.
liked If I liked rock music, I would go to the Rolling Stones' concert.
Revision 3
26 He discovered that someone had looked through his files while he was out.
been He discovered that his files had been looked through while he was out.
27 He prefers relaxing to going out at the weekends.
to He prefers to relax rather than go out at the weekends.

a Fill in the blanks with the correct particle(s).

1 Last night I saw my friend off at the airport. 5 They set out/off at four o'clock.
2 She didn't turn up at work until lunchtime. 6 Meg stood by Billy throughout the trial.
3 I ran three miles and now I'm worn out. 7 The firemen quickly put out the fire.
4 Mary is always running people down. 8 UN stands for United Nations.

a Fill in the blanks with the correct preposition(s).

1 He was sacked on account of stealing. 5 To his surprise, he won first prize.


2 I'm afraid these jumpers are out of stock. 6 The house is still on fire.
3 There's a house for sale near here. 7 The policeman placed the suspect under arrest.
4 He's under the impression that you like him. 8 Last night I broke a vase by mistake.

Fill in the correct word derived from the words in bold .

1 He is truly sorry for everything he did and wants you to forgive him. TRUE
2 Mr Jones is at risk of having a heart attack and must reduce his consumption of fatty foods. CONSUME
3 The Eiffel Tower is a famous landmark in Paris. FAME
4 Thailand is a beautiful country which is well worth visiting. BEAUTY
5 Buses run (in)frequently between Little Compton and Newholt. FREQUENT
6 The treatment seems to be working - Sandra's getting better! TREAT
7 Many scientists are working on finding a cure for cancer. SCIENCE
8 The bus was very crowded - I couldn't find a seat anywhere. CROWD
9 Motorists should reduce their speed when driving in fog. MOTOR
10 Caffeine is very addictive, which is why people drink so much coffee. ADDICT
11 The police responded quickly to the emergency call. QUICK
12 Many buildings in Rome are of great historical interest. HISTORY

1222
Further Practice Sections
Section A - Vocabulary & Grammar practice
Words often Confused

Read the sentences below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each blank.

1 found a wonderful Persian rug in the 13 I heard a loud bang and the .......... thing I knew,
market the other day. police were everywhere.
A archaic antique A future B following C after @ next
B old D antiquated
14 Please .. .. .. .. .. me to cancel my dentist's
2 Mr Jackson needs a .......... of the report first thing ~pointment on Tuesday.
Monday morning. (8) remind C remember
copy C image B retain D recall
B print D reproduction
15 We would never have guessed who had ......... .
3 Helen and George are expecting at the the crime.
end of winter. @ committed C had
A couples B sets twins D pairs B done D caused

4 My son wants to .......... a doctor when he's older. 16 I called the plumber to get a(n) .......... on how
A change @ become C develop D turn much a new shower would cost.
A guess B number @ estimate D count
5 The computer course .......... of ten two-hour
lessons over six months. 17 The Smiths have their piano tuned on a ......... .
A composes C makes up basis.
@ consists D contains A right @ regular C normal D proper

6 The lecture was so boring that I had a very difficult 18 She cut the cake into eight .......... after she had
time paying .......... and almost fell asleep. blown out the candles.
@ attention C warning @ portions B parts C sizes D figures
B notice D interest
19 Ben has just bought a house, so he can't ......... .
7 Authorities are investigating the .......... of the fire. to go on holiday this year.
A reason @ cause C manner D way @ afford B price C cost D budget

8 This shop has everything .. .. ...... from exotic 20 The company will .......... a new line of cosmetics
spices to designer clothes. onto the market this autumn.
A stocking @ ranging C extending D varying A put introduce
B bring D commence
9 He was .......... to the amount of money he could
~end on holiday. 21 During the festival, the streets were .......... with
limited B fixed C bounded D set ~ople from all over the world.
crowded C congested
10 Please, .... ...... once in your life, try not to be late B full D occupi~d
tomorrow.
@ for B by C at D upon 22 The total .......... of money needed for this project
is over one million pounds.
11 Of course I .......... you! We went to school A mass B number amount o bulk
together, didn 't we?
A consider recognise 23 He has a .......... of looking at life that is very
B see D hold refreshing .
A method B mean way D plan
12 His .......... of confidence resulted in him not
getting the job.
A losing B failure C missing @ lack
Further Practice Sections
24 James has had an argument .......... Tina and is 37 The only reason why he .. .... ... . the crash was
not speaking to her. because he was wearing his seatbelt.
A in B by C of @ with A saved C lasted
B endured @ survived
25 My morning ........ never changes - I wake up, take
a shower, have a cup of coffee and go to work. 38 One of the most .......... rules of tennis is to always
@ routine B practice C custom D time keep your eye on the ball.