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Intermediate or Under Sampling

(4 votes, average: 4.50 out of 5)

sampling

Intermediate Sampling or Under-Sampling

Asignal is a bandpass signal if we can fit all its frequency content inside

abandwidth Fb . Bandwidth is simply the difference between the lowest

and the highest frequency present in the signal.

analog signal with bandwidth Fb , the signal should be sampled at a

Sampling frequency (Fs ) that is greater than or equal to twice the

maximum bandwidth of the signal.

Fs 2Fb

bandwidth of this signal is Fb = 200H z 150H z = 50H z. In order to

faithfully represent the above signal in the digital domain the sampling

frequency must be Fs >= 100H z (2 F b) . Note that the sampling

frequency 100Hz is far below the maximum content of the signal (which is

200Hz). That is why the bandpass sampling is also called under-sampling.

As long as the sampling frequency is greater than or equal to twice the

http://www.gaussianwaves.com/2011/07/samplingtheorembandpassorintermediateorundersampling2/ 1/12

3/8/2017 SamplingTheoremBandpassorIntermediateorUnderSamplingGaussianWaves

error free.

Going back to the aliasing zone figure, if the signal of interest is in the zone

other than zone 1, it is called a bandpass signal and the sampling operation

is called Intermediate Sampling or Harmonic Sampling or Under

Sampling or Bandpass Sampling.

Similarly zone 3 is a mirror image of zone 4 etc.., Also, any signal in zone 1

will be reflected in zone 2 with frequency reversal which inturn will be

copied in zone 3 and so on.

Lets say the signal of interest lies in zone 2. This will be copied in all the

other zones. Zone 1 also contains the sampled signal with frequency

reversal which can be correct by reversing the order of FFT in digital

domain.

No matter in which zone the signal of interest lies, zone 1 always contains

the signal after sampling operation is performed. If the signal of interest

lies in any of the even zones, zone 1 contains the sampled signal with

frequency reversal. If the signal of interest lies in any of the odd zones,

zone 1 contains the sampled signal without frequency reversal.

Example:

components offset by 10KHz 0.99 MHz and 1.01 MHz. So the AM signal

contains three frequency components at 0.99 MHz, 1 MHz and 1.01 MHz.

Our desire is to sample the AM signal. As with the usual sampling theorem

(baseband), we know that if we sample the signal at twice the maximum

http://www.gaussianwaves.com/2011/07/samplingtheorembandpassorintermediateorundersampling2/ 2/12

3/8/2017 SamplingTheoremBandpassorIntermediateorUnderSamplingGaussianWaves

representing the analog signal in digital domain.

running at Fs>=2.02 MHz. Faster sampler implies more cost. By applying

the bandpass sampling theorem, we can use a slower sampler and reduce

the cost of the system. The bandwidth of the signal is 1.01MHz-0.99 MHz =

20 KHz. So, just sampling at Fs >= 2 20K H z = 40K H z will convert

the signal to digital domain properly and we can also avoid using an

expensive high rate sampler (if Fs >= 2.02M H z used according to

baseband sampling theorem).

higher than the minimum required sampling rate of 40KHz or

oversampling rate =3).

Now we can easily find the position of the spectral components in the

sampled output by using the aliasing zone figure as given above. Since

,

Fs = 120K H z Fs /2 will be 60KHz. So the zone 1 will be from 0 to 60

KHz, zone 2 -> 60-120KHz and so on. The three spectral components at

0.99MHz, 1MHz and 1.01 MHz will fall at zone 17 ( how ? 0.99 MHz/60 KHz

= 16.5 , 1MHz/60KHz = 16.67 and 1.01MHz/60KHz = 16.83 , all figures

approximating to 17). By the aliasing zone figure, zone 16 contains a copy

of zone 17, zone 15 contains a copy of zone 16, zone 14 contains a copy of

zone 15 and so on Finally zone 1 contains the copy of zone 2 (Frequency

reversal also exist at even zones). In effect, zone 1 contains a copy of zone

17. Since the original spectral components are at zone 17, which is an odd

zone, zone 1 contains the copy of spectral components at zone 17 without

frequency reversal.

be at 30KHz, 40KHz and 50KHz (You can easily figure this out ).

without distorting the signal components. The downconverted signal can

be further processed by using a filter to select the baseband

downconverted components. Following figure illustrates the concept of

bandpass sampling.

http://www.gaussianwaves.com/2011/07/samplingtheorembandpassorintermediateorundersampling2/ 3/12

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Bandpass Sampling

and 1.01 MHz. Now we also have an unwanted fourth component at 1.2

MHz along with the incoming signal. If we sample the signal at 120 KHz, it

will cause aliasing (because the bandwidth of the entire signal is 1.2-0.99 =

0.21 MHz = 210 KHz and the sampling frequency of 120KHz is below twice

the bandwidth). In order to avoid anti-aliasing and to discard the

unwanted component at 1.2 MHz, an anti-aliasing bandpass filter has to be

used to select those desired component before performing the sampling

operation at 120KHz. This is also called pre-filtering. The following figure

illustrates this concept.

http://www.gaussianwaves.com/2011/07/samplingtheorembandpassorintermediateorundersampling2/ 4/12

3/8/2017 SamplingTheoremBandpassorIntermediateorUnderSamplingGaussianWaves

See also:

[2] Sampling Theorem Basics and Baseband Sampling

Recommended Books:

External Resources:

[1] Video Lectures on Signals and Systems, Filter Design and Transforms

[2] A Guide on Frequency Analysis and Manipulation using MATLAB

[3] A short presentation on Quantization

[4] Useful Matlab Functions and Scripts for Audio Signals and Systems

[5] Mathworks Designing a Sigma-Delta ADC from Behavioral Model to

Verilog and VHDL

[6] Anti-aliasing and quantization of audio signals and digital images using

Matlab

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Derivation of expression for a Gaussian Filter with 3 dB bandwidth

Mathuranathan

Mathuranathan Viswanathan - Founder and Author @

gaussianwaves.com which has garnered worldwide

readership. He is a masters in communication

engineering and has 9 years of technical expertise in

channel modeling and has worked in various

technologies ranging from read channel design for hard

drives, GSM/EDGE/GPRS, OFDM, MIMO, 3GPP PHY layer

and DSL. He also specializes in tutoring on various

subjects like signal processing, random process, digital

communication etc.., LinkedIn Profile

L AT E ST A RT I C L E S S I G N A L P RO C E S S I N G

A N A L O G TO D I G I TA L C O N V E R S I O N BA N D PA S S SA M P L I N G D I G I TA L TO

ANALOG CONVERSION I N T E R M E D I AT E SA M P L I N G OV E R SA M P L I N G

SA M P L I N G T H E O R E M S I G N A L P RO C E S S I N G U N D E R SA M P L I N G

10Comments Gaussianwaves

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Jointhediscussion

RAJESH8monthsago

thankyou,nicelyexplainedcanyoutellmehowthesethreecomponent30KHz,40KHz

and50KHzappearedfrom0.99MHz,1MHzand1.01MHz?

Reply Share

ForFs=120KHz,Fs/2willbe60KHz.Thenthezone1willbefrom0to60KHz.

http://www.gaussianwaves.com/2011/07/samplingtheorembandpassorintermediateorundersampling2/ 6/12

3/8/2017 SamplingTheoremBandpassorIntermediateorUnderSamplingGaussianWaves

Asexplainedinthepost,theactualfrequencies,0.99M,1M,1.01Mfallswillfallin

zone17

Sincethebandwidthofeachzoneis60KHz,theratiosofthesefrequenciesto

theBWare

[0.99M/60K,1M/60K,1.01M/60K]=[16.5,16.67,16.83]

Thus,

thefrequency0.99Mis0.5awayfromthebeginningofzone17

thefrequency1Mis0.67awayfromthebeginningofzone17

thefrequency1.01Mis0.83awayfromthebeginningofzone17

Translatingthistozone1frequencies(exactvaluescalculatedbymultiplying

theratiosandthemaxfrequencyinzone1)

0.5*60KHz=30KHz,

0.67*60KHz=40.2KHz

0.83*60KHz=49.8KHz

Iapproximatedthemas30KHz,40KHzand50KHz

Reply Share

alihassan>Mathuranathan6monthsago

dearMrMathuranathanIwantyoutohelpinmywifeprojecthowcan

contactyoupleaseitissourgent.

Reply Share

ArrozConCostra2yearsago

IwishIhadbeenexplainedthesetopicsintheeasyandintuitivewayyoudo.ThisFmax

vsBWthinghasalwaysbeeninmyheadandIhaveneverbeenabletofigureoutwhy

sometimesFswas2*Fmaxandsomeotherwas2*BW.Nowitallmakessense.

Thanks!

Reply Share

Thanksforyourwordsofencouragement.

Reply Share

MalikMehbob2yearsago

Whythefrequencyofcarrierwave

isalwayskeptatleast10timeshigherthenthehighestfrequencyofbaseband

signal?

Reply Share

Thecarrierfrequencyshouldbegreaterthanthemessagefrequency,butnot

necessarily10times.

Thesignalqualitywillbegoodifthecarrierfrequencyisfargreaterthanthe

http://www.gaussianwaves.com/2011/07/samplingtheorembandpassorintermediateorundersampling2/ 7/12

3/8/2017 SamplingTheoremBandpassorIntermediateorUnderSamplingGaussianWaves

Thesignalqualitywillbegoodifthecarrierfrequencyisfargreaterthanthe

messagefrequency.Meaningthatthesignalquality(distinguishableatthe

receiver)for10xcarrierfrequencywillbebettercomparedtothesignalquality

with2xcarrierfrequency.

Reply Share

yasser3yearsago

aninterviewquestionaskedtomewasgivenasignalofBW500HZandFmaxis600

Hzwhatisminsamplingrate?1000or1200

Reply Share

Hintforyoutosolve:SamplingTheoremspecifieshowtocomputethesampling

rateforgivenbandwidthNOTfrommaximumfrequency.

Whydoweconsiderbandwidthandnotmaximumfrequency?Practicalexample

below.

InPGSM900,thefrequencyrangeforuplinkis890.0915.0MHz.IfIgowith

maximumfrequency,thesamplingratewouldbe2*915MHz=1830MHz=1.83

GSPS.IsitpossibletohaveanAnalogtoDigitalConverter(ADC)withsucha

fastsampleratcheapercost?.Evenifwehavesuchahighspeedsampler,the

costwillbeprohibitive.Thesolutionistosamplethesignalwithrespecttogiven

bandwidth(ThankstoNyquistShannonTheorem).Thisgivestheminimum

samplingas2*(915890)=2*25Mhz=50MSPSonly.(GSPS=GigaSamples

PerSecond,MSPSMegaSamplesPerSecond)

Note:Theabovesampleisforillustrativepurposeonly.Foractualsamplingrate

employedinthedevices,pleaseconsultrespectivetechnologymanual.High

speedADCs(>1GSPS)areavailableinthemarket.Somehere:

http://www.ti.com/lsds/ti/d...

Reply Share

vutq3yearsago

oversamplinganalogsignal

Dearall

IhaveNsampleOFDMwhichireceivedfromDACsuchas

0.264050592243675160.064089949573707560.12561630116446681

0.258923396277778550.243541808380088740.11023471326677702

0.10510751730088040.1051075173008804

....

Iwouldliketooversamplingthesesamplesbymatlabcodeforsuitablewithmatrixsiein

optisystem(thesignalwillbetransmittooptisystemforsimulation...

http://www.gaussianwaves.com/2011/07/samplingtheorembandpassorintermediateorundersampling2/ 8/12

3/8/2017 SamplingTheoremBandpassorIntermediateorUnderSamplingGaussianWaves

BecausethesamplingrateDACisonly4GSPS,butthesamplingrateinoptisystemis

16GSPS.

Aftertransmitoverfiber,ireceivethesignalafterphotodectector,iwouldliketo

downsamplethesesamples,howcanidownsamplethemtoreceivetheorginalsample?

Manythanksforyoursupport

Reply Share

ALSOONGAUSSIANWAVES

HowtoInterpretFFTresultscomplex IntroductiontoMultipleAntenna

DFT,frequencybinsandFFTShift Systems

3commentsayearago 9comments3yearsago

MathuranathanThanksforyour mikelThankyouverymuchforyour

valuablefeedback.Iwilltrytoincorporate fastreply!

yoursuggestionstofurtherimprovethe

article.

ChirpSignalFrequencySweeping HowtointerpretFFTresultsobtaining

FFTandpowerspectraldensity magnitudeandphaseinformation

6comments3yearsago 2commentsayearago

MathuranathanThefrequencyofthe MathuranathanIdonothavethecode

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