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ECC3001
CHAPTER 1
Functions
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STUDENT GROUP
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JAWAHER MOOSA ABDULRAHMAN AL BALUSHI ADHRAA ABDUL RAHMAN ADULLAH AL BALUSHI
NUR SYAZWANI BINTI MUSTAFAR
THAMIL CHELVI A/P S RAJENDRAN
MAALINI A/P SELVARAJU
MUGILAN A/L MADAVEN
YUGANESWARAN A/L ARUMUGAM
MUHAMMAD AFZAL BIN SHUHIL AHMAD
MOHAMAD ASWARI BIN BASRI
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YUSAIRINA BINTI MOHD YUSOF
SYAZWANI BINTI SAROHE
LEE HAO JUN
DASHINE NAIR A/P VASU
LIM ZI YING
SIVAPARATHI RAMASAMY
MUHAMAD ASRI BIN MOHD ARIF
MOHD AZMAN BIN SUWANDI
NOR SHAHIRA BINTI MALIKI
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HEMAPRIYA A/P GENESAN
CHONG JIAN BIN
THANASHANTHINI A/P SEKAR
PATRICK PETRUS J SIPAYANG
MUHAMMAD SHAHRUL AZIM BIN SHAMSUDIN
NG RONG JANG
CHONG HUI SHAN
ETR ALNADA SALAM RASHID ISSA AL QARNI
NUR NADIHA BINTI KAMARUDIN
NORSYAZWIN FAIZA BINTI MOHAMAD
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DOREEN LEONG TSEN-HWEI
IFFAH AMIRAH BINTI HUSSIN ALI
YARGDESH A/L NELAKANDAN
SHEIKH MUHAMMAD AKMAL BIN SH MOHAMA
MUHAMMAD AMIN BIN SABRI
LEOW YEW SENG
AZEELIA SONIA BAYANG
SANGGITHAPRIYA A/P MAHANDRAN
NURUL DALILA BINTI MOHD RAMLI
NUR HANINAH BINTI HARUN
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KALISSWARI A/P APPARAO
MUHAMMAD HAZIQ BIN MUHAMAD HATTA
NUR IZZAH NABILAH BINTI HARIS
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Learning Outcomes
To identify various types of functions and
their graphs
◦ Linear, Logarithmic, Hyperbolic, Exponential,
Circular, Inverse etc.
To analyse functions and their limits
To interpolate functions
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1. FUNCTIONS
Domain
Range
f
x
y =f(x)
A function is an operation performed on an input (x) to
produce an output (y = f(x) )
The Domain of f is the set of all allowable inputs (x
values)
The Range of f is the set of all outputs (y values)
X values are independent
Y values are dependent
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Functions can be expressed in 2 forms f: x --- 2x + 1 f(x) = 2x + 1

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ARROW DIAGRAM
A
B
many to one
one to one
(a function)
(a function which has an inverse)
C
one to many
(not a function)
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To be well defined a function must
·
·
Have a value for each x in the domain
Have only one value for each x in the domain
This is not a function as
some x values
correspond to two y
values.
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cut the

The Function is f(x) = (x-2) 2 +3 ,
x
y = (x-2) 2 +3
y = (x-2)
Dom
2
+3
The Range is
f(x) ≥ 3
2
ain
Range
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Link to Inverse Functions
Domain
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2. COMPOSITE FUNCTIONS
When one function is followed by another, the resultant effect can be expresses as a
single function. When functions are combined like this, the resultant function is
known as a composite function
Example:
Find h(x) = g(f(x)) if,
f(x) = 2x
g(x) = x+4
This composite function is f followed by g (the order is important)
g(f(x)) = g(2x)
So,
g(x) = x+4
g(2x) = 2x + 4
h(x) = 2x+4
f
g
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x

COMPOSITE FUNCTIONS
Note: gf(x) does not mean g(x)
times f(x).
Finding g(f(x))
f
g
f(x)
g(f(x))
= gf(x)
gf(x) means “g of f of x” i.e g(f(x)).
First we apply the f function.
Then the output of the f function becomes the
input for the g function.
Notice that gf means f first and then g.
Example if f(x) = x + 3, x
and g(x) = x 2 , x
then
Note : When finding
f(g(x))
Replace all the x’s in the
rule for the f funcion
with the expression for
g(x) in a bracket.
e.g If f(x) = x 2 –2x
then f(x-2) = (x-2) 2 –
2(x-2)
gf(x) = g(f(x)) = g(x + 3) = (x+3) 2 , x
fg(x) = f(g(x)) = f(x 2 ) = x 2 +3, x
g 2 (x) means g(g(x)) = g(x 2 ) = (x 2 ) 2 = x 4 ,
f 2 (x) means f(f(x)) = f(x+3) = (x+3) + 3 = x + 6 ,
x
x
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Notice that fg and gf are not the same.
The Domain of gf is the same as the Domain of f since f
is the first function to be applied.
The Domain of fg is the same as the Domain of g.
For gf to be properly defined the Range (output set) of f
must fit inside the Domain (input set) of g.
For example if g(x)
= √x , x ≥ 0 and f(x) = x – 2, x
• Then gf would not be well defined as the output of f could
be a negative number and this is not allowed as an input
for g.
However fg is well defined, fg(x) = √x – 2, x ≥ 0.
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