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Chapter 3

Fluid Dynamics

In the production and use of steam there are many The surface tension of water is dependent on tempera-

fluid dynamics considerations. Fluid dynamics ad- ture and its value goes to zero at the critical tempera-

dresses steam and water flow through pipes, fittings, ture (705.47 F, 374.15C). Supercritical water is con-

valves, tube bundles, nozzles, orifices, pumps and tur- sidered single phase in fluid dynamic analysis due to

bines, as well as entire circulating systems. It also con- zero surface tension.

siders air and gas flow through ducts, tube banks, fans, The recommended correlation1 for the surface ten-

compressors and turbines plus convection flow of gases sion of water and its vapor, , is:

due to draft effect. The fluid may be a liquid or gas

but, regardless of its state, the essential property of a (T T )

1.256

3

This chapter is limited to the discussion of Newtonian T

liquids, gases and vapors where any shear stress is

Tc T (1)

directly proportional to a velocity gradient normal to

the shear force. The ratio of the shear stress to the ve- 1 0.625 T

locity gradient is the property viscosity represented by

the symbol . where Tc = 647.15K and T is the fluid temperature in K.

Liquids and gases are recognized as states of mat- Water in steam generators operating at supercriti-

ter. In the liquid state, a fluid is relatively incompress- cal pressure (above 3200.1 psia, 22.1 MPa) will be-

ible, having a definite volume. It is also capable of have as a single phase fluid converting from liquid to

forming a free surface interface between itself and its steam without creating bubbles. At the critical pres-

vapor or any other fluid with which it does not mix. On sure and critical temperature, the density of water and

the other hand, a gas is highly compressible. It expands steam are identical and there is no distinguishable in-

or diffuses indefinitely and is subject only to the limi- terface at equilibrium conditions. Surface tension is

tations of gravitational forces or an enclosing vessel. also related to the latent heat of vaporization which

The term vapor generally implies a gas near satu- also decreases to zero at the critical temperature.2 This

ration conditions where the liquid and the gas phase chapter discusses single phase fluid flow. Chapter 5

coexist at essentially the same temperature and pres- pertains to two-phase fluid flow that occurs in boiling

sure, during a process such as vaporization or boiling. tube circuits.

In a similar sense the term gas denotes a highly su-

perheated steam. Sometimes steam may be treated as

an ideal gas and careful judgment is needed when Fundamental relationships

doing so. Three fundamental laws of conservation apply to

Fluid dynamics principles normally consider the fluid dynamic systems: conservation of mass, momen-

fluid to be a continuous region of matter, a continuum, tum and energy. With the exception of nuclear reac-

and a molecular model is not required except for rare tions where minute quantities of mass are converted

instances. However, one property is noteworthy to con- into energy, these laws must be satisfied in all flow-

sider due to the effect on steam generation fluid flow ing systems. Fundamental mathematical relationships

and due to intermolecular forces. Surface tension, , for these principles are presented in several different

is a liquid property of the vapor-liquid interface and forms that may be applied in particular fluid dynamic

is the energy per unit area required to extend the in- situations to provide an appropriate solution method.

terface. Surface tension is important in two-phase sys- However, full analytical solutions are frequently too

tems, such as a mixture flowing in a boiler tube, and complex without the use of a computer. Simplified

relates to the shape and flow regime of the bubble in- forms of the full equations can be derived by apply-

terface and also to the heat transfer area of droplets. ing engineering judgment to drop negligible terms and

Vapor bubbles increase the resistance to fluid flow. consider only terms of significant magnitude for cer-

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tain classes of problems. Fluid dynamics problems can The conservation of momentum for one dimensional

be classified as compressible or incompressible, viscous single phase flow in a variable area channel or stream

or inviscid. Engineering practice is based upon apply- tube is:

ing various assumptions and empirical relationships

in order to obtain a practical method of solution. A

more complete discussion of the derivation of these

1 G 1 G 2 A Pf

+ +

conservation law relationships and vector notation gc t A x A

representing three dimensional spaces may be found (6)

g P

in References 3, 4, 5 and 6. + sin + = 0

gc x

Conservation of mass

where

The law of conservation of mass simply states that

the rate of change in mass stored in a system must P = pressure, psia (MPa)

equal the difference in the mass flowing into and out G = mass flux, G = V, lb/h ft2 (kg/s m2)

of the system. The continuity equation of mass for one A = flow area of channel ft2 (m2)

dimensional single phase flow in a variable area chan- = density lb/ft3 (kg/m3)

nel or stream tube is: = wall shear stress, lb/ft2 (N/m2) (refer to Equation 26)

Pf = channel wetted perimeter, ft (m)

A V g = 32.17 ft /s2 (9.8 m /s2)

A + AV + V + A = 0 (2) gc = 32.17 lbm ft/lbf s2 (1 kg m /N s2)

t x x x

= angle of channel inclination for x distance

In its simplest form in x, y and z three dimensional

Cartesian coordinates, conservation of mass for a small This relationship is useful in calculating steam gen-

fixed control volume is: erator tube circuit pressure drop.

The conservation of momentum is a vector equa-

tion and is direction dependent, resulting in one equa-

u + v + w = (3) tion for each coordinate direction (x, y and z for Car-

x y z t tesian coordinates), providing three momentum equa-

where u, v and w are the fluid velocities in the x, y tions for each scaler velocity component, u, v and w.

and z coordinate directions; t is time and is the fluid The full mathematical representation of the momen-

density. An important form of this equation is derived tum equation is complex and is of limited direct use in

by assuming steady-state ( / t = 0) and incompress- many engineering applications, except for numerical

ible (constant density) flow conditions: computational models. As an example, in the x coordi-

nate direction, the full momentum equation becomes:

u v w

+ + = 0 (4)

x y z u u u u

+u +v +w Term 1

Although no liquid is truly incompressible, the as- t x y z

sumption of incompressibility simplifies problem solu- = fx Term 2

tions and is frequently acceptable for engineering

practice considering water and oils. P

Term 3

Another relationship useful in large scale pipe flow x

systems involves the integration of Equation 3 around

the flow path for constant density, steady-state con- 2 u v w

+ 2 Term 4

ditions. For only one inlet (subscript 1) and one outlet x 3 x y z

(subscript 2): (7)

v u

+ +

= 1 A1 V1 = 2 A2 V2

m (5) y x y

where is the average density, V is the average ve- w u

locity, A is the cross-sectional area, and m is the mass + +

flow rate. z x z

The law of conservation of momentum is a repre- pressure, and is the viscosity. This equation and the

sentation of Newtons Second Law of Motion the corresponding equations in the y and z Cartesian co-

mass of a particle times its acceleration is equal to the ordinates represent the Navier-Stokes equations

sum of all of the forces acting on the particle. In a flow- which are valid for all compressible Newtonian fluids

ing system, the equivalent relationship for a fixed (con- with variable viscosity. Term 1 is the rate of momen-

trol) volume becomes: the rate of change in momen- tum change. Term 2 accounts for body force effects

tum entering and leaving the control volume is equal such as gravity. Term 3 accounts for the pressure gra-

to the sum of the forces acting on the control volume. dient. The balance of the equation accounts for mo-

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mentum change due to viscous transfer. Term 1 is A general form of the energy equation for a flow-

sometimes abbreviated as (Du /Dt) where Du /Dt is ing system using an enthalpy based formulation and

defined as the substantial derivative of u. For a func- vector notation is:

tion (scaler or vector), D /Dt is the substantial de-

rivative operator on function defined as: DH DP

= q + + ikT +

Dt Dt gc

D (12)

= +u +v Term 1 Term 2 Term 3 Term 4 Term 5

Dt t x y

(8) where is the fluid density, H is the enthalpy per unit

+w = + v i

z t mass of a fluid, T is the fluid temperature, q is the

internal heat generation, k is the thermal conductiv-

where the vector gradient or grad or del operator on ity, and is the dissipation function for irreversible

function is defined as: work.6 Term 1 accounts for net energy convected into

the system, Term 2 accounts for internal heat genera-

or grad or del = i /x + j /y + k /z tion, Term 3 accounts for work done by the system,

Term 4 addresses heat conduction, and Term 5 ac-

For the special case of constant density and viscosity, counts for viscous dissipation.

this equation reduces to (for the x coordinate direction): As with the momentum equations, the full energy

equation is too complex for most direct engineering

applications except for use in numerical models. (See

Du 1 P 2u 2u 2u Chapter 6.) As a result, specialized forms are based

= fx + 2 + 2 + 2 (9)

Dt x x y z upon various assumptions and engineering approxi-

mations. As discussed in Chapter 2, the most common

form of the energy equation for a simple, inviscid (i.e.,

The y and z coordinate equations can be developed

frictionless) steady-state flow system with flow in at

by substituting appropriate parameters for velocity u,

location 1 and out at location 2 is:

pressure gradient P / x, and body force x. Where vis-

cosity effects are negligible ( = 0), the Euler equation

of momentum is produced (x direction only shown): JQ W = J ( u2 u1 ) + ( P2v2 P1v1 )

1 g

Du

= fx

1 P +

2 gc

( )

V22 V12 + ( Z2 Z1 )

gc

(13a)

Dt x (10)

or

Energy equation (first law of thermodynamics)

The law of conservation of energy for nonreacting JQ W = J ( H 2 H1 )

fluids states that the energy transferred into a sys-

1 g

tem less the mechanical work done by the system must

be equal to the rate of change in stored energy, plus

+

2 gc

( )

V22 V12 + ( Z2 Z1 )

gc

(13b)

minus the energy flowing into the system with a fluid.

A single scaler equation results. The one dimensional where

single phase flow energy equation for a variable area

channel or stream tube is: Q = heat added to the system, Btu lbm (J/kg)

(See Note below)

H H P 1 P W = work done by the system, ft-lbf/lbm (N m/kg)

+G = q H + q + (11) J = mechanical equivalent of heat = 778.17 ft lbf/

t x A J Btu (1 N m/J)

u = internal energy, Btu/lbm (J/kg)

where P = pressure, lbf/ft2 (N/m2)

P = pressure, psia (MPa) = specific volume, ft3/lbm (m3/kg)

G = mass flux, lb/h ft2 (kg/s m2) V = velocity, ft /s (m/s)

A = flow area of channel, ft2 (m2) Z = elevation, ft (m)

= density, lb/ft3 (kg/m3) H = enthalpy = u + P/J, Btu/lbm (J/kg)

= wall shear stress, lb/ft2 (N/m2) g = 32.17 ft /s2 (9.8 m /s2)

PH = channel heated area, ft2 (m2) g c = 32.17 lbm ft/lbf s2 (1 kg m /N s2)

x = channel distance, ft (m) for x distance

H = enthalpy, Btu/lb (kJ/kg)

J = mechanical equivalent of heat = 778.17 ft lbf/ Note: Where required for clarity, the abbreviation lb is aug-

Btu (1 N m/J) mented by f (lbf) to indicate pound force and by m (lbm) to

q = heat flux at boundary, Btu/h ft2 (W/m2) indicate pound mass. Otherwise lb is used with force or

q = internal heat generation, Btu/h ft3 (W/m) mass indicated by the context.

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Energy equation applied to fluid flow ible flow pressure losses, or change in elevation occurs.

The initial velocity is assumed to be zero and compress-

(pressure loss without friction) ible flow is permitted. If the temperature (T ) and pres-

The conservation laws of mass and energy, when sure (P ) of steam or water are known at points 1 and

simplified for steady, frictionless (i.e., inviscid) flow of 2, Equation 15 provides the exit velocity using the en-

an incompressible fluid, result in the mechanical en- thalpy (H) values provided in Tables 1, 2 and 3 of Chap-

ergy balance referred to as Bernoullis equation: ter 2. If the pressure and temperature at point 1 are

known but only the pressure at point 2 is known, the

g V2 g V2 outlet enthalpy (H2) can be evaluated by assuming con-

P1v + Z1 + 1 = P2v + Z2 + 2 (14) stant entropy expansion from points 1 to 2, i.e., S1 = S2.

gc 2 gc gc 2 gc

Ideal gas relationships

The variables in Equation 14 are defined as follows

with the subscripts referring to location 1 and loca- There is another method that can be used to deter-

tion 2 in the system: mine velocity changes in a frictionless adiabatic ex-

pansion. This method uses the ideal gas equation of

P = pressure, lbf/ft2 (N/m2) state in combination with the pressure-volume rela-

= specific volume of fluid, ft3/lbm (m3/kg) tionship for constant entropy.

Z = elevation, ft (m) From the established gas laws, the relationship be-

V = fluid velocity, ft/s (m/s) tween pressure, volume and temperature of an ideal

Briefly, Equation 14 states that the total mechani- gas is expressed by:

cal energy present in a flowing fluid is made up of pres-

sure energy, gravity energy and velocity or kinetic

energy; each is mutually convertible into the other Pv = RT (16a)

forms. Furthermore, the total mechanical energy is or

constant along any stream-tube, provided there is no R

friction, heat transfer or shaft work between the points Pv = T (16b)

considered. This stream-tube may be an imaginary M

closed surface bounded by stream lines or it may be where

the wall of a flow channel, such as a pipe or duct, in

which fluid flows without a free surface. P = absolute pressure, lb/ft2 (N/m2)

Applications of Equation 14 are found in flow mea- = specific volume, ft3/lb of gas (m3/kg)

surements using the velocity head conversion result- M = molecular weight of the gas, lb/lb-mole

ing from flow channel area changes. Examples are the (kg/kg-mole)

venturi, flow nozzle and various orifices. Also, pitot T = absolute temperature, R (K)

tube flow measurements depend on being able to com- R = gas constant for specific gas, ft lbf/lbm R

pare the total head, P + Z + (V2 /2 gc ), to the static (N m/kg K)

head, P + Z, at a specific point in the flow channel. MR = R = the universal gas constant

Descriptions of metering instruments are found in = 1545 ft lb/lb-mole R (8.3143 kJ/kg-mole K)

Chapter 40. Bernoullis equation, developed from The relationship between pressure and specific vol-

strictly mechanical energy concepts some 50 years ume along an expansion path at constant entropy, i.e.,

before any precise statement of thermodynamic laws, isentropic expansion, is given by:

is a special case of the conservation of energy equa-

tion or first law of thermodynamics in Equations 13a Pvk = constant (17)

and b.

Applications of Equation 13 to fluid flow are given Because P1 and 1 in Equation 13 are known, the con-

in the examples on water and compressible fluid flow stant can be evaluated from P11k. The exponent k is

through a nozzle under the Applications of the En- constant and is evaluated for an ideal gas as:

ergy Equation section in Chapter 2. Equation 18,

Chapter 2 is: k = c p / cv = specific heat ratio (18)

V2 = 2 gc J ( H1 H 2 ) = C H1 H 2 (15) where

cp = specific heat at constant pressure, Btu/lb F (J/kg K)

where cv = specific heat at constant volume, Btu/lb F (J/kg K)

V2 = downstream velocity, ft/s (m/s) = (u1 u2)/(T1 T2)

gc = 32.17 lbm ft/lbf s2 = 1 kg m/Ns2 For a steady, adiabatic flow with no work or change

J = 778.26 ft lbf/Btu = 1 Nm/J in elevation of an ideal gas, Equations 13, 16, 17 and

H1 = upstream enthalpy, Btu/lb (J/kg) 18 can be combined to provide the following relationship:

H2 = downstream enthalpy, Btu/lb (J/kg)

C = 223.8 lbm/Btu ft/s (1.414 kg/J m/s) k 1

This equation relates fluid velocity to a change in en- k P2 k

V22 V12 = 2 gc P1 v1 1 P (19)

thalpy under adiabatic (no heat transfer), steady, in- k 1 1

viscid (no friction) flow where no work, local irrevers-

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When V1 is set to zero and using English units Equa- most flow situations there are also bulk fluid inter-

tion 19 becomes: changes known as eddy diffusion. The net result of

all inelastic momentum exchanges is exhibited in

k 1

shear stresses between adjacent layers of the fluid. If

k P2 k the fluid is contained in a flow channel, these stresses

V2 = 8.02 P1 v1 1 , ft/s (20) are eventually transmitted to the walls of the chan-

k 1 P1 nel. To counterbalance this wall shear stress, a pres-

sure gradient proportional to the bulk kinetic energy,

Equations 19 and 20 can be used for gases in pres- V 2 / 2 gc, is established in the fluid in the direction of

sure drop ranges where there is little change in k, pro- the bulk flow. The force balance is:

vided values of k are known or can be calculated.

Equation 20 is widely used in evaluating gas flow D2

through orifices, nozzles and flow meters.

( dP ) = w D ( dx ) (24)

4

It is sufficiently accurate for most purposes to de-

termine velocity differences caused by changes in flow where

area by treating a compressible fluid as incompress- D = tube diameter or hydraulic diameter Dh ft (m)

ible. This assumption only applies when the difference Dh = 4 (flow area)/(wetted perimeter) for circu-

in specific volumes at points 1 and 2 is small compared lar or noncircular cross-sections, ft (m)

to the final specific volume. The accepted practice is dx = distance in direction of flow, ft (m)

to consider the fluid incompressible when: w = shear stress at the tube wall, lb/ft2 (N/m2 )

(v2 v1 ) / v2 < 0.05 (21) Solving Equation 24 for the pressure gradient (dP /

dx):

Because Equation 14 represents the incompressible

energy balance for frictionless adiabatic flow, it may dP 4

be rearranged to solve for the velocity difference as = w (25)

dx D

follows:

This pressure gradient along the length of the flow

V22 V12 = 2 gc ( Pv ) + Zg / gc 22) channel can be expressed in terms of a certain num-

ber of velocity heads, , lost in a length of pipe equiva-

where lent to one tube diameter. The symbol is called the

friction factor, which has the following relationship to

(P) = pressure head difference between locations the shear stress at the tube wall:

1 and 2 = (P1 P2) , ft (m)

Z = head (elevation) difference between loca- f 1 V2

tions 1 and 2, ft (m) w = (26)

V = velocity at locations 1 and 2, ft/s (m/s) 4 v 2 gc

Equation 25 can be rewritten, substituting for w from

When the approach velocity is approximately zero, Equation 26 as follows:

Equation 22 in English units becomes:

= = (27)

dx D 4 v 2 gc D v 2 gc

In this equation, h, in ft head of the flowing fluid, re-

places (P) + Z. If the pressure difference is mea- The general energy equation, Equation 13, expressed

sured in psi, it must be converted to lb/ft2 to obtain P as a differential has the form:

in ft.

VdV

du + + d ( Pv ) = dQ dWk (28a)

Pressure loss from fluid friction gc

So far, only pressure changes associated with the or

kinetic energy term, V 2/2 gc, and static pressure term, VdV

Z, have been discussed. These losses occur at constant du + + Pdv + vdP = dQ dWk (28b)

flow where there are variations in flow channel cross- gc

sectional area and where the inlet and outlet are at Substituting Equation 26 of Chapter 2 (du = Tds

different elevations. Fluid friction and, in some cases Pd) in Equation 28 yields:

heat transfer with the surroundings, also have impor-

tant effects on pressure and velocity in a flowing fluid. VdV

Tds + + vdP = dQ dWk (29)

The following discussion applies to fluids flowing in gc

channels without a free surface.

When a fluid flows, molecular diffusion causes The term Tds represents heat transferred to or from

momentum interchanges between layers of the fluid the surroundings, dQ, and any heat added internally

that are moving at different velocities. These inter- to the fluid as the result of irreversible processes.

changes are not limited to individual molecules. In These processes include fluid friction or any irrevers-

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ible pressure losses resulting from fluid flow. (See The second term on the right side of Equation 36 may

Equation 29 and explanation, Chapter 2.) Therefore: be integrated provided a functional relationship be-

tween and x can be established. For example, where

Tds = dQ + dQF (30) the heat absorption rate over the length of the flow

where dQF is the heat equivalent of fluid friction and channel is constant, temperature T is approximately

any local irrecoverable pressure losses such as those linear in x, or:

from pipe fittings, bends, expansions or contractions.

Substituting Equation 30 into Equation 29, cancel- L

dx = dT (37)

ing dQ on both sides of the equation, setting dWk equal T2 T1

to 0 (no shaft work), and rearranging Equation 29 and

results in:

L L 2

dP =

VdV

dQF 0

vdx =

T2 T1 1

vdT = Lvav (38)

vgc v (31)

The term a is an average specific volume with re-

Three significant facts should be noted from Equa- spect to temperature, T.

tion 31 and its derivation. First, the general energy

equation does not accommodate pressure losses due vav = (v2 + v1 ) = v1 (vR + 1 ) (39)

to fluid friction or geometry changes. To accommodate

these losses Equation 31 must be altered based on the where

first and second laws of thermodynamics (Chapter 2).

Second, Equation 31 does not account for heat trans- R = 2 / 1

fer except as it may change the specific volume, , = averaging factor

along the length of the flow channel. Third, there is

also a pressure loss as the result of a velocity change. In most engineering evaluations, is almost lin-

This loss is independent of any flow area change but ear in T and l/2. Combining Equations 36 and

is dependent on specific volume changes. The pressure 37, and rewriting 2 1 as 1 ( R 1):

loss is due to acceleration which is always present in

compressible fluids. It is generally negligible in incom- G2

pressible flow without heat transfer because friction P1 P2 = 2 v1 ( vR 1 )

2 gc

heating has little effect on fluid temperature and the

accompanying specific volume change. L G2 (40)

+ f v1 ( vR + 1 )

Equation 27 contains no acceleration term and D 2 gc

applies only to friction and local pressure losses. There-

fore, dQF/ in Equation 31 is equivalent to dP of Equation 40 is completely general. It is valid for com-

Equation 27, or: pressible and incompressible flow in pipes of constant

cross-section as long as the function T = F(x) can be as-

dQF dx V 2

= f (32) signed. The only limitation is that dP/dx is negative at

v D v 2 gc every point along the pipe. Equation 33 can be solved

for dP/dx making use of Equation 34 and the fact that

Substitution of Equation 32 into Equation 31 yields: P11 can be considered equal to P22 for adiabatic flow

over a short section of tube length. The result is:

VdV f V2

dP = dx (33)

vgc D v 2 gc dP Pf / 2 D

=

From Equation 5, the continuity equation permits dx g Pv (41)

1 c 2

definition of the mass flux, G, or mass velocity or mass V

flow rate per unit area [lb/h ft2 (kg/m2 s)] as:

At any point where V 2 = gcP, the flow becomes choked

V because the pressure gradient is positive for velocities

= G = constant (34) greater than (gcP)0.5. The flow is essentially choked

v by excessive stream expansion due to the drop in pres-

Substituting Equation 34 into Equation 33 for a flow sure. The minimum downstream pressure that is ef-

channel of constant area: fective in producing flow in a channel is:

G2 G2 v P2 = V 2 / v2 gc = v2 G 2 / gc (42)

dP = 2 dv f dx (35)

2 gc 2 gc D

Dividing both sides of Equation 40 by G2 l / 2gc,

Integrating Equation 35 between points 1 and 2, lo- the pressure loss is expressed in terms of velocity

cated at x = 0 and x = L, respectively: heads. One velocity head equals:

G2 G2 1 L V2 V 2

P1 P2 = 2 (v2 v1 ) + f vdx (36) P (one velocity head) = = (43)

2 gc 2 gc D 0 2 gcCv 2 gcC

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ample, a useful form of Equation 46 in English units

P = pressure drop equal to one velocity head, lb/

is:

in.2 (N/m2)

V = velocity, ft/s (m/s) 2

= specific volume, ft3/lb (m3/kg) L G

P = f v (47)

g c = 32.17 lbm ft/lbf s2 = 1 kg m/N s2 De 105

C = 144 in.2/ft2 (1 m2/m2)

= density, lb/ft3 (kg/m3) where

In either case, represents the number of velocity P =fluid pressure drop, psi

heads (Nvh) lost in each diameter length of pipe. = friction factor from Fig. 1, dimensionless

The dimensionless parameter defined by the pres- L = length, ft

sure loss divided by twice Equation 43 is referred to De =equivalent diameter of flow channel, in. (note

as the Euler number: units)

= specific volume of fluid, ft3/lb

(

Eu = P / V 2 / gc ) (44)

G = mass flux of fluid, lb/h ft2

Friction factor

where is the density, or l/ .

The friction factor () introduced in Equation 26, is

Two other examples of integrating Equation 35 defined as the dimensionless fluid friction loss in ve-

have wide applications in fluid flow. First, adiabatic locity heads per diameter length of pipe or equivalent

flow through a pipe is considered. Both H and D are diameter length of flow channel. Earlier correlators in

constant and Pl lm = P2 2m where m is the exponent this field, including Fanning, used a friction factor one

for constant enthalpy. Values of m for steam range fourth the magnitude indicated by Equation 26. This

from 0.98 to 1.0. Therefore, the assumption P = con- is because the shear stress at the wall is proportional

stant = P1 1 is sufficiently accurate for pressure drop to one fourth the velocity head. All references to in

calculations. This process is sometimes called isother- this book combine the factor 4 in Equation 25 with as

mal pressure drop because a constant temperature ideal has been done by Darcy, Blasius, Moody and others.

gas expansion also requires a constant enthalpy. For P The friction factor is plotted in Fig. 1 as a function of

= P1 1, the integration of Equation 35 reduces to: the Reynolds number, a dimensionless group of vari-

ables defined as the ratio of inertial forces to viscous

G 2 2v1 v2 v forces. The Reynolds number (Re) can be written:

P1 P2 = 2 n 2

2 gc v1 + v2 v1 VDe VDe GDe

Re = or or (48)

L G 2 2v1v2 (45)

+ f

D 2 gc v1 + v2 where

Neither P2 nor 2 are known in most cases, therefore = density of fluid, lbm/ft3 (kg/m3)

Equation 45 is solved by iteration. Also, the term 21 2 = kinematic viscosity = /, ft2/h (m2/s)

/(1 + 2) can usually be replaced by the numerical av- = viscosity of fluid, lbm/ft h (kg/m s)

erage of the specific volumes av = 1/2 1(PR + 1) where V = velocity of fluid, ft/h (m/s)

PR = P1 /P2 = 2/1. The maximum high side error at PR G = mass flux of fluid, lb/h ft2 (kg/m2 s)

= 1.10 is 0.22% and this increases to 1.3% at PR = 1.25. De = equivalent diameter of flow channel, ft (m)

It is common practice to use a numerical average for

the specific volume in most fluid friction pressure drop Fluid flow inside a closed channel occurs in a viscous

calculations. However, where the lines are long, P2 or laminar manner at low velocity and in a turbulent

should be checked by Equation 42. Also, where heat manner at high velocities. Many experiments on fluid

transfer is taking place, P2 is seldom constant along the friction pressure drop, examined by dimensional

flow channel and appropriate averaging factors should analysis and the laws of similarity, have shown that

be used. Computation using small zone subdivisions the Reynolds number can be used to characterize a

along the length of the tube circuit is recommended to flow pattern. Examination of Fig. 1 shows that flow

limit errors in widely varying property values. is laminar at Reynolds numbers less than 2000, gen-

The second important example considering flow erally turbulent at values exceeding 4000 and com-

under adiabatic conditions assumes an almost incom- pletely turbulent at higher values. Indeterminate con-

pressible fluid, i.e., 1 is approximately equal to 2. (See ditions exist in the critical zone between Reynolds

Equation 21.) Substituting for 1 and 2 in Equa- numbers of 2000 and 4000.

tion 45, the result is: Fluid flow can be described by a system of simulta-

neous partial differential equations. (See earlier Fun-

L G2 damental relationships section.) However, due to the

P1 P2 = f v (46)

D 2 gc complexity of these equations, solutions are generally

only available for the case of laminar flow, where the

All terms in Equations 45 and 46 are expressed in only momentum changes are on a molecular basis. For

consistent units. However, it is general practice and laminar flow, integration of the Navier-Stokes equa-

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

tion with velocity in the length direction only gives the small layer of fluid next to the boundary wall has zero

following equation for friction factor: velocity as a result of molecular adhesion forces. This

establishes a velocity gradient normal to the main body

f = 64 / Re (49) of flow. Because the only interchanges of momentum

in laminar flow are between the molecules of the fluid,

The straight line in the laminar flow region of Fig. 1 the condition of the surface has no effect on the ve-

is a plot of this equation. locity gradient and therefore no effect on the friction

It has been experimentally determined that the factor. In commercial equipment, laminar flow is usu-

friction factor is best evaluated by using the Reynolds ally encountered only with more viscous liquids such

number to define the flow pattern. A factor /De is then as the heavier oils.

introduced to define the relative roughness of the

channel surface. The coefficient expresses the aver- Turbulent flow

age height of roughness protrusions equivalent to the When turbulence exists, there are momentum in-

sand grain roughness established by Nikuradse.6 The terchanges between masses of fluid. These inter-

friction factor values in Fig. 1 and the /De values in changes are induced through secondary velocities,

Fig. 2 are taken from experimental data as correlated irregular fluctuations or eddys, that are not parallel

by Moody.7 to the axis of the mean flow velocity. In this case, the

condition of the boundary surface, roughness, does

Laminar flow have an effect on the velocity gradient near the wall,

Laminar flow is characterized by the parallel flow- which in turn affects the friction factor. Heat trans-

ing of individual streams like layers sliding over each fer is substantially greater with turbulent flow (Chap-

other. There is no mixing between the streams except ter 4) and, except for viscous liquids, it is common to

for molecular diffusion from one layer to the other. A induce turbulent flow with steam and water without

Fig. 1 Friction factor/Reynolds number relationship for determining pressure drop of fluids flowing through closed circuits (pipes and ducts).

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

excessive friction loss. Consequently, it is customary number, are given in Figs. 3, 4 and 5 for selected liq-

to design for Reynolds numbers above 4000 in steam uids and gases. Table 4 lists the relationship between

generating units. various units of viscosity.

Turbulence fluctuations in the instantaneous ve-

locity introduce additional terms to the momentum Resistance to flow in valves and fittings

conservation equation called Reynolds stresses. These Pipelines and duct systems contain many valves and

fluctuations influence the mean motion and increase fittings. Unless the lines are used to transport fluids

the flow resistance in a manner producing an increase over long distances, as in the distribution of process

in the apparent viscosity. Analysis of turbulent flow steam at a factory or the cross country transmission

must consider the impact of the fluctuating velocity of oil or gas, the straight runs of pipe or duct are rela-

component along with the mean flow velocity or re- tively short. Water, steam, air and gas lines in a power

sort to empirical methods that account for the addi- plant have relatively short runs of straight pipe and

tional momentum dissipation.4, 6, 8 many valves and fittings. Consequently, the flow re-

sistance due to valves and fittings is a substantial part

Velocity ranges of the total resistance.

Table 1 lists the velocity ranges generally encoun- Methods for estimating the flow resistance in valves

tered in the heat transfer equipment as well as in duct and fittings are less exact than those used in estab-

and piping systems of steam generating units. These lishing the friction factor for straight pipes and ducts.

values, plus the specific volumes from the ASME In the latter, pressure drop is considered to be the re-

Steam Tables (see Chapter 2) and the densities listed sult of the fluid shear stress at the boundary walls of

in Tables 2 and 3 in this chapter, are used to establish the flow channel; this leads to relatively simple bound-

mass velocities for calculating Reynolds numbers and ary value evaluations. On the other hand, pressure

fluid friction pressure drops. In addition, values of losses associated with valves, fittings and bends are

viscosity, also required in calculating the Reynolds mainly the result of impacts and inelastic exchanges

Table 1

Velocities Common in Steam Generating Systems

Velocity

Nature of Service ft/min m/s

Air:

Air heater 1000 to 5000 5.1 to 25.4

Coal and air lines,

pulverized coal 3000 to 4500 15.2 to 22.9

Compressed air lines 1500 to 2000 7.6 to 10.2

Forced draft air ducts 1500 to 3600 7.6 to 18.3

Forced draft air ducts,

entrance to burners 1500 to 2000 7.6 to 10.2

Ventilating ducts 1000 to 3000 5.1 to 15.2

Crude oil lines [6 to 30

in. (152 to 762 mm)] 60 to 3600 0.3 to 18.3

Flue gas:

Air heater 1000 to 5000 5.1 to 25.4

Boiler gas passes 3000 to 6000 15.2 to 30.5

Induced draft flues

and breaching 2000 to 3500 10.2 to 17.8

Stacks and chimneys 2000 to 5000 10.2 to 25.4

Natural gas lines (large

interstate) 1000 to 1500 5.1 to 7.6

Steam:

Steam lines

High pressure 8000 to 12,000 40.6 to 61.0

Low pressure 12,000 to 15,000 61.0 to 76.2

Vacuum 20,000 to 40,000 101.6 to 203.2

Superheater tubes 2000 to 5000 10.2 to 25.4

Water:

Boiler circulation 70 to 700 0.4 to 3.6

Economizer tubes 150 to 300 0.8 to 1.5

Pressurized water

reactors

Fuel assembly channels 400 to 1300 2.0 to 6.6

Reactor coolant piping 2400 to 3600 12.2 to 18.3

Fig. 2 Relative roughness of various conduit surfaces. (SI conver- Water lines, general 500 to 750 2.5 to 3.8

sion: mm = 25.4 X in.)

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Table 2

Physical Properties of Liquids at 14.7 psi (0.101 MPa)

Liquid Temperature F (C) lb/ft3 (kg/m3 ) Btu/lb F (kJ/kg C)

212 (100) 59.9 (959.3) 1.000 (4.187)

Automotive oil 70 (21)

SAE 10 55 to 57 (881 to 913) 0.435 (1.821)

SAE 50 57 to 59 (913 to 945) 0.425 (1.779)

Mercury 70 (21) 846 (13,549) 0.033 (0.138)

Fuel oil, #6 70 (21) 60 to 65 (961 to 1041) 0.40 (1.67)

180 (82) 60 to 65 (961 to 1041) 0.46 (1.93)

Kerosene 70 (21) 50 to 51 (801 to 817) 0.47 (1.97)

of momentum. These losses are frequently referred to be based on equivalent pipe lengths, but are prefer-

as local losses or local nonrecoverable pressure losses. ably defined by a multiple of velocity heads based on

Even though momentum is conserved, kinetic ener- the connecting pipe or tube sizes. Equivalent pipe

gies are dissipated as heat. This means that pressure length calculations have the disadvantage of being

losses are influenced mainly by the geometries of dependent on the relative roughness (/D) used in the

valves, fittings and bends. As with turbulent friction correlation. Because there are many geometries of

factors, pressure losses are determined from empiri- valves and fittings, it is customary to rely on manu-

cal correlations of test data. These correlations may facturers for pressure drop coefficients.

It is also customary for manufacturers to supply

valve flow coefficients (CV) for 60F (16C) water. These

Table 3 are expressed as ratios of weight or volume flow in the

Physical Properties of Gases at 14.7 psi (0.101 MPa)** fully open position to the square root of the pressure

drop. These coefficients can be used to relate velocity

Instantaneous head losses to a connecting pipe size by the following

Specific Heat expression:

Temperature Density, cp cv k,

Gas F lb/ft3 Btu/lb F Btu/lb F cp/cv N v = kD 4 / CV 2 (50)

Air 70 0.0749 0.241 0.172 1.40

200 0.0601 0.242 0.173 1.40

500 0.0413 0.248 0.180 1.38 Table 4

1000 0.0272 0.265 0.197 1.34 Relationship Between Various Units of Viscosity

Part A: Dynamic (or Absolute) Viscosity,

CO2 70 0.1148 0.202 0.155 1.30

200 0.0922 0.216 0.170 1.27 Pa s Centipoise

500 0.0634 0.247 0.202 1.22

1000 0.0417 0.280 0.235 1.19 Ns kg 0.01 g lbm lbm lbf s

=

m2 ms cm s ft s ft h ft2

H2 70 0.0052 3.440 2.440 1.41

200 0.0042 3.480 2.490 1.40 1.0 1000 672 x 103 2420 20.9 x 103

500 0.0029 3.500 2.515 1.39 0.001 1.0 672 x 106 2.42 20.9 x 106

1000 0.0019 3.540 2.560 1.38 1.49 1488 1.0 3600 0.0311

413 x 106 0.413 278 x 106 1.0 8.6 x 106

Flue gas* 70 0.0776 0.253 0.187 1.35 47.90 47,900 32.2 115,900 1.0

200 0.0623 0.255 0.189 1.35

500 0.0429 0.265 0.199 1.33 Part B: Kinematic Viscosity, = /

1000 0.0282 0.283 0.217 1.30

Centistoke

CH4 70 0.0416 0.530 0.406 1.30

200 0.0334 0.575 0.451 1.27 m2 0.01 cm2 ft2 ft2

500 0.0230 0.720 0.596 1.21 s s s h

1000 0.0151 0.960 0.836 1.15

1.0 106 10.8 38,800

* From coal; 120% total air; flue gas molecular weight 30. 106 1.0 10.8 x 106 0.0389

** SI conversions: T, C = 5/9 (F-32); , kg/m3 = 16.02 x lbm/ 92.9 x 103 92,900 1.0 3600

ft3; cp, kJ/kg K = 4.187 x Btu/lbm F. 25.8 x 106 25.8 278 x 106 1.0

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Fig. 3 Absolute viscosities of some common liquids (Pa s = pressure.

0.000413 X lbm/ft h).

2

where 30 T + 460 G

P = N v (52)

N = number of velocity heads, dimensionless B 1.73 105 103

k = units conversion factor: for CV based upon

gal/min/()1/2, k = 891 where

D = internal diameter of connecting pipe, in. P = pressure drop, in. wg

(mm) B = barometric pressure, in. Hg

CV = flow coefficient in units compatible with k and T = air (or gas) temperature, F

D: for k = 891, CV = gal/min/()1/2

Equation 52 is based on air, which has a specific

CV and corresponding values of N for valves apply volume of 25.2 ft3/lb at 1000R and a pressure equiva-

only to incompressible flow. However, they may be ex- lent to 30 in. Hg. This equation can be used for other

trapolated for compressible condition using an average gases by correcting for specific volume.

specific volume between P1 and P2 for P values as high The range in pressure drop through an assortment

as 20% of P1. This corresponds to a maximum pressure of commercial fittings is given in Table 5. This resistance

ratio of 1.25. The P process for valves, bends and fit- to flow is presented in equivalent velocity heads based

tings is approximately isothermal and does not require on the internal diameter of the connecting pipe. As noted,

the most stringent limits set by Equation 21. pressure drop through fittings may also be expressed as

When pressure drop can be expressed as an equiva- the loss in equivalent lengths of straight pipe.

lent number of velocity heads, it can be calculated by

the following formula in English units: Contraction and enlargement irreversible

2

pressure loss

v G The simplest sectional changes in a conduit are con-

P = N v 105 (51)

12 verging or diverging boundaries. Converging bound-

aries can stabilize flow during the change from pres-

where sure energy to kinetic energy, and local irrecoverable

P = pressure drop, lb/in.2 flow losses (inelastic momentum exchanges) can be

N = number of equivalent velocity heads, dimen- practically eliminated with proper design. If the in-

sionless cluded angle of the converging boundaries is 30 deg

= specific volume, ft3/lb (0.52 rad) or less and the terminal junctions are

G = mass flux, lb/ft2 h smooth and tangent, any losses in mechanical energy

are largely due to fluid friction. It is necessary to con-

Another convenient expression, in English units only, sider this loss as 0.05 times the velocity head, based

for pressure drop in air (or gas) flow evaluations is: on the smaller downstream flow area.

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mechanical energy balance for converging boundaries

becomes:

V12 V22 V2

P1v + = P2v + + Nc 2 (53)

2 gc 2 gc 2 gc

Subscripts 1 and 2 identify the upstream and down-

stream sections. Nc, the contraction loss factor, is the

number of velocity heads lost by friction and local non-

recoverable pressure loss in contraction. Fig. 6 shows

values of this factor.

When there is an enlargement of the conduit sec-

tion in the direction of flow, the expansion of the flow

stream is proportional to the kinetic energy of the

flowing fluid and is subject to a pressure loss depend-

ing on the geometry. Just as in the case of the con-

traction loss, this is an irreversible energy conversion

to heat resulting from inelastic momentum ex-

changes. Because it is customary to show these losses

as coefficients of the higher kinetic energy term, the

mechanical energy balance for enlargement loss is:

V12 V2 V2

P1v + = P2v + 2 + N e 1 (54)

2 gc 2 gc 2 gc

The case of sudden enlargement [angle of divergence

= 180 deg ( rad)] yields an energy loss of (V1 - V2)2/

2gc. This can also be expressed as:

2

A

Ne = 1 1 (55)

A2

where A1 and A2 are the upstream and downstream

cross-sectional flow areas, respectively and (A1 < A2).

Even this solution, based on the conservation laws,

depends on qualifying assumptions regarding static

Table 5

Resistance to Flow of Fluids Through

Commercial Fittings*

Fitting Loss in Velocity Heads

standard sweep elbow 0.3 to 0.7

L-shaped, 90 deg (1.57 rad)

long sweep elbow 0.2 to 0.5

T-shaped, flow through run 0.15 to 0.5

T-shaped, flow through 90 deg

(1.57 rad) branch 0.6 to 1.6

Return bend, close 0.6 to 1.7

Gate valve, open 0.1 to 0.2

Check valve, open 2.0 to 10.0

Globe valve, open 5.0 to 16.0

Angle valve, 90 deg (1.57 rad) open 3.0 to 7.0

Boiler nonreturn valve, open 1.0 to 3.0

through pipe bends.

Fig. 6 Contraction loss factor for >30 deg (Nc = 0.05 for 30 deg).

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

the enlargement.

Experimental values of the enlargement loss fac-

tor, based on different area ratios and angles of diver-

gence, are given in Fig. 7. The differences in static

pressures caused by sudden and gradual changes in

section are shown graphically in Fig. 8. The pressure

differences are shown in terms of the velocity head at

the smaller area plotted against section area ratios.

Flow through bends

Bends in a pipeline or duct system produce pressure

losses caused by both fluid friction and momentum

exchanges which result from a change in flow direc-

tion. Because the axial length of the bend is normally

included in the straight length friction loss of the pipe-

line or duct system, it is convenient to subtract a cal-

culated equivalent straight length friction loss from

experimentally determined bend pressure loss factors.

These corrected data form the basis of the empirical

bend loss factor, Nb.

The pressure losses for bends in round pipe in ex-

cess of straight pipe friction vary slightly with Rey-

nolds numbers below 150,000. For Reynolds numbers

above this value, they are reasonably constant and

depend solely on the dimensionless ratio r/D, the ra-

tio of the centerline radius of the bend to the internal

diameter of the pipe. For commercial pipe, the effect

of Reynolds number is negligible. The combined ef-

fect of radius ratio and bend angle, in terms of veloc-

ity heads, is shown in Fig. 9.

Flow through rectangular ducts

The loss of pressure caused by a direction change

in a rectangular duct system is similar to that for cy-

lindrical pipe. However, an additional factor, the shape

Fig. 8 Static pressure difference resulting from sudden and gradual

changes in section.

be taken into account. This is called the aspect ratio,

which is defined as the ratio of the width to the depth

of the duct, i.e., the ratio b/d in Fig. 10. The bend loss

for the same radius ratio decreases as the aspect ratio

increases, because of the smaller proportionate influence

of secondary flows on the stream. The combined effect

of radius and aspect ratios on 90 deg (1.57 rad) duct

bends is given in terms of velocity heads in Fig. 10.

The loss factors shown in Fig. 10 are average val-

ues of test results on ducts. For the given range of

aspect ratios, the losses are relatively independent of

the Reynolds number. Outside this range, the varia-

tion with Reynolds number is erratic. It is therefore

recommended that Nb values for b/d = 0.5 be used for

all aspect ratios less than b/d = 0.5, and values for b/

d = 2.0 be used for ratios greater than b/d = 2.0. Losses

for bends other than 90 deg (1.57 rad) are customar-

ily considered to be proportional to the bend angle.

Turning vanes

The losses in a rectangular elbow duct can be re-

Fig. 7 Enlargement loss factor for various included angles. duced by rounding or beveling its corners and by in-

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

bution directly after the turn, a full complement or

normal arrangement of turning vanes (see Fig. 12b)

is required. However, for many applications, it is suf-

ficient to use a reduced number of vanes, as shown in

Fig. 12c.

For nonuniform flow fields, the arrangement of

turning vanes is more difficult to determine. Many

times, numerical modeling (see Chapter 6) and flow

testing of the duct system must be done to determine

the proper vane locations.

overall size of the duct can become large; however,

with turning vanes, the compact form of the duct is

preserved.

A number of turning vane shapes can be used in a

duct. Fig. 11 shows four different arrangements. Seg-

mented shaped vanes are shown in Fig. 11a, simple

curved thin vanes are shown in Fig. 11b, and concen-

tric splitter vanes are shown in Fig. 11c. In Fig. 11c,

the vanes are concentric with the radius of the duct.

Fig. 11d illustrates simple vanes used to minimize flow

separation from a square edged duct.

The turning vanes of identical shape and dimen-

sion, Fig. 11b, are usually mounted within the bend

of an elbow. They are generally installed along a line

or section of the duct and are placed from the inner

corner to the outside corner of the bend. Concentric

turning vanes, Fig. 11c, typically installed within the

bend of the turn, are located from one end of the turn

to the other end.

The purpose of the turning vanes in an elbow or turn

is to deflect the flow around the bend to the inner wall

of the duct. When the turning vanes are appropriately

designed, the flow distribution is improved by reduc-

ing flow separation from the walls and reducing the

formation of eddy zones in the downstream section of

the bend. The velocity distribution over the downstream

cross-section of the turn is improved (see Fig. 12), and

the pressure loss of the turn or elbow is decreased.

The main factor in decreasing the pressure losses

and obtaining equalization of the velocity field is the

elimination of an eddy zone at the inner wall of the

turn. For a uniform incoming flow field, the largest

effect of decreasing the pressure losses and establish-

ing a uniform outlet flow field for a turn or elbow is

achieved by locating the turning vanes closer to the

inner curvature of the bend. (See Figs. 11d and 12c.) Fig. 10 Loss for 90 deg (1.57 rad) bends in rectangular ducts.

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

vanes, b) with typical vanes, and c) with optimum vanes (adapted

from Idelchik, Reference 12).

exist for extended surface, and many are directly re-

Fig. 11 Turning vanes in elbows and turns: a) segmented, b) thin

lated to the type of extended surface that is used.

concentric, c) concentric splitters, and d) slotted (adapted from Various correlations for extended surface pressure loss

Idelchik, Reference 12). can be found in References 9 through 15. In all cases,

a larger pressure loss per row of bank exists with an

extended surface tube compared to a bare tube. For

Pressure loss in-line tube bundles, the finned tube resistance per

A convenient chart for calculating the pressure loss row of tubes is approximately 1.5 times that of the bare

resulting from impact losses in duct systems convey- tube row. However, due to the increased heat trans-

ing air (or flue gas) is shown in Fig. 13. When mass fer absorption of the extended surface, a smaller num-

flux and temperature are known, a base velocity head ber of tube rows is required. This results in an overall

in inches of water at sea level can be obtained. bank pressure loss that can be equivalent to a larger

but equally absorptive bare tube bank.

Flow over tube banks

Bare tube The transverse flow of gases across tube

Flow through stacks or chimneys

banks is an example of flow over repeated major cross- The flow of gases through stacks or chimneys is es-

sectional changes. When the tubes are staggered, sec- tablished by the natural draft effect of the stack and/

tional and directional changes affect the resistance. or the mechanical draft produced by a fan. The resis-

Experimental results and the analytical conclusions tance to this flow, or the loss in mechanical energy be-

of extensive research by The Babcock & Wilcox Com-

pany (B&W) indicate that three principal variables

other than mass flux affect this resistance. The pri-

mary variable is the number of major restrictions, i.e.,

the number of tube rows crossed, N. The second vari-

able is the friction factor which is related to the

Reynolds number (based on tube diameter), the tube

spacing diameter ratios, and the arrangement pattern

(in-line or staggered). The third variable is the depth

factor, Fd (Fig. 14), which is applicable to banks less

than ten rows deep. The friction factors for various

in-line tube patterns are given in Fig. 15.

The product of the friction factor, the number of

major restrictions (tube rows) and the depth factor is,

in effect, the summation of velocity head losses

through the tube bank.

N v = f N Fd (56)

The N value established by Equation 56 may be

used in Equations 51 or 52 to find the tube bank pres-

sure loss. Some test correlations indicate values

higher than the isothermal case for cooling gas and

lower for heating gas.

Finned tube In some convective boiler design ap-

plications, extended surface tube banks are used.

Many types of extended surface exist, i.e., solid heli-

cal fin, serrated helical fin, longitudinal fin, square fin

and different types of pin studs. For furnace applications,

the cleanliness of the gas or heat transfer medium dic-

tates whether an extended surface tube bank can be used

and also defines the type of extended surface. Fig. 13 Mass flux/velocity head relationship for air.

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

within the fluid streams.

The injector is a jet pump that uses condensing steam

as the driving fluid to entrain low pressure water for

delivery against a back pressure higher than the pres-

sure of the steam supplied. The ejector, similar to the

injector, is designed to entrain gases, liquids, or mix-

tures of solids and liquids for delivery against a pres-

sure less than that of the primary fluid. In a water-

jet aspirator, water is used to entrain air to obtain a

partial vacuum. In the Bunsen type burner, a jet of

gas entrains air for combustion. In several instances,

entrainment may be detrimental to the operation of

steam boilers. Particles of ash entrained by the prod-

ucts of combustion, when deposited on heating sur-

faces, reduce thermal conductance, erode fan blades,

and add to pollution when discharged into the atmo-

sphere. Moisture carrying solids, either in suspension

or in solution, are entrained in the stream. The solids

may be carried through to the turbine and deposited

on the blades, decreasing turbine capacity and effi-

ciency. In downcomers or supply tubes, steam bubbles

Fig. 14 Draft loss depth factor for number of tube rows crossed in are entrained in the water when the drag on the

convection banks. bubbles is greater than the buoyant force. This re-

duces the density in the pumping column of natural

tween the bottom and the top of the stack, is a result of circulation boilers.

the friction and stack exit losses. Application examples

of these losses are given in Chapter 25.

Pressure loss in two-phase flow

Evaluation of two-phase steam-water flows is much

more complex. As with single-phase flow, pressure loss

occurs from wall friction, acceleration, and change in

elevation. However, the relationships are more com-

plicated. The evaluation of friction requires the assess-

ment of the interaction of the steam and water phases.

Acceleration is much more important because of the

large changes in specific volume of the mixture as

water is converted to steam. Finally, large changes in

average mixture density at different locations signifi-

cantly impact the static head. These factors are pre-

sented in detail in Chapter 5.

Collecting or transporting solid particles or a sec-

ond fluid by the flow of a primary fluid at high veloc-

ity is known as entrainment. This is usually accom-

plished with jets using a small quantity of high pres-

sure fluid to carry large quantities of another fluid or

solid particles. The pressure energy of the high pres-

sure fluid is converted into kinetic energy by nozzles,

with a consequent reduction of pressure. The mate-

rial to be transported is drawn in at the low pressure

zone, where it meets and mixes with the high veloc-

ity jet. The jet is usually followed by a parallel throat

section to equalize the velocity profile. The mixture

then enters a diverging section where kinetic energy

is partially reconverted into pressure energy. In this Fig. 15 Friction factor (f ) as affected by Reynolds number for

case, major fluid flow mechanical energy losses are an various in-line tube patterns; crossflow gas or air.

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

of single-phase flow discussed in this chapter, two-

An adequate flow of water and steam-water mix- phase flow discussed in Chapter 5, heat input rates,

ture is necessary for steam generation and control of and selected limiting design criteria are combined to

tube metal temperatures in all circuits of a steam gen- evaluate the circulation in fossil-fired steam genera-

erating unit. At supercritical pressures this flow is tors. The evaluation procedures and key criteria are

produced mechanically by pumps. At subcritical pres- presented in Chapter 5.

sures, circulation is produced by the force of gravity

References

1. Meyer, C.A., et al., ASME Steam Tables, Sixth Ed., 9. Briggs, D.E., and Young, E.H., Convective heat

American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, transfer and pressure drop of air flowing across trian-

New York, 1993. gular pitch banks of finned tubes, Chemical Engineer-

2. Tabor, D., Gases, Liquids and Solids: and Other ing Progress Symposium Series (Heat Transfer),

States of Matter, First Ed., Penguin Books, Ltd., AIChE, Vol. 41, No. 41, pp. l-10, Houston, Texas, 1963.

Harmondsworth, England, United Kingdom, 1969. 10. Grimison, E.D., Correlation and utilization of new

3. Lahey, Jr., R.T., and Moody, F.J., The Thermal-Hy- data on flow resistance and heat transfer for crossflow

draulics of a Boiling Water Nuclear Reactor, Ameri- of gases over tube banks, Transactions of ASME,

can Nuclear Society, Hinsdale, Ilinois, 1993. Process Industries Division, Vol. 59, pp. 583-594, New

York, New York, 1937.

4. Rohsenow, W., Hartnett, J., and Ganic, E., Handbook

of Heat Transfer Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill Com- 11. Gunter, A.Y., and Shan, W.A., A general correlation

pany, New York, 1985. of friction factors for various types of surfaces in cross-

flow, Transactions of ASME, Vol. 67, pp. 643-660,

5. Burmeister, L.C., Convective Heat Transfer, Second 1945.

Ed., Wiley-Interscience, New York, New York, 1993.

12. Idelchik, I.E., Handbook of Hydraulic Resistance,

6. Schlichting, H.T. Gersten, K., and Krause, E., Third Ed., Interpharm/CRC, New York, New York,

Boundary-Layer Theory, Eighth Ed., Springer-Verlag, November, 1993.

New York, New York, 2000.

13. Jakob, M., Discussion appearing in Transactions of

7. Moody, L.F., Friction Factors for Pipe Flow, Trans- ASME, Vol. 60, pp. 384-386, 1938.

actions of the American Society of Mechanical Engi-

neers (ASME), Vol. 66, 8, pp. 671-684, November, 1944. 14. Kern, D.Q., Process Heat Transfer, p. 555, McGraw-

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The Babcock & Wilcox Company

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