You are on page 1of 49

The Wageningen B-Screw Series

By W . P. A. van L a m m e r e n ] Member, J. D. van M a n e n / Member,


and M. W . C. Oosterveld, 2 Member

The Wageningen B-screw series have been extended gradually to 21 screw series having
blade numbers ranging from 2 to 7 and blade-area ratios between 0.30 and 1.05.
Recently, the existing screw series were correlated with the new screw series with an up-
to-date fairing technique. This correlation was made by means of a regression analysis.
Further, the influence of the Reynolds number (scale effect) on the test results was taken
into account. For ship maneuvering studies, it is necessary to know the propeller thrust
and torque characteristics over a wider range of operating conditions. Therefore, open-
water tests with B-series screws over the entire region of operation were: carried out.
In order to obtain systematic knowledge on the cavitation characteristics of the B-screw
series in a uniform flow, tests have been conducted. The curves for cavitation inception
were established and the influence of cavitation on propeller thrust and torque was
determined.

Introduction merits c a r r i e d o u t b y B a k e r a n d R i d d l e [1]a a n d


AN IMPORTANT m e t h o d of screw design is t h a t B a k e r [2] it h a d b e c o m e e v i d e n t t h a t screws used
b a s e d on t h e results of o p e n - w a t e r t e s t s w i t h so far w h i c h h a d c i r c u l a r - b a c k b l a d e sections a n d
s y s t e m a t i c a l l y v a r i e d series of screw models. elliptical b l a d e o u t l i n e ( T a y l o r a n d Sehaffran)
T h e s e screw series c o m p r i s e m o d e l s whose c h a r a c - were in m a n y cases inferior to screws w i t h airfoil
teristic dimensions, such as p i t c h r a t i o P/D, n u m - sections. T e s t s p e r f o r m e d at t h e N e t h e r l a n d s
b e r of b l a d e s Z, b l a d e - a r e a r a t i o A u/Ao, b l a d e o u t - S h i p M o d e l Basin confirmed t h e s e conclusions in
line, s h a p e of b l a d e sections, a n d b l a d e t h i c k n e s s m a n y cases. B a s e d on t h e s e results a series of
a r e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y varied. f o u r - b l a d e d m o d e l screws of a s h a p e similar to
A m o n g t h e w e l l - k n o w n screw series as d e v e l o p e d B a k e r ' s was m a n u f a c t u r e d a n d t e s t e d in t h e open
b y Schaffran, T a y l o r , G a w n a n d others, t h e condition. T h i s series was called t h e A 4:-40 series
W a g e n i n g e n B-screw series of t h e N e t h e r l a n d s (thus 4 - b l a d e d series w i t h 0.40 b l a d e a r e a r a t i o ) .
S h i p M o d e l B a s i n t a k e an i m p o r t a n t place. T h e T h e r e s u l t s of t h e o p e n - w a t e r tests w i t h this series
B-series screw t y p e is f r e q u e n t l y used in p r a c t i c e were given b y T r o o s t [3].
a n d possesses s a t i s f a c t o r y efficiency as well as L a t e r on it was f o u n d t h a t t h e A 4-40 series
reasonable cavitation properties. screws, owing to t h e n a r r o w b l a d e t i p s a n d t h e
T h e first t e s t s w i t h s y s t e m a t i c series of screw a i r f o i l - s h a p e d sections o v e r t h e whole blades, were
propellers were p e r f o r m e d a t t h e N e t h e r l a n d s o n l y s u i t a b l e for use in cases w h e r e no c a v i t a t i o n
S h i p M o d e l Basin in 1936. F r o m m o d e l experi- d a n g e r was present. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e A 4-40
series screw t y p e did h a v e t m f a v o r a b l e b a c k i n g
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h e s e con,dderations led to t h e
Directors, Netherlands Ship Model Basin, Wageningen, design of screws w i t h wider b l a d e tips, circular-
The Netherlands.
=Head of Research Department, Netherlands Ship b a c k seetions n e a r t h e b l a d e tips, a n d airfoil-
Model Basin, Wageningen, The Netherlands. s h a p e d seetions n e a r t h e hub. Screws of t h i s t y p e
Presented at the Annual Meeting, New York, N.Y.,
November 12-14, 1969, of THE SOCIETYOF NAVALARCHI- a Numbers in brackets designate References at end of
TECTS AND M A R I N E ]~NGINEERS. paper.

269
Table 1 Summary of the Wageningen B-Screw Series

Btade number Z Btade area ratio A~/Ao

2 o.3o
3 0.55
# 0.140 1 . oo
0.45 _ 0.55 o.6o 0.70
5 0.75 1.05

6 0.80

were called B-series screws. In this way the B differences exist. However, during the last years
4 - 4 0 s c r e w s e r i e s w a s d e s i g n e d a n d g r a d u a l l y ex- the B-series have been extended considerably and
tended to further series with larger blade-area a c r o s s - f a i r i n g of t h e B - s c r e w s e r i e s d i a g r a m s f o r
ratios and various blade numbers. These exten- d i f f e r e n t b l a d e - a r e a r a t i o s a n d p r o b a b l y f o r dif-
sions were partly (mainly concerning the higher f e r e n t n u m b e r s of b l a d e s m u s t b e p o s s i b l e n o w .
n u m b e r of b l a d e s a n d t h e l a r g e r b l a d e - a r e a r a t i o s ) R e c e n t l y w e h a v e s t a r t e d t h e f a i r i n g of t h e B -
s p o n s o r e d b y t h e ( f o r m e r ) B u r e a u of S h i p s of t h e s c r e w s e r i e s t e s t r e s u l t s b y m e a n s of a r e g r e s s i o n
United States Navy. T h e r e s u l t s of t h e o p e n - a n a l y s i s . A s a r e s u l t of t h i s a n a l y s i s , t h e t h r u s t
w a t e r t e s t s w e r e g i v e n i n a n u m b e r of p u b l i c a t i o n s a n d t o r q u e c o e f f i c i e n t s K T a n d K o of t h e B - s e r i e s
b y T r o o s t [3], a n d o t h e r s [4], [5], a n d [6]. will b e e x p r e s s e d a s p o l y n o m i a l s of t h e a d v a n c e
A t p r e s e n t , a b o u t 120 s c r e w m o d e l s of t h e B - ratio J, the pitch ratio P/D, the blade area ratio
series screw type have been tested at the Nether- A R / A o , a n d t h e n u m b e r of b l a d e s Z .
lands Ship Model Basin. Table 1 gives a sum- I n a d d i t i o n , t h e e f f e c t of R e y n o l d s n u m b e r o n
m a r y of t h e series. I n g e n e r a l , t h e r e s u l t s of t h e the test results was taken into account by using
t e s t s w e r e g i v e n i n t h e f o r m of K T a n d K o coeffi- t h e m e t h o d d e r i v e d b y L e r b s [7] f r o m s i m i l a r
c i e n t s e x p r e s s e d a s a f u n c t i o n of t h e a d v a n c e m e t h o d s u s e d f o r t h e c a l c u l a t i n g of t h e p e r f o r m -
c o e f f i c i e n t dr f o r a n a l y t i c a l w o r k , a n d in t h e f o r m a n t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a i r s c r e w s f r o m t h e c h a r a c -
of B p - 6 a n d B u - 6 d i a g r a m s f o r d e s i g n p u r p o s e s . t e r i s t i c s of e q u i v a l e n t b l a d e s e c t i o n s . In the
From a correlation between the available dia- f u t u r e , t h e e f f e c t of R e y n o l d s n u m b e r m a y b e
g r a m s of t h e B - s c r e w s e r i e s i t a p p e a r s t h a t s m a l l t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n t h e p o l y n o m i a l s as well.

Nomendature
By = loading coefficient, d = hub diameter t = maximum thickness of blade
N P ~/~ D = propeller diameter section
B,- VA % VA T = thrust
J = advance coefficient, J - V,I = undisturbed stream velocity
nD
c = chord length of blade section Z = number of screw blades
K~, = t h r u s t coefficient,
CD = drag coefficient T AE/Ao = blade area ratio of screw
Cf = skin-friction drag coefficient KT-- .P/D = pitch ratio of screw
on2D ~
CL = lift coefficient d / D = hub diameter ratio
K o = torque coefficient, = angle of attack of blade sec-
CT = t h r u s t coefficient, O
T Ko = -pn2D
- 5 tion
CT -- /3 = hydrodynamic pitch angle a t
71-
1 / 2 p V A 2 --4 O n,N = number of revolutions per 0.7 R,
second and per minute /3 = aretan VA/O.7rrnD
Cr* = t h r u s t coefficient, CT* = p = pressure = speed ratio, ~ = 101.27/J
T p = specific mass of water
pv = vapor pressure
7r
p~ = static pressure of undisturbed ao = cavitation number,
~/2p[Va 2 -t- (0.77rnD) 2] ~ D 2 p -- pv
streanl 170 - -
Co* = torque coefficient, _P = power ~/2. VA2
Q O = torque no = open-water efficiency,
C o * = V..p[VA 2 + J Kr
r = radius
R = propeller radius 2~ KQ
(0.77rnD)q -~ D~D
4 Re = Reynolds number = kinematic viscosity of water

270 The Wageningen B-Screw Series


Pitch dlstibution
~R , _ L __ Ji

1__--~-4x ! \ ! \ ! ~ ~ 4 = "', I __

o~ \
02R --t--n---- ~._--4---~------./ '~ _-- ----J-- - - T - - - - ' ~ . / \ .... 7 - - - - q -- - - - - ~ / ~ 822 /
,,~ s~-~o ,~'--B zr- 5 "= - 1 , - -B 4',- 7 0" -7 T - - ~~ =4 --6-5~ - - ~ : ; , - . , , o u ~.-nxu
' 2' ~so'~.:

Fig. 1 G e n e r a l plan o f B 4 s c r e w series

Pitch distribution

o ~ l :____&~ I I '~ ! ",


( =:~

02R ~_k ' "m >/


[ c31!x I 85-45 B5-60 85-75 85-105
L
I ~ 2 2 ~-2N~u-

Fig. 2 General plan of B 5 s c r e w series

T h e p o l y n o m i a l s a n d the corrected design dia- Table 2 Dimensions of Four and Five-Bladed


g r a m s of t h e four- a n d five-bladed B-series screws B-Screw Series
are g i v e n in this paper. Y~ c~ Z ar tr b~
I n order to o b t a i n d a t a for a n a l y z i n g the R D Az/Ao c~ D c~
m a n e n v e r s of ships, submersibles, drilling vessels, 0.2 1.662 0.617 0.0366 0.350
a n d so on, o p e n - w a t e r tests with a p a r t of the B- 0.3 1.882 0.613 0,0324 0.350
screw series were c o n d u c t e d over a wider r a n g e of 0.4 2.050 0.601 0.0282 0.350
0.5 2. 152 O. 586 O, 0240 O. 350
a d v a n c e coefficients. T h i s e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o g r a m 0.6 2.187 0.56t 0,0198 0.389
covered t h e following i t e m s : 0.7 2. 144 O. 524 O. 0156 O. 443
0.8 1.970 0.463 0.0114 0.479
speed ahead, rpm ahead (lst quadrant) 0.9 1,582 O. 351 O, 0072 O. 500
1.0 ... 0 0.0030 ...
speed ahead, rpm astern (2nd q u a d r a n t )
speed astern, rpm astern (3rd q u a d r a n t ) distance between leading edge and centerline
a r
at radius r
speed astern, rpm ahead (4th q u a d r a n t ) b r = distance between leading edge and maximum
thickness of blade profile at radius r
T h e effect of p i t c h ratio P / D , blade area ratio Cr chord length of blade profile at radius r
A E / A o, a n d n u m b e r of blades Z on the characteris- D = screw diameter
r radius
tics of the B-screw series in the four q u a d r a n t s R = tip radius
h a v e been d e t e r m i n e d . AL./Ao = expanded blade area ratio
I n addition, t h e results of the f o u r - q u a d r a n t Z = number of blades
t r = maxinmm thickness o1' blade profile at radius r
m e a s u r e m e n t s are a n a l y z e d in the form of a
F o u r i e r series a n d the F o u r i e r coefficients are
given.
T o o b t a i n s y s t e m a t i c knowledge of the c a v i t a - ing the W a g e n i n g e n B-screw series are given a n d
tion characteristics of the B-screw series in a uni- discussed in this paper.
form flow, tests were carried o u t in t h e large
G e o m e t r y of B-Series Screws
N S M B c a v i t a t i o n t u n n e l with a p a r t of the B-
screw series. T h e influence of c a v i t a t i o n on pro- A s y s t e m a t i c screw series is formed b y a n u m b e r
peller t h r u s t a n d t o r q u e was measured. I n addi- of screw models of which o n l y the pitch ratio J P / D
tion, i n c e p t i o n curves were established for tip is varied. All other characteristic screw d i m e n -
vortex cavity, sheet c a v i t a t i o n a t suction a n d sions, such as d i a m e t e r D, n u m b e r of blades Z ,
pressure sides, a n d b u b b l e c a v i t a t i o n a t back a t blade area ratio A e / A o , blade outline, shape of
midchord. b l a d e sections, b l a d e thicknesses, a n d h u b - d i a m -
T h e results of all these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s concern- eter ratio d / D are the same. T h e results of tests

The Wageningen B-Screw Series 271


/
[

[dynamometer --7
IRPM t---~(propetter thrust[
/a"d torque) J

Fig. 3 Measuring equipment for performing open-water test

with the four-bladed B-screw series with blade- 00~


area ratios of 0.40, 0.55, 0.70, 0.85, and 1.00 and

/
CD
the five-bladed series with blade area ratios of
0.45, 0.60, 0.75, and 1.05 are given in this paper. 0.03
Figs. 1 and 2 show the general plans of the four-
and five-bladed screw propellers respectively. The
dimensions of these screws are given in Table 2.
0.02
The diagrams show clearly that the B-series
screws have relatively wide blade tips, circular-
back blade sections near the tip, and airfoil sec-
tions near the hub. The four-bladed screws have 0.01 " ~ - ~ O rnln t x p ~
a decrease in pitch at the hub of 20 percent in "X~O min t h e 0 r

order to adapt the screw better to the velocity


distribution behind a ship. A large number of
0
experiments has shown, however, that the differ- 025 0 0.025 0 050 0.075 0.100
ence in efficiency due to this decrease in pitch in 0<. (rad)

comparison with a screw with constant pitch is Fig. 4 Relation between drag coefficient CD and angle
insignificant. The five-bladed screws have a con- of attack ~xof equivalent blade profile of B 4-70 screw
with P / D = 1
stant pitch. The hub-diameter ratio of the four-
and five-bladed B-series screws was d / D = 0.167.
Open-Water Tests
Reo.wR = cvs~X/lZa2 + (0"75~rnD)2
Test Procedure
v
The open-water tests with the B-series screws
were carried out with the usual apparatus shown where
in Fig. 3. The immersion of the propeller shaft
was equal to the screw diameter. Before the tests c0.7~ = 2.073. AF,__._,ID
were carried out, the system friction and d u m m y A0 Z
hub torque and thrust were determined so that v = kinematic viscosity of water
the measured propeller thrust and torque could
be corrected accordingly. The usual routine of The diameter of the B-series screw models was
open-water tests was followed; the rpm of the chosen to be 0.240 m. At a screw rpm of 450 and
screw was kept constant, and by varying the speed with the advance coefficient J varying from 0 to
of advance the desired value of the advance coeffi- 1.5, the Reynolds number varies between
cient J was obtained. Usually the rpm was chosen
as high as possible to obtain a high Reynolds Reo.7~R = (2.1 to 2.5) 1 . A ~ 1
vAoZ
number. The rpm was chosen in accordance with
the maximum speed of the towing carriage and This variation in Reynolds number is small and
the capacity of the d y n a m o m e t e r used for the therefore it is permissible to base the Reynolds
thrust and torque measurements. Most of the number of the different screw series on a mean
open-water tests were made at 450 rpm. value of J. The mean value of J is chosen to be
The Reynolds number for the B-series screws, 1.0. With a kinematic viscosity of the water
based on the chord length of the screw blades at equal to v -- 1.141.10 -6 m2/sec, the Reynolds
0.75 R, m a y be written as number for the different screw series becomes:

272 The Wageningen B-Screw Series


1.0

0.g

10 KG. 08
KT
~0 0.7

Q6

0.5 - _ _i
0.4

Q3

Q2

0.1

0
L
Ol 02 03 0/. 0.5 05 07 0,8 09 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1~ 15 16
O

Fig. 5 Open-water test results of B 4-40 screw series

10KQ
KT
~o '

v0
01 02 03 Ot 05 05 07 08 Q9 10 13 12 13 14 15 16
J

Fig. 6 Open-water test results of B 4-55 screw series

1 F i n a l l y , it m u s t be n o t e d t h a t t h e t e s t s w i t h t h e
Reo.7~ = 2.10 ~. "-. B-series screws were c o n d u c t e d o v e r a p e r i o d of
A0 Z
m o r e t h a n t h i r t y years. T h e s e t e s t s were c a r r i e d
A c c o r d i n g to this definition, t h e B 4-70 series o u t in different basins of N S M B a n d d y n a m o m -
screws, for instance, were t e s t e d a t a R e y n o l d s eters w i t h different c a p a c i t i e s were used. T h e r e -
n u m b e r e q u a l to 3.5 105. fore, t h e R e y n o l d s n m n b e r a t w h i c h t h e different

The Wageningen B-Screw Series 273


O~

10K: E
KT
?o

OE

05

O~

01

0
0 01 02 03 04 g5 06 07 3 08 09 10 11 12 13 1/, 15 1G

Fig. 7 Open-water test results of B 4-70 screw series

screw series were tested varied considerably. This signing or analyzing screw propellers can be
fact must be taken into account when the results solved.
of different screw series are compared with each From a correlation between the available design
other. diagrams of the B-screw series, it appears that
small differences exist. This is partly caused by
Analysis of Test Results Reynolds number effects, the degree of turbulence
Usually the open-water test results of a series of in the towing tank, and so on. Before making a
screws were faired (parameters: advance coeffi- cross fairing between the different B-screw series
cient J, and pitch ratio P / D ) and plotted in the to blade area ratio and eventually to number of
conventional way with the coefficients: blades, we want to correct the test results for
these effects.
T The effect of the Reynolds number on the test
KT --
pn2D 4 results can be taken into account by using the
method developed by Lerbs [7] from the charac-
teristics of equivalent blade sections. This
KQ-- Q
pn2D 5 method has been followed also by Lindgren [8],
Lindgren and Bj~trne [9], and Newton and
J Kr Rader [10].
27r Ko Assuming, according to Lerbs, that the profile
of the blade sections at 0.75 R is equivalent for the
as functions of the advance coefficient J = VA/nD. blade, simple relations between the coefficients
By interpolating in the K T - K Q - J diagram of a K~, KQ, and J from the propeller tests, the corre-
screw series, most problems which arise when de- sponding lift and drag coefficients CL and CD and

274 The Wageningen B-Screw Series


! . . . . . . B/-- 85
/
15 i - - - - - -

"13 . . . . . .

1.7 - - - -

0.9 - -

10KQO~ . . . .
KT ~

\
7Fi2-
----q\y_/~, ~ _ _ _

o al d2 ~3 04 05 06 0.7 O 08 09 I0 1.1 12 13 1/. 15 16

Fig. 8 O p e n - w a t e r test results of B 4 - 8 5 s c r e w series

the profile angle of attack a can be deduced. As 0.0185 -- 0.00125Z


an example, the drag coefficients CD of the B 4-70
to.v~,~/Co.7~ =

As 1
series screw with pitch ratio P / D = 1.0 is given 2.073 . . . .
A0 Z
in Fig. 4 on a base of angle a. From these results
the values of minimum drag coefficients C~.ml, of Hence the open-water test results of a screw
the equivalent blade sections can be determined. propeller can be corrected for Reynolds number
In addition, the drag coefficients C~,m~. of the effects by shifting the experimentally obtained
equivalent blade sections can be determined theo- drag curve in such a way that the CD,mlnaccording
retically according to Hoerner [11 ] with : to the test results coincides with the theoretically
calculated drag coefficient CD.,,,I.. This theoret-
C,,,,,, = 2C~-[1 + 2 /o.w~ ical drag coefficient corresponds with the as-
co.7~a_] sumed value of the Reynolds number. The con-
where cept is shown in Fig. 4. Once the lift and cor-
rected drag coefficients C~. and CD and profile
Cf = drag coefficient of a fiat plate in
angle of attack a are known, the corrected thrust
a turbulent flow
and torque coefficients KT and KQ and the ad-
to.v~R/Co.v~,u = thickness ratio of the blade sec-
vance coefficient J can be deduced.
tion at 0.75 R
All the open-water test results with the B-series
The drag coefficient Cv depends on the Rey- screws are corrected in this way. The assumed
nolds number and can be determined according to Reynolds numbers and drag coefficients C~,mi=
the 1TTC line. The thickness ratio of the blade are given in Table 3. To show the scale effect, the
section of B-series screws at 0.75 R is equal to open-water test results with the B 4-70 screw

The Wageningen B-Screw Series 275


B 4-100

I
I
I
i
IOKQ F

KT
%

~0 O? 02 03 OL 05 06 O? 0.8 09 1,0 1.1 12 13 14 15


J

Fig. 9 O p e n - w a t e r test results of B 4 - 1 0 0 s c r e w series

1.0

Q9

IOKoOg
KT I ,2 J ~ Ji JI ~i E
I
i
'~0 1?7

Og

05 -

O4

O3

O2

01

0
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 0 10 11 12 13 1~ 15 16
,3

Fig. 10 O p e n - w a t e r test results of B 5-45 s c r e w series

276 The Wageningen B-Screw Series


12 ---

11

10

og

08
IOKQ
KT
'~O 07

06

05

0~

03

0~

01

0
01 02 03 O~ 05 06 07 08 0g 10 1.1 12 13 1~. 15 16
O

Fig. I I O p e n - w a t e r test results o f B 5 - 6 0 s c r e w series

12

11 .~.~_~___ - -

1.0

09

10KQO8
KT I
NO 0.'7

O6

05

0/.

03

O2.

01

0
b 0.1 02 83 04 0.S 0g 07 0.8 0g 10 II 12 ~3 I.L 15 16
J
Fig. 12 Open-water test results of B 5-75 screw series

The Wageningen B-Screw Series 277


__l . . . . . . . \Z
1 0 - - - - ,~-- - -

88. . . . ~. . . . .
l0 KQ
KT /0

.6

OS

84

.... X x'v
8.2-- ~" " ~ 7 ~ - - ~--~ --

r~ 1 /
" - - 1 "-q
O, 0.1 8.2 03 O& 85 86 87 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15
,2

Fig. 13 O p e n - w a t e r test results of B 5 - 1 0 5 s c r e w series

Table 3 Assumed Reynolds Numbers and Drag Table 4 Reynolds Numbers and Corresponding Drag
Coefficients CD, nl~. of Different Screw Series Coefficients CD, m~. to Which Results of B 4-70 Screw
Series Are Extrapolated
An 10.75 R
Z As Reo.v,n 2 CI c6.v, R CD, ,ni~ A E 10.Ta R

I0.40 0.572 X 106 0.01060 0.0652 0.0120 Z Ao Reo.Tr, R 2 Cf c0.75 R CD. mln

10.55 0.787 X 106 0.00985 0.0473 0.0108 ( 0.3 X 106 0,01240 0.0372 0.0133
4 t0"70 1.000 X 106 0.00931 0.0372 0.0100 l 1.0 X 106 0,00931 0.0372 0.0100
/0.85 1.214 X 106 0.00892 0.0305 0.0095 4 0.70 3.0 X 106 0.00738 0.0372 0.0078
~1.00 1.429 X 106 0.00862 0.0261 0.0091 10 X 10G 0.00582 0.0372 0.0062
I0.45 0.515 X 106 0.01090 0.0658 0.0123 ,lO0 X 106 0.00401 0,0372 0.0043
Jo.60 0.687 X 108 0.01017 0.0493 0.0112
5 ~0.75 0.859 X 106 0.00964 0.0395 0.0104
[1.05 1.202 X 106 0.00894 0.0282 0.0094
Reo.v, R = 5.72AE/A6" 1 / Z . 106 regression analysis, U p till now o n l y t h e four-
CD, rain = 2 Cp[1 -F- 2 [0.TaR/tO.TaR] a n d five-bladed B-screw series were a n a l y z e d in
this way. T o begin with, the results of t h e dif-
to.v6n (0.0185-- 0.00125 Z ) Z
f e r e n t screw series ( p a r a m e t e r s : a d v a n c e ratio J
CO.7SR 2.073 AE/Ao
a n d pitch ratio P / D ) were analyzed, T h e t h r u s t
a n d t o r q u e coefficients were expressed as poly-
series are given for different values of the R e y - n o m i a l s of a d v a n c e coefficient J a n d p i t c h ratio
nolds n u m b e r (see T a b l e 4). P/D:
T h e fairing of the corrected o p e n - w a t e r test re-
KT =
sults with the B-screw series was performed with
t h e aid of a C D C 3300 c o m p u t e r b y m e a n s of a Ao,o + Aoa J - t - Ao,2 d2 + . . + Ao,, js +

278 The Wageningen B-Screw Series


7".......1__12
........ i- f
,

~'li Z[~-Z~
0.[
10K 0 I
KT
~ 0 0.5

0.t

Ot I I

03

Or
0 O1 0.2 03 0.4 05 06 07 08 ,3 09 10 11 12 13 l,r* 1.5 16

Fig. 14 Open-water test results of B 4-70 screw series extrapolated to Reo.75 R := 0.3 X lOe;
( C . . min -- 0.0133)

P P P
Ax,o~-- + AI,I~) J-]- A1,2~) J2 + . . -]--Zll,6~- j6_[_

pe 2
A2,0~2 -~- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -t- A2,6~? j 6 .
/36,0P66 + . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . + B6,6D~
p 6 if6

With the aid of a regression analysis the signifi-


cant terms of the polynomials and the values of
the corresponding coefficients were determined.
6 From this analysis it was :found that the results
...................... - d~6 of both the four- and the five-bladed B-series
screws could be approximaLed very well by the
KQ= following series :
Bo,o +Bo,1 J+i3o,,., J~+..+Bo,6 j6+ P
K r = Ao,o + AoaJ + Ao,2:2 + A o , J 3 + A , , o ~
Bl,O~-- -1- BI,1]~ ff -[- B 1,-/~.J"-]-..-1-
oP o J) ff6_[_
B1.6~-
P 3 p2 p~
p2 -1- A I , I ~ ) J -t- - 1 1 , 3 b J -lr-A2,1D~J ...[-Ao,o~
.B~,o~ + ....................................
p6
+ A~a~J

The Wageningen B-Screw Series 279


10K{
KT
~o

~0 01 02 83 04 f18 08 87 08 09 10 1.1 12 13 14 15 18
0

Fig. 15.~ O p e n - w a t e r test r e s u l t s o f B 4 - 7 0 s c r e w s e r i e s e x t r a p o l a t e d to Reo.7a n = 3.0 X 106;


(CD,mln : 0 . 0 0 7 8 )

KQ = BO,O+ BoaJ + Bo,~J 2 + Bo,aJ a + B ,,l P


~ J Kr =

p2 p2 p6
+ B~,a ~P J" + B2,0 ~-2 + B~,a ~ ja + B6,o D6--
p6
+ Bs,I~?J
A EP 6 A E2.P6
M o s t of the terms with high powers of J and P / D + Co,o,oDP~66+ G,6,0 -~-0~ + G,~,O--A
o2 D
6-
were insignificant.
Secondly, the results of the screw series with
A EaP 6
+ Ca,~,o--
the same n u m b e r of blades b u t with different blade Ao 3 D 6
area ratios were correlated with each other. T h e p6 A E p6
t h r u s t and torque coefficients of the four- as well + Co,o,, + c,,o,, :
as the five-blade propellers were expressed as
polynomials of J, P / D , and A E/A 8. As far as J + Ce,<l Au2P6 CaG1A~ aP6
and P / D are concerned, the choice of the terms
was based on the foregoing analysis. T h e follow-
ing polynomials were used for the calculation: Ko = ditto

280 The Wageningen B-Screw Series


16

15

14

v a
13
~. . . . . i . . . . ,
12

11--

10--

Qg~

10K: 8
KT
"r~O 07

\4) /

0O
~01 Q2 03 0/, 0IS"~ 06 07 08 O 09 10 1.1 12 13 "l~ 1.S 16

Fig. 16 Open-water test results of B 4-70 screw series extrapolated to Re0.~5 n = 10;
(CD.mi~ = 0.0062)

Again with a regression analysis the significant were drawn in the conventional way as a function
terms of the polynomials and the values of the of J. The diagrams of the B 4-40, B 4455, B
corresponding coefficients were determined. For 4-70, B 4,-85, and B 4-100 ,;crew series are given
the four- and five-bladed B-series screws these re- in Figs. 5 through 9. Figs. 1.0 through 13 show
sults are given in Tables 5 and 6 respectively. the diagrams of the B 5-45, B 5-60, B 5-75, and
B 5-105 screw series.
Presentation of Test Results The results of the 13 4-70 screw series were
The results of the open-water tests with the extrapolated to different Reynolds numbers. The
four- and five-bladed screw series were extrap- CD.,,in values of the equivalent blade section
olated and expressed in polynomials. In these corresponding with the assumed Reynolds num-
polynomials, either KT or K o were the dependent bers were given in Tat)le 4. The KT-KQ-J
variable with the advance coefficient J, the pitch diagrams are given in Figs. 14, 7, 15, 16, and 17.
ratio P/D, and the blade area ratio A E/Ao as the By interpolating in the'. K-KQ-J diagram
independent variables. The form of these series of a screw series most problems which arise when
together with their coefficients were given in designing or analyzing screw propellers can be
Tables 5 and 6. These results can be used directly solved. For design purposes various types of
for solving problems which arise when designing more practical diagrams can be derived from the
and analyzing screw propellers if a computer is Kr-Ko-J diagram.
available. The most widely encountered design problem
Also, we will give the results of the analysis in is that where the speed of ;advance of the screw
graphical form. With the aid of a tape-controlled VA, the power to be absorbed b y the screw P, and
drawing machine the coefficients Kr, Ko, and no the number of revolutions n are given. The

The Wageningen B-Screw Series 281


" i - ]. . . . . B 10
i =0004:

I
i
i
13 --- ....... [....................... i ..........

i. . . . . . . . . .

1 t
t2 ~ . . . . __. [. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11
. . . . . . .
. . . . I . . . . . . . .

10 . . . . . .

09~

KT
~0 07

06

0 L ~ --i! " .
I

_ _ _\ !

01 "t~. .
Y
o~ oi 02 83 0.4 0,5 06 07 08 09 10 1.1 12 13 14 15 16

Fig. 17 Open-water test results of B 4-70 screw series extrapolated to Reo.vsn = 10s;
(CD, m~ = 0 . 0 0 4 3 )

diameter D is to be chosen such that the greatest in which


efficiency can be obtained. The problem of the
optimum diameter can be solved in an easy way by D = screw diameter in feet
plotting 7o and J as a function of
The Bp-6 diagrams of all the four- and five-bladed
KQ1/2/J /2 : : nPl/~/Va 5/~ B-screw series are given in Figs. 18 through 26.
As a check of the correlation between the dif-
The Taylor variable Bp is related to this ferent diagrams, the efficiency 7o, speed ratio 6,
dimensionless variable by the equation and pitch ratio .P/D corresponding to optimum
B~ = 33.07 KQ1/2/J 6/2 = NP'/"-/Va V~ diameter are given in Figs. 27, 2S, and 29 on the
base of B~. The curves of the four-bladed B-
where screw series are given in Fig. 27. Figs. 28 and 29
N = number of revolutions per minute show the results of the five-bladed B-screw series
ff = power in hp and the B 4-70 screw series extrapolated to dif-
VA = speed of advance in knots. ferent Reynolds numbers.
In cases where, Va, T, and n or VA, ]', and D
In the usual diagram, the design coefficient By is are given, the problem of determining the opti-
the base and a new speed ratio 6 is used. This mum diameter or the optimum number of revolu-
speed ratio is defined as tions can be solved by plotting 7o and J as func-
ND 101.27 tions of
6 --
v~ y KT/J 4 and KT/J 2

282 The Wageningen B-Screw Series


Table 5 Form of Polynomial and Coefficients of
Four-Bladed B-Screw Series
Cx,y,z x :y g Dx,y,z xyz
--.719975 ~ --2 0 0 0 4 . . 964375 --2 0 0 0
--.790916 ~ --1 1 0 0 - - . 104103 --1 1 0 0
--.179541 ~ 0 0 0 1 4 . . 512431 --2 200
-.625748 # --1 1 0 1 ++. 109936 --i 300
--.311639 # 0 0 0 2 --.453419 --2 0 0 1
4.. 143160 ~ 0 2 0 3 4..216078 --1 1 0 1
4..531326 ~ 0 0 1 0 - - . 507337 --1 O 0 2
--.114389 ~ 0 i 1 I 4" .377970 --1 1 0 2
4..625376 # --i 0 1 2 - - . 549486 --1 3 0 3
4.. 125537 ~ 0 0 1 3 --.507319 --1 2 1 0
--.523821 ~ --i I 1 3 4 . . 368649 --1011
--.207108 0 0 2 0 - - . 106520 0111
4..270781 ~ 0 1 2 0 +.465315 --1 3 1 2
4 . . 134182 ~ 0 0 2 1 4..883010 ~ -1 213
--.121086 0 1 2 1 4..112619 --1 0 2 0
--.189764 1 3 2 1 4 . . 10482;5 ~ 0 120
--.439535 ~ --1 3 2 2 -- .449154 ~ --I 121
--.624937 ~ --I 0 2 3 4..378780 ~ --1 2 2 1
--.496939 ~ --2 2 6 0 4..177304 ~ --1 022
++.115986 ~ --i 2 6 1 --.164687 ~ --1 1 2 2
--.344328 ~ --1 222
--.249132 ~ --1 322
--.233007 --1 123
--.120209 --2 060
- - .118997 ~ --2 3 60
++ .458094 ~ --2 161
K T = ZC~,>:[A~'/A,,]~[P/D]'[J] ~
KQ = ZD ..... [Au/Ao]~[P/DIY[J] -"

Table 6 Form of Polynomial and Coefficients of


Five-Bladed B-Screw Series
Cx,y,z X 3' Z T)x,y,z xyz
--.191226 ~ --1 0 0 0 4 . . 520666 --2 0 0 0
--.860251 ~ --1 2 0 0 4 . . 627259 -I 201
--.598290 ~ --2 3 0 0 --.337780 --1301
--.181301 ~ 0 0 0 1 - - . 518101 --1 002
--.457217 ~ 0 0 0 2 4 . . 396494 --1 102
4..562903 ~ --1 3 0 2 - - . 848886 --2 003
4..990584 ~ --1 2 0 3 4..317571 --1 3 0 3
4..431314 ~ 0 0 1 0 4 . . 130016 -1 010
4 . . 189210 ~ 0 1 1 0 --.340161 --1110
--.254103 ~ 0 1 1 1 4 . . 624821 --1011
4...413600 ~ 0 0 1 2 --. 239657 0 111
--.126380 ~ 0 2 1 2 4..801838 --1211
- - . 8 6 5 9 1 4 --1 0 2 0 ++. 119589 --1 0 1 2
4 . . 856485 ~ - - 1 1 2 0 - - . 477460 --1312
4 . . 113060 ~ 0 0 2 1 4 . . 133699 / 0120
--.146526 ~ 0 0 2 2 - - . 382898 --1 220
--.792780 ~ --2 0 6 0 4-. 270494 --1 121
4..669368 ~ --2 1 6 1 --.381466 --2 160
4..241740 --2 360
KT, = EC ..... [AE/Aolx[P/D]~[J]
KQ ~D:,u,~[AE/Ao].~[P/D]y[J]

For the different propeller groups the curves for


optimum diameter (on base of ~ / K T / J 4) a n d
optimum r p m ( o n b a s e o f v / K r / . l 2) a r e g i v e n i n
Figs. 30, 31, and 32 and Figs. 33, 34, and 35 ~_
respectively. Fig. 18 Open-water test results of B 4-40 screw series

The Wageningen B-Screw Series 283


\A \ix x x

_ . . . ,.

Fig. 19 O p e n - w a t e r test r e s u l t s o f B 4 - 5 5 s c r e w s e r i e s Fig. 20 O p e n - w a t e r test r e s u l t s o f B 4 - 7 0 s c r e w s e r i e s

984 The Wageningen B-Screw Series


Fig. 21 O p e n - w a t e r test r e s u l t s o f B 4 - 8 5 s c r e w series Fig. 22 O p e n - w a t , e r test r e s u l t s o f B 4 - 1 0 0 s c r e w s e r i e s

The Wageningen B-Screw Series 285


o

i o

D
to

x'~ \4

O p e n - w a t e r test results o f B 5-45 s c r e w s e r i e s Fig. 24 O p e n - w a t e r test results o f B 5-60 s c r e w s e r i e s


Fig. 23

286
The Wageningen B-Screw Series
O

Fig. 2 5 O p e n - w a t e r test r e s u l t s o f B 5-75 s c r e w series Fig. 26 O p e n - w a t e r test results o f B 5-105 s c r e w s e r i e s

The Wageningen B-Screw Series 287


0

?o
O 500 500

O, ;00 40q

0 3O0 300
&,-

O: 20O 200

JO0 100

I.( 3 0

P/c

D(

3 4 5 10 20 30 40 50 100 200 300 3 4 5 10 20 30 40 50 100 200 300


Bp
9p

Fig. 2 7 Curves for optimum diameter of four-bladed B- Fig. 29 Curves for optimum diameter of B 4-70 screw
screw series series extrapolated to different Reynolds numbers

5O0

3OO

8
-~00

I00

3 4 5 10 20 30 40 50 100 200 300 \/ ,


8p wd4

Fig. 28 Curves for optimum diameter of five-bladed Fig. 3O Curves for optimum diameter of four-bladed
B-screw series B.screw series

Four-Quadrant Measurements propeller operations. D a t a covering the entire


operating region are scarce and m o s t of the availa-
Test Procedure ble data are related to isolated applications only.
T o obtain data for ship m a n e u v e r i n g studies, (See, for instance, [11], [12], [13], and [14].)
it is necessary to k n o w the propeller thrust and Therefore, part of the B-series was tested over
torque characteristics over t h e entire region of the entire range of operating conditions. Conse-

288 The Wageningen B-Screw Series


o~[ ., T ', . . . . . B 4-40
I
I
)
4 -55 !
07 i 4 -70
- - - - L -SO
4 -100
05
~o
05

04

03

02

12

10
%
08
i

05 - " ?- i

C
I
i
02 03 04 0S 1 ~ 2 3 4 5 ~0 20
02 030405 ~_K~T1 2 3 4 5 10 20

,3
Fig. 31 Curves for optimum diameter o f five-bladed Fig. 33 Curves for optimum rpm o f four-bladed B-
B-screw series screw series
0~ 08

0 07
'%
0 06 $

70
O5
i i I/C 7

04 6

03 5

02 4

%
0 O~

0! Oe
I
0,
02 03 0~ 05 , 2 3 4 5 ,0 20 02 03 04 05
i, 10 20
~2 2 3 4 5

Fig. 32 Curves for optimum diameter of B 4 - 7 0 screw


Fig. 34 Curves for optimum rpm of five-bladed B-screw
series extrapolated to different Reynolds numbers series

quently, tile screw propellers were tested at the o ~ 3 4 9o


following combinations of speed and r p m :
First quadrant: speed ahead, r p m ahead. The Second quadrant: speed ahead, r p m astern
h y d r o d y n a m i c pitch angle 3 (tan 3 =
Vx/O.TrrnD) varies between 0 and 90 deg. o ~ ~ ~ lSO

The Wageningen B-Screw Series 289


0~ 1 B 4-70 series screw with P / D = 1.0
2 B 4-70 series screws with P / D = 0.5, 0.6,
0: 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4 (influence of pitch ratio)
3 B 4-40, B 4-55, B 4-70, B 4-85, and B 4-100
series screws, all with P / D = 1.0 (influence of
To
0'
blade-area ratio)
4 B 3-65, B 4-70, B 5-75, B 6-80, B 7-85 series
0, screws, all with P / D = 1.0 (influence of number
of blades)
0.
T h e test results are given in Figs. 36, 37, and
38. In these diagrams the nondimensional thrust
and torque coefficients:

T
CT*
1
~r D2
o[V,fl + (0.7~nD) 2] ~-
0

0
Co* ---
~p[VA
1 2 + (0.7~nD) 2] ~ .D2"D
0~
02 0X 0 a 0 S \ K/-~-
T t 2 ] a 5 10 20
4
+7 are given as function of the h y d r o d y n a m i c pitch
Fig. 35 Curves for optimum rpm of B 4-70 screw angle
s e r i e s e x t r a p o l a t e d to different Reynolds numbers

v~
fl = a r c t a n -
0.7rrnD
Third quadrant: speed astern, r p m astern

180 ~ ~ ~ 270 In Fig. 35 the influence of the pitch ratio on the


characteristics in the four quadrants is given.
F o u r t h quadrant: speed astern, r p m ahead Figs. 36 and 37 show the influence of blade area
ratio and number of blades respectively.
270 4 ~ ~< 360 In ship maneuvering studies, it is necessary to
have a m a t h e m a t i c a l representation of the data
The measurements were performed with the suitable for use on a computer. Therefore, calcu-
usual apparatus for open-water tests. T h e tests lations were carried out to represent the results
with the negative propeller advance velocities of the four-quadrant measurements b y a Fourier
were conducted with reversely mounted model series. T h e thrust and torque coefficients Ce*
propellers and without change in the carriage and CO* were approximated b y the following
motion direction. series:
Within the normal test range of a screw pro-
peller it is generally possible to perform the tests
at a constant rpm. Outside this range, the tests Cr* = ~ [A(K) cosflK+B(K)sinSK]
K=0
m u s t be performed at different r p m and speed of
advance to operate within the range of capabili- CO* = ditto
ties of the d y n a m o m e t e r and on account of the
m a x i m u m speed of the towing carriage. Usually In Figs. 39, 40, and 41 the measured results and
the rpm and speed were chosen as high as possible the approximation of these results by a Fourier
to obtain a high Reynolds number. series of 2, 5, 10, and 20 terms are given for the
B 4-70 series screws with pitch ratios of 0.6, 1.0,
Presentation of Test Results and 1.4 respectively.
T h e influence of pitch ratio P/D, blade area F r o m the results given in these diagrams it can
ratio A J A o , and number of blades Z on the be seen t h a t the characteristics of the model
characteristics of the B-series screws in the four propellers in the four quadrants can be adequately
quadrants have been determined. Therefore, represented by a Fourier series of 20 terms. Tile
open-water tests were performed with the follow- values of the Fourier coefficients of the different
ing propeller models: screw propellers are given in Tables 7, 8, and 9.

290 The Wageningen B-Screw Series


c;
-ll)CQ
08
//:,%,, ,.', ,

/t
04

"-.. ?

I
-0~ . /

~08

\ \/ / \--..,// / / /
", \ / ,,' ,,,,'
-12

J
, 1
-2C
, i
.,j
I
J
-2~0 40 80 120 160 /3 200 240 280~---~~ ;0

Fig. 36 Open-water test results with B 4-70 s c r e w series in four quadrants

Cavitation Test Results The tests with the screw models were carried
out at a constant water velocity in the test section
Test Procedure
of 5.5 m/see. The required range of cavitation
To obtain systematic knowledge on the cavita- numbers was obtained by wtrying the pressure in
tion characteristics of the B-series screws in a uni- the tunnel. By varying the rpm of the model
form flow, tests have been carried out in the large propellers a range of adwmee coefficients was
N S M B cavitation tunnel with the B 4-$5, B covered between 0, and about 50 percent slip. Due
4-100, B 5-75, and B 5-105 screw series. The to the normal restrictions of a cavitation tunnel
N S M B cavitation tunnel has a 90 cm X 90 cm it was not possiblle to cover the slip range up to
closed working section and a uniform flow. 100 percent (zero ]).
The material used for the propeller models was The air contenl: of the tunnel was kept within
normal propeller bronze. The surfaces were certain limits throughout the complete testing
polished to a high-quality smooth finish. For re- and ranged between about a / a s = 0.20 and
liable cavitation testing of propellers, the leading a/a~ = 0.33, according to Van Slijke.
edges of the propeller blades must be very accu- The cavitation inception curves were estab-
rately finisbed to the correct shape. Therefore, all lished by determining, as a function of the pro-
screw models were carefully corrected with a peller load and cavitation number, the point at
blade-edge microscope. A detailed description of which cavitation just disappeared (desinent cavi-
this apparatus is given in [15]. tation). This procedure was followed because the

The Wageningen B-Screw Series 291


Table 7 Coefficients of Fourier Series by Which Results of Four-
, P / D .= 0.6 -P/D = 0.8 . .P/D =
K A (K) B(K) A (K) B(K) A (K)
0 +.23680 ~ --1 +.00000 ~ + 0 +.32155 ~ --1 +.00000 / +0 +.25350 / --1
1 +.15260 ~ 0 --.45175 ~ 0 +.1609.5 ~ 0 --.63525 0 +,17820 0
2 +.66146 ~ --'2 --.24044 ~ --2 +.14351 --2 --.11844 ~ --i +.14674 ;~ --i
3 +.97879 ~ --3 --.21257 --i +.28507 --I +.52180 --i +.28054 --i
4 +.60002 ~ --2 --.68887 --2 --.42671 ~ --2 --.97199 ~ --2 --.16328 --i
5 --.14447 ~ --i +.67897 --I --.53118 ~ --i +.63724 ;~ --1 --.53041 --I
6 --.19974 ~ --2 +.38679 --3 +.10643 ~ --2 +.93564 ~ --2 +.60605 ~ --3
7 +.16256 ~ --2 +.15350 --i +.37410 --i --.70870 --2 +.36823 ~ --I
8 --.20861 ~ --2 +.25304 --2 --.60685 --2 --.42418 --2 --.25429 --2
9 +.10054 --i --.39916 ~ --2 --.13500 --1 +.17681 ~ --i --.17689 --1
CT* 10 --.59153 ~ --3 --.18073 ~ --2 +.46384 --2 +.32632 --2 +.27331 --2
11 +.50710 ~ --2 +.68506 ~ --2 +.13219 --i --.14014 --2 +.21436 # --I
12 +.11960 ~ --2 +.13320 ~ --2 --,29566 --2 +.14379 ;~ --2 --.24782 --2
13 +.13316 ~ --2 +.64404 ~ --2 +.64063 --2 +.99927 # --2 +.12317 --2
14 +.43638 ~ --3 +.17048 ~ --2 +.42304 _o --.95800 ~ --3 +.50980 --2
15 +.49284 --2 --.10662 --2 +.16274 --2 --.66572 --2 +.78076 --2
16 +.46434 ~ --3 --.18045 --2 --.22250 ~ --2 +.19305 ;~ --2 --.37816 ;~ --2
17 +.42182 ~ --2 --.13301 --2 +.60626 --'2 +.45298 --2 +.35353 --2
18 +.30748 ;~ --3 --.17601 --2 +.26669 ~ --2 --,20864 --2 +.53014 --2
19 +.55746 --3 --.16006 --3 --.11136 ~ --2 --,51539 --2 +.21940 --2
[20 --.96705 ~ --4 +.66625 --3 +.21718 --4 +.12468 --2 --.28306 --2
0 +.32412 ~" --t +,00000 +0 +.47734 --I +.00000 +0 +.24645 ~ --I
1 +. 22769 ~ 0 --. 62757 ~ 0 +, 24469 0 --. 88736 0 +. 26718 0
2 --.27622 ~ --1 +.35503 --I --,34342 --I +.23609 --t +.16056 --i
3 +.41402 ~ --2 --.41952 --i +.48075 --1 +.54166 --I +.65822 --i
4 +.12264 ~ --1 --.87073 ~ --2 +.14028 ~ --1 --.318~36 --1 --.22497 -i
5 --.13100 ~ --2 +.11366 0 --.47355 ~ --I +,12457 0 --.78062 --i
6 +.24133 ~ --2 --.63308 --2 --.13162 --2 +.14249 --i +.24126 --2
7 --.72338 --2 +.31429 --i +.20234 --1 --.27189 --I +.61475 --i
8 --.47773 ~ --3 --.51207 --3 --.26110 --I --.12249 --i --.16065 --1
9 +.16189 ~ --1 --.12663 ~ --1 +.10196 ~ --1 +,26454 ~ --1 --.33291 ~ --1
CQ* 10 --.53801 # _ o --.20723 ~ --2 +.20437 --1 +.46334 ~ --2 +.12311 --1
11 +.14161 ~ --i +.10887 ~ --I --.13622 ~ --2 +.13838 ~ --i +.31123 ~ --i
12 --.46008 # --3 --.24566 ~ --2 --.12381 --i +.68735 --2 --.12559 --i
13 +.25050 # --3 +.10271 ~ --1 +.24253 --I +,58492 ~ --3 +.13948 --1
14 --.19800 ~ --2 +.15357 --2 --.59326 ~ --3 --,13377 --i +.88397 # --2
15 +.57280 ~ --2 --.68530 --2 --,68631 ~ --3 --,11603 ~ --2 +.50358 ~ --3
~16 --.40970 --2 --.11526 ~ --2 +.55097 # --2 +.13264 ;~ --i --.79990 --2
17 +.75132 ~ --2 --.20622 ~ --2 +.66757 ~ --2 --.42987 ~ --2 +.13345 --i
18 +.50548 ~ --3 --.13874 ~ --2 --.51424 ~ --2 --.76084 ~ --2 +.11928 ~ --i
19 --.57,544 ~ --4 +.14868 --2 +,29728 --2 +,77164 --4 --.13556 --2
20 +.12067 --2 +.25205 ~ --2 +.68255 --2 --,37948 --2 --.70825 --2

d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e p o i n t of i n c i p i e n t c a v i t a t i o n T h e c a v i t a t i o n i n c e p t i o n curves for t h e tip


does n o t give c o u s i s t e n t t e s t results w h er eas desi- v o r t e x c a v i t y , t h e sheet c a v i t a t i o n on pressure and
n e n t c a v i t a t i o n is fairly r e p e a t a b l e . suction sides, an d t h e m i d c h o r d b u b b l e c a v i t a -
tion were g i v en on a base of t h e p h y s i c a l l y realis-
Analysis of Test Results tic t h r u s t coefficient
T h e n e t p r o p e ll e r t h r u s t s a n d t o r q u e s m e a s u r e d 1" 8 Kr
in t h e t u n n e l were c o n v e r t e d to t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l 7r .]2
n o n d i m e n s i o n a l t h r u s t a n d t o r q u e coefficients KT ~PV~2 ~r D2
a n d KQ. T h e s e coefficients were c a l c u l a t e d as a
f u n c t i o n of t h e a d v a n c e coefficient J = V f f n D an d t h e c a v i t a t i o n n u m b e r ao.
an d t h e c a v i t a t i o n n u m b e r C o r r e c t i o n s were ap p l i ed to t h e w a t e r v e l o c i t y
p~ - pv an d t h e pressure in t h e w o r k i n g section for t u n n e l
0- 0 -- wall interference. T h e s e co r r ect i o n s were based
on t h e i d e n t i t y of t h e t h r u s t coefficient KT for
T h e effieiencies were calculated from the relation t h e screw m o d e l s in t h e t u n n e l and t h a t f r o m t h e
o p e n - w a t e r tests.
J Kr T h e a p p l i e d c o r r e c t i o n s ar e in p r i n ci p l e t h e
~0 ~
27r KQ same as i n d i c a t e d b y Bu r r i l l [t6]. T h e c o r r e c t i o n
leads i n i t i a l l y to t h e r e l a t i o n J t = k J . The
using t h e KT and K o values f r o m t h e c u r v e s faired f a c t o r k is d e t e r m i n e d for e v e r y screw as a func-
t h r o u g h t h e m e a s u r e d values. tion of J for eq u al KT, f r o m t h e o p e n - w a t e r K T - J

292 The Wageningen B-Screw Series


Quadrant Measurements with B 4-70 Screw Series Are Approximated
1.0 , .P/D = 1.2--. P,/D = 1.4
B(K) A(K) B(K) A(K) B(K)
+.00000 ~ t0 +.24182 ~ --1 +.00000 ~ t0 +.34168 ~ --1 +.00000 ~ t0
--.74777 ~ 0 +.19526 ~ 0 --.83513 ~ 0 +.21336 ~ 0 --.89037 ~ 0
--.13822 ~'~ --1 +.24861 ~ --1 --.17626 ~ --1 +.159cff # --1 --.19243 ~ --1
+.10077 ~ 0 +.20096 ~ --1 +.12925 ~ 0 +.18491 ~ --1 +.14229 ~ 0
--.11318 ~ --1 --.27491 # --1 --.16164 # --1 --.28473 # --1 --.18926 ~ --1
+.47186 ~'~ --1 --.49417 # --1 +.35073 ~ --1 --.57102 # --1 +.26496 # --1
+.10666 ~ --1 +.10719 # --1 +.17977 # --1 +.13258 # --1 +.19985 # --1
--.90239 ~'~ --2 +.31616 # --1 +.94574 # --3 +.31091 # --1 +.95880 # --2
--.78452 ~ --2 --.60703 ~ --2 --.10011 ~ --1 --.61834 ~ --2 --.15497 ~ --1
+.23941 ~'~ --1 --.160(,)7 ~ --1 +.18813 # --1 --.1251.8 # --1 +.16351 # --1
+.80787 ~ --2 +.36134 ~ --3 +.96321 ~ --2 +.14889 ~ --2 +.12108 ~ --i
--.14942 ~'~ --3 +.23123 # --1 +.26472 # --2 +.24639 # --1 +.60098 # --2
--.31925 ~# --'2 --.38763 ~ --4 --.34897 # --2 --.43034 # -3 --.40057 # --2
+.92620 ~'~ --2 +.15034 ~ --2 +.74367 ~ --2 --.21774 ~ -2 +.66508 ~ --2
+.15527 ~'~ --'2 +.73161 ~ --2 +.70138 ~ --3 +.62884 ~ --2 +.26481 ~ --2
--.65683 ~ --2 +.10954 ~ --i --.59772 ~ --2 +.12499 ~ --I --.65500 ~ --2
--.61655 ~# --3 --.62652 ~ --2 +.63688 ~ --3 --.5794:1 ~ --'2 --.25089 ~ --2
+.51033 ~ --2 --.47583 ~ --5 +.59988 ~ --2 --.19753 ~ _o +.51549 ~ --'2
--.60263 ~'~ --3 +.64641 ~ --2 +.97174 ~ --3 +.72177 ~ -2 +.34309 ~ --2
--.82244 ~'~ --2 +.36168 ~ --2 --.82817 --2 +.72116 ~ --2 --.80479 ~ --'2
--.63789 ~'~ --3 --.41148 # _o --.28370 ~ --2 --.40411 ~ --2 --.28547 ~ --2
+.00000 ~'~ t O +.38330 ~ --1 +.00000 # tO +.55885 ~ --1 +.00000 ~ +0
--.11081 ~ +1 +.30834 ~ 0 --.12379 ~ +1 +.33553 ~ 0 --.13087 ~ +1
+ . 15909 ~'~ --2 + . 13009 ~ -- 1 -- .76857 ~ --2 -- .55351 ~ --'2 -- .13050 ~ -- 1
+.16455 ~ 0 +.37977 ~ --1 +._1_30
" ) 0
~ 0 +.295(;5 -I +.22932 0
--.20601 ~'~ --1 --.42771 ~ --1 --.34173 ~ --1 --.39907 ~ --1 --.39610 ~ --1
+.85343 ~'~ --1 --.62278 --1 +.51927 ~ --1 --.59824 ~ --1 +.35474 ~ --1
+.87856 ~'~ --2 +.11654 ~ --1 +.25757 ~ --1 +.87083 ~ -2 +.30131 ~ --1
-- .31327 ~ --1 +.46308 ~ -- 1 - - . 13343 ~ -- 1 +.38511 ~ -- 1 + .22306 ~ --2
--.96650 ~ --2 --.20672 ~ --1 --.16388 ~ --1 --.21977 --1 --.19345 --1
+.43190 ~'~ --1 --.25171 ~ --1 +.36642 ~ --1 --.16701 ~ -1 +.31211 ~ --1
+.12453 ~a --1 +.93390 # --2 +.17869 # --1 +.74012 ~ --2 +.24556 ~ --1
+.95986 ~'~ --3 +.40552 ~ --1 +.54887 --:) +.411__ ~ --1 +.82519 ~ --2
--.79986 ~'~ --'2 --.36183 # _o --.72657 ~ --2 +.14304 _o --.10001 ~ --1
+.15073 ~'~ --1 +.36580 # --9 +.52610 ~ --'2 +.24615 ~ -2 +.29153 ~ --2
+.24595 ~ --2 +.79060 ~ --'2 --.32526 ~ --'2 +.54771 ~ --o --.14795 ~ --2
--.16918 ~ --I +.8.3125 ~ --2 --.10724 ~ --1 +.990q7 ~ -2 --.93816 ~ --2
+.51603 ~ --2 - - . 121(,)9 # -- 1 +.58753 ~ --'2 -- .11674 # --1 +.31241 # --2
+.11504 ~'~ --1 +.53102 ~ --9 +.90872 ~ --2 +.28215 ~ --2 +.82514 ~ --2
--.47976 ~'~ --'2 +.13882 # --1 --.33639 # --2 +.13405 ~ --1 +.68793 ~ --3
--.14566 ~ --1 +.35419 ~ --2 --.15324 ~ --1 +.61852 ~ -- ") --.14969 ~ --1
+.23280 ~-* --2 --.10801 ~ --1 +.15551 ~ --2 --.10103 ~ --1 --.15397 ~ --2

relationship and non-cavitation influenced Kr,- d i s k a r e a / a r e a of t h e w o r k i n g :section of t h e t u n n e l


oft r e l a t i o n s h i p m e a s u r e d in t h e c a v i t a t i o n t u n n e l . ( a b o u t 0.071), t h e c o r r e c t i o n s o n v e l o c i t y a n d p r e s -
( T h e s u b s c r i p t t refers to t h e c a v i t a t i o n tunrtel s u r e f o r t u n n e l w a l l interferec,Lee w e r e s m a l l .
experiments.)
F r o m t h e f o r e g o i n g c o m p a r i s o n of o p e n - w a t e r Presentation of Test Results
and cavitation tunnel test results the relationship T h e i n f l u e n c e of c a v i t a t i o n o n p r o p e l l e r p e r -
b e t w e e n KT,,/Jt 2 a n d K T / J 2 w a s d e t e r m i n e d f o r f o r m a n c e of t h e B 4-85, B 4-1(}0, B 5-75, a n d B
c o n s t a n t v a l u e s of t h e c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r k. T h i s 5-105 s c r e w s e r i e s i~ g i v e n in ]Figs. 42, 43, 44, a n d
r e l a t i o n s h i p was used as a b a s e for t h e c o r r e c t i o n s 45 r e s p e c t i v e l y . [ n t h e s e d i a g r a m s KT, Ko a n d
of J a n d ao in t h e r e g i o n s w h e r e c a v i t a t i o n influ- 7o a r e s h o w n as f u n c t i o n s of J w i t h t h e c a v i t a -
enced the thrust delivered by the propeller. t i o n n u l n b e r ao as p a r a m e t e r .
A n extra, c o r r e c t i o n h a d t o b e a p p l i e d t o t h e T h e f a i r e d e u r w : s f o r t h e o n s e t of t i p v o r t e x
K o t - J , r e l a t i o n s h i p for identification w i t h t h e cavitation, suction- and pressure-side sheet cavi-
open-water KQ-J relationship. For the correc- t a t i o n , a n d m i d c h o r d b u b b l e c a v i t a t i o n of t h e s e
t i o n of t h e c a v i t a t i o n - i n f l u e n c e d Kot c u r v e s it w a s s e r i e s a r e g i v e n as a f u n c t i o u of t h e c a v i t a t i o n
n u m b e r o a n d t h e t h r u s t c o e f f i c i e n t C r in F i g s .
assumed that the ratio between the influenced
46 t h r o u g h 49. 111 p r e s e n t i n g t h e s e r e s u l t s t h e
and not-influenced torque coefficients for a given
f o l l o w i n g a b b r e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of
cavitation number remained the same, after ap-
cavitation were used:
p l i c a t i o n of t h e t o t a l c o r r e c t i o n .
B e c a u s e of t h e r e l a t i v e l y low r a t i o of p r o p e l l e r tvc = tip vortex cavitation

The Wageningen B-Screw Series 293


Table 8 Coefficients of Fourier Series by Which Results Are Approximated of Four-Quadrant
A~'/Ao = 0.40 AE/Ao = 0.55 ~.4E/Ao =
K A (K) B(K) A (K) B(K) A (K)
0 -}-.23451 # --1 -}-.00000 # + 0 +.31922 ~ --1 -}-.00000 # -}-0
1 -}-.15234 ~ 0 --.45189 ~ 0 +.16114 ~ 0 --.63528 ~ 0
2 -}-}-.65422 ~ --2 --.24681 ~ --2 -}-.99198 --3 --.11945 ~ --1
3 -}-.10679 --'2 --.21427 # --1 -}-.28523 ~ --1 -}-}-.52443~ --1
4 -}-}-.59102 --2 --.70269 --2 --.46824 ~ --2 --.96855 --2
5 --.14467 --1 +.67759 ~ --1 --.53162 --1 +.63872 ~ --1
6 --.19208 --'2 -}-.22291 --3 -}-.74323 ~ --3 -}-.94490 ~ --2
7 +.16123 ~ --2 -}-.15526 ~ --1 -}-.37786 ~ --1 --.70557 ~ --2
8 --.20361 ~ --2 -}-.25736 ~ --2 --.59009 ~ --2 --.41397 ~ --2
9 -}-.98661 ~ --2 --.39835 # --2 --.13650 ~ --1 -}-.17913 ~ --1
Cr* 10 --.38284 # --3 --.18292 ~ --2 -}-.48123 ~ --2 -}-.32751 ~ --2 SEE
11 + . 4 9 3 5 8 ~ --2 +.67522 ~ --2 -}-.13356 ~ --1 --.15649 --2
12 +.97493 ~ --3 +.12664 ~ --2 --.28356 ~ --2 -}-.12139 ~ --2
13 -}-.13744 ~ --2 +.65164 ~ --2 -}-.66011 ~ --2 +.98431 ~ _ o
14 -}-.36877 ~ --3 -}-.15957 --2 -}-.41218 ~ --2 --.11306 ~ _ o
15 +.47643 ~ --2 --.11204 ~ --2 +.12833 ~ --2 --.68633 ~ --'2
16 + . 5 3 9 0 5 ~ --3 --.18836 ~ --2 --.24525 ~ --2 +.16502 --2
17 + . 4 1 9 8 0 ~ --2 --.14484 ~ --2 -}-.61399 ~ --2 -}-.44140 # --2
18 -}-.57987 ~ --3 --.16466 ~ --2 -}-.26417 ~ --2 --.20713 ~ --2
19 + . 5 1 9 5 7 ~ --3 --.41572 ~ --3 --.96108 ~ --3 --.51416 ~ --2
[20 --.15836 ~ --4 -}-.75927 ~ --3 -}-.22652 ~ --5 +.11161 ~ --2
0 -}-.32922 ~ --1 -}-.00000 ~ + 0 +.47745 ~ --1 -}-.00000 ~ + 0
1 -}-.22818 0 --.62722 # 0 -}-.24474 0 --.88736 ~ 0
2 --.27076 ~ --1 +.35740 ~ --1 --.33679 ~ --1 +.23048 ~ --1
3 -}-.40533 ~ --2 --.41363 ~ --1 -}-.48213 --1 -}-.54388 ~ --1
4 +.11865 ~ --1 --.81833 ~ --2 -}-.14481 ~ --1 --.30945 ~ --1
5 --.16010 ~ --2 +.11410 # 0 --.47373 ~ --1 -}-.12533 ~ 0
6 -}-.16364 ~ --2 --.58649 7~ --2 --.23258 :~ --2 -}-.15077 ~ --1
7 --.75320 ~ --2 +.31366 ~ --1 + . 1 9 6 0 8 ~ --1 --.27471 ~ --1
8 --.10827 ~ --2 --.64464 ~ --3 --.26832 ~ --1 --.12804 ~ --1
9 +.16051 ~ --1 --.13427 ~ --1 -}-.10348 ~ --1 -}-.25570 ~ --1
tlo --.54749 ~ --2 --.25659 ~ --2 -}-.20883 ~ --1 -}-.43878 ~ --2
+.14265 --1 -}-.10360 ~ --1 --.78899 --3 -}-.13814 --1
12 --.85995 --4 --,27531 --2 --.12592 --1 -}-.69907 ~ --'2
+ . 4 0 8 6 8 --3 -}-.10084 ~ --1 -}-.24307 7~ --1 +.69677 --3
--.12955 ~ --2 -}-.18382 --2 --.43386 --3 --.14066 --1
+.59046 ~ --2 --.67291 ~ --2 --.40164 ~ --3 --.14160 ~ --2
--.38788 ~ --2 --.70726 --3 -}-.60723 ~ --2 -}-.13130 ~ --1
.}..73,531 ~ --2 --.17222 ~ --2 -}-.69114 ~ --2 --.35743 ~ --2
18 -}-.41273 ~ --3 --.10638 ~ --2 --.47407 --2 --.68982 ~ --2
--.54923 ~ --3 +.17638 --2 -}-.22412 --2 + . 6 0 4 0 8 ~ --3
I20 -}-.10712 ~ --2 -}-.27112 ~ --2 +.62279 ~ --2 --.35655 ~ --2

ssc = s h e e t c a v i t a t i o n o n s u c t i o n s i d e ssc 0.7 R : suction-side sheet cavitation


psc = sheet cavitation on pressure side spreading down from blade tip to
b m c = b u b b l e c a v i t a t i o n a t m i d c h o r d of s u c - 0.7R.
t i o n side. The pressure-side cavitation started at the lead-
ing e d g e b e t w e e n 0.6 _R a n d 0.7 R a n d e x t e n d e d
F u r t h e r t o t h e o v e r a l l p r e s e n t a t i o n in F i g s . 46
along the leading edge to both sides when the
t h r o u g h 49, F i g s . 50 t h r o u g h 53 s h o w t h e c o m -
l o a d i n g of t h e s c r e w w a s d e c r e a s e d .
p l e t e r e s u l t s of t h e c a v i t a t i o n i n c e p t i o n m e a s u r e -
m e n t s f o r all p r o p e l l e r s w i t h ] ) / D = 1.0. T h e Conclusion
suction-side cavitation developed from the tip
1 T h e d e r i v e d p o l y n o m i a l s of t h e t h r u s t a n d
vortex cavity and spread down over the blade
t o r q u e c o e f f i c i e n t s of b o t h t h e f o u r - a n d five-
w h e n t h e l o a d i n g of t h e s c r e w w a s i n c r e a s e d . T h e
b l a d e d B - s e r i e s s c r e w s a n d t h e F o u r i e r a n a l y s i s of
f o l l o w i n g i n d i c a t i o n s w e r e u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e ex-
the "four-quadrant" measurements enable design
t e n t of t h e c a v i t a t i o n :
calculations and analyses with a computer.
ssc 1.0 R : b e g i n n i n g of s u c t i o n - s i d e c a v i t a - 2 The cavitation inception diagrams and the
tion at the blade tip d i a g r a m s s h o w i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e of c a v i t a t i o n o n
ssc 0.9 R : suction-side sheet cavitation t h r u s t a n d t o r q u e can be used for m a k i n g quasi-
spreading down from blade tip to s t e a d y p r e d i c t i o n s of t h e c a v i t a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
0.9R of a s c r e w in a n o n u n i f o r m w a k e flow.

294 The Wageningen B-Screw Series


Measurements with B 4-40, B 4-55, B 4-70, B 4-85, and B 4-100 Series Screws with P/D = 1.0
0.70~ "AE/A(, = 0.85- "Az/Ao = 1.00
B(K) A (K) B(K) A (g) B(K)
+.24744 # -1 +.00000 # +0 +.34061 # --1 +.00000 # +0
+.19698 ~- 0 --.83446 # 0 +.21365 0 --.89003 0
+.24688 ~- --1 --,15875 --1 +.15858 --1 --.19294 ~ --1
+.19970 ~ --1 +,13064 ~ 0 +.18327 # --1 +.14235 0
--.29298 --1 --,15776 ~ --1 --.28700 -1 --.18767 --1
-.50489 ~ --1 +.35044 -1 --.57304 # --1 +.26340 ~ --1
+.92885 ~ --2 +.16119 --1 +.12995 --1 +.20316 ~ --1
+.31605 ~ --1 +.1.5147 ~ -3 +.30856 --1 +.94515 -2
--.51017 ~ --2 --.11703 ~ -1 --.64453 ~ --2 --.15484 ~ -1
--.14934 ~ -1 +.18128 ~ -1 --.12383 7s -1 +.16308 ~ -1
TABLE 7 +.12086 ~ _o +.10143 ~ --1 +.13141 ~ --2 +.11972 ~ --1
+.23772 ~ --1 +.37940 ~ --2 +.24622 ~ --1 +.59032 ~ --2
+.14059 # --3 --.25960 ~ --2 --.621C1 --3 --.43512 ~ --2
+.31704 ~ --3 +.86001 ~ --2 --.19550 ~ --2 +.67547 ~ --2
+.66002 ~ --2 +.75758 ~ --3 +.68171 ~ --2 +.28778 ~ --2
+.97627 ~ --2 --.63507 ~ --2 +.12593 ~ --1 --.67282 ~ --2
--.59991 ~ --2 --.36952 ~ --3 --.57680 ~ --2 --.20573 --2
+.22851 --3 +.42495 ~ --2 --.18257 ~ --2 +.47559 ~ --2
+.73574 # --2 +.12208 ~ --2 +.74443 ~ --2 +.33164 ~ --2
+.53360 ~ --') --.82948 --2 +.72116 # --2 --.79023 ~ --2
--.36541 ~ --2 --.19871 ~ --2 --.41164 ~ --2 --.24768 ~ --2
+.38821 ~ --I +.00000 ~ +0 +.558c,5 ~ --1 +.00000 ~ +0
+ . 3 0 8 5 7 7~ 0 --.12374 ~ + 1 +.33.57'5 ~ 0 --.13089 ~ +1
+.12968 ~ --i --.69162 ~ --2 --.54483 ~ --2 --.12986 ~ --I
+.37596 ~ --1 +.21242 ~ 0 +.30159 ~ --1 +.22943 ~ 0
--.43202 ~ --1 --.34391 ~ --1 --.39788 ~ --1 --.39545 ~ --1
--.62517 ~ --1 +.51711 ~ --1 --.59767 ~ --1 +.35275 ~ --1
+.11711 7~ --1 +.25874 ~ --1 +.85676 ~ --2 +.29736 --1
+.46338 ~ --1 --.12915 ~ --1 +.38556 ~ --1 +.19505 ~ --2
--.20997 --i --.16229 ~ --i --.2'2022 --i --.19625 --i
--.25065 ~ --1 +.36854 ~ --1 --. 16580 ~ --1 +.31577 ~ --1
+.94712 ~ --2 +.17505 ~ --1 +.768;~,2 ~ --2 +.24466 ~ --1
+.40479 ~ --1 +.53011 ~ --2 +.40968 ~ --1 +.80744 --2
--.34106 ~ --2 --.66787 ~ --2 +.143(17 ~ --'2 --.10030 --1
+.34406 ~ --2 +.51614 --2 +.19131 ~ --2 +.27097 ~ --2
+.72600 ~ --2 --.27707 ~ --2 +.565~3 ~ --2 --.14513 --2
+.84629 ~ --2 --.11040 ~ --I +.99527 ~ --') --,94578 ~ --2
--.12383 ~ --1 +.50134 7+- --2 --.11082 ~ -1 +.27592 ~ --2
+.55770 ~ --2 +.87478 ~ --2 +.27185 ~ --2 +.82455 ~ --2
+.14548 ~ -1 -.33660 ~ -2 +.132(15 ~ -1 +.74715 ~ -3
+.31655 -2 -.14750 -1 +.637(;8 -2 -.15220 -1
--.10461 ~ --1 +.1976l ~ --2 --.10405 ~ -1 --.14567 ~ --2

3 The cross-correlation between the design e x p r e s s t h e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n t.o D r . H . le G r a n d f o r


d i a g r a m s , a s h a s b e e n d o n e i n t h i s p a p e r f o r dif- performing the numerical calculations.
ferent blade-area ratios at constant blade number, S p e c i a l m e n t i o n s h o u l d b e m a d e of t h e c o n t r i -
can be extended to different blade numbers. In b u t i o n of M r . H . N i j d i n g , w h o d i d o v e r a c o u p l e
a d d i t i o n , t h e e f f e c t of t h e R e y n o l d s n u m b e r c a n of y e a r s a l a r g e p a r t of t h e w o r k of c a l c u l a t i n g
be taken into account in the polynomials for Kr and preparing the diagrams.
a n d KQ.
4 H e n c e , t h e e f f e c t of t h e R e y n o l d s n u m b e r
References
on the screw characteristics being known, the
c o n s e q u e n c e s of t h i s e f f e c t c a n b e i n t r o d u c e d i n t o 1 G . S. B a k e r a n d A. W . R i d d l e , " S c r e w
trial predictions. P r o p e l l e r s of V a r y i n g B l a d e S e c t i o n s in O p e n
5 Further progress on these subjects to be W a t e r , " Trans. I N A , 1932 a n d 1934.
m a d e a t t h e N S M B will b e d i s c u s s e d i n a s e c o n d 2 G . S. B a k e r , " T h e D e s i g n of S c r e w P r o -
paper. pellers with Special Reference to the Single-Screw
S h i p s , " Trans. IJVA, 1 !-)34.
Acknowledgments
3 L. T r o o s t , " O p e n - W a t e r T e s t s w i t h M o d -
T h e a u t h o r s a r e i n d e b t e d t o m a n y m e m b e r s of e r n P r o p e l l e r F o r m s , " Frans. N E C I , 1938, 1940,
t h e t e c h n i c a l s t a f f of N S M B f o r t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n a n d 1951.
t o t h e c o n t e n t s of t h i s p a p e r . In particular, they 4 W . P. A. v a n L a m m e r e n , L. T r o o s t , a n d

The Wageningen B-Screw Series 295


Table 9 Coefficients of Fourier Series by Which Results Are Approximated of Four-Quadrant
-B 3-65 ~ B 4-70--~ -B 5-75
K A(K) B(K) A (K) B(K) A (K)
0 4.17533 --1 +.00000 +0 +.23478 # --1
I + . 185O2 0 --.73186 ~ 0 4.18045 ~ 0
2 +.15280 --1 --.10683 ~ --1 +.20771 ~ --1
3 +.29186 --1 +.83232 # - 1 +.2848o ~ - 1
4 --.14518 ~ --1 --.67230 --2 --.17734 # --1
5 --.72663 --1 4.74907 ~ --1 --.44127 ~ --1
6 +.18334 ~ --2 --.57188 # --2 +.26768 # --2
7 4.58557 ~ --I --.29067 --1 SEE TABLE 7 -+.29516 --1
8 --.12843 ~ --1 +.69646 ~ --2 +.84623 ~ --3
9 --.22873 ~ --1 4.31902 ~ -- 1 --.13558 --1
Cr* 11o 4.62426 ~ --2 4.11766 ~ --2 4.20876 ~ --2
4.17177 ~ -1 --.67097 ~ --2 4.21133 # --1
12 --.39038 ~ --2 +.27271 ~ --2 --.17863 ~ --2
13 +.14212 ~ -i 4.14362 ~ --1 +.17519 ~ --2
14 4.55205 ~ --2 --.16196 # -2 +.60328 # --2
15 --.77101 ~ --3 --.14496 ~ --I +.97352 ~ --2
16 --.74621 ~ --3 +.47854 ~ -2 --.36217 ~ --2
+.12434 ~ --1 +.42777 # --2 4.38472 # --2
4.42080 ~ --2 --.54757 # --2 4.44636 # --2
--.49419 ~ --2 --.88629 # --2 +.32672 ~ --2
L20 +.15046 ~ --2 +.24095 ~ --2 --.40864 # --2
I0 4.36082 ~ --1 +.00000 ~ 40 +.33515 # --I
1 4 . 27478 0 --.10801 ~ +1 4.28220 ~ 0
2 --.60351 ~ --2 4.40219 ~ --2 +.10059 --1~
3 +.70069 ~ --1 4.12286 ~ 0 4.48943 ~ --1
4 --.79315 ~ --2 --.28156 --1 --.24185 # --1
5 - - . 10096 ~ 0 +.12603 ~ 0 -.64821 # -1
6 --.11682 ~ --i +.16670 ~ --2 +.70829 # --2
7 4.80251 ~ --1 --.56992 ~ --1 +.62483 ~ --i
8 --.17612 ~ --1 --.39189 ~ --2 --.88086 ~ --2
9 --.25992 ~ --1 +.48374 ~ --i --.32211 ~ --I
G, 10 4.14525 ~ --1 +.14034 ~ --I +.74303 --2
11 +.13287 ~ --1 --.66918 ~ --2 4.29956 ~ --I
12 --.13192 ~ --1 -.11141 # -1 -.111o1 # -I
13 4.31817 ~ --1 4.20220 ~ --I 4.98516 ~ --2
14 4.11369 ~ --1 +.53074 ~ _o 4.99828 ~ --2
15 --.91563 ~ --2 --.20058 ~ --1 4.99234 ~ --2
16 --.12451 ~ --1 4.66949 ~ --2 --.13624 ~ --1
17 4.20853 ~ -I 4.57476 ~ --2 4.37064 ~ --2
18 +.13686 ~ --1 --.75793 ~ --2 +.81717 # --2
19 --.66659 ~ --2 --.93035 # --2 +.37055 ~ --2
20 --. 74024 ~ -- 2 +.84916 ~ --2 --.58415 ~ --2

J. G. K o n i n g , Resistance, Propulsion and Steering 11 H . F . N o r d s t r o m , " S c r e w P r o p el l er C h a r a c -


of Ships, H. S t a r e H a a r l e m , N e t h e r l a n d s , 1948. t er i st i cs," P u b l i c a t i o n No. 9, SSPA , 1948.
5 PrinciplesofNavalArchitecture, S N A M E , 12 I. Ya. M i n i o v i c h , " I n v e s t i g a t i o n of H y d r o -
N e w Yo r k , 1967. d y n a m i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Screw Propellers
6 J. D. v a n M a n e n , " F u n d a m e n t a l s of Ship U n d e r C o n d i t i o n s of R e v e r s i n g an d C a l c u l a t i o n
R e s i s t a n c e a n d Propulsion, P a r t B , " P u b l i c a t i o n M e t h o d s for B a c k i n g of S h i p s , " B U S H I P S T r a n s -
No. 132a, N S M B . lation 697, 1960.
7 H . W . Lerbs, " O n t h e E f f e c t s of Scale an d 13 K . I . M e y n e , " U m s t e u e r e i g e n s c h a f t e n y o n
R o u g h n e s s on F r e e R u n n i n g P r o p e l l e r s , " Journ. S eh i f f sp r o p el l er n ," Schiff und Hafen, H e f t 5, 1964.
ASNE, 1951. 14 Sv. Aa. H a r v a l d , " W a k e an d T h r u s t De-
8 H. L i n d g r e n , " M o d e l T e s t s w i t h a F a m i l y d u ct i o n a t E x t r e m e P r o p e l l e r Loadings,"Publica-
of T h r e e an d F i v e - B l a d e d P r o p e l l e r s , " P u b l i c a - tion No. 61, S S P A , 1967.
tion No. 47, S S P A , 1961. 15 J. H. W i t t e an d J. E s v e l d t , " T h e B l a d e
9 H. L i n d g r e n a n d E. Bj~trne, " T h e S S P A E d g e M i c r o s c o p e of t h e N e t h e r l a n d s Ship M o d e l
Standard Propeller Family Open-Water Charac- B a s i n , " ISP, Vol. 13, 1966.
t e r i s t i c s , " P u b l i c a t i o n N o . 60, S S P A , 1967. 16 L . C . Burrill, " T u n n e l W a l l I n t e r f e r e n c e , "
10 R . N . N e w t o n a n d H. P. R a d e r , " P e r f o r m - A p p e n d i x 7, S e v e n t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e on
a n c e D a t a of Propellers for H i g h - s p e e d C r a f t , " Ship H y d r o d y n a m i c s , P u b l i c a t i o n No. 34, S S P A ,
Trans. R[NA, 1961. 1955.

296 The Wageningen B-Screw Series


Measurements with B 3-65, B 4-70, B 5-75, B 6-80, and B 7-85 Series Screws with P/D = 1.0
B 6-80 E; 7-85
B(K) .4 (K) B(K) A (K) B(K)
+.00000 ~ + 0 +.23662 # - 1 +.43581 # - 1 +.24317 ~ - 1 +.56690 --1
-.77599 # 0 +.18302 # 0 +.28977 # 0 +.1&~99 # 0 + . 30294 ~ 0
--.93828 # --2 +.23069 # --I -.67000 # --'2 +.24!)84 # --i --.19641 ~ --1
+.11419 ~ 0 +.25996 ~ --1 +.31618 ~ - - i +.21958 ~ --1 +.15382 ~ --1
--.12502 ~ --I --.16170 # --I --.17752 ~ - - i --.12528 # --i --.14236 ~ --1
+.44333 ~ --1 --.36481 ~ --I --.51941 ~ - - I --.29638 ~ --I --.39858 ~ --1
+.12637 ~ --1 +.20075 ~ --3 +.42480 ~ --'2 --.26677 ~ --';2 +.37905 ~ --2
--.15496 ~ --2 +.23040 ~ --1 +.58953 ~ --1 +.23:_)37 ~ --1 +.55971 ~ -t
--.79187 ~ --2 +.40578 ~ --'2 +.16834 ~ --'2 +.73131 ~ --'2 +.11188 # --1
+.16728 ~ --1 --.11055 ~ --1 --.28462 ~ --1 --.95965 ~ --'2 --.20371 ~ -I
+.79242 ~ --'2 +.80168 ~ --3 --.71543 --3 +.91652 ~ --3 --.28157 ~ --2
+.43160 ~ -2 +.21468 ~ --1 +.27896 ~ - 1 +.20648 ~ --1 +.25070 --1
--.59656 ~ --2 --.70636 ~ --3 --.64777 ~ --2 --.66.t74 ~ --3 --.61091 --2
+.69874 ~ --2 +.7.3299 ~ --3 +.80256 ~ --2 +.19,585 ~ --2 +.66744 ~ --2
+.54287 ~ --3 +.46487 ~ --'2 +.70969 ~ --2 +.45277 ~ --2 +.76275 --2
--.46027 ~ --2 +.90387 ~ --2 +.15564 ~ --1 +.80651 ~ --2 +.18124 --t
--.13075 ~ --2 --.33134 ~ --2 --.93465 ~ --2 --.20294 ~ --'2 -.76436 --2
+.10496 # --2 +.33675 ~ --2 +.23656 # --2 +.27'931 ~ --'2 +.42504 ~ --2
--.25852 ~ --3 +.37209 ~ --2 %..34068 ~ --2 +.2,9162 ~ --'2 +.28472 ~ --2
--.74776 ~ --2 +.39557 ~ --2 +.58219 ~ _ o +.45340 ~ _o +.48341 ~ -2
--.12379 ~ --2 --.27268 ~ --2 --.18968 ~ --2 --.24513 # --2 --.16078 ~ --2
+.00000 ~ +0 +.00000 ~ +0 +.00000 ~ + 0 +.00000 ~ +O +.00000 ~ +0
--.11542 ~ +1 --.80123 ~ 0 --.11890 ~ + 1 --.82637 ~ 0 -.12213 +I
+.11750 ~ --1 --.83486 ~ --2 +.22405 ~ --1 --.44265 ~ --2 +.27934 --1
+.18068 # 0 +.12042 ~ 0 + . 18961 ~ 0 + . 12519 ~ O + . 18974 0
--.30359 ~ --I --.14185 ~ --1 --.35017 ~ --1 --.15080 ~ --I --.35626 ~ --1
+.79442 ~ --1 +.43515 ~ --1 +.81917 ~ --1 +.45207 ~ --1 +.86348 --1
+.21067 ~ --1 +.13807 ~ --1 +.28318 ~ --i +.12112 ~ --1 +.32399 --1
--.17281 ~ --1 +.42871 ~ --2 --.53679 ~ --2 +.84001 ~ --2 +.36867 --2
--.20963 ~ -I --.62870 ~ --2 --.22347 ~ - I --.36180 ~ --2 --.17751 --1
+.25310 ~ -1 +.12691 ~ -1 +.15508 ~ - 1 +.85657 ~ --9 +.79699 --2
+.14026 ~ --1 +.77749 ~ --2 + . 10065 ~ - 1 +.50675 ~ -2 +.25833 ~ --2
+.79469 ~ --2 +.63927 ~ -2 +.14999 ~ - I +.85636 ~ _o +.14951 ~ --1
--.10034 ~ --1 --.49631 ~ --2 --.56936 ~ --2 --.54398 ~ --2 --.27002 --2
+.11763 ~ -I +.44461 ~- --2 +.80332 ~ --'2 +.40116 ~ --') +.81931 ~ --2
+.19718 # --2 +.49405 # --3 +.23691 ~ --2 +.15876 ~ _o +.36117 ~ --2
--.13576 ~- -1 --.32926 ~ --2 --.82944 ~.~ --2 --.25855 ~ _o --.49921 ~ --2
--.29719 # --3 --.22670 # -2 --.51470 # --2 --.39788 # --2 --.64297 ~ --2
+.60037 # -2 -.62284 # -3 +.10568 ~ --3 --.77,q22 # --3 --.30697 ~ --2
+.16139 # -2 +.62955 -3 +.59189 # -'2 +.14790 # --2 +.62224 ~ --2
--.13696 ~ --1 --.68236 ~ --2 --.11771 # - 1 -.60376 # -2 --.10872 ~ -1
--.30009 # --3 --.19772 ~ --2 --.29681 # --2 --.26079 # --2 --.28107 --2

Discussion
Eric Bj/:irne, 4 Visitor: F i r s t of all I m u s t e x p r e s s s u g g e s t t h a t a f u r t h e r s t e p in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t will
m y s a t i s f a c t i o n o v e r t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l f a i r i n g of b e r e p l a c i n g B v w i t h % / - K o / . l ~. A l s o , t h e & v a l u e s
t h e t e s t results. T h e d i v e r g e n c e b e t w e e n differ- a p p e a r in s o m e d i a g r a m s i n s t e a d of t h e a d v a n c e
e n t i s s u e s of t h e W a g e n i n g e n p r o p e l l e r c h a r t s h a s ratio J.
b e e n a s o u r c e of l o n g a n d o f t e n h o t d i s c u s s i o n s T h e i n f l u e n c e of R e y n o l d s n u m b e r , R,,, o n t h e
a b o u t p r o p e l l e r d i m e n s i o n s a n d eflicieneies. T h e optimum propeller diameter, pitch, and efficiency
r e g r e s s i o n a n d F o u r i e r a n a l y s i s of t h e t e s t r e s u l t s is i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t i c e , b u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n
a r e of g r e a t v a l u e f o r t h o s e w o r k i n g w i t h a n a l o g u e m o d e l a n d s h i p p r o p e l l e r s w i t h r e g a r d t o d r a g co-
and digital computers. e f f i c i e n t s m u s t n o t b e o v e r e s t i m a t e d b e c a u s e of
However I miss open-water test results pre- p a r t l y l a m i n a r flow in t h e p r o p e l l e r m o d e l r e g i o n
s e n t e d o n t h e b a s i s o f K T / J ~, w h i c h s o m e t i m e s of R,,, F i g . 5'4.
can be very useful at the project work. Speaking T h e g a s c o n t e n Lof w a t e r , {n t h e c a v i t a t i o n t e s t s ,
of p a r a m e t e r s i t s e e m s i n c o n s e q u e n t t h a t t h e n o n - ct/~t.~ = 0 . 2 0 - 0 . 3 3 , is s o m e w h a t h i g h e r t h a n w h a t
d i m e n s i o n l e s s f a c t o r / 3 p is still u s e d w h i l e t h e fac- is u s u a l in t h e S S P A t u n n e l . D i f f e r e n c e s in g a s
t o r B~ is n o w r e p l a c e d b y V / I ~ T r / J f l I therefore c o n t e n t n m y i n f l u e n c e t h e i n c e p t i o n of c a v i t a t i o n ,
especially on the tip vortex cavitation.
4 The Swedish State Shipbuilding Experimental Tank,
G6teborg. Sweden. (text continued on page 312)

The Wageningen B-Screw Series 297


8 4-100 P/D =10
C[
B4-B5
10C
84-70
B4-55
-B4-40

-'4

:E
Q

o
B4-70
~4-55
84 -z.O
/ ,//J
..... /"
i

q
~ ~-~-~-;'~,~:di~i : '~
0

o \,,ii,j ,,," ,,, ,,;/

! , I

I
I
1
0 40 80 120 160 /3 200 240 280 320 360 2400
40 80 120 160 /3 200 ~ 240 280 320 360

Fig. 37 Open-water test results with B 4-40, B 4-55, B 4-70, B 4-85, and B- Fig. 38 Open-water test results with B 3-65, B 4-70, B 5-75, B 6-80, and B-
4-100 series screws with P / D = 1.0 7-85 series screws with P / D = 1.0
FOURIER SERIES OF 20 TER~4S

I ]

_,0! /

-12 --I

I
I
-10 o 40
80 120 160 /3 200 240 280 320 ~ 866

Fig. 3 9 R e s u l t o f four-quadrant m e a s u r e m e n t s o f B 4 - 7 0 s c r e w w i t h P / D
= 0 . 6 a p p r o x i m a t e d by F o u r i e r series of 2 0 terms

20

------CURVES OF CT AND CQ
APPROXIMATED BY A FOURIER
SERIES OF 2 TERMS
15

cl ~ ~---~-'~

-160o 40 80 120 160 ,,3 200 240 2g0 320 360"

Fig. 4 0 R e s u l t o f four-quadrant m e a s u r e m e n t s of B 4 - 7 0 s c r e w w i t h P / D =
1.O a p p r o x i m a t e d by Fourier series of 2, 5, 10, or 2 0 terms

The Wageningen B-Screw Series 299


FOURIER SERIES OF 5 T E R M S

~2
t

o8 _//_ ...... _~_


c~
-IOC~

04! - - - -

I ,# I
i
I
Jc;
-06 - - ---

-0 40 80 120 150 /3 2i

Fig. 40 (continued)

2 i
FOURIER S E R I E S OF 10 TERMS

161 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

_ _

c~_ ! 1_
_10 / ii i . . . . . .

. . . . . ! . . . . . .

J I ,

-18 11[
0 40 BO 120 160 /3 200o 2&0 e 280 320 360

Fig. 40 (continued)

300 The Wageningen B-Screw Series


FOURIER SERIES OF 20 TERMS j

1E . . . . , !
!I

0 40Q 80 120e 160 /3 200 240 280 320 350

Fig. 4 0 (continued)

I
L
I FOURIER SERIES OF 20 TERMS

c~
-10c~
I/ "\ ! ,\
I I

oz

II
!
i

-04 /

\ / /_
/

/
/
,YI

80 120 160 :~ 200 2~0


f ,
280
i
320 35'3:

Fig. 41 Result of four-quadrant measurements of B 4 - 7 0 s c r e w with P/D


= 1.4 approximated by Fourier series of 2 0 terms

The Wageningen B-Screw Series 301


0~
KT B z,-85
1OKO ~.oe
~p
~5

I I

l
I '

I
i I

0(~.3 0f, 0.5 0~ 0.7 g.8 09 1.0 12 13 Ig 15

Fig. 42 Influence of cavitation on thrust and torque of screws of B 4-85 series

B z,-85
:,o

08

07 i

f~
03 ~"

00.3 0/, 0.5 06 0.7 QB ~g 1.0 1.1 1.2 13 1A 1.5


J

Fig. 42 (continued)

302 The Wageningen B-Screw Series


Q9

B ~-B5
%:L2

\
KT
IOKQ
%

~f

02 ~ i---~
X

O
0.3 0.4 05 1g.6 (17 03 0~9 1.0 1.1 12 1.1 I.~ 15
J

Fig. 42 (continued)

11 -"
B 4-85
P/D =1.4

t
\ i
\
f
\

KT
IOKQ
%

~o ~

0
02 O~ 05 06 CLB 09 1.0 1.1 12. 13 IA
J
Fig. 42 (continued)

The Wageningen B-Screw Series 303


0E

8 4-100
=O8
0 5 -
Io~
Oe7
~D

IOKQ
"gp a~

..Co
o, ~ -.'b..

o t13 0,4
~ 05 0.6 0.7 Q8 0.7 10 1.1 t2 1,3 t,4
J

Fig. 43 Influence o f cavitation on thrust and torque o f screws o f B 4 - 1 0 0 series

B 4-100
P/D" 1.0
1.1

0.9

~P ~-o=~~

KT
10KO
0E
- i~ii.~\\~
~
"Tp o.~
o~

0
03 0.& 0.5 06 0.7 Q8 09 1,0 1.1 1.2 13 14 kS
,3

Fig 43 (continued)

304 The Wageningen B-Screw Series


B a-IOO
%=,2

KT
10 KQ
'gp

04 05 Q6 07 08 09 ~0 tl |2 13 1~5
J

Fig. 43 (continued)

8 4-100

Qi
KT
1OK0

9p 05-

% 0.5 06 O7 08 Q9 ~,g 12 t.3 t~ 1.5

Fig. 43 (continued)

The Wageningen B-Screw Series 305


B 5-75
P/Doo 8

"~p O-o >> \

06
KT
IOKQ
%
05 ~ I

02 ------

o.1 "-"~"-'-
- - ' -I ~ " 2 " -~ .~.~
/- ' ~ . _ ~ - ~ - f ~ - - - - - - - - ~ ""-
.
" " 7"--.

0/. 0.5 06 07 0.8 0.9 t0 1.1 12 1.3 1~,


0

Fig. 44 Influence of cavitation on thrust and torque of screws of B 5-75 series

B 5-75
P/'D = tO

K!
IOKQ
%

03 04 0.5 05 07 08 0_q 1.0 1.1 12 1.3 tA t5


J

Fig. 44 (continued)

3 0 6 The Wageningen B-Screw Series


OSf. . . . . . . T" -

I ~ I I T B 5~75

l<T
IO KQ

05

Oz

O~

ol

O
03 04 05 O7 08 09 I0 11 12 t3 1~, 1,5
0

Fig 44 (continued)

I
B 5-75
P/D 14

['(T
~o:4o
")p

i j
' p

0
03 O.4 05 Q6 07 (18 0.9 1.0 tI 12 [3 it. IS
J

Fig. 44 (continued)

The Wageningen B-Screw Series 307


I B 5-105
I P/o:o~
% ~:: I i r
KT
10Ko I
i I

003 04 0.5 06 07 OB 09 I[I 1.1 12 13 14 15


0

Fig. 45 Influence of cavitation on thrust and torque of screws of B 5-105 series

B 5-105
%:,o

0E
KT
t0%
%

, -~

y' ~f___
0
Ck3 O!, O.S 06 (17 0.8 09
J
tO 1.1
J
12 L3 if, 1,5

Fig. 45 (continued)

308 The Wageningen B-Screw Series


I
B 5-105
~3 =12

KT '~ pO-o.>>
IOKQ Co.L2a~ /
126
1.73
112~

, / /
\
/ ./
/ /
/
/
/
/

~f ,\
ol
Q3 04 05 6 Q7
,
Q8
i
09 10
r
11 1,2 13 14 1,5
g

Fig. 45 (continued)
. . . . [

B S-lOS
P/D =1/~

OE
~T
10< 0
~?P OE ] "'\~

Q3 0.5 06 q7
J
[18 og
-I 1.0 1] 12 13 L4 1S

Fig. 45 (continued)

The Wageningen B-Screw Series 309


!
~

. . . .
J
.
I I---l--
.
I B,-Z
r-1

~/I / / / $
F

!
o~kl i -T1 1- i--i ]-
;/i005 007 OJ Q2
i 03 04 05
1-]i 07 2 3 z;
[
O05 0,7 0.1 02 03 04 05 0.7 1 2 3 4 5
CT CT

l~ig. 4 6 Cavitation p h e n o m e n a o n B 4 - 8 5 series s c r e w s Fig. 4 8 Cavitation p h e n o m e n a on B 5 - 7 5 series s c r e w s

50 . . . . .
40 . . . . . . .
I 0.8-1
, _ ! ,_I~L_I P/F=O8-15
o
30
I
26 i
ssc IOR
I ~%-11
I0
ps
~P/D "08
-.
t-/
// .

1[ ,
o.~~,o-o, ?'J'~/,~oJ " i /

,,1l "~
i , ! -
~_\o ~, //
! /
. . . .

\~ ~ ",, II//X--Ill I i i~
%#

0.7 7 ~
bmc
at{ p tch r 4 tlO$
05 --I
I
_~
Oz. - -

o, 1 I o, I
Q:
005 ~07
I
O1 0.2 CT 03 OZ. 05 0.7 2 3 4 5
o:!-,.....
005 007 0.1 02
CT
03 Oz. 05 Q7
t-
2 4 5

Fig. 4 7 Cavitation p h e n o m e n a o n B 4-1OO series s c r e w s Fig. 4 9 Cavitation p h e n o m e n a o n B 5 - 1 0 5 series s c r e w s

31 0 The Wageningen B-Screw Series


5- 50- ~ -- ---
I __ i Bs?5

I
4 40 P~=0 !

3 30- !

2O

71---,

41-. ---
\
3F --

2
[ !
+

07' - -

05 .... t

113 . . . . . . . .

02
('Q05 0~7 0.1 02 0.3 Of+ 05 0.7 1 2 3 '-. 5 005 007 01 02 03 04 05 0+7 3 ,
CT CT

Fig. 50 Cavitation phenomena on B 4-85 series screw Fig. 52 Cavitation phenomena on B 5-75 series screw
w i t h P/D = 1.0 w i t h P/D = l.O

50 --- r--- -- ----+ B 5-10S


/
4c
30 _ _ 1
L
20 '

I
Ipsc
7 -~ I

/ ~
I
3

2
a'o

1 7~<
_Z
o~ ~
3mc ~,
air PlltCh rahos
o+:--i--[
o.~
o, I 1. _21~_
0.2 - - - - - - Oos 007 0.1 (~2 03 0~. 05 07 2 3 4
Q05 0I]7 01 0.2 0.3 OZ. 05 07 1 2 3 4 5
CT CT

Fig. 51 Cavitation phenomena on B 4-100 series Fig. 53 Cavitation phenomena on B 5-105 series
s c r e w w i t h P/D = 1 . 0 s c r e w w i t h P/D = 1.0

The Wageningen B-Screw Series 31 i


002
authors' reference [9]), with different pitch ratios
.~. are plotted versus the lift coefficient, CL, for the
@ profile in question. Faired mean curves through
the points will indicate the cavitation limit and
.~. "%. m a y be transformed to ~0-J curves by knowledge of
the C L - J Correlation. T h e test results have been
O.Ot
compared with calculated values of the local
dimensionless pressure difference, Ap/q, at certain
points on the equivalent profile (2-dimensional
w a t e r test with ~eomot~:
.E s~milor ~ / e r - m o d e / s I flow). T h e correlation, CL
ap, gives a guid-
I q
o ance for the above-mentioned fairing.
45 5 5.5 6
l o g Rn 0 7 5
S. Curtis Powell, Member: I will congratulate the
Fig. 54 Minimum drag coefficient
authors by observing t h a t they have contributed
a q u a n t u m step in our knowledge of propeller
characteristics, particularly in four quadrants and
T h e cavitation Emit curves given by the authors under cavitating conditions.
were determined on the basis of desinent cavita- I object to the authors' statement about the
tion instead of incipient, due to the better repeat- most widely encountered design problem on three
ability for the former type, which means varying counts : (a) in this country the revolutions usually
pressure at a constant rate of revolutions. An- are not given, in contrast to Europe where in-
other method to determine these b o u n d a r y curves ternal-combustion engines are more common; (b)
is to keep the pressure (i.e., cavitation number, the diameter should be optimized, which is not
~0) constant and v a r y the rate of revolutions (ad- the same thing as maximizing the propeller
vance ratio). efficiency; and (c) the speed is not given, but is
T h e results of incipient cavitation tests to some t h a t speed at which the ship will operate with the
extent also m a y be faired b y the aid of Lerbs' given power; although the diameter is not likely
method of equivalent profile. In Fig. 55 local to be seriously mischosen if a reasonable estimate
critical cavitation numbers, ~0.7~ = ~o/(1 + of speed in service is made. (This is not the
5.552/J2), representing results from tests with the specification speed and power.) Although the
SSPA standard propeller models 5.60 (see the diameter m a y not be significantly in error, other

o oo~ Local pressure Inc. c a v i t .


08
_ o ~j~, 2-dim. flow test results
"//~
~/f/.\ - - y / c = 0 0 5 ~ Back cavt totion r sheet
() o
o , '"/ / /~~ O . . . . 0 4" 8 . ". . . " ~ bubble

~,,,\'/' ..... 0.005 o Face -"-


~3
~; o.6 _ ///\ o ~#lc 0.48

, o ..~ ,,~,,,,\,,~\\\><\\,-\\\'

J :... :
()
-J ~ O2
.9
. . , re,'on
.s
\o
0 I I I I
0 QI Ltft coeffic/en t, CL 03 0.~

Fig. 55 I n c i p i e n t c a v i t a t i o n at 0 . 7 5 R , SSPA s t a n d a r d series 5.60, P/D = 0.65-1.16

31 2 The Wageningen B-Screw Series


quantities involved in the ship-propeller-engine correction for the density of the fluid medium
m a t c h m a y be more seriously affected. In any in which the propeller will operate. For in-
case, iteration is clearly in order (see Section 17, stance, are the Bp-~ diagrams presented in this
Chapter VII, Principles of N~tw~.l Architectlt.re). paper for the propeller operating in fresh or salt
I much prefer to work with the K t - J system of water ?
charts as the m a t c h achieved there is philosoph- I t is very doubtful whether the cavitation d a t a
ically and practically more comfortable. presented in Figs. 46 through 5:3 are useful or
The Bp charts in the present paper are not whether Conclusion 2 regarding cavitation incep-
consistent with those of the aforementioned refer- tion is valid. Studies of the. m a n y factors in-
ence to PN.4, especially as regards the best effi- fluencing correlation of cavitation inception made
ciency line. Since b o t h sets of charts I understand b y the Cavitation Committee of the I T T C would
to be derived from the same source, I would tend to invalidate any application of model
appreciate it if the authors would give us an propeller methodical series data to the prediction
explanation for this discrepancy. of cavitation inception on a full-scale propeller
The numerical constant relating Bp to K~ and operating behind a ship.
or seems to imply operation in fresh water. This is T h e authors have defined fl incorrectly in t h a t
an additional complication in the use of the B~,-a it should be referred to as advance angle and not
charts. I would like confirmation t h a t fresh- hydrodynamic pitch angle. The h y d r o d y n a m i c
water operation is indeed implied. pitch angle B~ includes induced effects. In-
To those familiar with the Russian results [12] cidently, why h a v e n ' t the authors used standard
for operation in four quadrants, the use of in- I T T C notation for all of their symbols?
verted Co scales in Figs. :39 to 41 lnay be con-
fusing at first. Would the authors confirm t h a t J. G. Hill, Member: I t is always a privilege to see
their conventions take thrust, 7", as positive when another propeller paper front Wageningen because
it is in the direction to propel the ship ahead and of their high quality and completeness. This
torque, Q, positive when it is in the direction paper is no exception and provides a wealth of
corresponding to normal ahead propulsion ? information to those concerned with propeller
I further assume t h a t the 20-term Fourier problems.
series coefficients are obtained from a least-mean- I t is noted t h a t the B4-70 series was tested at a
square fit to a number of input points much in ex- Reynolds nnmber of 3.5 X 105 and the assumed
cess of 20. Can the authors tell us what is this Reynolds N u m b e r for the B4-70 chart is 1.0 M 1/)6.
nmnber of inputs? On the basis of Fig. 29 the efficiency for a given Bp
T h e use of " h y d r o d y n a m i c piteh angle, fl," for should be higher for the higher Reynolds number
presentation of four-quadrant data is a clever pro- of the new corrected presentation compared to the
eedure to eliminate some of the troubles with actual test results, as shown in Principles of
plots made to a base of J (and 1/or) or R P M . N~twzl Architectl~re. Actually the new curves
corrected to the higher Reynolds number show
William B. Morgan and Geoffrey (3. Cox, Members: lower efficiency than the original curves. Figure
This paper presents very useful information for 29 also indicates t h a t delta should be higher and
the naval architect who must make predictions of the pitch ratio lower with increasing Reynolds
propeller performance. I t represents the most number, but the curves show the reverse. If these
extensive and comprehensive a m o u n t of series data discrepancies are the result of the computer fair-
known to us. T h e inclusion of a rational modi-
ing, it would be interesting to know how much the
fication to the data to allow for the effects of
test data was departed from and the justification
Reynolds number on the propulsion character-
for the shift.
istics is most welcome. Some of us have been
concerned a b o u t the problem for a long time, Since the linear ratio from ship to model is
especially for screw series data which are based frequently about 30 for large ships, the Reynolds
on relatively small-sized models. We think t h a t N u m b e r changes by a factor of about 150. Figure
the cross-fairing technique used in the paper has 29 indicates about a 10-percent increase in effi-
greatly enhanced the Wageningen B-screw series ciency for this change in Reynolds number. Do the
data as there were obvious differences in some of authors expect t h a t this gain will be realized with
the data presented in the past. the ship propeller or are there other factors t h a t will
We consider it a pity t h a t the authors did not prevent this gain? In Resistance, Propulsion and
take the opportunity when preparing this paper Steering of Ships it is noted t h a t "this increase in
to present Figs. 1S through 26 in nondimensional efficiency is partly or wholly cancelled" ['.4.].
form. The use of these diagrams m a y require a The cavitation data and maneuvering data are

The Wageningen B-Screw Series 31 3


a valuable addition to the literature and it is the propeller. The second assmnption is t h a t the
hoped t h a t the next paper will cover the cavitation profile drag can be divided into two parts, the
of the lower blade areas and the 6- and 7-bladed tangential component due to skin friction and the
series. normal component due to pressure distribution
T h e cavitation comparisons in Figs. g6 to 53 and t h a t only the first p a r t has Reynolds number
demonstrate t h a t each combination of pitch and effect. T h e first assumption m a y be reasonable
camber results in o p t i m u m performance at one since the center of propeller loading is in the
particular thrust coefficient. Therefore, for a n y neighborhood of 0.75R and the profile geometry
specific design condition the camber and pitch does not change rapidly there. However, the
m u s t be varied from the series values to obtain second assumption is quite contrary to the test
satisfactory performance. Particular attention results of the wing section. Figure 56 shows the
m u s t be paid to the inner radii of propellers for drag coefficient of a N A C A 66-006 wing section.
high-speed, twin-screw ships, where cavitation T h e upper curve is for roughed section. The lower
erosion is frequently found on the pressure face of three curves are obtained at three different
constant-pitch propellers. Reynolds numbers. T h e m i n i m u m drag co-
efficients of the three curves are the same while
P. C. Pien, Member: T h e results of the Wagen- the shape of the curves are quite different. This
ingen B-screw Series given in this paper are some- means the minimum drag coefficient of a profile is
what different from. those previously published. independent of Reynolds number, and the pressure
This is a consequence of the refairing and the drag coefficient is highly dependent on Reynolds
correction of Reynolds n u m b e r effect. By com- number. This situation seems to contradict the
paring the model propeller test results in Fig. 7 and assumption made in the extrapolation procedure.
the extrapolated full-scale results in Figs. 16 or Figure 57 shows the same tendency of a slightly
17, we notice t h a t the efficiency of a full-scale cambered section. In v i e w of this I would be
propeller can be as m u c h as 20 percent, or more, inclined to question the accuracy of the extrap-
higher than t h a t of a model propeller. This is a olated results, especially for the heavily loaded
delightful surprise. Perhaps before we accept conditions.
these extrapolated results with confidence, we
should examine their extrapolation method rather J. B. Hadler, Member: I would like to add m y
carefully. thanks, along with others, to the authors for
T h e extrapolation procedure used in the paper their efforts in reanalyzing and expanding the test
was developed b y Lerbs almost twenty years ago. work on the 4- and 5-bladed propellers of the B-
His basic idea is t h a t the efficiency of any blade Screw Series. The removal of inconsistencies in
section can be considered as a product of the idea the old test results along with the inclusion of the
efficiency and the profile efficiency. T h e idea quadrature and cavitation measurements are
efficiency of a blade section is a function of the welcome additions. T h e inclusion of the coeffi-
loading and the advance coefficient X. I t is in- cients for the equations fitted to the test results
dependent of the section profile geometry. T h e will be of material assistance to those of us who use
profile efficiency, on the other hand, depends upon the digital computer in design or analysis work.
the profile geometry as well as the loading. This M y comments on this work will be restricted to
is in line with the fact t h a t propeller efficiency can questions of clarification or amplification.
be considered as a product of propeller idea effi- 1 Do the authors plan to extend this work to
ciency and the propeller blade efficiency. I t is the 6-bladed series--an area of growing im-
possible to choose a blade section, the character- portance to the merchant ship propeller designer?
istics of which can be used to relate the open- 2 Do the authors plan to extend the derived
water characteristics of the propeller. This can polynomials for K r and K o to include the effect
be done rather easily as shown in reference [7] of of cavitation ?
the paper. This chosen section is called the equiv- 3 The paper indicated t h a t the equations
alent profile of the propeller. So far, there derived for KT and t o approximated the experi-
should not be any question. I t is just another mental results " v e r y well." Could the authors
way of presenting an open-water test result. give us an idea of the quality of the fit through the
Then, two assmnptions are made in order to usual statistical terms such as standard deviation ?
account for the Reynolds number effect as follows : 4 T h e authors' study of the effect of Reynolds
T h e first assmnption is t h a t the 0.75R section number upon the open-water performance, par-
can be chosen as the equivalent profile with true ticularly the influence upon the o p t i m u m diameter
physical meaning and t h a t its characteristics v a r y and propeller efficiency, is of sufficient magnitude
with Reynolds n u m b e r the same way as t h a t of to make the direct use of the design charts based

31 4 The Wageningen B-Screw Series


"" ~ _ _

o .z
__

.4
I
..'c/c
.~ .8
*'~
/.O
.092

i .O2O
---

---
:l .2

0 .Z .4
~/c
[

.G ,8
, ,

/.0'
'i- ?
-- m i
T -

-1
__ L--L-- i-- .024 -- -- ~ --
I

i' i i- !
i I
.02 -- -- .020 --
,Y k---- i --

~ .ol i
II
II ,
i i.o,~ - I -i ~
! " -;4-
. .
~ , __~_ il i
"..I
i i

/I (a - - - - - -
-- ~ 4 I
o /I ,#.o/z - -

Q
I
Z]Z- i, L~
(Q
R
~.o~ Z Z -t
~ .OOO
~Q o - - - -

R
I
Z- Z : I I-
r3o
.oo~Z- Z
0 ! Z:
O,
7- -
..___ __

-- I , t
- i ii -_ _ _ i:I "'
J i ~
i .~
~ -.2 -- -- --
__f.__ ,I , I ' I
T -- -- po~
~,,~ -.~
~k - -.4-,1~ . ~ - - x e 3 " - - y / c .
o O.O,tlO .---_25' + - - . 0 0 5 . F
~
I
I
-'~
~t
5, t ~"-.O
'5,) ~3)9~ - - 6.0 --J-- -- . 2 5 ~ 4---
o g.o_L. .zsrL-.o/t,
0 L -- ~
I
- .--~--

--- OSOc s/i~uloted


""-.0.
Sfondal'd
S tandard r
sph't
, ouqhmexs
flop d e f / a c f e d 6 O,20e Mmu~/ed spilt floe de flecfe
;
/1:
T
--- v 8.0 --- - - I ~ v ~0 . . . . I I
--
-- . Src~do~d rouqhness -
v', ~ 0 I !n lo~ "d r o u q h t l e s s "~ I
I i i I "

":8
- -.4 -- --~
t .4 .8 /.2 L8
~5
4.s -zi -. 8
-L ~
i
--.,~ d
'

$e't/o0 rift ,:oefflclenf,,


.4
cI
~
i;i
.8
Li
i
1.2 /.e
Section tiff coefl~c~f~ C~

CO
f i g . 56 D r a g coefficients of u n c a m b e r e d w i n g s e c t i o n Fig. 57 Drag coefftcients of s l i g h t l y c a m b e r e d wing section
upon model open-water tests such as those in ence of 5 percent in efficiency and 4 to 5 percent
Figs. 1S through 26 questionable. I would like in diameter between the up-till-now-published
to ask the authors for a brief outline of how they experimental data and the full-scale prediction.
would modify their design procedure such as con- We are aware that by using these new results
tained in their reference [6] to ensure obtaining of the Wageningen B-Series, which have all been
the best propeller as well as the desired full-scale analyzed for turbulent flow at a Reynolds number
perfornmnce. of 1(16, we have also to look carefully to scale effect
in the other propulsive components such as the
Maurice R, Hauschildt, Member: The authors are wake factor, and thrust deduction in order to get
to be congratulated on a very thorough effort in the right overall correlation.
providing a systematic series of propeller charac- Jl~rorga.n and Powell made some remarks about
teristics for use in future design efforts. the B,,-value being not dimensionless and asked
Both the open water and cavitation tests with whether the density o is for fresh or salt water. I t
the higher blade numbers and larger blade area is for fresh water.
ratios were sponsored by the half of the Bureau of f2owelZ and 13jOrne asked why the conventional
Ships that has now become the Naval Ship En- way of plotting the results of systematic screw
gineering Center, and the purpose was to increase series has been maintained. We have selected
propeller characteristics information in these this conventional way of plotting because this is so
areas. The effect of Reynolds number does raise familiar to the designer. On the other hand, now
some questions of accuracy with these results. that the coefficients of the polynomials of the screw
I understand that you have a variable-pressure characteristics are known, each specialist can
towing basin under construction at NSMB. Do derive from these published coefficients his own
you plan to test these propellers in this new basin favorite way of plotting.
with standard ship models, to compare these 13jarne asked why we kept the rpm constant and
cavitation results with those for propellers in- varied the pressure in determining the character-
stalled on ships? If so, when could the results of istic cavitation curves. He would prefer varying
this comparison be made available? the rpm at constant pressure. In our opinion
Are there any plans to develop the same type such a procedure does not make any significant
of information for ducted propellers as has been difference. By varying pressure at constant
presented for conventional propellers in this rpm one moves vertically through the cavitation
paper? diagram. By varying the rpm at constant pres-
sure one moves horizontally through the diagram.
The only important point is that one determines
the characteristic cavitation curves at the desinent
cavitation points. A small drawback of varying
Authors' Closure
the rpm might even be the varying Reynolds num-
Before answering each discussor in detail I ber.
should like to make a general remark with respect Bj/irne's suggestion to analyze the cavitation
to the effect of Reynolds number on the optimum inception diagram with the equivalent profile
diameter and efficiency. method is in our opinion too ambitious. Three-
The results presented in Fig. 29 have all been dimensional effects and tip vortices would not be
related to a fully developed turbulent flow around treated in a proper way.
the propeller blades. In reply to Dr. P i e n we should like to mention
In m a n y cases such a turbulent flow will not that in our paper the profile data as published by
occur at propeller models for a Reynolds number Hoerner have been used. Especially Hoerner's
lower than 3-106. functional relation between the drag coefficient C1)
If we are aware that most of the open-water and the flat-plate friction coefficient and the thick-
tests have been carried out at a Reynolds number ness-chord ratio. We are convinced that data as
of 3.10;" we have to accept that laminar flow shown by Dr. Pien have been included in Hoerner's
effects will lead to higher et~ieieney values than can summary which has been based on an enormous
be expected for turbulent flows. So the differ- a m o u n t of profile data.
ences between the experimental values as have To Morgc~n and Cox we like to make the follow-
been published up till now and the full-scale values ing remarks:
will be considerably smaller than might be derived 1 The authors agree that in the cavitation
from Fig. 29. diagram the incipient curves are not so accurate
Nevertheless for a Bp-value of 50 and a full- as one might desire. This is due to air content
scale diameter of 8 m there still remains a differ- and other unknown factors. On the other hand

31 6 The Wageningen B-Screw Series


we are convinced that the characteristic curves the rpm are fixed. If power, speed, and di-
for thrust and torque breakdown do not suffer mneter are fixed one can select the rpm optimum.
from these unknown environmental conditions. However, a free choice of both rpm and diameter
2 In the four quadrant diagrams the hydro- leads always to one point in the propeller chart,
dynamic pitch angle ~ excluding the induced that is the top of the envelopment of the effi-
velocities has been used. In our opinion this is ciency curves in tile K r - K Q - J diagram.
correct. We agree that we can better denote B Further, we can inform Powell, that 120-180
by advance angle. The introduction of the points have been used for the Fourier analysis.
hydrodynamic pitch angle ~ including the in- We would like to inform Hadler and Hill that
duced velocities is not necessary and would lead to the cross-fairing process will be continued for tile
a rather complicated diagram. number of blades and that the Reynolds effect will
To Hill we can answer that, as already explained be introduced ill the polynolnials. Furthermore
in the introduction of our reply, indeed the experi- we are considering extending the cavitation ob-
mental results, which might be.. affected by a servations in order to give the cavitation diagram
laminar flow, might lead to higher efficiency values in polynomial form. We would like to say to
than the corrected ones for turbulent flow and a 1-I~zltschiIdt that maybe the depressurized towing
Reynolds number of 106. tank will be the best tool to carry out these cavita-
Hill's remark concerning the restricted value of tion tests at high loadings. And indeed we are
the cavitation inception diagram for screws de- planning the santo information as presented in this
signed with a lifting line or surface theory is paper for dueted propellers.
correct. However, we like to underline again that In future papers concerning the fairing of screw
even for these propellers the curw~_s for thrust and diagrams by a regression analysis we shall give
torque breakdown are valid. exact information about the standard deviation
Powell.'s question concerning optimizing is a of the series approximations.
basic one. Indeed one can select the diameter Gentlemen, we thank you for your discussions
optimum if the thrust or power, the speed, and and your interest in our paper.

The Wageningen B-Screw Series 317