2 views

Uploaded by Darin Fields

Sistemas de Amortiguamiento de terremotos en tanques de almacenamiento aéreos

- Brown Final Paper
- Vibrations 06
- NCh2369Of2003 English_-_V1.pdf
- Seismic Performance of Cable-stayed Bridges
- Advanced Seismic Assessment Guidelines
- 04-01-0087
- 41 Peru Overall
- Strong Medicine
- Seismic Behavior of Buildings Located on Slopes_Singh Et Al WCEE2012_4201 (1)
- Is 1893 Pt3 -F Commented
- Review on the Article
- EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN OF STRUCTURES
- 298_1
- Model Format for BTP-2016 - Copy
- webPEER-2011-105-Konakli
- MilesEquation
- Solution for Tutorial Problem Set -9.pdf
- Cyclic Demand Model
- IJEART03104
- Laplace

You are on page 1of 8

Seismic Protection of

Fabrizio Paolacci

Elevated Tanks

Mem. ASME

This paper deals with the effectiveness of two isolation systems for the seismic protection

Department of Engineering,

of elevated steel storage tanks. In particular, the performance of high damping rubber

Roma Tre University,

Rome 00033, Italy

bearings (HDRB) and friction pendulum isolators (FPS) has been analyzed. As case

study, an emblematic example of elevated tanks collapsed during the Koaceli Earthquake

in 1999 at Habas pharmaceutics plant in Turkey is considered. A time-history analysis

conducted using lumped mass models demonstrates the high demand in terms of base

shear required to the support columns and their inevitable collapse due to the insufficient

shear strength. A proper design of HDRB and FPS isolator according to the EN1998 and

a complete nonlinear analysis of the isolated tanks proved the high effectiveness of both

isolation systems in reducing the response of the case tank. Actually, the stability condi-

tions imposed by the code and a reduced level of convective base shear obtained with the

second isolation typology suggests the use of FPS isolators rather than HDRB devices.

[DOI: 10.1115/1.4029590]

1 Introduction action on the tank two isolation systems are designed: HDRB and

FPS. Their behavior will be analyzed and compared in order to

The seismic response of elevated tanks on steel or concrete sup-

show the effectiveness of each isolation system, identifying the

port structures has been widely investigated in the past. For a slen-

main strengths and defects.

der support configuration, this kind of tanks has a natural filtering

capacity against seismic actions. In this case, the isolation system

does not represent a proper solution for the mitigation of the struc- 2 Dynamics of Elevated Tanks Upon Seismic Isolators

tural response; indeed, dissipative bracings could represent a more

The dynamics of cylindrical tanks subjected to a base motion

effective technique, as demonstrated in literature by several

has been extensively studied by several authors. Starting from the

authors [1,2]. On the contrary, in case of stiff support the positive

earliest work of Housner [10], the hydrodynamic pressure induced

filtering effect could be limited. Moreover, in case of elevated

by the liquid on the tank wall due to the base motion has been

tanks on reinforced concrete columns, the high shear stiffness of

determined, taking into account the deformability of the tank

the support may induce premature shear failure in the columns, as

wall; see for example Refs. [1113].

shown in recent seismic events. For example, during Itzmit earth-

In brief, the liquid mass can be imagined subdivided in two

quake (1999) in Turkey, a series of elevated storage tanks contain-

parts: an impulsive component, which follows the base motion

ing liquefied oxygen were seriously damaged or collapsed [3].

and the deformability of the tank wall, and a convective compo-

This is a clear case in which base isolation technique could repre-

nent, whose oscillations cause superficial waves of different fre-

sent an effective solution for the seismic response mitigation [4].

quency and a very low percentage of excited mass (4%) mostly

Typical isolation systems are often based on Lead Rubber or

related to the higher vibration modes; moreover, while in the slen-

HDRB [5], and spherical sliding bearings like FPS with single or

der tanks most of the liquid moves rigidly with the tank in the

multiple surfaces [6,7].

broad tanks most of liquid oscillates in the convective mode.

Despite the fact the seismic isolation of elevated tanks has been

Under the hypothesis of rigid tank, the impulsive and convec-

widely investigated in the past, only few applications have been

tive part of hydrodynamic pressure can be easily evaluated taking

proposed in Refs. [8] and [9]. This suggested more investigations

into account the effects of the ground acceleration and the relative

toward a better comprehension of the problem, especially in real

acceleration of the tanks with respect to ground [14]. When the

cases.

tank is placed upon support like RC columns or other type of sup-

Based on the above-depicted framework, this paper addresses

ports the dynamics is also influenced by the rotation at the tank

the problem of elevated tanks with particular attention paid on

base that has to be properly included in the equation of motions.

steel storage tanks placed on short RC column. The dynamic prob-

Nevertheless, this effect can be neglected when the lateral dis-

lem of elevated tanks subjected to seismic action is here briefly

placements of the tank base are small.

described and formalized. The base isolation of a real liquid natu-

On the contrary, the part, which depends on the deformability

ral gas (LNG) steel tank supported by reinforced concrete col-

of the tank wall, can be determined solving a fluidstructure inter-

umns is presented and discussed. The analyzed tank collapsed

action problem, whose solution depends on the geometrical and

during 1999 Itzmit earthquake for a premature shear failure of the

mechanical characteristics of the tank: radius R, liquid level H,

columns. First, the response of fixed base configuration is ana-

thickness s, liquid density q, and elastic modulus of steel E. The

lyzed, which will show the insufficient safety level against shear

problem can be uncoupled in infinite vibration modes, of which

failure of the columns. Subsequently, in order to reduce seismic

only few of them have a significant mass. Thus, the impulsive

mass is distributed among the first vibration modes of the wall

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication

in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received July 4, 2014;

[14].

final manuscript received January 3, 2015; published online February 12, 2015. On the basis of the above observations, it can be drawn that the

Assoc. Editor: Chong-Shien Tsai. study of the hydrodynamic pressure in tanks subjected to a seismic

C 2015 by ASME JUNE 2015, Vol. 137 / 031801-1

Fig. 1 Equivalent springmass model of elevated tanks: (a) Fig. 3 Lumped mass 4DOF model for isolated elevated tanks

general and (b) broad tanks

base motion can be easily performed using the simple model technique is not new. Starting to 1990 many works on this subject

shown in Fig. 1, in which the liquid mass is lumped and subdi- have been done [15,16]. Unfortunately, few practical applications

vided in three components: rigid, impulsive, and convective have been realized [17] and a limited number of experimental

masses termed mi, mik (mass of kth mode of the wall vibration), activities have been performed [14,18].

mck (mass of kth convective mode). The impulsive and convective Based on the above observations a possible dynamic model of

masses are connected to the tank wall by springs, respectively, of elevated tanks upon base isolation is shown in Fig. 3.

stiffness kik and kck. The total pressure is given by adding the The vibration period of the impulsive component of the pres-

effects of the mass mi subjected to the base motion acceleration, sure generally falls in the maximum amplification field of the

of the masses mik subjected to the acceleration of the wall relative response spectrum, whereas the convective period Tc is usually

to the bottom of the tank, and of the masses mck subjected to the very high and thus associated with a low amplification factor.

absolute acceleration. This implies a high effectiveness of the base isolation system,

In case of broad tanks, the model of Fig. 1(a) can be updated by which can reduce highly the base shear due to the impulsive pres-

the simplest model shown in Fig. 1(b). In fact, the contribution of sure component. Neglecting the influence of the lateral deforma-

the vibration modes of higher order is negligible and the entire tion of wall and support, the period of the isolated structure is

impulsive mass is practically equal to the mass of the first vibration approximately given by

mode; moreover, because the distributions of the impulsive pres-

sure, with and without wall deformability, are almost coincident, r

m i ms m b

the effects of the impulsive action are simply taken into account by Tiso 2p (1)

the response in terms of absolute acceleration of a simple oscillator kiso

of mass mi and stiffness ki. Neglecting the higher convective modes

effect, the model becomes a simple three degrees of freedom in which mi is the impulsive part of the liquid mass, ms and mb

(DOF) model (Fig. 2). The frequencies of the convective and im- are, respectively, wall and base tank masses, and kiso is the elastic

pulsive modes are generally very different (tenths of a second stiffness of the isolators.

against tens of seconds). This justifies the usual choice of neglect- Often the support structure is composed of short reinforced con-

ing the interaction between these two phenomena. crete columns and thus with a limited lateral deformability. Con-

sequently, Eq. (1) can be considered applicable in most of the

cases. In addition, because the elevated tanks are also very slen-

der, the convective motion can be very limited whose contribution

to the lateral pressure on the wall is also limited. The negative

effect of the sloshing is related only to the superficial motion,

because either the height of the wave can exceed the upper limit,

causing overtopping phenomenon, or the floating roof motion

could cause a breaking of the gaskets and the leakage of danger-

ous vapors of inflammable substances. Unfortunately, the base

isolation does not modify this phenomenon.

As case study, an emblematic example of elevated tanks col-

lapsed during the Koaceli earthquake in 1999 at Habas pharma-

ceutics plant in Turkey has been considered [3,19].

The two damaged tanks on the left in Fig. 4 contained liquefied

oxygen, while the undamaged tank on the right contained lique-

fied nitrogen. Habas plant representatives on site reported that the

liquefied oxygen tanks were 85% full and the liquefied nitrogen

Fig. 2 Lumped mass 3DOF model for nonisolated elevated tank was about 25% full immediately before the earthquake. Each

tanks tank consisted of two concentric stainless steel shells, one with an

Fig. 4 Storage tanks of liquid oxygen at Habas plant after the Fig. 6 Section in the vertical plan of the tank

strong event of Itzmit (1999) (courtesy: The Karl V. Steinbrugge

slide and photograph collection world earthquakes and earth-

quake engineering). 4 Analysis of the Nonisolated Tank

4.1 Dynamic Characterization. In order to characterize

dynamically the tank, the modal analysis of the nonisolated case

outside diameter of 14.6 m, and the other with an outside diameter has been performed. This allows to identify the relative impor-

of 12.8 m (Fig. 5). The gap between the inner and outer shells was tance of the components of the liquid motion (impulsive, convec-

filled with perlite, which is a form of natural glass (foam) and a tive, and fluidstructure).

lightweight insulating material. At this end, masses and stiffness of Fig. 2 have been identified

The clear height of the tanks between the bottom slab and top (Table 1). In addition to impulsive and convective masses, the

stainless cover of the tanks is about 12 m (Fig. 6). Thus, the vol- mass of RC tank base, tributary mass of columns, and the mass of

ume of the tanks is approximately 1500 m3. All tanks were sup- the tank wall has been also considered, whose summation is indi-

ported on a 14.6 -m diameter, 1.07-mthick reinforced concrete cated in Table 1 as base.

slab that was in turn supported by sixteen 500-mm diameter rein- The convective and impulsive masses have been calculated

forced concrete columns. according to the prescriptions of EC8 part 4 [20]

Each column was 2.5 m in height and reinforced with sixteen

16-mm diameter longitudinal bars and 8-mm diameter ties spaced s

at approximately 100 mm on center. According to Ref. [3] the g H

xc 1:841 tanh 1:841 (2)

concrete used for the columns and the bottom slab was of class R R

C30/37, whereas the steel bars had a yielding strength of s

430 MPa. The density of the oxygen is 11.50 kN/m3. C Es

xi (3)

H qR

equations, the expression of xi is approximated, q is the fluid den-

sity, s is the thickness of the tank wall, and E is the young modu-

lus of the steel; the coefficient C depends on the ratio H/R and, for

usual values, varies between 0.17 and 0.13.

According to literature results [14], the damping ratio of impul-

sive and convective components of the motion have been chosen,

respectively, equal to 2% and 0.5%.

In Table 2, the results of the modal analysis obtained by using

the model of Fig. 2 are reported in terms of vibration periods and

participating mass of the first three periods. These results

Mass

Damping ratio (n) 2.0 0.5 5.0

Period (T) 0.49 3.70 0.32

Fig. 5 Plan view of the tank

Table 2 Dynamic properties of nonisolated tank Table 4 Maximum base shear componentsnonisolated tank

Mode 1 2 3 Accelerogram Impulsive (kN) Convective (kN) Base (kN) Total (kN)

MPM (%) 22 64 14 Yarimca060 13542 1753 2502 17796

Faith090 18062 100 2018 20079

Duzce270 10309 117 1596 11789

Table 3 Set of natural records used for the T-H analysis Duzce180 18573 541 2601 21715

Cekmece090 16534 291 3620 19863

Accelerogram Vs30 (m/s) Distance (km) PGA (g) Cekmece000 13011 91 3383 16303

Yarimca060 297 5 0.268 1999 Koaceli earthquake and listed in Table 3. They have been

Faith090 228 55 0.159 selected according to the following hazard parameters: (a) Soil

Duzce270 276 15 0.358 type C, (b) S-waves velocity between 180 m/s e and 360 m/s, (c)

Duzce180 276 15 0.312 distance d from the fault: 10 < d < 30 km, and (d)

Cekmece090 346 67 0.133 0.20 g < PGA < 0.35 g.

Cekmece000 346 67 0.179 For example, the unscaled record of Yarimca 330 is depicted in

Fig. 7. It shows a typical behavior of a near-fault earthquake and a

significant length (arias intensity is up to 99%) particularly

highlight the practical independency of the convective motion of elevated.

the fluid (mode 1) with respect to the impulsive motion. Period The response spectra of all unscaled records are shown in Fig. 8

and modal participating mass ratio of the second mode, where the together with the elastic spectrum at ultimate limit state condition

motion of impulsive mass in mainly involved, are instead slightly [21]. The latter has been established based on the class of the

greater than the quantities indicated in Table 2; this is due to the structure (class IV) and consequently using an importance factor

presence of the base support. The increasing of the period can cI 1.6. Considering a PGA 0.22 g and the soil factor S 1.15,

have a positive effect when the ordinate of the acceleration spec- the PGA is equal to 0.4 g.

trum decreases as the period elongates, with a consequent reduc- In order to respect the compatibility conditions of the accelero-

tion of the inertia forces. grams with the design spectrum, each record has been first scaled

to minimize the mean square error and to obtain, at the fundamen-

tal period, a spectral ordinate equal to the design value.

4.2 Time-History Analysis. For the evaluation of the seismic For each accelerogram, a time-history analysis has been per-

response of the case study, time-history analyses were conducted formed using SAP2000 # software [22]. For each mass of Fig. 2,

using the simplified model of Fig. 2, subjected to a series of natu-

ral records selected among accelerograms recorded during the

Fig. 7 Accelerogram record of Yamarica (330 deg North) nents for Yarimca 330 record

Fig. 10 Average wall pressuresnonisolated case (a) total, (b) impulsive, and (c) convective

the maximum absolute acceleration has been obtained along with parametric analysis has been performed varying the parameters of

the corresponding inertia forces, namely the base shear values the models of Fig. 3, the base isolation period Tiso, the slenderness

indicated in Table 4 for each accelerogram of Table 3. For exam- c H/R pand the vibration period of the support structure

ple, in Fig. 9, the response in terms of base shear forces to one of Ts 2p mtot =Ks The main results are presented in Ref. [24],

the scaled accelerograms (Yamarica 330) is shown; in particular, which confirm that both impulsive and convective components of

the total base shear and the relevant impulsive and convective base shear, the minimum response is obtained for c 1, a part

components are depicted. It can be noticed that: from Tiso, even though the best results are obtained for Tiso 2.5/

3 s, which corresponds to a reduction of about 80% of impulsive

the motion of the convective mass is practically independent

base shear and a slight increasing of the convective component.

of the remaining masses as already confirmed by the modal

It was also noticed that the isolation systems can be extremely

analysis;

effective only for the impulsive components of the liquid motion

in the steady-state condition the total base shear coincides

with a reduction of the base shear up to 80% with respect to the

with the convective base shear, whose oscillations appear

nonisolated condition, whereas the convective motion is nega-

less damped;

tively influenced with an increasing of base shear and liquid

the impulsive mass undergoes higher accelerations than the

height as already demonstrated in Ref. [14].

accelerations of the tank base, showing that the fluidstruc-

ture effect cannot be neglected;

the impulsive base shear is predominant with respect to the 5.1 Seismic Response of Tank Isolated With HDRB. The

convective one (see Table 4). HDRB isolators were designed for an isolation period Tiso 2.5 s

and a damping ratio n 10%. Consequently, using Eq. (1) the

In addition to the base shear components, the distribution on stiffness of the single device is K1iso 625 kN/m. Assuming a

the tank wall of the impulsive, convective, and total fluid pressure transversal modulus G 0.6 MPa, each isolator has a diameter

have also been obtained. They are expressed as function of the D 450 mm and a total thickness of elastomeric layers

maximum acceleration of impulsive and convective masses, as te 153 mm, the latter determined assuming a design shear defor-

suggested in Appendix A of EN1998:4 [20]. For example, for the mation c 100% and a design lateral displacement equal to

impulsive component the pressure reads 250 mm.

The modal analysis of the isolated tank has been performed

pi e; f; t Ci e; fq H cos h Ag t (4) using the model of Fig. 3, where Kiso 10,000 kN/m and

Miso 9.8 ton. The results are shown in Table 5. From these

where Ci is a function of the normalized radius e r/R and height results it can be drawn that:

f z/H, q is the density of the liquid, h is the angular coordinate

of the point in a cylindrical coordinate system, and Ag(t) is the

The fundamental period of the tank, where the impulsive

acceleration. A similar expression can be used for the convective motion was mainly involved, increased from 0.56 s to 2.34 s,

component. The pressure distribution calculated using the mean with a consequent reduction of the absolute accelerations.

value of the maximum accelerations is depicted in Fig. 10 for an The obtained period is not exactly equal to Tiso given the

angle h 0 deg. dynamic interaction between the motion components.

Using the maximum base shear, it has been possible to check

The participating mass of the convective motion increases for

support columns and wall against failure. In particular, according the high deformability of the isolators, for which it could

to the Turkish code [23], the maximum shear strength of the col- results in a possible interaction between convective and iso-

umns is about 330 kN with respect to a maximum shear action of lated motion.

about 1100 kN. This demonstrates the high vulnerability of these

The convective period remains practically unchanged, dem-

tanks as dramatically shown during the 1999 Koaceli earthquake. onstrating how the isolation system does not affect the slosh-

ing motion.

The seismic analysis of the isolated tank has been performed

5 Analysis of Isolated Case: A Comparison Between using the same accelerograms of Table 4. Anyhow, the

FPS and HDRB Isolators

The results of Sec. 4 suggested the use of a proper mitigation

Table 5 Dynamic parameters of isolated tank (HDRB)

technique as the base isolation. Given that the few applications

found in literature used either HDRB or friction pendulum, in Mode 1 2 3

what follows their effectiveness in reducing the seismic response

of the case study of Fig. 4 is studied and compared. T (s) 4.10 2.34 0.28

In order to better understand the effectiveness of base isolation MPM (%) 50% 49% 1

systems in reducing the seismic response of elevated tanks, a

Using a different elastic modulus (e.g., G 1.4 MPa), the

deformability can be reduced, but in any case it remains extremely

high. Consequently, in Sec. 5.2 a different type of isolators has

been proposed and investigated.

Comparison With HDRB Isolators. In this section, the seismic

response of the tanks isolated with FPS bearings is investigated.

For structures where the isolated mass is the entire weight, this

Fig. 11 Isolated case: time-history of base shear components typology represents an interesting solution because of the inde-

for Yamarica recordisolated case-HDRB

pendency of the response from the mass itself. In fact, in this case

the period can be calculated according to Eq. (5)

Table 6 Maximum base shear componentsisolated

tankHDRB r v v

M u M u 1

Tp 2p 2pu 2pu (5)

u

u

Accelerogram Impulsive (kN) Convective (kN) Base (kN) Total (kN) Ke 1 l t 1 l

t

gM g

R X R X

Yarimca330 1795 1868 15 4498

Yarimca060 3040 2447 24 6767

Faith090 370 249 3 779 In case where the participating mass is a fraction of the total

Duzce270 1840 458 20 2454 mass, this independency is no longer valid. As a matter of fact, in

Duzce180 1402 1823 12 3880 case of storage tanks, the period is indicated in Eq. (6), where the

Cekmece090 695 118 7 1203 dependency of the mass is clearly shown. The greater the convec-

Cekmece000 605 124 5 1013 tive mass the lower the vibration period Tp. For example, in broad

tanks the sensibility of the response from the mass is higher than

in slender tanks, for which the convective mass is usually a small

scaling procedure has been performed considering as reference part of the total mass of the fluid

period Tiso. A new time-history analysis has been performed.

Figure 11 shows once again the response in terms of base shear r v

u

components. Analyzing the time histories it can be noticed that: M u Mimp Mss Miso

Tp 2p 2pu (6)

the base and impulsive mass accelerations are very similar, Ke t 1 l

showing that the structure behaves rigidly during the motion; gMtot

R X

the convective motion is again independent from the rest of

the motion;

the convective shear force assumes values similar to those of In the analyzed case study, the convective/impulsive mass ratio

the nonisolated case, whereas the impulsive force decreases is about 50%, therefore the sensitivity of the response from the

up to 80%. mass cannot be considered totally negligible.

Considering a curvature radius R 3175 mm, a friction coefficient

This is clearly shown in Table 6 where the maximum force of of 3% and a maximum design displacement d 350 mm an equiva-

each mass is reported for each record. The mean total base shear lent period Teq 3 s and a damping ratio n 13.5% are obtained.

is about 2900 kN, which shows a reduction of about 80% with To perform time-history analysis, the simplified nonlinear

respect to the nonisolated case. model for FPS isolators already implemented in SAP2000 has been

The average pressure components acting on the wall are shown in used, which does not take into account the dependency of the

Fig. 12. The maximum impulsive pressure is now reduced to 9 kN/ response of the isolator from the vertical load variation. In the

m2 from about 90 kN/m2. This means that in all columns the shear present application, the friction coefficient of the isolators has

force demand is highly reduced, obtaining now values well under been assumed as constant. The effect of its variability with the

the shear strength limit. Similarly, the convective pressure increases, velocity will be investigated in further analysis.

remaining, in any case, confined within a range of low values. Figure 13 shows, for example, the response of the isolated tank

Finally, all necessary checks according to Eurocode 8 have to the Yamarica 330 record. From the results it can be drawn that:

been performed. Given that the average value of the maximum

displacement of HDRB isolators is 0.28 m and considering a The base and impulsive mass accelerations are very similar,

safety coefficient c 1.2, [21], the displacement limit of the devi- showing that, as in the case of HDRB isolators, the structure

ces corresponding to a shear deformation of 200% is attained. behaves rigidly during the motion.

Fig. 12 Average pressures on the wallisolated caseHDRB: (a) total, (b) impulsive, and (c)

convective

Fig. 13 Isolated case: time-history of base shear components

for Yamarica recordisolated case-FPS

isolators

Yarimca060 2201 1997 831 5045

Faith090 693 22 73 790

Duzce270 1182 69 117 1370

Duzce180 1232 681 492 2414

Cekmece090 857 207 90 973

Cekmece000 813 66 140 1021

respect to the nonisolated case, showing the high effective-

ness of the FPS isolation system as well.

The amplitude of the convective base shear seems to be

reduced with respect to the HDRB isolators. This is probably

due to a higher damping ratio (13.5%).

The maximum total base shear is now reduced of about 88%.

This is justifiable by the increasing of both equivalent period

and damping ratio.

the maximum values of convective and impulsive shear forces. In

this case an average value of base shear of 2055 kN is obtained.

This value is a little bit lower than the one obtained with HRDB

Fig. 14 Cyclic response of an FPS isolatorDuzce270 record isolators.

To show the high dissipation capability of the FPS bearings

activated during the motion, the cyclic response for Yamarica330

record is shown in Fig. 14.

As for HDRB isolators the level of pressure acting on the wall

during the earthquake is extremely reduced, as depicted in

Fig. 15, where the average value of impulsive and convective

components along the height are shown.

The average value of the maximum displacements of FPS isola-

tors is about 290 mm that is compatible with most of the commer-

cial FPS bearings. This value is similar to the displacement

obtained for HDRB isolators, with the difference that now it is

fully compatible with the FPS isolation systems.

The stress level in the wall in both the cases is extremely lim-

ited. In particular, according to the EC8 part 4 [19], the stresses

corresponding to the elephant foot buckling and elastic buckling

Fig. 15 Average pressures on the wallisolated caseFPS condition are, respectively, 75 MPa and 104 MPa, whereas the

isolators maximum stress obtained from the T-H analysis is about

20.8 MPa and 17.4 MPa for HDRB and FPS isolators, respec- Mw mass of the tank wall

tively. The distribution of the vertical stress in the wall in both the mck mass of kth convective mode

cases is shown in Fig. 16. mik mass of kth mode of the wall vibrations

Finally, the maximum vertical displacement due to the sloshing Miso mass of the isolation system

phenomenon is equal to 1.79 and 1.13 m for HDRB and FPS isola- PGA peak ground acceleration

tors, respectively. This is fully compatible with the limit of 1.80 m R tank radius

imposed by the geometry. The lower value obtained using FPS Tc vibration period of convective motion

isolators shows again their good performance. Ti vibration period of impulsive motion

Tiso vibration period of the isolated structure

6 Conclusions n damping ratio

q liquid density

In this paper, the effectiveness of two types of isolation devices

in reducing the seismic response of elevated tanks has been inves- References

tigated. In particular, HDRB and FPS bearings have been [1] Paolacci, F., Giannini, R., and De Angelis, M., 2013, Seismic Response Miti-

analyzed. gation of Chemical Plant Components by Passive Control Systems, J. Loss

Prev. Process Ind., 26(5), pp. 879948.

An emblematic example of elevated tanks collapsed during the [2] Drosos, J. C., Tsinopoulos, S. V., and Karabalis, D. L., 2005, Seismic

Koaceli earthquake in 1999 at Habas pharmaceutics plant in Tur- Response of Spherical Liquid Storage Tanks With a Dissipative Bracing Sys-

key has been considered as case study: a group of three elevated tem, Proceedings of the 5th GRACM International Congress on Computational

tanks, containing liquefied oxygen and liquefied nitrogen. The two Mechanics, Limassol, Cyprus, June 29July 1, pp. 313319.

[3] Sezen, H., Lvao glu, R., and Do

gangun, A., 2008, Dynamic Analysis and Seis-

tanks with stored liquefied oxygen collapsed for shear failure of mic Performance Evaluation of Above-Ground Liquid-Containing Tanks, Eng.

the reinforced concrete short columns that sustained the tank. The Struct., 30(3), pp. 794803.

time-history analysis conducted using a lumped mass model dem- [4] Shrimali, M. K., and Jangid, R. S., 2003, Earthquake Response of Isolated Ele-

onstrated the high demand in terms of base shear required to the vated Liquid Storage Steel Tanks, J. Constr. Steel Res., 59(10), pp.

12671288.

support columns and their inevitable collapse due to the insuffi- [5] Abali, E., and Uckan, E., 2010, Parametric Analysis of Liquid Storage Tanks

cient shear strength. Base Isolated by Curved Surface Sliding Bearings, Soil Dynamics and Earth-

Consequently, the design of the recalled isolation systems was quake Engineering, 30(12), JanuaryFebruary, pp. 2131.

conducted and the response of the systems was investigated [6] Tsai, C. S., Chiang, T. C., and Chen, B. J., 2005, Experimental Evaluation for

Piecewise Exact Solution of Seismic Responses of Spherical Sliding Type Iso-

though time-history analysis using mass lumped models properly lated Structures, Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn., 34(9), pp. 10271046.

modified to account for the presence of the isolation system. In [7] Tsai, C. S., Chiang, T. C., and Chen, B. J., 2006, Component and Shaking

particular, for HDRB an equivalent model was adopted, whereas Table Tests for Full Scale Multiple Friction Pendulum System, Earthquake

the FPS bearing where modeled with a simplified nonlinear model Eng. Struct. Dyn., 35(13), pp. 16531675.

[8] Marioni, A., 1998, The Use of High Damping Rubber Bearings for the Protec-

in which the influence of the vertical load on the later stiffness tion of the Structures From the Seismic Risk, Jornadas Portuguesas de Engen-

was neglected. haria de Estruturas, LNEC, Lisboa, pp. 2528.

The capability of both the isolation systems in reducing both [9] Santagelo, A., Scibilia, N., and Stadarelli, R., 2007, Seismic Isolation of a

base shear and stress level in the wall has been clearly demon- Tanks at Priolo Gargallo (in Italian), Proceedings of the Giornate AICAP

2007, Salerno, Italy, Oct. 46, pp. 543550.

strated. In particular the reduction of about 80% and 88% of the [10] Housner, G. W., 1963, The Dynamic Behaviour of Water Tanks, Bull. Seis-

total and impulsive base shear has shown the high effectiveness of mol. Soc. Am., 53, pp. 381387.

both the isolators. The use of HDRB was limited by the maximum [11] Fischer, D., 1979, Dynamic Fluid Effects in Liquid-Filled Flexible Cylindrical

displacement required by the seismic action that instead is fully Tanks, Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn., 7(6), pp. 587601.

[12] Haroun, M. A., and Hausner, G. W., 1981, Earthquake Response of Deforma-

compatible with the FPS isolators. The reduction of the stress ble Liquid Storage Tanks, ASME J. Appl. Mech., 48(2), pp. 411418.

level eliminates any possible buckling phenomenon in the wall. [13] Veletsos, A. S., and Tang, Y., 1987, Rocking Response of Liquid Storage

Finally, given the lower value of vertical sloshing displace- Tanks, J. Eng. Mech., 113(11), pp. 17741792.

ments of the liquid obtained using FPS isolator, it is suggested the [14] De Angelis, M., Giannini, R., and Paolacci, F., 2010, Experimental Investiga-

tion on the Seismic Response of a Steel Liquid Storage Tank Equipped With

adoption of sliding bearings rather than HDRB in seismic isola- Floating Roof by Shaking Table Tests, Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn., 39(4),

tion of elevated tanks. pp. 377396.

[15] Wang, Y., Teng, M., and Chung, K., 2001, Seismic Isolation of Rigid Cylin-

drical Tanks Using Friction Pendulum Bearings, Earthquake Eng. Struct.

Acknowledgment Dyn., 30(7), pp. 10831099.

[16] Shrimali, M. K., and Jangid, R. S., 2002, Non-Linear Seismic Response of

This work has been partially funded by the Italian RELUIS con- Base-Isolated Liquid Storage Tanks to Bi-Directional Excitation, Nucl. Eng.

sortium within the executive research program 20102013 Des., 217(12), pp. 120.

research thrust twoSpecial Structures. Any opinions, findings [17] Tajirian, F. F., 1998, Base Isolation Design for Civil Components and Civil

and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this paper are Structures, Proceedings of the Structural Engineers World Congress, San Fran-

cisco, CA, pp. 233244.

those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of [18] Calugaru, V., and Mahin, S. A., 2009, Experimental and Analytical Studies of

RELUIS. Fixed Base and Seismically Isolated Liquid Storage Tanks, Proceedings of the

3rd International Conference on Advances in Experimental Structural Engineer-

ing, San Francisco, CA, Oct. 16, pp. 112.

Nomenclature [19] Paolacci, F., 2014, On the Effectiveness of Two Isolation Systems for the

Seismic Protection of Elevated Tanks, ASME Paper No. PVP2014-28563.

Cc damping coefficient of the convective mode [20] EN 1998-4, 2006, Eurocode 8: Design of Structures for Earthquake

Ci damping coefficient the impulsive mode ResistancePart 4: Silos, Tanks and Pipeline, EN 1998-4, Brussels, Belgium.

Cs damping coefficient the support system [21] CEN; 2006, Eurocode 8: Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance

Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance, Part 4: Silos, Tanks and Pipe-

E longitudinal elastic modulus of the wall line. European Committee for Standardisation, Brussels, Belgium.

g gravity acceleration [22] CEN; 2014, Eurocode 8: Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance, Part

G transversal elastic modulus of elastomer 1: General Rules, Seismic Actions and Rules for Buildings. European Commit-

H liquid height tee for Standardisation, Brussels. Belgium.

kck stiffness of the kth convective mode [23] Turkish Seismic Code, 2007, Specification for Structures to be Built in Disas-

ter Areas, Ministry of Public Works and Settlement Government of Republic

kik stiffness of the kth mode of the wall vibrations of Turkey.

kiso stiffness of the isolation system [24] Paolacci, F., Giannini, R., Uckan, E., Akbas, E., and Corritore, D., 2014,

mi impulsive mass Seismic Response Mitigation of Elevated Tanks by HDRB and FPS Isolation

Systems, Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Earthquake

Mb mass of the tank base Engineering and Seismology, 2ECEES, Istanbul, Turkey, Aug. 2529,

Ms mass of the support system (CDROM).

- Brown Final PaperUploaded byNeeraj Chaddha
- Vibrations 06Uploaded byburak
- NCh2369Of2003 English_-_V1.pdfUploaded byincrustador
- Seismic Performance of Cable-stayed BridgesUploaded byahm2011
- Advanced Seismic Assessment GuidelinesUploaded byLau Paupério
- 04-01-0087Uploaded byPRAVEEN NAUTIYAL
- 41 Peru OverallUploaded bySubhadra Singh
- Strong MedicineUploaded byBenard Omondi
- Seismic Behavior of Buildings Located on Slopes_Singh Et Al WCEE2012_4201 (1)Uploaded bysabareesan09
- Is 1893 Pt3 -F CommentedUploaded bySangrah Maurya
- Review on the ArticleUploaded byshauk3630
- EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN OF STRUCTURESUploaded bySujay Raghavendra N
- 298_1Uploaded bysumatrablackcoffee453
- Model Format for BTP-2016 - CopyUploaded byAditya Koutharapu
- webPEER-2011-105-KonakliUploaded bystraulle
- MilesEquationUploaded byChristopher John Suchocki
- Solution for Tutorial Problem Set -9.pdfUploaded byMazin Abdalla
- Cyclic Demand ModelUploaded byAngga Fajar Setiawan
- IJEART03104Uploaded byerpublication
- LaplaceUploaded byPuneet Bahri
- 25 STR VIBRATIONSUploaded bykannan
- gzG2p-Su8VwUploaded byDaniel
- Dynamics labUploaded byRa Balamurugan
- Behaviour of Composite bridge with isolatorsUploaded bySuresh GS
- ps3bUploaded bySundar Raj
- MG University B.Tech S7 Previous year QPUploaded byJithin K
- 2018-Experimentalstudyofanovelmulti-hazardresistantprefabricatedconcreteframestructureUploaded byJuanSebastiánFrancoCervera
- content page.docUploaded bySafalsha Babu
- Theory vibrationUploaded byMohamad Faiz
- Fundamentals of VibrationUploaded byKoteswara Rao

- Symbol KeysUploaded byBalaji Vangaru
- Isometric Symbol KeysUploaded byAldo
- Isometric Symbol KeysUploaded byAldo
- Estructuras Metálicas Comportamiento Frente Al FuegoUploaded byDarin Fields
- Prontuario perfiles acero UAHEUploaded byagustin007
- Cte FremapUploaded byDarin Fields
- Acumulador Vitrex Den Chicos.pdfUploaded byDarin Fields
- Condiciones ProyectoUploaded byDarin Fields
- Mejora suelosUploaded bynolo1537
- Training-Manual_AutoCAD-Plant-3D_Advanced_English_2013Uploaded byknsaravana
- Calculo Mecanico de Tuberias Enter Rad AsUploaded byvareperu
- ENFIERRADURASUploaded byjavierzurita
- Symbol KeysUploaded byDarin Fields
- Symbol KeysUploaded byDarin Fields
- VCVUploaded byDarin Fields
- Buenas Prácticas SaneamientoUploaded byDarin Fields
- Shand&Jurs Pressure VentUploaded byDarin Fields
- Normativa de residuos urbanos de la Mancomunidad de HuelvaUploaded byDarin Fields
- Cubierta DECK RockwoolUploaded byDarin Fields
- Manual Puentes SsiUploaded bymeracu
- BridasUploaded byTom Cook
- Informacion General Del Ranurado y Datos de DiseñoUploaded byDarin Fields
- PGOU de Ayto. SevillaUploaded byDarin Fields
- catalogotecnico pacadarUploaded byDarin Fields
- Anexo AII PGOU Ayto. SevillaUploaded byDarin Fields
- Cubierta DECK Con Membrana AutoprotegidaUploaded byDarin Fields
- Referencias externas AutocadUploaded byDarin Fields
- Formaciones AVEVA PlantUploaded byDarin Fields
- Ensayos a Puentes GruaUploaded byDarin Fields

- Basic Vibration Training documentsUploaded byVarun Mishra
- Yearly Plan Kimia F4 201Uploaded byAbu Aiman
- Introduction to Horn AntennasUploaded byheroi1423
- Int Physics Olympiad Questions 1_2_3Uploaded byrock
- Fundamental Concepts in DIC MicroscopyUploaded byJess Enevold
- Global Model 1-DUploaded byrahmatun inayah
- Electron ConfUploaded bypk2varma
- MicrostripDesComplUploaded byh_lifemaker
- Chepter Wise QuestionsUploaded byAshok Pradhan
- Emissivity Measurement of Radiating SurfacesUploaded byashish
- M05 - SEC 5 Solution[131331] for FB PostingUploaded byRimar Liguan
- Youngs ModULUSUploaded byJosh Sam Rindai Mhlanga
- Atlantis Rising - 029Uploaded byTommaso Monteleone
- WPH04_01_que_20150113Uploaded byreemarifkhan
- Hall Effect ExperimentUploaded bydeepakkapeed
- Kalkulus : IntegralUploaded bysvitri94
- Basement Retaining WallUploaded byArnel Dodong
- 001-v2-2.pdfUploaded byMuzammalRehman
- Radio Wave Propagation2Uploaded bysdpatki
- Pure SubstanceUploaded byJoemar Miranda
- IntroductionUploaded bySuman Das
- EE270 Practice gggProblems 1Uploaded byguddyie
- 07835511Uploaded byMani Ashouri
- Unit5 Chemical Bonding Review NotesUploaded byNkemzi Elias Nzetengenle
- Foundation Design Equations SummaryUploaded bysreejit77
- STEMJOBS LessonPlan InterstellarUploaded bySergio Villalobos Flórez
- Analysis of Laterally Loaded Piles in Multilayered Soil DepositsUploaded bybrowncas
- JC 2 Temperature Thermodynamics Thermal Properties Work SheetUploaded byPaul Pandian
- Thermofluids Data BookUploaded byAjmal Salam
- Hall EffectUploaded bykeshav sharma