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DON MOEN LYRICS

"River Of Love"

Thirsty for more you More of your Spirit and truth Wash me from all my sin Fill me with your Spirit again

You're the river of love Flowing with the grace and mercy Flooding my soul Filling my heart with peace O river of love Like streams in the desert Giver of life Giving your life and love To set me free

Heal me and I'll be healed Save me and I will be saved You've filled me with songs of praise Forever I will sing of your grace

You're the river of love Flowing with the grace and mercy Flooding my soul Filling my heart with peace O river of love Like streams in the desert Giver of life Giving your life and love To set me free

If anyone is thirsty let him come on in When you drink the living water You will never thirst again

You're the river of love Flowing with the grace and mercy Flooding my soul Filling my heart with peace O river of love

Like streams in the desert Giver of life Giving your life and love

You're the river of love Flowing with the grace and mercy Flooding my soul Filling my heart with peace O river of love Like streams in the desert Giver of life Giving your life and love To set me free

Giving your life and love To set me free Giving your life and love To set me free

"I Give Myself Away"

[Chorus x2:]

  • I give myself away

  • I give myself away

So You can use me

  • I give myself away

  • I give myself away

So You can use me

[Verse 1:]

Here I am Here I stand Lord, my life is in your hands Lord, I'm longing to see Your desires revealed in me

[Chorus:]

  • I give myself away

  • I give myself away

So You can use me

  • I give myself away

  • I give myself away

So You can use me

[Verse 2:]

Take my heart Take my life As a living sacrifice All my dreams all my plans Lord I place them in your hands

[Chorus x2:]

  • I give myself away

  • I give myself away

So You can use me

  • I give myself away

  • I give myself away

So You can use me

[Bridge x7:]

My life is not my own To you I belong I give myself, I give myself to you

https://www.youtube.coEnergy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the scalar physical quantity. For an overview of and topical guide to energy, see Outline of energy. For other uses, see Energy (disambiguation).

"Energetic" redirects here. For other uses, see Energetic (disambiguation).

 
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This lead needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Un material may be challenged and removed. (September 2016)(Learn ho

The Sun is the source of energy for most of life on Earth. It derives its
The Sun is the source of energy for most of life on Earth. It derives its energy mainly from nuclear fusion in its
core and releases it into space mainly in the form ofradiant (light) energy.

In physics, energy is the property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on – or to heat – the object, and can be converted in form, but not created or destroyed. [note 1] The SI unit of energy is the joule, which is the energy transferred to an object by the mechanical work of moving it a distance of 1 metre against a force of 1 newton.

Common energy forms include the kinetic energy of a moving object, the potential energy stored by an object's position in a force field (gravitational, electric or magnetic), the elastic energy stored by stretching solid objects, the chemical energy released when a fuel burns, the radiant energy carried by light, and the thermal energy due to an object's temperature.

Mass and energy are closely related. Due to mass–energy equivalence, any object that has mass when stationary in a frame of reference (called rest mass) also has an equivalent amount of energy whose form is called rest energy in that frame, and any additional energy acquired by the object above that rest energy will increase an object's mass. For example, with a sensitive enough scale, one could measure an increase in mass after heating an object.

Living organisms require available energy to stay alive, such as the energy humans get from food. Civilisation gets the energy it needs from energy resources such as fossil fuels, nuclear fuel, or renewable energy. The processes of Earth's climate and ecosystem are driven by the radiant energy Earth receives from the sun and the geothermal energy contained within the earth.

Defining

Because energy exists in many interconvertible forms, and yet can't be created or destroyed, its measurement may be equivalently "defined" and quantified via its transfer or conversions into various forms that may be found to be convenient or pedagogic or to facilitate accurate measurement; for example by energy transfer in the form of work (as measured via forces and acceleration) or heat (as measured via temperature changes of materials) or into particular forms such as kinetic (as measured via mass and speed) or by its equivalent mass.

What is energy?

Physicists, who are scientists who study force, motion and energy, say that energy is the ability to do work, and work is moving something against a force, like gravity. There are a lot of different kinds of energy in the universe, and that energy can do different things.

Energy can be found in many things, and takes many forms. There is a kind of energy called kinetic energy in objects that are moving. There is something that scientists call potential energy in objects at rest that will make them move if resistance is removed.

Physicists, who are scientists who study force, motion and energy, say that energy is the ability

The molecules making up all matter contains a huge amount of energy, as Einstein's E = mc^2 pointed out to us. Energy can also travel in the form of electromagnetic waves, such as heat, light, radio, and gamma rays. Your body is using metabolic energy from your last meal as you read this.

Fossil fuels are sources of energy that have developed within the earth over millions of years. Because fossil fuels - oil, natural gas, and coal - take so long to form, they are considered nonrenewable. Learn more about these fuels, including the pros and cons of using them.

Fossil Fuels

What comes to your mind when you think of fuel? You might think of gasoline for your car, or maybe food, which is fuel for your body, possibly firewood, which may provide heat for your home. The bottom line is that fuel is an absolutely necessary part of everyone's daily life. And, deep within our Earth, there are stores of fuel that our world has become totally dependent on. They are called fossil fuels, and in this lesson, we will explore how they came about and how they affect our lives.

You have undoubtedly heard of fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. These are the three main types offossil fuels. You rely on fossil fuels every day for such tasks as fueling your car and heating your home. And, it's very likely that the electricity in your home comes from a power plant that uses fossil fuels. But, did you know that these fuels were once plant and animal life? That's right; fossil fuels are actually the accumulated remains of living organisms that were buried millions of years ago.

In fact, it may help you to recall this term by remembering that a 'fossil' is a naturally preserved remnant of a living thing from long ago. Let's take a closer look at these energy-rich substances and how they were created.

Fossil Fuel Creation

As we mentioned, the story of fossil fuels began millions of years ago, even before the dinosaurs first appeared on Earth. At that time, there were tiny plants and animals living in the oceans of the world. As these plants and animals died, they would sink down and settle on the ocean floor. This organic matter was eventually covered by layers of sand, rock and mud that later turned into sedimentary rock.

As these layers of rock grew thicker and thicker, the organic matter ended up being placed under a great amount of pressure. Over the millions of years that passed, this high pressure transformed the partially decomposed plant and animal matter into the major energy source that we know as oil and natural gas.

Coal is formed through the same type of process. However, coal originates mainly from dead tree and plant matter. Millions of years ago, leafy plants and trees died and sank into swamps and bogs that covered much of the Earth. This created a soupy plant-filled stew called peat. The peat became buried under layers of sediment, and water was squeezed out. Over the course of millions of years, compounds within the peat were subjected to heat and pressure, transforming them into the carbon- rich substance we know as coal.

Fossil Fuel as Energy

Fossil fuels are a great source of energy because they originate from living things. We know that plants and trees use sunlight to make food from carbon dioxide and water, using the process called photosynthesis. This is an easy term to recall when you remember that the prefix 'photo' is Greek for light, and the suffix 'synthesis' means to make, so photosynthesis is using the energy of sunlight to make food. This energy from the sun gets stored in the plants and transferred to any animal that eats the plants.

Now keep in mind, the dead plant and animal matter that made up these fossil fuels didn't have much time to decay. They sank into the water and were buried with much of their substance intact. This allowed the energy within them to remain as they were transformed.

You can imagine how concentrated the energy is within fossil fuels. The plant and animal matter has sunk into the water and has been greatly compressed. To try and visualize this, picture a bag of raw spinach. It takes up quite a bit of space, just like a plant would. Now put the spinach into a pot with a little bit of water, and cook it up. Suddenly, your pan only has a couple of inches of spinach at the bottom, all compressed into a dense layer of mush. All of the nutrients in the spinach leaves are now concentrated, just like the energy in fossil fuels.

Advantages of Fossil Fuels

There are many advantages of fossil fuels. Even though they are consumed in mass amounts, they are still abundant and accessible. Fossil fuels provide a large amount of concentrated energy for a relatively low cost. Their abundance allows power plants to be fueled by them, creating a great deal of electricity for the world. Additionally, oil can be transported through the use of pipes, allowing it to be transported relatively easily.

Natural gas is a clean fuel and is highly efficient. It is widely used by businesses and residential homes for heating, cooking, making hot water and drying clothes. Additionally, 99% of the natural gas we use comes from North America, helping America be more self-sufficient.

Disadvantages of Fossil Fuels

As helpful and valuable as fossil fuels are, they are not without flaws. One of the main disadvantages of fossil fuels is the fact that when they are burned, they produce carbon dioxide. The high levels of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere are one of the factors leading to global climate change, which is defined as a long-term change in the Earth's climate.

Fossil energy sources, including oil, coal and natural gas, are non-renewable resources that formed when prehistoric plants and animals died and were gradually buried by layers of rock. Over millions of years, different types of fossil fuels formed -- depending on what combination of organic matter was present, how long it was buried and what temperature and pressure conditions existed as time passed.

Today, fossil fuel industries drill or mine for these energy sources, burn them to produce electricity, or refine them for use as fuel for heating or transportation. Over the past 20 years, nearly three-fourths of human-caused emissions came from the burning of fossil fuels.

The Energy Department maintains emergency petroleum reserves, ensures responsible development of America’s oil and gas resources and executes natural gas regulatory responsibilities. In addition, scientists at the Energy Department’s National Labsare developing technologies to reduce carbon emissions and ensure fossil energy sources play a role in America’s clean energy future.

Fossil Fuels

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Description

Fossil fuels, including coal, oil and natural gas, are currently the world's primary energy source. Formed from organic material over the course of millions of years, fossil fuels have fueled U.S. and global economic development over the past century. Yet fossil fuels are finite resources and they can also irreparably harm the environment. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, the burning of fossil fuels was responsible for 79 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2010. These gases insulate the planet, and could lead to potentially catastrophic changes in the earth’s climate. Technologies such as Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) may help reduce the greenhouse gas emissions generated by fossil fuels, and nuclear energy can be a zero-carbon alternative for electricity generation. But other, more sustainable solutions exist: energy efficiency and renewable energy.

Oil

Oil is the world’s primary fuel source for transportation. Most oil is pumped out of underground reservoirs, but it can also be found imbedded in shale and tar sands. Once extracted, crude oil is processed in oil refineries to create fuel oil, gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas, and other nonfuel products such as pesticides, fertilizers, pharmaceuticals, and plastics.

The United States leads the world in petroleum consumption at 19.05 million barrels per day as of 2014. Net petroleum imports for the U.S. were 4.5 million barrels per day. Top exporters to the United States include Canada, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, and Nigeria. Oil poses major environmental problems, and the world’s heavy reliance on it for transportation makes it difficult to reduce consumption. Besides the environmental degradation caused by oil spills and extraction, combustion of oil releases fine particulates which can lead to serious respiratory problems, and is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions. Indeed, petroleum is responsible for 42 percent of greenhouse gas emissions in the United States.

Heavier crude oils, especially those extracted from tar sands and shale, require the use of energy intensive methods that result in more emissions and environmental

degradation compared to conventional oil. As conventional oil from underground reservoirs runs out, more oil producers are turning to unconventional sources such as tar sands and oil shale.

Coal

Coal is primarily used to generate electricity and is responsible for 39 percent of the electric power supply in the United States in 2014 (down from half in 2007). The United States produces around 11.5 percent of the world’s total with Wyoming, West Virginia, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and Texas leading in production. China is the global leader in coal production, responsible for 45 percent of world supply.

The combustion of coal releases air pollutants such as acid rain-inducing sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and mercury. The mining process can also be very damaging to the environment, often resulting in the destruction of vegetation and top-soil. Rivers and streams can also be destroyed or contaminated by mine wastes. The combustion of coal is responsible for 32 percent of the greenhouse gas emissions in the United States.

The premise of "clean coal" has recently been promoted as a way to use this abundant energy source without damaging the environment. Carbon capture and storage (CCS), where carbon is separated from coal and injected underground for long term storage, could theoretically be used to mitigate the coal industry's greenhouse gas emissions. However, CCS has yet to be proven as a safe or realistic way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from commercial power plants and the environmental and health costs of mining remain.

Natural Gas

Natural gas comprised 27 percent of U.S. energy use in 2014 and is most commonly used to produce heat or electricity for buildings or industrial processes. Less than two percent of U.S. natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, typically for bus fleets. Natural gas is also used to produce fertilizer, paints, and plastics. The United States produces around 19.8 percent of the world’s natural gas and consumes about 21.5 percent. Natural gas is most commonly transported by pipeline, which makes Canada the key exporter to the United States, while Russia remains the main supplier for much of Europe. Increasingly, however, natural gas is being transported by ship in a liquefied form (LNG) to meet greater global demand for the fuel.

Natural gas burns cleaner than coal and oil, with almost zero sulfur dioxide emissions and far fewer nitrogen oxide and particulate emissions. Natural gas releases almost 30 percent less carbon dioxide than oil and 43 percent less than coal. However, natural gas is still responsible for 27 percent of greenhouse gas emissions in the United States.

Natural gas, which is primarily composed of methane (CH4), is also generated by the decomposition of municipal waste in landfills and manure from livestock production. Methane is a greenhouse gas that is more than 20 times as potent as carbon dioxide. Capturing and burning the gas to produce usable heat and power prevents the methane from being released from the landfill or feedlot into the atmosphere directly.

Fossil Fuel Alternatives: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

Despite current U.S. dependence on fossil fuels, several options exist to begin the necessary transition away from a harmful fossil fuel economy. Improving the energy efficiency of buildings, vehicles, industrial processes, appliances and equipment is the most immediate and cost effective way to reduce energy use. Planning communities where people can safely and conveniently use public transit, walk, or bike, instead of using private vehicles, also reduces energy demand. Finally, there are several alternative resources that can supply clean, renewable energy to replace fossil fuels, including water, biomass, wind, geothermal, andsolar energy.

Fossil fuel

Fossil fuels are hydrocarbons, primarily coal, fuel oil or natural gas, formed from the remains of dead plants and animals.

In common dialogue, the term fossil fuel also includes hydrocarbon-containing natural resources that are not derived from animal or plant sources.

These are sometimes known instead as mineral fuels.

The utilization of fossil fuels has enabled large-scale industrial development and largely supplanted water-driven mills, as well as the combustion of wood or peat for heat.

Fossil fuel is a general term for buried combustible geologic deposits of organic materials, formed from decayed plants and animals that have been converted to crude oil, coal, natural gas, or heavy oils by exposure to heat and pressure in the earth's crust over hundreds of millions of years.

Formation of Coal

The burning of fossil fuels by humans is the largest source of emissions of carbon dioxide, which is one of the greenhouse gases that allows radiative forcing and contributes to global warming.

A small portion of hydrocarbon-based fuels are biofuels derived from atmospheric carbon dioxide, and thus do not increase the net amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Formation of Coal The burning of fossil fuels by humans is the largest source of emissions

How Fossil Fuels were Formed

Contrary to what many people believe, fossil fuels are not the remains of dead dinosaurs. In fact, most of the fossil fuels we find today were formed millions of years before the first dinosaurs.

Fossil fuels, however, were once alive!

They were formed from prehistoric plants and animals that lived hundreds of millions of years ago.

Think about what the Earth must have looked like 300 million years or so ago. The land masses we live on today were just forming. There were swamps and bogs everywhere. The climate was warmer. Ancient trees and plants grew everywhere. Strange looking animals walked on the land, and just as weird looking fish swam in the rivers and seas. Tiny one-celled organisms called protoplankton floated in the ocean.

When these ancient living things died, they decomposed and became buried under layers and layers of mud, rock, and sand. Eventually, hundreds and sometimes thousands of feet of earth covered them. In some areas, the decomposing materials were covered by ancient seas, then the seas dried up and receded.

During the millions of years that passed, the dead plants and animals slowly decomposed into organic materials and formed fossil fuels. Different types of fossil fuels were formed depending on what combination of animal and plant debris was present, how long the material was buried, and what conditions of temperature and pressure existed when they were decomposing.

Formation of Coal The burning of fossil fuels by humans is the largest source of emissions
Formation of Coal The burning of fossil fuels by humans is the largest source of emissions

Fossil fuels were formed from plants and animals that lived 300 million years ago in primordial swamps and oceans (top). Over time the plants and animals died and decomposed under tons of rock and ancient seas (middle).

Eventually, many of the seas

receded and left dry land with fossil fuels like coal buried underneath it (bottom).

Ten feet of prehistoric plant debris was needed to make one foot of coal.

For example, oil and natural gas were created from organisms that lived in the water and were buried under ocean or river sediments. Long after the great prehistoric seas and rivers vanished, heat, pressure and bacteria combined to compress and "cook" the organic material under layers of silt. In most areas, a thick liquid called oil formed first, but in deeper, hot regions underground, the cooking process continued until

natural gas was formed. Over time, some of this oil and natural gas began working its way upward through the earth's crust until they ran into rock formations called "caprocks" that are dense enough to prevent them from seeping to the surface. It is from under these caprocks that most oil and natural gas is produced today.

The same types of forces also created coal, but there are a few differences. Coal formed from the dead remains of trees, ferns and other plants that lived 300 to 400 million years ago. In some areas, such as portions of what-is-now the eastern United States, coal was formed from swamps covered by sea water. The sea water contained a large amount of sulfur, and as the seas dried up, the sulfur was left behind in the coal. Today, scientists are working on ways to take the sulfur out of coal because when coal burns, the sulfur can become an air pollutant. (To find out about these methods, see the section "Cleaning Up Coal.")

Some coal deposits, however, were formed from freshwater swamps which had very little sulfur in them. These coal deposits, located largely in the western part of the United States, have much less sulfur in them.

All of these fossil fuels have played important roles in providing the energy that every man, woman, and child in the the United States uses. With better technology for finding and using fossil fuels, each can play an equally important role in the future.

Man?s fuel needs, since the olden times, have been met through the use of fossil fuels. Fossil fuels, as its name suggests, were formed from the organic remains of prehistoric plants and animals. They are responsible for much of the world?s electric power and total energy demands. Since 1900, the world?s consumption of fossil fuels has nearly doubled every 20 years.

Fossil fuels comprise mainly of coal, oil and gas. These three were formed millions of years ago beneath the earth?s surface from the decomposed bodies of dead plants and animals. They are foreseen to be in short supply in the future as man?s fuel needs continue to grow at a fast rate.

Crude oil is also referred to as petroleum. Compared to coal, this is easier to extract from the ground through the use of pipes thereby making it less costly to transport from one place to another.

Natural gas has other uses apart from being burned in power plants to generate electricity. Many people also use it in their home heating systems to provide warm air during the cold winter season.

Advantages of Fossil Fuels

A major advantage of fossil fuels is their capacity to generate huge amounts of electricity in just a single location.

Fossil fuels are very easy to find.

When coal is used in power plants, they are very cost effective. Coal is also in abundant supply.

Transporting oil and gas to the power stations can be made through the use of pipes making it an easy task.

Power plants that utilize gas are very efficient.

Power stations that make use of fossil fuel can be constructed in almost any location. This is possible as long as large quantities of fuel can be easily brought to the power plants.

Disadvantages of Fossil Fuels

Pollution is a major disadvantage of fossil fuels. This is because they give off carbon dioxide when burned thereby causing a greenhouse effect. This is also the main contributory factor to the global warming experienced by the earth today.

Coal also produces carbon dioxide when burned compared to burning oil or gas. Additionally, it gives off sulphur dioxide, a kind of gas that creates acid rain.

Environmentally, the mining of coal results in the destruction of wide areas of land. Mining this fossil fuel is also difficult and may endanger the lives of miners. Coal mining is considered one of the most dangerous jobs in the world.

Power stations that utilize coal need large amounts of fuel. In other words, they not only need truckloads but trainloads of coal on a regular basis to continue operating and generating electricity. This only means that coal-fired power plants should have reserves of coal in a large area near the plant?s location.

Use of natural gas can cause unpleasant odors and some problems especially with transportation.

Use of crude oil causes pollution and poses environmental hazards such as oil spills when oil tankers, for instance, experience leaks or drown deep under the sea. Crude oil contains toxic chemicals which cause air pollutants when combusted.

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Fossil Fuels

on 9 April, 2014 at 14:00

Fossil fuels are formed from the organic remains of prehistoric animals and plants. Fossil fuels are responsible for supplying the world’s high electric energy demands. The most common forms of fossil fuels are gas, coal, and oil. These types of fossil fuels were formed over million years ago beneath the earth’s surface. Fossil fuels are foreseen to supply the high energy demands of man in the future.

Crude oil is the most common form of fossil fuel used by mankind today. It is also referred to as petroleum, and it’s quite easy to extract from the earth’s surface. Pipes are drilled beneath the earth’s surface to extract crude oil, which makes petroleum easy to transport. Petroleum has other uses, aside from being burned in power plants to convert it to electricity. Many people use petroleum primarily to power vehicles, machineries, and home heating systems.

THE 8 ADVANTAGES OF FOSSIL FUEL

  • 1. Fossil fuel has the unlimited potential to generate huge amounts of electricity, within a

single location.

  • 2. Fossil fuels are extremely easy to find. They can be found in almost everywhere

beneath the earth’s surface.

  • 3. Fossil fuels are very cost effective, especially coal.

  • 4. Transporting petroleum is made easy through pipes. It does not require oil companies

to extract the oil from beneath the ground and transport them through land to other locations.

  • 5. Power plants that use fossil fuels can be constructed in almost every location. As long

as large quantities of fossil fuels can be brought easily to power plants, power stations can be constructed any anywhere.

  • 6. Fossil fuels are regarded with their stability. Gas, oil, and coal are composed of

molecules of carbon and hydrogen. Due to their stability and consistency, fossil fuels

are easy to store. They do not even form into other compounds even if stored in cans for an extended period of time.

  • 7. Fossil fuels have high calorific value. All types of energy they produce have the same

calorific value. In energy, the more calorific, the more effective the energy is. This is probably the reason why fossil fuels are still preferred by people instead of renewable energy.

  • 8. Gas, oil, and coal can produce a large amount of energy. Fossil fuels are fast

combustible, which means that power plants can generate large amounts of energy.

THE 2 DISADVANTAGES OF FOSSIL FUELS

  • 1. Pollution is probably the primary disadvantage of fossil fuels. Burning fossil fuels can

cause greenhouse effect, which is harmful to the environment. Continuously burning fossil fuels largely contribute to global warming that earth experiences today.

  • 2. Destruction of wide areas of land is another huge disadvantage of mining fossil fuels.

Mining fossil fuels mat also endanger the lives of the animals, the people living the site’s surroundings, and the lives of the miners.

Despite the advantages of fossil fuels, there are still disadvantages that people should look at. These disadvantages warn people not to abuse mankind’s source for power or else, it will destroy them instead of building them. Power plants should take all of the necessary things that must be done to secure the world’s primary source of power from destroying the earth’s surface and the people living in it.

Fossil fuels - non-renewable

In 2011 fossil fuels made up 83% of the world’s energy use. These are resources found under the ground: coal, oil and gas. In 2020 this is predicted to decrease to 76% as nuclear power, and in particular, renewable energy use increase. See World Energy (PDF) for more information. In 2014 global oil consumption grew 0.8% and natural gas and coal consumption grew by 0.4%.

What are fossil fuels?

Trees breathe in carbon dioxide and store the carbon in their trunks. Millions of years ago many trees sank into the swampy ground where they had been growing and disappeared, taking the carbon they had absorbed with them. Under pressure from above, they turned in to a kind of fossil which we call coal Now we are digging it up to use as a fuel because the carbon which was stored in the fossils burn really easily. The same thing happened with oil and gas except these were originally tiny sea creatures which stored the carbon in their bodies and shells and took it with them when they died and their bodies got buried.

Fossil fuels - non-renewable In 2011 fossil fuels made up 83% of the world’s energy use.World Energy (PDF) for more information. In 2014 global oil consumption grew 0.8% and natural gas and coal consumption grew by 0.4%. What are fossil fuels? Trees breathe in carbon dioxide and store the carbon in their trunks. Millions of years ago many trees sank into the swampy ground where they had been growing and disappeared, taking the carbon they had absorbed with them. Under pressure from above, they turned in to a kind of fossil which we call coal Now we are digging it up to use as a fuel because the carbon which was stored in the fossils burn really easily. The same thing happened with oil and gas except these were originally tiny sea creatures which stored the carbon in their bodies and shells and took it with them when they died and their bodies got buried. Without fossil fuels, many countries would not have been able to develop and industrialise to give us the lifestyles which we enjoy today. Now more countries " id="pdf-obj-18-13" src="pdf-obj-18-13.jpg">

Without fossil fuels, many countries would not have been able to develop and industrialise to give us the lifestyles which we enjoy today. Now more countries

such as China and India are developing at a very fast rate and their energy needs are soaring.

The trouble is that when we burn fossil fuels to make electricity, run our cars and for many other uses the carbon is released back into the atmosphere where it contributes to the greenhouse effect. These “greenhouse gases” such as carbon dioxide add to an invisible blanket around the earth which traps more of the sun’s heat. This makes the temperature of the world rise - what we call “global warming”. See our 'Greenhouse Effect' video in the resources section below. The warming of the planet is causing the world’s weather patterns to change which is why we call it “climate change”.

Not only that but breathing in this pollution is not good for our health, especially in cities where they have a large number of cars such as Mexico city. But there are still coal fired power stations being built around the world to meet our rising demand for energy to run all of our gadgets. In the 2013 World Energy Resources (PDF) report it is stated that China alone now uses as much coal as the rest of the world. World energy consumption increased by 56% between 1985 and 2001.

The other problem with fossil fuels is that they will soon run out - maybe that’s a good thing. So even if we don’t agree with the idea of human induced climate change or don’t care, we still need to look for alternatives.

It is estimated that fossil fuels will last ... Oil - approximately 56 years Gas: approximately 55 years Coal: approximately 100 years

...

unless we find some more.

As fossils fuels become more expensive and harder to find, renewable energy will become cheaper as technology improves and the equipment is made on a

larger scale. Unfortunately at the moment we don’t have enough renewable energy to replace fossil fuels, but hopefully that will change.

Biogas

Biogas is formed by the anaerobic decomposition of putrescible organic material. Biogas CHP (combined heat and power or cogeneration) is the utilisation of biogas, typically in a biogas engine, for the production of electricity and useful heat, at high efficiency.

Clarke Energy is a distributor of GE Jenbacher biogas engines which are designed for robust operation on difficult gases such as biologically-derived ones.

What is biogas?

Biogas is a gas that is formed by anaerobic microorganisms. These microbes feed off carbohydrates and fats, producing methane and carbon dioxides as metabolic waste products. This gas can be harnessed by man as a source of sustainable energy.

Biogas is considered to be a renewable fuel as it originates from organic material that has been created from atmospheric carbon by plants grown within recent growing seasons.

Benefits of anaerobic digestion and biogas

Production of renewable power through combined heat and power cogeneration

Disposal of problematic wastes

Diversion of waste from landfill

Production of a low-carbon fertiliser

Avoidance of landfill gas escape and reduction in carbon emissions

Biogas formation

Biogas creation is also called biomethanation. Biologically derived gases are produced as metabolic products of two groups of microorganisms called bacteria and Archaea. These microorganisms feed off carbohydrates, fats

and proteins, then through a complex series of reactions including hydrolysis, acetogenesis, acidogenesis and methanogenesis produce biogas consisting mainly of carbon dioxide and methane.

Anaerobic Digestion / Biogas Plant 3D Model

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00:25 Biogas composition Biogas consists primarily of methane (the source of energy within the fuel) and

Biogas composition

Biogas consists primarily of methane (the source of energy within the fuel) and carbon dioxide. It also may contain small amounts of nitrogen or hydrogen. Contaminants in the biogas can include sulphur or siloxanes, but this will depend upon the digester feedstock.

The relative percentages of methane and carbon dioxide in the biogas are influenced by a number of factors including:

The ratio of carbohydrates, proteins and fats in the feedstock

The dilution factor in the digester (carbon dioxide can be absorbed by water)

Anaerobic digestion

Anaerobic digestion is the man-made process of harnessing the anaerobic fermentation of wastes and other biodegradable materials. Anaerobic microbes can be harnessed to treat problematic wastes, produce a fertiliser that can be used to replace high carbon emission chemical fertilisers. It also is the process that results in the production of biogas, which can be used to provide renewable power using biogas cogeneration systems.

Anaerobic digestion can occur at mesophilic (35-45˚C) or thermophilic temperatures (50-60˚C). Both types of digestion typically249-330kWe – Type 2  499-1,065kWe – Type 3844-1189kWe – Type 4 " id="pdf-obj-23-2" src="pdf-obj-23-2.jpg">

Anaerobic digestion can occur at mesophilic (35-45˚C) or thermophilic temperatures (50-60˚C). Both types of digestion typically require supplementary sources of heat to reach their optimal temperature. This heat is most commonly provided by a biogas CHP unit, operating on biogas and producing both electricity and heat for the process.

Often, biogas plants that treat wastes originating from animal material, will also require the material to be treated at high temperature to eliminate any disease causing bacteria in the slurry. These systems pasteurise the slurry, typically at 90C for one hour, to destroy pathogens, and result in the provision of clean, high quality fertiliser.

Biogas engines

GE Jenbacher biogas engines are specifically designed to operate on different types of biogas. These gas engines are linked to an alternator in order to produce electricity at high efficiency. High efficiency electricity production enables the end user to maximise the electrical output from the biogas and hence optimise the economic performance of the anaerobic digestion plant.

Biogas engine electrical output

There are 4 ‘types’ of GE Jenbacher gas engines with different levels of power output and electrical/thermal efficiency characteristics.

 <a href=1,600-3,000kWe – Type 6 " id="pdf-obj-24-10" src="pdf-obj-24-10.jpg">

Biogas CHP

Biologically-derived gases can be utilised in biogas engines to generate renewable power via cogeneration in the form of electricity and heat. The electricity can be used to power the surrounding equipment or exported to the national grid.

Low grade heat from the cooling circuits of the gas engine, typically available as hot water on a 70/90°C flow/return basis. For anaerobic digestion plants that are using a CHP engine, there are two key types of heat:

High grade heat as engine exhaust gas (typically ~450°C)

The low grade heat is typically used to heat the digester tanks to the optimum temperature for the biological system. Mesophilic anaerobic digesters typically operate at 35-40°C. Thermophilic anaerobic digesters typically operate at a higher temperature between 49-60°C and hence have a higher heating requirement.

You can find out more about biogas CHP efficiency here.

High temperature exhaust gas heat can either be used directly into a drier, waste heat boiler or organic rankine cycle unit. Alternatively it can be converted into hot water using a shell and tube exhaust gas heat exchanger to supplement the heat from the engine cooling systems.

Waste heat boilers produce steam typically at 8-15bar. Driers may be useful to reduce the moisture content of the digestate to assist in reducing transportation costs. Organic rankine cycle turbines are able to convert surplus waste heat into additional electrical output.

In the event that the local legislation requires for the destruction of pathogens in the digestate (such as theEuropean Animal By-Products Regulations) there may be the requirement to heat treat the waste via pasteurisation or sterilisation. Here, surplus heat from the gas engine can be used in the pasteurisation unit.

The heat from the CHP engine can also be used to drive an absorption chiller to give a source of cooling, converting the system to a trigeneration plant.

Minimum Flow Rate

The minimum gas flow rate to operate the smallest GE Jenbacher biogas engine at full load (J208 @249kW e ) is 127Nm3/hour at 50% methane.

Sectors

We have specific pages related to:

Potential Contaminants

Biologically derived gases may include contaminants or inpurities including water, hydrogen sulphide and siloxanes. Please discuss your gas quality expectations with your local Clarke Energy office. GE provides specific guidelines on fuel gas quality in technical instruction documents.

Water

Biological gases contains water vapour due to the nature of the feedstock that produces the gas. The quantity of water is linked to the temperature of the biological gas and the method of production. Above certain limits the moisture content of the biogas becomes a combustion challenge for the gas engines.

Water can be removed from the gas by using:

Gas dehumidification (drying) units.

Ground tube dewatering

Hydrogen Sulphide

Hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S) is derived as a by-product of the anaerobic digestion process of high sulphur feedstocks such as amino-acids and proteins. When burnt in a gas engine hydrogen sulphide can condense with water to form sulphuric acid. Sulphuric acid is corrosive to elements of gas engines and so must be limited to prevent adverse effects on the CHP engine.

Processes for the removal of hydrogen sulphide include

Activated carbon filters

Low level oxygen dosing into digester head space (typically <1%)

External biological scrubber towers

Ferric chloride dosing into the digester

Siloxanes

In some cases biogas contains siloxanes. Siloxanes are formed from the anaerobic decomposition of materials commonly found in soaps and detergents. During the combustion process of the gas that contains siloxanes, silicon is released and can combine with free oxygen or various other elements in the combustion gas. Deposits are formed containing mostly silica (SiO 2 ) or silicates (Si x O y ). These white mineral deposits accumulate and must be removed by chemical or mechanical means.

Siloxanes are often problematic in landfill gas and sewage gas plants due to contamination that is often found associated with the organic wastes.

In source-segregated biodegradable waste and agricultural biogas plants, it is much less common to find problems associated with siloxanes.

Biogas Poo power: cow dung can be used as fuel With fuel wood becoming increasingly expensiveHow it works  ImpactHow you can helpFurther Info " id="pdf-obj-27-2" src="pdf-obj-27-2.jpg">

Biogas

Poo power: cow dung can be used as fuel

With fuel wood becoming increasingly expensive and also scarce in some areas, there is a need to look for alternative cooking fuel. Cow manure and biogas fuel technology provides a free, sustainable source of power all year round – and a useful fertiliser which helps to provide a better income for farmers.

Biogas Poo power: cow dung can be used as fuel With fuel wood becoming increasingly expensiveHow it works  ImpactHow you can helpFurther Info " id="pdf-obj-27-10" src="pdf-obj-27-10.jpg">

Cow dung is mixed with water and placed into fermentation pits where it is broken down by natural bacteria, releasing methane. The gas is collected and stored in a tank and then piped on demand to the farmer’s house, to be burnt to generate energy for cooking, laundry and lighting.

The biogas plants also produce a rich organic waste which is dried and used as fertiliser. Both fertiliser and fuel wood are increasingly expensive in the country and biogas has a potentially important future. It may also be used to manage organic waste in urban settings.

Cow dung is mixed with water and placed into fermentation pits where it is broken downBiogas Renewable Energy Information website on biogas Biogas composition " id="pdf-obj-28-6" src="pdf-obj-28-6.jpg">

Information website on biogas

Biogas composition

Biogas is a fuel gas, a mixture consisting of 65% methane (CH4) and of 35% CO2.Biogas composition Resources of biogas in the world According to a study made by the ADEME biogas represents in the world a resource comparable to fossil gas yearly consumption (1.800 Mtep/year). This energy is too dispersed in the world to be easily recoverable but the potential is evaluated from 100 to 300 Mtep/year. The quantity valued today is that of 0,5% Biogas resources in the world Fermentation (or anaerobic digestion) of the total potential. Fermentation (or anaerobic digestion) is the process of degradation of the organic substances using the micro-organisms Anaerobic digestion also Energetic valorisation of biogas known as anaerobe. In the case of a valorisation by a co-generation engine, the heat can be used locally which improves the energy output of valorisation. Moreover, electricity resulting from biogas can be sold to electricity " id="pdf-obj-29-2" src="pdf-obj-29-2.jpg">

Biogas

is

a

fuel

gas,

a

mixture

consisting

of

65%

methane

(CH4)

and

of

35%

CO2.

It

is

a

renewable

energy

resulting

from

biomass.

Resources of biogas in the world

Biogas is a fuel gas, a mixture consisting of 65% methane (CH4) and of 35% CO2.Biogas composition Resources of biogas in the world According to a study made by the ADEME biogas represents in the world a resource comparable to fossil gas yearly consumption (1.800 Mtep/year). This energy is too dispersed in the world to be easily recoverable but the potential is evaluated from 100 to 300 Mtep/year. The quantity valued today is that of 0,5% Biogas resources in the world Fermentation (or anaerobic digestion) of the total potential. Fermentation (or anaerobic digestion) is the process of degradation of the organic substances using the micro-organisms Anaerobic digestion also Energetic valorisation of biogas known as anaerobe. In the case of a valorisation by a co-generation engine, the heat can be used locally which improves the energy output of valorisation. Moreover, electricity resulting from biogas can be sold to electricity " id="pdf-obj-29-80" src="pdf-obj-29-80.jpg">

According to a study made by the ADEME biogas represents in the world a resource comparable

to fossil gas yearly consumption (1.800 Mtep/year). This energy is too dispersed in the world to be easily recoverable but the potential is evaluated from 100 to 300 Mtep/year. The quantity valued

today

is

that

of

0,5%

Fermentation (or anaerobic digestion)

of

the

total

potential.

Fermentation (or anaerobic digestion) is the process of degradation of the organic substances using

the

micro-organisms

also

Energetic valorisation of biogas

known

as

anaerobe.

In the case of a valorisation by a co-generation engine, the heat can be used locally which improves the energy output of valorisation. Moreover, electricity resulting from biogas can be sold to electricity

distributors. Biogas valorisation

Economy of biogas

The receipts are

calculated based on the

assumption that

the

producer of

biogas is

also the

consumer. In this case, they will have to support the overall investments but will recover the totality

of

the

benefit,

and

have

savings

compared

to

fossile

fuels.

Naskeo Environnement

Headings:

What is Biogas?

Most organic matter begins the process of decomposition when it is exposed to oxygen and sunlight. However, organic matter can also decompose without any oxygen, by the process of anaerobic fermentation. This happens due to the bacteria present in the matter which acts during the absence of oxygen. Landfills see a lot of such decay, especially when the waste material becomes wet and receives little sunlight. As a result, a lot of methane and nitrous oxide is produced and released into the atmosphere. Biogas is the result of this decay, and it is an energy source like no other.

One may find the structure of biogas to be a little confusing. Comprising mainly of methane and carbon dioxide, one has to wonder how these greenhouse gases are helping anybody. However, the magic happens when the gas is burnt. The use of biogas as a fuel happens because it reacts with oxygen and releases energy, which is clean in nature.

The resulting reaction uses up the gases and prevents them from rising into the atmosphere. Biogas plants are slowly becoming popular due to the many benefits associated with them. They are already being used for public transport, industrial heating and many more applications.

One may find the structure of biogas to be a little confusing. Comprising mainly of methanegreenhouse gases are helping anybody. However, the magic happens when the gas is burnt. The use of biogas as a fuel happens because it reacts with oxygen and releases energy, which is clean in nature. The resulting reaction uses up the gases and prevents them from rising into the atmosphere. Biogas plants are slowly becoming popular due to the many benefits associated with them. They are already being used for public transport , industrial heating and many more applications. Advantages of Biogas " id="pdf-obj-32-11" src="pdf-obj-32-11.jpg">

Advantages of Biogas

1.

Renewable Source of Energy: To begin with, biogas is considered to be

a renewable source of energy. Since it often produced from materials that form sewage and waste products, the only time it will be depleted is when we stop producing any waste.

  • 2. Non-Polluting: It is also considered to be non-polluting in nature. The

production of biogas does not require oxygen, which means that resources

are conserved by not using any further fuel.

  • 3. Reduces Landfills: It also uses up waste material found in landfills, dump

sites and even farms across the country, allowing for decreased soil

  • 4. Cheaper Technology: Applications for biogas are increasing as the

technology to utilize it gets better. It can be used to produce electricity and

for the purpose of heating as well. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is biogas that has been compressed and can be used as a fuel for vehicles. Production can be carried out through many small plants or one large plant.

  • 5. Large number of Jobs: Either way, work opportunities are created for

thousands of people in these plants. These jobs are a blessing in rural areas, which are the targeted grounds for the use of biogas. In fact, biogas can easily be decentralized, making it easier to access by those living in remote areas or facing frequent power outages.

  • 6. Little Capital Investment: Biogas are easy to set up and require little

capital investment on a small scale basis. In fact, many farms can become

self sufficient by utilizing biogas plants and the waste material produced by their livestock each day. A single cow can provide enough waste material within a day to power a light bulb the entire day.

7.

Reduces Greenhouse Effect: It also reduces the greenhouse effect by

utilizing the gases being produced in landfills as forms of energy. This is a

major reason why the use of biogas has started catching on. It recycles most forms of biodegradable waste and works on simple forms of technology.

Disadvantages of Biogas

  • 1. Little Technology Advancements: First of all, the current systems in

place used to create biogas are not as efficient as they get. Little new technology has been introduced for streamlining the process and making it more cost effective. As a result, large scale industrial production of biogas is still not on the energy map. Although it could solve the energy issues being faced by countries all over the world, very few investors are willing to put in the startup capital. It is also not the best idea to construct one biogas plant per house, which means that a central system will have to be put into place.

  • 2. Contain Impurities: Biogas contains a number of impurities even after

refining processes have been put into place. When compressed for use as

fuel, these can become corrosive to the metal parts of engines.

  • 3. Not Attractive on Large Scale: The process of using biogas on a large

scale is not economically viable and it is very difficult to enhance the efficiency of biogas systems.

  • 4. Unstable: It is also somewhat unstable, making it prone to explosions if

the methane comes in contact with oxygen and become flammable in nature.

Even with all of the disadvantages present, countries have started to apply the uses of biogas in everyday life. Public transportation has been renewed

and made efficient with the help of CNG. Remote locations that are off the electric grid receive a steady supply of power from these plants. The future use of biogas is bright, even with the problems it faces.

How Biopower Works

To many people, the most familiar forms of renewable energy are the wind and the sun. But biomass (plant material and animal waste) is the oldest source of renewable energy, used since our ancestors learned the secret of fire.

Note: This page addresses biopower—using biomass to generate electricity. For more information on biofuels, go to the UCS Clean Vehicles Program’s biofuels pages.

Biomass is a renewable energy source not only because the energy in it comes from the sun, but also because biomass can re-grow over a relatively short period of time compared with the hundreds of millions of years that it took for fossil fuels to form. Through the process of photosynthesis, chlorophyll in plants captures the sun's energy by converting carbon dioxide from the air and water from the ground into carbohydrates—complex compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. When these carbohydrates are burned, they turn back into carbon dioxide and water and release the energy they captured from the sun.

Several recent studies show little to no economic potential to increase biopower in the U.S. over the next two decades because of its relatively high costs compared with other renewable energy and low carbon technologies (EIA 2015, EPA 2015, NREL 2015, UCS 2014, UCS 2015). Other studies of nearly decarbonizing the power sector by mid-century show that more efficient, advanced biopower technologies using low- carbon feedstocks, such as agricultural residues and energy crops, could provide a modest contribution of up to 15 percent of U.S. electricity generation (NREL 2012, UCS 2013).

But like all our energy sources, biopower has environmental risks that need to be mitigated. If not managed and monitored carefully, biomass for energy can be harvested at unsustainable rates, damage ecosystems, produce harmful air pollution, consume large amounts of water, and produce net global warming emissions.

Assessing the potential role of biopower as a climate solution requires a look at its lifecycle carbon emissions—which vary according to the

type of feedstock, the manner in which it is developed and harvested, the scale at which it is used and the technology used to convert biomass into electricity. The lifecycle carbon emissions of biopower should also be compared to the fossil fuels it’s displacing and other zero and low carbon solutions it’s competing with.

NOTE: We are currently in the process of updating the content on this page to reflect the latest research and understanding of key biomass issues. Check back soon for updates.

BIOMASS & MSW GASIFICATION POWER PLANT


 
 
 

SHARE WITH

Product feature

Raw material

Application scope

Packing specifications

Technical parameter

 

PRODUCT FEATURE

1
1

The gasifier uses fixed bed down-draft type, produce syn-gas continuous and stably with low tar content, it can generate electricity continuous.

2
2

Easy to use and operate, use Siemens PLC touch screen control panel to realize automatic control and semi-automatic control. Independent operation room, adjust parameter directly by controlling LCD touch screen. Then gen set will operate with separately control system.

3
3

Due to MSW gasification process adopts pyrolysis and accurate control in different stage, so it can reach specified flue gas standard.

4
4

Due to low temperature gasification combustion(gasifier furnace) under anaerobic condition and low temperature gasifier and combustion, only producing combustible gas, particulate matter emission is precious little.

5
5

Finish low temperature oxidation process in high temperature combustion chamber (combustion furnace), not producing harmful gas secondary pollution.

6
6

Due to combustion process is complete, the ash is completely non- pollution matter.

7
7

The removal rate of organic is over 90%, so it reduce the follow-up treatment cost greatly.

8
8

All kinds of waste with different composition can burn stably at the same time.

9
9

Safety separation combustion, restrict dioxin and other harmful matter output.

10
10

Operation 24 hours/day continuous.

11
11

Waste need to sort out, and improved operation efficency, ensure the safety of working environment.

12
12

Haiqi gasification system is fully closed, it is neat and beautiful look at site, no harmful to operation people. Automatic fuzzy control, easy to operate. All fuel feeding, slag discharge door, overhaul hole use soft seal, On the top of furnace has a seal cover to avoid gas leakage. The sealing of furnace is good, realizing good effect of oxygen controlling and pyrolysis.

13
13

When pyrolysis gas spontaneous combustion take place, then it enter into a process of spontaneous combustion, auxiliary combustion device will stop automatically. The whole process of spontaneous combustion is over 90%, greatly lower running cost. Realized resource utilization of waste thermal energy. Flue gas emission is no harmful and total CO2 emission is reduced.

Gen set: the gas from biomass and MSW is syn-gas, the components of the syn-gas is special, the impurity content is too much, so Haiqi company adopts large cylinder, lower rotate speed internal combustion engine, generate electricity stably.

Gen set: the gas from biomass and MSW is syn-gas, the components of the syn-gas is
Gen set: the gas from biomass and MSW is syn-gas, the components of the syn-gas is

Please fill in your procurement needs and contact information

Biomass Energy Basics

We have used biomass energy, or "bioenergy"—the energy from plants and plant-derived materials—since people began burning wood to cook food and keep warm. Wood is still the largest biomass energy resource today, but other sources of biomass can also be used. These include food crops, grassy and woody plants, residues from agriculture or forestry, oil-rich algae, and the organic component of municipal and industrial wastes. Even the fumes from landfills (which are methane, the main

component in natural gas) can be used as a biomass energy source.

NREL scientist Bryon Donohoe works in the Cellular Visualization room of the Biomass Surface Characterization Lab, looking at different views of ultra structures of pretreated biomass materials.

Benefits of Using Biomass

Biomass can be used for fuels, power production, and products that would otherwise be made from fossil fuels. In such scenarios, biomass can provide an array of benefits. For example:

The use of biomass energy has the potential to greatly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Burning biomass releases about the same amount of carbon dioxide as burning fossil fuels. However, fossil fuels release carbon dioxide captured by photosynthesis millions of years ago—an essentially "new" greenhouse gas. Biomass, on the other hand, releases carbon dioxide that is largely balanced by the carbon dioxide captured in its own growth (depending how much energy was used to grow, harvest, and process the fuel). However, recent studies have found that clearing forests to grow biomass results in a carbon penalty that takes decades to recoup, so it is best if biomass is grown on previously cleared land, such as under-utilized farm land.

The use of biomass can reduce dependence on foreign oil because biofuels are the only renewable liquid transportation fuels available.

Biomass energy supports U.S. agricultural and forest-product industries. The main biomass feedstocks for power are paper mill residue, lumber mill scrap, and municipal waste. For biomass fuels, the most common feedstocks used today are corn grain (for ethanol) and soybeans (for biodiesel). In the near future—and with NREL-developed technology—agricultural residues such as corn stover (the stalks,

leaves, and husks of the plant) and wheat straw will also be used. Long-term plans include growing and using dedicated energy crops, such as fast-growing trees and grasses, and algae. These feedstocks can grow sustainably on land that will not support intensive food crops.

NREL's vision is to develop technology for biorefineries that will convert biomass into a range of valuable fuels, chemicals, materials, and products—much like oil refineries and petrochemical plants do.

NREL performs research to develop and advance technologies for the following biomass energy applications:

BiofuelsConverting biomass into liquid fuels for transportation

Biopower—Burning biomass directly, or converting it into gaseous or liquid fuels that burn more efficiently, to generate electricity

Bioproducts—Converting biomass into chemicals for making plastics and other products that typically are made from petroleum.

Additional Resources

For more information, visit NREL's Bioenergy Research site or the following resources:

U.S. Energy Information Administration

U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

U.S. Energy Information Administration Energy Kids

U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

Renewable Energy

Developing new energy sources to produce reliable, affordable energy while respecting the environment is one of today’s most compelling needs.

What is Biomass? Biomass is fuel that is developed from organic materials, a renewable and sustainable
What is Biomass?
Biomass is fuel that is developed from organic materials, a renewable and sustainable source of energy
used to create electricity or other forms of power.
Some examples of materials that make up biomass fuels are:
scrap lumber;
forest debris;
certain crops;

manure; and

some types of waste residues.

 

With a constant supply of waste – from construction and demolition activities, to wood not used in papermaking, to municipal solid waste – green energy production can continue indefinitely.

Biomass is a renewable source of fuel to produce energy because:

waste residues will always exist – in terms of scrap wood, mill residuals and forest resources; and

properly managed forests will always have more trees, and we will always have crops and the residual biological matter from those crops.

 

ReEnergy Holdings is an integrated waste fuel/biomass renewable energy company. Our facilities collect, process and recycle items for use as fuel, as well as green energy facilities that create power from that waste.

What is biomass power?

Biomass power is carbon neutral electricity generated from renewable organic waste that would otherwise be dumped in landfills, openly burned, or left as fodder for forest fires.

When burned, the energy in biomass is released as heat. If you have a fireplace, you already are participating in the use of biomass as the wood you burn in it is a biomass fuel.

In biomass power plants, wood waste or other waste is burned to produce steam that runs a turbine to make electricity, or that provides heat to industries and homes. Fortunately, new technologies — including pollution controls and combustion engineering — have advanced to the point that any emissions from burning biomass in industrial facilities are generally less than emissions produced when using fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, oil). ReEnergy has included these technologies in our facilities.

Biomass challenges

While the process to create electricity is similar whether using a biomass fuel or a fossil fuel, the equipment needed inside the plant is different. All of ReEnergy’s power generation facilities have been outfitted — and new acquisitions are upgraded — to allow for the burning of biomass.

As with any electrical generation process, the facility needs a steady supply of fuel. In allhere . Sources: http://biomasspowerassociation.com , http://energy.gov/ , http://instituteforenergyresearch.org A map of biomass facilities can be found here http://biomasspowerassociation.com/docs/biomass_map.pdf " id="pdf-obj-47-2" src="pdf-obj-47-2.jpg">

As with any electrical generation process, the facility needs a steady supply of fuel. In all cases, ReEnergy has suppliers to deliver a steady stream of biomass, and has engaged other suppliers to ensure the facilities have what they need. In addition, we create fuel for other biomass consumers — as well as other products — at our recycling facilities.

When anything is burned, it can create emissions and ash. Our facilities have state-of-the-art cleaning processes that keep emissions below state regulatory levels, and we reuse our ash.

Biomass and the US

Biomass fuels provided about 4 percent of the energy used in the United States in 2010. Of this, about 46 percent was from wood and wood-derived biomass, 43 percent was from biofuels (mainly ethanol), and about 11 percent was from municipal waste. Researchers are trying to develop ways to burn more biomass and fewer fossil fuels. Using biomass for energy cuts back on waste and greenhouse gas emissions.

Biomass offers other significant environmental and consumer benefits, including improving forest health, protecting air quality, and offering the most dependable renewable energy source.

You can read about how we turn biomass and other residuals into energy here.

A map of biomass facilities can be found here http://biomasspowerassociation.com/docs/biomass_map.pdf

Biomass Energy

Biomass energy is the energy which is contained inside plants and animals. This can include organic matter of all kinds: plants, animals, or waste products from organic sources. These sorts of energy sources are known as biofuels and typically include wood chips, rotted trees, manure, sewage, mulch, and tree components. Chlorophyll present in plants absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and water from the ground through the process of photosynthesis. The same energy is passed to animals when they eat them. It is considered to be as renewable source of energy because carbon dioxide and water contained inside plants and animals are released back in to the atmosphere when they are burned and we can grow more plants and crops to create biomass energy.

Biomass Energy <a href=Biomass energy is the energy which is contained inside plants and animals. This can include organic matter of all kinds: plants, animals, or waste products from organic sources. These sorts of energy sources are known as biofuels and typically include wood chips, rotted trees, manure, sewage, mulch, and tree components. Chlorophyll present in plants absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and water from the ground through the process of photosynthesis. The same energy is passed to animals when they eat them. It is considered to be as renewable source of energy because carbon dioxide and water contained inside plants and animals are released back in to the atmosphere when they are burned and we can grow more plants and crops to create biomass energy. " id="pdf-obj-48-16" src="pdf-obj-48-16.jpg">

Advantages of Biomass Energy

In many ways, biomass is a new source of power. While wood has always served as a fuel source for fires and ovens and conventional heating methods, biomass energy advancements are a few steps beyond that. Now these biomass fuel products are harvested and mass-produced and used in everything from engines to power plants.

  • 1. No Harmful Emissions: Biomass energy, for the most part, creates no

harmful carbon dioxide emissions. Many energy sources used today struggle to control their carbon dioxide emissions, as these can cause harm to the ozone layer and increase the effects of greenhouse gases, potentially warming the planet. It is completely natural, has no such carbon dioxide side effects in its use.

  • 2. Clean Energy: Because of its relatively clean use, biomass energy, when

used in commercial businesses such as airlines, receives tax credit from the US government. This is good for the environment and good for business. It does release carbon dioxide but captures carbon dioxide for its own growth. Carbon dioxide released by fossil fuel are released into the atmosphere and are harmful to the environment.

  • 3. Abundant and Renewable: Biomass products are abundant and

renewable. Since they come from living sources, and life is cyclical, these products potentially never run out, so long as there is something living on earth and there is someone there to turn that living things components and waste products into energy. In the United Kingdom, biomass fuels are made from recycled chicken droppings. In the United States and Russia, there are plentiful forests for lumber to be used in the production of biomass energy.

  • 4. Reduce Dependency on Fossil Fuels: It has developed as an alternate

source of fuel for many homeowners and have helped them to reduce their dependency on fossil fuels.

  • 5. Reduce Landfills: Another benefit of this energy is that it can take waste

that is harmful to the environment and turn it into something useful. For instance, garbage as landfill can, at least partially, be burned to create useable biomass energy.

  • 6. Can be Used to Create Different Products: Biomass energy is also

versatile, as different forms of organic matter can be used to create different products. Ethanol and similar fuels can be made from corn and other crops. With so many living things on the planet, there is no limit to how many ways it can be found and used.

4. Reduce Dependency on Fossil Fuels : It has developed as an alternate source of fuelfossil fuels . 5. Reduce Landfills : Another benefit of this energy is that it can take waste that is harmful to the environment and turn it into something useful. For instance, garbage as landfill can, at least partially, be burned to create useable biomass energy. 6. Can be Used to Create Different Products : Biomass energy is also versatile, as different forms of organic matter can be used to create different products. Ethanol and similar fuels can be made from corn and other crops. With so many living things on the planet, there is no limit to how many ways it can be found and used. Disadvantages of Biomass Energy " id="pdf-obj-50-33" src="pdf-obj-50-33.jpg">

Disadvantages of Biomass Energy

Besides above advantages, there are also some downsides to it. Let’s see below some of its disadvantages.

  • 1. Expensive: Firstly, its expensive. Living things are expensive to care for,

feed, and house, and all of that has to be considered when trying to use waste products from animals for fuel.

  • 2. Inefficient as Compared to Fossil Fuels: Secondly, and connected to the

first, is the relative inefficiency of biomass energy. Ethanol, as a biodiesel is terribly inefficient when compared to gasoline, and it often has to be mixed with some gasoline to make it work properly anyway. On top of that, ethanol is harmful to combustion engines over long term use.

  • 3. Harmful to Environment: Thirdly, using animal and human waste to

power engines may save on carbon dioxide emissions, but it increases methane gases, which are also harmful to the Earth’s— ozone layer. So really, we are no better off environmentally for using one or the other. And speaking of using waste products, there is the smell to consider. While it is not physically harmful, it is definitely unpleasant, and it can attract unwanted pests (rats, flies) and spread bacteria and infection.

  • 4. Consume More Fuel: Finally, using trees and tree products to power

machines is inefficient as well. Not only does it take a lot more fuel to do the

same job as using conventional fuels, but it also creates environmental problems of its own. To amass enough lumber to power a nation full of vehicles or even a power plant, companies would have to clear considerable forest area. This results in major topological changes and destroys the homes of countless animals and plants.

5. Require More Land: Combustion of biomass products require some land where they can easily be burnt. Since, it produces gases like methane in atmosphere; therefore it can be produced in those areas which are quite far from residential homes.

Is Biomass Really Renewable?

BY RENEE CHO|AUGUST 18, 2011 24492 Comments

5. Require More Land : Combustion of biomass products require some land where they can easilyRENEE CHO |AUGUST 18, 2011 Comments Updated October 19, 2016 " id="pdf-obj-52-17" src="pdf-obj-52-17.jpg">

Updated October 19, 2016

A woody biomass harvest site in MN. Photo credit: Eli Sagor

Biomass, a renewable energy source derived from organic matter such as wood, crop waste, or garbage, makes up 4.8 percent of total U.S. energy consumption and about 12 percent of all U.S. renewable energy. Wood is the largest biomass energy source. In the U.S., there are currently 227 biomass plants operating. In the U.K., 35 are operating, 15 are under construction and 17 have been proposed. But just how renewable is biomass energy?

The Seattle Steam Company uses woody waste. Photo credit: Joe Mabel

The Seattle Steam Company uses woody waste. Photo credit: Joe Mabel

There are several ways to produce energy from biomass, including burning biomass to generate heat or run steam turbines that produce electricity, burning biomass to produce heat in thermal systems (when combined with electricity generation, it’s called “combined heat and power”), turning feedstocks into liquid biofuels, and harvesting gas from landfills or anaerobic digesters. Biomass can consist of wood from forests and logging residues, sawdust from lumbermills, construction or organic municipal waste, energy crops (switchgrass), crop residue, and even chicken litter. Since the rapid expansion of biomass energy today relies largely on wood from forests, we’ll focus here on energy produced by the combustion of biomass from forest wood and woody residue.

According to the U.S. Forest Service, “Wood is an abundant, sustainable, homegrown cellulosic resource that can significantly contribute to meeting 30

percent of U.S. petroleum consumption from biomass sources by 2030 and help create a more stable energy future, improve environmental quality, and increase economic opportunities.”

Biomass advocates maintain that thinning out small-diameter or dead trees from overcrowded forests, and harvesting the byproducts of forest management such as limbs, treetops, needles, leaves, etc. improves the health of the trees that remain in the forest and helps reduce the incidence of wildfires. Biomass creates jobs and supports local economies by providing new markets for farmers and forest owners. It can also lessen our dependence on fossil fuels, and under certain conditions, can reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Biomass is considered a renewable energy source because its inherent energy comes from the sun and because it can regrow in a relatively short time. Trees take in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and convert it into biomass and when they die, it is released back into the atmosphere. Whether trees are burned or whether they decompose naturally, they release the same amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The idea is that if trees harvested as biomass are replanted as fast as the wood is burned, new trees take up the carbon produced by the combustion, the carbon cycle theoretically remains in balance, and no extra carbon is added to the atmospheric balance sheet—so biomass is arguably considered “carbon neutral.” Since nothing offsets the CO2 that fossil fuel burning produces, replacing fossil fuels with biomass theoretically results in reduced carbon emissions.

In fact, the reality is a lot more complicated. In 2014, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) found that “carbon neutrality cannot be assumed for all biomass energy a priori.” Whether or not biomass is truly carbon neutral depends on the time frame being studied, what type of biomass is used, the combustion technology, which fossil fuel is being replaced (since the combustion of both fossil fuels and biomass produces carbon dioxide), and what forest management techniques are employed in the areas where the biomass is harvested.

In 2010, a group of prominent scientists wrote to Congress explaining that the notion that all biomass results in a 100 percent reduction of carbon emissions iswrong. Biomass can reduce carbon dioxide if fast growing crops are grown on otherwise unproductive land; in this case, the regrowth of the plants offsets the

carbon produced by the combustion of the crops. But cutting or clearing forests for energy, either to burn trees or to plant energy crops, releases carbon into the atmosphere that would have been sequestered had the trees remained untouched, and the regrowing and thus recapture of carbon can take decades or even a century. Moreover, carbon is emitted in the combustion process, resulting in a net increase of CO2.

Nevertheless, biomass energy is currently considered renewable, and thus qualifies for tax credits, subsidies and incentives in the U.S. These include the Renewable Electricity Production Tax Credit which pays closed-loop (organic matter planted exclusively to produce electricity) biomass energy producers $.023 per kilowatt- hour and open-loop biomass (any other waste or residue) producers $.012 per kilowatt-hour; and Renewable Energy Certificates wherein every megawatt hour of electricity generated by biomass earns a credit that can be sold, traded or bartered, giving its owner the right to claim to have purchased renewable energy. The Investment Tax Credit will reimburse 30 percent of biomass plant development if construction is begun by the end of this year, and if operation begins by 2024. And biomass is eligible for subsidies from the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Photo credit: rebuildingdemocracy

Photo credit: rebuildingdemocracy

In part due to these incentives and the pressure to reduce coal use, energy companies in the U.S. and Europe are turning to biomass. By 2030, biomass could account for 60 percent of total final global renewable energy use, according to the International Renewable Energy Agency.

Most of the new biomass electricity generating plants being proposed in the U.S. will burn wood. Plants in the Southeast U.S. are churning out wood pellets to meet Europe’s increasing need for wood. Last year, wood pellet exports from the Southeast increased 70 percent; the Southern U.S. is now the largest exporter of wood pellets in the world. Since there isn’t enough logging residue to meet the increased demand for biomass, many fear that more standing trees will be chopped and more forests clear-cut.

The new biomass plants produce 38 megawatts of electricity on average, but many are being built in the 50 to 110 megawatt range. According to the Partnership for Policy Integrity, a 50-megawatt plant burns 2,550 lb. of green wood each minute. As an example, the 50-megawatt McNeil plant in Burlington, VT burns 625,000 tons of green wood from trees and residue each year. Additional wood is needed for co- firing in coal plants where wood is burned with coal to meet state renewable energy mandates (resulting in additional carbon emissions), pellet production, and liquid biofuels. While admittedly most forests will not actually be clear-cut for biomass energy, the numbers make clear the amount of pressure that will be brought to bear on our forests.

How is this increase in biomass burning impacting climate change, our health, and the environment? Today’s biomass-burning power plants actually produce more global warming CO2 than fossil fuel plants: 65 percent more CO2 per megawatt hour than modern coal plants and 285 percent more CO2 than natural gas combined cycle plants (which use both a gas and steam turbine together). In addition, burning wood biomass emits as much, if not more, air pollution than burning fossil fuels—particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, lead, mercury, and other hazardous air pollutants—which can cause cancer or reproductive effects. The air pollution from biomass facilities, which the American Heart Association and the American Lung Association have called a danger to public health, produces respiratory illnesses, heart disease, cancer, and developmental delays in children.

Heavy machinery compacts soil. Photo credit: David Stanley

Heavy machinery compacts soil. Photo credit: David Stanley

Harvesting and removing limbs, leaves and plant parts from forests, which would normally recycle nutrients back into the soil as they decay, can diminish soil fertility and hasten erosion. Heavy machinery used for Iogging compacts soil and increases runoff, which may affect water quality. Removing vegetation from the ground also impacts wildlife habitats on the forest floor.

For five years, the EPA has been reassessing the climate impacts of biomass burning; it is still not clear how wood energy will eventually be regulated, but a decision is expected this year. The agency has been working with scientists to develop formulas so that states and power plant owners can calculate the climate impacts of wood fuel.

Members of the U.S. Senate recently proposed an amendment to the Energy Policy Modernization Act that would deem forest biomass “carbon neutral.” Under President Obama’s Clean Power Plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from power plants, this measure would make biomass equivalent to zero-emission wind and solar energy as a replacement for coal. In response, 65 scientists and stakeholders wrote a letter to the Senate protesting that “Granting carbon amnesty to forest biomass burning for energy could lead to significant depletion of U.S. forests. The potential implications of declaring carbon neutrality for forest biofuels are great because even small quantities of bioenergy require large quantities of wood. The U.S. Energy Information Agency estimates that for each 1 percent added to current U.S. electricity production from forest biomass an additional 18 percent increase in U.S. forest harvest is required. This policy would also encourage the destruction of forests in developing countries that would see the U.S. as an

export market….We urge you and other members of the Senate to reconsider this well-intentioned legislation and eliminate the misrepresentation that forest bioenergy is carbon-neutral.”

As the thinking about biomass continues to evolve, state, federal, and international regulations need to clearly distinguish between the types of biomass energy that are beneficial and those that are detrimental. Treating all biomass, regardless of its source, as carbon neutral, could lead to increased greenhouse gas emissions at home and around the world. As the scientists said in their 2010 letter to Congress, the “globally improper accounting of bioenergy could lead to large-scale clearing of the world’s forests… any legal measure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions must include a system to differentiate emissions from bioenergy based on the source of the biomass.”

About Biogas and Biomass

Biogas is manufactured from biomass. Various definitions of potential can apply to biogas in relation to biomass. These are outlined below.

Theoretical potential refers to the total amount of solar energy embodied annually in plants as a result of the process of photosynthesis. It is defined according to the rainfall and sunlight a given region receives during a given season.

Technical potential is that portion of the theoretical biomass potential that is harvestable for biogas under existing technical and structural conditions. The parameters that define technical potential, in addition to rainfall and sunlight, include available crop technologies, the distance between the biomass growing site and the biogas generation site, and the transportability of the biomass. Economic potential is that portion of the technical potential that can be produced economically.

Economic potential depends on the prices of biomass and biogas, as determined in the market by supply and demand. Demand for biomass for energetic and above all material uses (such as food for humans and livestock) plays a deciding role in determining economic potential.

Realisable potential takes into account, among other things, price supports and administrative restrictions on biomass production. Due to these factors, it is often about half of economic potential.

Biomass Production

Because biogas can in principle be generated from any organic compound, the biomass feedstocks that can be used to produce biogas are diverse. Some biomass feedstocks come from farms in the form of plants. Others come from other processes, or from animals, in the form of waste materials like household garbage and sewer sludge. Biomass suitable for use in biogas production is called “feedstock.”

Waste’s suitability for use as a feedstocks brings every available organic material into question. Especially useful for biogas generation are sewer sludge, kitchen rubbish, and liquid manure, which as waste products are abundant and affordable.

Energy plants

The term “energy plants” refers to crops that are cultivated especially for the purpose of energy production. These generally include crops with high photosynthetic rates that grow quickly in the climatic conditions of a given region. In central Europe, such plants include corn, rapeseed, and rye. Many tropical countries use sugarcane extensively as an energy plant.

Energy plants for biogas generation

Corn is especially well-adapted for use in biogas facilities, though cereals (such as rye) and/or grass cuttings are also acceptable. The plants most suitable for use in biogas generation vary from region to region; they must be chosen with consideration for local conditions. It is important to ensure that local land use changes associated with energy plant cultivation do not yield negative ecological effects.

I presume you're referring to biogas based electricity generation since you mention that you run a dairy with about 20 cows. The terms biomass and biogas are sometimes used interchangeably but the two technologies / processes are entirely different.

The feedstock for biomass based electricity generation is dry agricultural waste such as rice husks or wood / branches, etc. The process of electricity generation involves converting the feedstock into producer gas which is consumed by an internal combustion engine to generate electricity. Alternatively, the material can be burnt directly to generate steam that runs a turbine.

The feedstock for biogas based electricity generation is usually cowdung or kitchen waste (generally any wet organic waste can be used). This goes through an anaerobic digestion process when mixed with

water of equal volume and generates gas which is primarily methane but also has significant quantity of CO2 and H2S. Electricity generation requires filtering out CO2 and H2S but cooking applications are much simpler as the generated gas can be used directly.

With the Biomass plant i think you can sell / umload wood chips there . i think in the manual it will supply power to a nearby town. The Biogas plant is where you can take chaf , if you plant corn you can make chaf with the big krone harvester and take it to the biogas plant and unload it in the bunker . When you have enough in bunker you will have to compact it with a wheel loader and when it is 100% cover it. then after a couple days it will be ready . then take wheel loader and unload it in the 2 receptacles. It will produce slurry , which can be used for fertilizing crops.

Biomass

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about biomass as a renewable energy source. For the use of the term in ecology, see Biomass (ecology).

 

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Sugarcane <a href=plantation in Brazil . Sugarcane bagasse is a type of biomass. A cogeneration plant in Metz , France . The station uses waste wood biomass as an energy source, and provides electricity and heat for 30,000 dwellings. Stump harvesting increases the recovery of biomass from a forest. " id="pdf-obj-62-3" src="pdf-obj-62-3.jpg">

Sugarcane plantation in Brazil.Sugarcane bagasse is a type of biomass.

Sugarcane <a href=plantation in Brazil . Sugarcane bagasse is a type of biomass. A cogeneration plant in Metz , France . The station uses waste wood biomass as an energy source, and provides electricity and heat for 30,000 dwellings. Stump harvesting increases the recovery of biomass from a forest. " id="pdf-obj-62-13" src="pdf-obj-62-13.jpg">

A cogeneration plant in Metz, France. The station uses waste wood biomass as an energy source, and provides electricity and heat for 30,000 dwellings.

Sugarcane <a href=plantation in Brazil . Sugarcane bagasse is a type of biomass. A cogeneration plant in Metz , France . The station uses waste wood biomass as an energy source, and provides electricity and heat for 30,000 dwellings. Stump harvesting increases the recovery of biomass from a forest. " id="pdf-obj-62-23" src="pdf-obj-62-23.jpg">

Stump harvesting increases the recovery of biomass from a forest.

Biomass is organic matter derived from living, or recently living organisms. Biomass can be used as a source of energy and it most often refers to plants or plant-based materials that are not used for food or feed, and are specifically called lignocellulosic biomass. [1] As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel. Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be achieved by different methods which are broadly classified into: thermal, chemical, and biochemical methods.

<a href=Eucalyptus in Brazil. Remains of the tree are reused for power generation. " id="pdf-obj-64-3" src="pdf-obj-64-3.jpg">

Eucalyptus in Brazil. Remains of the tree are reused for power generation.

Historically, humans have harnessed biomass-derived energy since the time when people began burning wood to make fire. [2] Even today, biomass is the only source of fuel for domestic use in many developing countries. Biomass is all biologically-produced matter based in carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The estimated biomass production in the world is 104.9 petagrams (104.9 × 10 15 g – about 105 billion metric tons) of carbon per year, about half in the ocean and half on land. [3]

Wood remains the largest biomass energy source today; [2] examples include forest residues (such as dead trees, branches and tree stumps), yard clippings, wood chips and even municipal solid waste. Wood energy is derived by using lignocellulosic biomass (second-generation biofuels) as fuel. Harvested wood may be used directly as a fuel or collected from wood waste streams to be processed into pellet fuel or other forms of fuels. The largest source of energy from wood is pulping liquor or "black liquor," a waste product from processes of the pulp, paper and paperboard industry. [citation needed] In the second sense, biomass includes plant or animal matter that can be converted into fibers or other industrial chemicals, including biofuels. Industrial biomass can be grown from numerous types of plants, including miscanthus, [4] switchgrass, hemp, corn, poplar, willow, sorghum, sugarcane,bamboo, [5] and a variety of tree species, ranging from eucalyptus to oil palm (palm oil).

Based on the source of biomass, biofuels are classified broadly into two major categories. First- generation biofuels are derived from sources such as sugarcane and corn starch. Sugars present in this biomass are fermented to produce bioethanol, an alcohol fuel which can be used directly in a fuel cell to produce electricity or serve as an additive to gasoline. However, utilizing food-based resources for fuel production only aggravates the food shortage problem. [6] Second-generation biofuels, on the other hand, utilize non-food-based biomass sources such as agriculture and municipal waste. These biofuels mostly consist of lignocellulosic biomass, which is not edible and is a low-value waste for many industries. Despite being the favored alternative, economical production of second-generation biofuel is not yet achieved due to technological issues. These issues arise mainly due to chemical inertness and structural rigidity of lignocellulosic biomass. [7][8][9]

Plant energy is produced by crops specifically grown for use as fuel that offer high biomass output per hectare with low input energy. Some examples of these plants are wheat, which typically yields 7.5–8 tonnes of grain per hectare, and straw, which typically yields 3.5–5 tonnes per hectare in the UK. [10] The grain can be used for liquid transportation fuels while the straw can be burned to produce heat or electricity. Plant biomass can also be degraded from cellulose to glucose through a series of chemical treatments, and the resulting sugar can then be used as a first-generation biofuel.

The main contributors of waste energy are municipal solid waste, manufacturing waste, and landfill gas. Energy derived from biomass is projected to be the largest non-hydroelectric renewable resource of electricity in the US between 2000 and 2020. [11]

Biomass can be converted to other usable forms of energy like methane gas or transportation fuels like ethanol and biodiesel. Rotting garbage, and agricultural and human waste, all release methane gas, also called landfill gasor biogas. Crops such as corn and sugarcane can be fermented to produce the transportation fuel ethanol. Biodiesel, another transportation fuel, can be produced from leftover food products like vegetable oils and animal fats. [12] Several biodiesel companies simply collect used restaurant cooking oil and convert it into biodiesel. [13] Also, biomass-to-liquids (called "BTLs") and cellulosic ethanol are still under research. [14][15]

There is research involving algae or algae-derived biomass, as this non-food resource can be produced at rates five to ten times those of other types of land-based agriculture, such as corn and soy. Once harvested, it can be fermented to produce biofuels such as ethanol, butanol, and methane, as well as biodiesel and hydrogen. Efforts are being made to identify which species of algae are most suitable for energy production. Genetic engineering approaches could also be utilized to improve microalgae as a source of biofuel. [16]

The biomass used for electricity generation varies by region. Forest by-products, such as wood residues, are common in the US. Agricultural waste is common in Mauritius (sugar cane residue) and Southeast Asia (rice husks). Animal husbandry residues, such as poultry litter, are common in the UK. [17]

As of 2015, a new bioenergy sewage treatment process aimed at developing countries is under trial; the Omni Processor is a self-sustaining process which uses sewerage solids as fuel in a process to convert waste water into drinking water, with surplus electrical energy being generated for export. [18][19]

Comparison of total plant biomass yields (dry basis)[edit]

World resources[edit]

If the total annual primary production of biomass is just over 100 billion (1.0E+11) tonnes of Carbon /yr, [21] and the energy reserve per tonne of biomass is between about 1.5×10 3 and 3×10 3 kilowatt hours (5×10 6 and 10×10 6 BTU), [22] or 24.8 TW average, then biomass could in principle provide 1.4 times the approximate annual 150×10 3 terawatt-hours required for current world energy consumption. [23] For reference, the total solar power on Earth is 174 PW. The biomass equivalent to solar energy ratio is 143 ppm (parts per million), given current living system coverage on Earth. The best currently attainable solar cell efficiency is 20–40%. Additionally, Earth's internal radioactive energy production, largely the driver for volcanic activity, continental drift, etc., is in the same range of power, 20 TW. At around 50% carbon mass content in biomass, annual production, this corresponds to about 6% atmospheric carbon content in the form of CO 2 (for the current 400 ppm).

(1×10 11 tonnes biomass annually produced approximately 25 TW·h) Annual world biomass energy equivalent =16.7–33.4 TW·h.

Annual world energy consumption =17.7 TW·h. On average, biomass production is 1.4 times larger than world energy consumption.

Common commodity food crops[edit]

Agave: 1–21 tons/acre [24]

Alfalfa: 4–6 tons/acre [25]

Barley: grains – 1.6–2.8 tons/acre, straw – 0.9–2.5 tons/acre, total – 2.5–5.3 tons/acre [26]

Corn: grains – 3.2–4.9 tons/acre, stalks and stovers – 2.3–3.4 tons/acre, total – 5.5–8.3 tons/acre [25]

Jerusalem artichokes: tubers 1–8 tons/acre, tops 2–13 tons/acre, total 9–13 tons/acre [27]

Oats: grains – 1.4–5.4 tons/acre, straw – 1.9–3.2 tons/acre, total – 3.3–8.6 tons/acre [26]

Rye: grains – 2.1–2.4 tons/acre, straw – 2.4–3.4 tons/acre, total – 4.5–5.8 tons/acre [26]

Wheat: grains – 1.2–4.1 tons/acre, straw – 1.6–3.8 tons/acre, total – 2.8–7.9 tons/acre [26]

Woody crops[edit]

Oil palm: fronds 11 ton/acre, whole fruit bunches 1 ton/acre, trunks 30 ton/acre [28]

Not yet in commercial planting[edit]

Giant miscanthus: 5–15 tons/acre [29]

Sunn hemp: 4.5 tons/acre [30]

Switchgrass: 4–6 tons/acre [25]

Genetically modified varieties[edit]

Energy Sorghum

Biomass conversion[edit]

Annual world energy consumption =17.7 TW·h. On average, biomass production is 1.4 times larger than world[ edit ]  Agave: 1–21 tons/acr e  Alfalfa: 4–6 tons/acr e  Barley: grains – 1.6–2.8 tons/acre, straw – 0.9–2.5 tons/acre, total – 2.5–5.3 tons/acre  Corn: grains – 3.2–4.9 tons/acre, stalks and stovers – 2.3–3.4 tons/acre, total – 5.5–8.3 tons/acr e  Jerusalem artichokes: tubers 1–8 tons/acre, tops 2–13 tons/acre, total 9–13 tons/acre  Oats: grains – 1.4–5.4 tons/acre, straw – 1.9–3.2 tons/acre, total – 3.3–8.6 tons/acre  Rye: grains – 2.1–2.4 tons/acre, straw – 2.4–3.4 tons/acre, total – 4.5–5.8 tons/acre  Wheat: grains – 1.2–4.1 tons/acre, straw – 1.6–3.8 tons/acre, total – 2.8–7.9 tons/acr e Woody crops [ edit ]  Oil palm: fronds 11 ton/acre, whole fruit bunches 1 ton/acre, trunks 30 ton/acr e Not yet in commercial planting [ edit ]  Giant miscanthus: 5–15 tons/acre  Sunn hemp: 4.5 tons/acr e  Switchgrass: 4–6 tons/acr e Genetically modified varieties [ edit ]  Energy Sorghum Biomass conversion [ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification . Pl help improve this article by adding citations to reliable source Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (Novemb ( Learn how and when to remove this template message ) " id="pdf-obj-66-122" src="pdf-obj-66-122.jpg">

This section needs additional citations for verification. Pl help improve this article by adding citations to reliable source Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (Novemb

Thermal conversions[edit]

Trends in the top five countries generating electricity from biomass <a href=Biomass briquettes are an example fuel for production of dendrothermal energy " id="pdf-obj-67-8" src="pdf-obj-67-8.jpg">

Trends in the top five countries generating electricity from biomass

Trends in the top five countries generating electricity from biomass <a href=Biomass briquettes are an example fuel for production of dendrothermal energy " id="pdf-obj-67-12" src="pdf-obj-67-12.jpg">

Biomass briquettes are an example fuel for production of dendrothermal energy

Thermal conversion processes use heat as the dominant mechanism to convert biomass into another chemical form. Also known as thermal oil heating, it is a type of indirect heating in which a liquid phase heat transfer medium is heated and circulated to one or more heat energy users within a closed loop system. [31] The basic alternatives of combustion (torrefaction, pyrolysis, and gasification) are separated principally by the extent to which the chemical reactions involved are allowed to proceed (mainly controlled by the availability of oxygen and conversion temperature).

Energy created by burning biomass is particularly suited for countries where the fuel wood grows more rapidly, e.g. tropical countries. There are a number of other less common, more experimental or proprietary thermal processes that may offer benefits such as hydrothermal upgrading (HTU) and hydroprocessing. Some have been developed for use on high moisture content biomass, including aqueous slurries, and allow them to be converted into more convenient forms. Some of the applications of thermal conversion are combined heat and power (CHP) and co-firing. In a typical dedicated biomass power plant, efficiencies range from 20–27% (higher heating value basis). [32] Biomass cofiring with coal, by contrast, typically occurs at efficiencies near those of the coal combustor (30–40%, higher heating value basis). [33]

Chemical conversion[edit]

A range of chemical processes may be used to convert biomass into other forms, such as to produce a fuel that is more conveniently used, transported or stored, or to exploit some property of the process itself. Many of these processes are based in large part on similar coal-based processes, such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, methanol production, olefins (ethylene and propylene), and similar chemical or fuel feedstocks. In most cases, the first step involves gasification, which step generally is the most expensive and involves the greatest technical risk. [34] Biomass is more difficult to feed into a pressure vessel than coal or any liquid. Therefore, biomassgasification is frequently done at atmospheric pressure and causes combustion of biomass to produce a combustible gas consisting of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and traces of methane. This gas mixture, called a producer gas, can provide fuel for various vital processes, such as internal combustion engines, as well as substitute for furnace oil in direct heat applications. [35] Because any biomass material can undergo gasification, this process is far more attractive than ethanol or biomass production, where only particular biomass materials can be used to produce a fuel. In addition, biomass gasification is a desirable process due to the ease at which it can convert solid waste (such as wastes available on a farm) into producer gas, which is a very usable fuel. [35]

Conversion of biomass to biofuel can also be achieved via selective conversion of individual components of biomass. [36] For example, cellulose can be converted to intermediate platform chemical such a sorbitol, [37] glucose, [38] hydroxymethylfurfural [39] etc. These chemical are then further reacted to produce hydrogen or hydrocarbon fuels. [40]

Biomass also has the potential to be converted to multiple commodity chemicals. Halomethanes have successfully been by produced using a combination of A. fermentans and engineered S. cerevisiae. [41] This method converts NaX salts and unprocessed biomass such as switchgrass, sugarcane, corn stover, or poplar into halomethanes. S- adenosylmethionine which is naturally occurring in S. cerevisiae allows a methyl group to be transferred. Production levels of 150 mg L-1H-1 iodomethane were achieved. At these levels roughly 173000L of capacity would need to be operated just to replace the United States’ need for iodomethane. [41] However, an advantage of this method is that it uses NaI rather than I2; NaI is significantly less hazardous than I2. This method may be applied to produce ethylene in the future.

Other chemical processes such as converting straight and waste vegetable oils into biodiesel is transesterification. [42]

Biochemical conversion[edit]

As biomass is a natural material, many highly efficient biochemical processes have developed in nature to break down the molecules of which biomass is composed, and many of these biochemical conversion processes can be harnessed.

Biochemical conversion makes use of the enzymes of bacteria and other microorganisms to break down biomass into gaseous or liquid fuels, such a biogas or bioethanol. [43] In most cases,

microorganisms are used to perform the conversion process: anaerobic digestion, fermentation, and composting.

Electrochemical conversion[edit]

In addition to combustion, biomass/biofuels can be directly converted to electrical energy via electrochemical (electrocatalytic) oxidation of the material. This can be performed directly in a direct carbon fuel cell, [44] direct liquid fuel cells such as direct ethanol fuel cell, a direct methanol fuel cell, a direct formic acid fuel cell, a L-ascorbic Acid Fuel Cell (vitamin C fuel cell), [45] and a microbial fuel cell. [46] The fuel can also be consumed indirectly via a fuel cell system containing a reformer which converts the biomass into a mixture of CO and H2 before it is consumed in the fuel cell. [47]

In the United States[edit]

The biomass power generating industry in the United States consists of approximately 11,000 MW of summer operating capacity actively supplying power to the grid, and produces about 1.4 percent of the U.S. electricity supply. [48]

Public Service of New Hampshire (later merged with other companies into Eversource) in 2006 replaced a 50 MW coal boiler with a new 50 MW biomass boiler at its Schiller Station facility in Portsmouth, NH. [49] The boiler's biomass fuel is from sources in NH, Massachusetts and Maine.

Currently, the New Hope Power Partnership is the largest biomass power plant in the U.S. The 140 MW facility uses sugarcane fiber (bagasse) and recycled urban wood as fuel to generate enough power for its large milling and refining operations as well as to supply electricity for nearly 60,000 homes. [50][51]

Second-generation biofuels[edit]

Second-generation biofuels were not (in 2010) produced commercially, but a considerable number of research activities were taking place mainly in North America, Europe and also in some emerging countries. These tend to use feedstock produced by rapidly reproducing enzymes or bacteria from various sources including excrement [52] grown in cell cultures or hydroponics. [53][54] There is huge potential for second generation biofuels but non- edible feedstock resources are highly under-utilized. [55]

Environmental impact[edit]

Using biomass as a fuel produces air pollution in the form of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, NOx (nitrogen oxides), VOCs (volatile organic compounds), particulates and other pollutants at levels above those from traditional fuel sources such as coal or natural gas in some cases (such as with indoor heating and cooking). [56][57][58] Utilization of wood biomass as a fuel can also produce fewer particulate and other pollutants than open burning as seen in wildfires or direct heat applications. [59] Black carbon – a pollutant created by combustion of fossil fuels,

biofuels, and biomass – is possibly the second largest contributor to global warming. [60]:5657 In 2009 a Swedish study of the giant brown haze that periodically covers large areas in South Asia determined that it had been principally produced by open burning of biomass, and to a lesser extent by fossil-fuel burning. [61] Researchers measured a significant concentration of 14 C (Carbon- 14), which is associated with recent plant life rather than with fossil fuels. [62]

Biomass power plant size is often driven by biomass availability in close proximity as transport costs of the (bulky) fuel play a key factor in the plant's economics. It has to be noted, however, that rail and especially shipping on waterways can reduce transport costs significantly, which has led to a global biomass market. [63] To make small plants of 1 MW el economically profitable those power plants need to be equipped with technology that is able to convert biomass to useful electricity with high efficiency such as ORC technology, a cycle similar to the water steam power process just with an organic working medium. Such small power plants can be found in Europe.

On combustion, the carbon from biomass is released into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The amount of carbon stored in dry wood is approximately 50% by weight. [68] However, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, plant matter used as a fuel can be replaced by planting for new growth. When the biomass is from forests, the time to recapture the carbon stored is generally longer, and the carbon storage capacity of the forest may be reduced overall if destructive forestry techniques are employed. [69][70][71][72]

Industry professionals claim that a range of issues can affect a plant's ability to comply with emissions standards. Some of these challenges, unique to biomass plants, include inconsistent fuel supplies and age. The type and amount of the fuel supply are completely reliant factors; the fuel can be in the form of building debris or agricultural waste (such as removal of invasive species or orchard trimmings). Furthermore, many of the biomass plants are old, use outdated technology and were not built to comply with today’s stringent standards. In fact, many are based on technologies developed during the term of U.S. President Jimmy Carter, who created the United States Department of Energy in 1977. [2]

The U.S. Energy Information Administration projected that by 2017, biomass is expected to be about twice as expensive as natural gas, slightly more expensive than nuclear power, and much less expensive than solar panels. [73] In another EIA study released, concerning the government’s plan to implement a 25% renewable energy standard by 2025, the agency assumed that 598 million tons of biomass would be available, accounting for 12% of the renewable energy in the plan. [74]

The adoption of biomass-based energy plants has been a slow but steady process. Between the years of 2002 and 2012 the production of these plants has increased 14%. [75] In the United States, alternative electricity-production sources on the whole generate about 13% of power; of this fraction, biomass contributes approximately 11% of the alternative production. [76] According to a study conducted in early 2012, of the 107 operating biomass plants in the United States, 85 have been cited by federal or state regulators for the violation of clean air or water standards laws over the past 5 years. This data also includes minor infractions. [75]

Despite harvesting, biomass crops may sequester carbon. For example, soil organic carbon has been observed to be greater in switchgrass stands than in cultivated cropland soil, especially at depths below 12 inches. [77] The grass sequesters the carbon in its increased root biomass. Typically, perennial crops sequester much more carbon than annual crops due to much greater non-harvested living biomass, both living and dead, built up over years, and much less soil disruption in cultivation.

The proposal that biomass is carbon-neutral put forward in the early 1990s has been superseded by more recent science that recognizes that mature, intact forests sequester carbon more effectively than cut-over areas. When a tree's carbon is released into the atmosphere in a single pulse, it contributes to climate change much more than woodland timber rotting slowly over decades. Current studies indicate that "even after 50 years the forest has not recovered to its initial carbon storage" and "the optimal strategy is likely to be protection of the standing

The pros and cons of biomass usage regarding carbon emissions may be quantified with the ILUC factor. There is controversy surrounding the usage of the ILUC factor. [81]

Forest-based biomass has recently come under fire from a number of environmental organizations, including Greenpeace and the Natural Resources Defense Council, for the harmful impacts it can have on forests and the climate. Greenpeace recently released a report entitled "Fuelling a BioMess" [82] which outlines their concerns around forest-based biomass. Because any part of the tree can be burned, the harvesting of trees for energy production encourages whole-tree harvesting, which removes more nutrients and soil cover than regular harvesting, and can be harmful to the long-term health of the forest. In some jurisdictions, forest biomass removal is increasingly involving elements essential to functioning forest ecosystems, including standing trees, naturally disturbed forests and remains of traditional logging operations that were previously left in the forest. Environmental groups also cite recent scientific research which has found that it can take many decades for the carbon released by burning biomass to be recaptured by regrowing trees, and even longer in low productivity areas; furthermore, logging operations may disturb forest soils and cause them to release stored carbon. [citation needed] In light of the pressing need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the short term in order to mitigate the effects of climate change, a number of environmental groups are opposing the large-scale use of forest biomass in energy production. [82][83]

The difference between biomass, biodiesel and biogas

July 15, 2011
July 15, 2011

Society is becoming increasingly aware of incorporating eco-friendliness into its agenda, especially when it comes to transportation, heating or cooling in the office. For this reason, many people are beginning to notice the acronym "bio" more frequently during energy-related topics. However, some may not realize that there is a difference between terms like biomass, biodiesel and biogas.

Biodiesel is a fuel that's primarily used for transportation through the use of hybrid cars or trucks. This source can significantly reduce a company's carbon footprint without requiring major vehicular adaptions.

Biogas is becoming an ideal alternative for natural gas, which is currently putting a strain on many homeowner's wallets. This source is produced from plant or animal waste, or often a balanced combination of both, to provide reliable home heating.

Biomass, on the other hand, is simply the raw materials that can be used to produce biofuels. Sugar cane, wood residue and soybeans are some of the most commonly used biomass on the market.

By gaining a deeper understanding of alternative fuels and energy sources that can reduce carbon footprints, society will likely be able to slow down the consequences of global warming and make the environment a stabler place for future generations.

What is the difference between energy from biomass and biogas?

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Best Answer: Wood burning is an example of energy from biomass. Biogas is methane usually generated from the general decomposing of biomass. The difference is obvious, is it not?

What is the difference between Biomass and Biogas generated energy?

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  • 0 Biomass generated energy initially goes through pyrolysis and gasification process to generate a gas mixture that then is burned in a separate part of the same vessel to produce energy. All of the energy is generated from the biomass (solid organic matter) fed to the boiler system. Biogas generated energy initially gets released from a digestion process, in the presence of bugs, in a gas mixture form rich in methane. Subsequently this gas is treated and only then burned in order to extract the final energy content. The gas is generated at much lower temperature than in the biomass process.

BIOENERGY

19 January 2015

In Australia, over two thirds of our bioenergy is sourced from sugarcane waste. 1

Bioenergy is energy produced from recently living organic matter, known as biomass.

Biomass can also be converted into liquid (biofuels) and gaseous fuels (biogas) to power electricity generation and heating systems and to provide fuel for transportation.

Biomass can be any plant or animal matter, but six types are generally used to produce energy.

TYPES OF BIOMASS

Wood waste

Bark, sawdust and straw.

Black liquor

By-product formed during paper manufacturing.

Biogas

Composed mainly of methane and is captured from landfill sites and sewage plants.

Energy crops

Crops grown specifically for energy production, like algae and grass.

Commercial crop residues

Sugarcane (bagasse), sweet sorghum, wheat and vegetable oils such as sunflower and canola.

Municipal solid waste

Household garbage and prunings.

Why biomass isn't a fossil fuel

Biomass and fossil fuels differ mostly in age. Yes, they are both formed from once-living matter, but the organisms that form fossil fuels lived and absorbed carbon millions of years ago under different environmental conditions.

When fossil fuels are burned, the carbon is released into the atmosphere, but it takes millions of years to be re-absorbed and form new fossil fuels. This means that fossil fuels are adding more carbon to the atmosphere than what is being removed.

Because biomass has a shorter lifecycle, the carbon released when it’s burned is the same amount absorbed during its lifetime. 2 The process of producing (growing, harvesting) and converting the biomass does not produce any extra carbon dioxide. This is known as a closed carbon loop and qualifies biomass as a carbon-neutral energy source.

Source: New South Wales Department of Trade and Investment 2013. 3

Another big difference

The other big difference between biomass and fossil fuels is that biomass is a renewable energy source because the plant and animal matter it comes from can be regrown or reproduced.

Where does bioenergy fit in the energy mix?

Bioenergy currently accounts for nearly one percent of Australia's electricity production (about 2,500 GWh per year), and around 11 percent of all renewable electricity production. 4

Electricity generation in Australia's National Electricity Market (NEM) 4

Are you wondering how biomass is converted into useful energy? You can read about the different types of technologies helping this happen here.