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VANISHING OF SELF EXTENSIONS

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arXiv:1703.06160v1 [math.AC] 17 Mar 2017

sions of a module, is one of the long-standing conjectures in ring theory. Although it is still

open, there are several results in the literature that establish the conjecture over Gorenstein

rings under certain conditions. The purpose of this article is to obtain extensions of such

results over Cohen-Macaulay local rings that admit canonical modules. In particular, our

main result recovers theorems of Araya, and Ono and Yoshino simultaneously.

1. I NTRODUCTION

Throughout R denotes a commutative Noetherian local ring and mod R denotes the cat-

egory of all finitely generated R-modules.

There are various conjectures from the representation theory of algebras that have been

transplanted to Commutative Algebra. One of the most important such conjectures is the

celebrated Auslander-Reiten Conjecture [2], which states that a finitely generated module

M over an Artin algebra A satisfying ExtiA (M, M) = ExtiA (M, A) = 0 for all i 1 must be

projective. This long-standing conjecture is closely related to other important conjectures

such as the Nakayamas Conjecture [12] and the Tachikawa Conjecture [3, 15]. Although

the Auslander-Reiten Conjecture was initially proposed over Artin algebras, it can be stated

over arbitrary Noetherian rings; in local algebra, the conjecture is known as follows:

Conjecture 1.1. (Auslander and Reiten [2]) Let R be a local ring and let M mod R. If

ExtiR (M, M) = ExtiR (M, R) = 0 for all i 1, then M is free.

Recently there have been significant interest and hence some progress towards the

Auslander-Reiten conjecture; see, for example, [6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11]. A particular result

worth recording on the Auslander-Reiten Conjecture is due to Huneke and Leuschke: the

Auslander-Reiten Conjecture holds over Gorenstein normal domains; see [10, 1.3]. An-

other result in this direction, which is of interest to us, is due to Araya [1]. For a nonnega-

tive integer n and an R-module M, we set X n (R) = {p Spec(R) : height(p) n} and say

M is locally free on X n (R) if Mp is a free Rp -module for each prime ideal p X n (R).

Theorem 1.2. (Araya [1]) Let R be a Gorenstein local ring of dimension d 2 and let

M mod R. Then M is free provided that the following hold:

(i) M is locally free on X d1 (R).

(ii) M is maximal Cohen-Macaulay.

(iii) Extd1

R (M, M) = 0.

Key words and phrases. Auslander-Reiten Conjecture, vanishing of Ext and Tor, canonical modules.

Araya and Takahashi were partly supported by JSPS Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research 26400056 and

16K05098, respectively. Sadeghis research was supported by a grant from IPM.

1

2 T. ARAYA, O. CELIKBAS, A. SADEGHI, AND R. TAKAHASHI

Ono and Yoshino [13] relaxed the condition that M is free on X d1 (R) in Arayas the-

orem under the hypothesis that ExtiR (M, M) vanishes for i = d 2 and i = d 1. More

precisely they proved:

Theorem 1.3. (Ono and Yoshino [13]) Let R be a Gorenstein local ring of dimension d 3

and let M mod R be a module. Then M is free provided that the following hold:

(i) M is locally free on X d2 (R).

(ii) M is maximal Cohen-Macaulay.

(iii) Extd2 d1

R (M, M) = ExtR (M, M) = 0.

We set () = HomR (, R), () = Hom(, E), where E is the injective hull of the

residue field of R, and () = HomR (, ) where is a canonical module of R. Recall that

M mod R is said to satisfy (S2 ) if depthRp (Mp ) {2, heightR (p)} for all p Supp(M).

The main aim of this paper is to prove the following result.

Theorem 1.4. Let R be a Cohen-Macaulay local ring of dimension d with canonical mod-

ule and let M mod R. Assume n is an integer with 1 n d 1. Then M is free

provided that the following hold:

(i) pdRp (Mp ) < for all p X n (R).

(ii) M satisfies (S2 ) and M is maximal Cohen-Macaulay.

(iii) ExtiR (M, (M ) ) = 0 for all i = n, . . . , d 1.

An immediate consequence of Theorem 1.4 is:

Corollary 1.5. Let R be a Cohen-Macaulay normal local domain of dimension d with

canonical module and let M mod R. Then M is free provided that the following hold:

(i) M satisfies (S2 ) and M is maximal Cohen-Macaulay.

(ii) ExtiR (M, (M ) ) = 0 for all i = 1, . . . , d 1.

As maximal Cohen-Macaulay modules satisfy (S2 ) over Gorenstein rings, we deduce

from Theorem 1.4 that:

Corollary 1.6. Let R be a Gorenstein local ring of dimension d and let M mod R. Assume

n is an integer with 1 n d 1. Then M is free provided that the following hold:

(i) M is locally free on X n (R).

(ii) M is maximal Cohen-Macaulay.

(iii) ExtiR (M, M) = 0 for all i = n, . . . , d 1.

Note that we recover heorems 1.2 and 1.3 from Corollary 1.6 by letting n = d 1

and n = d 2, respectively. Corollary 1.6 especially yields an extension of a result of

Huneke and Leuschke [10] mentioned preceding Theorem 1.2. More precisely we obtain

the following; see Corollary 2.6.

Corollary 1.7. Let R be a d-dimensional Gorenstein local normal domain and let M be a

maximal Cohen-Macaulay R-module. Then M is free if and only if ExtiR (M, M) = 0 for all

i = 1, . . . , d 1.

Let us remark that Huneke and Leuschke [10, 3.1] obtains the conclusion of Corollary

1.7, when ExtiR (M, M) vanishes for all i = 1, . . . , d; see the discussion following Corollary

2.6. Let us also remark that one can in fact prove Theorem 1.3 and Corollary 1.7 by using

the proof of Theorem 1.2 given by Araya; see [1]. Our main argument is more general

than both of these results; it is quite short and works over Cohen-Macaulay rings that

are not necessarily Gorenstein. Hence we will deduce Theorem 1.3 and Corollary 1.7 as

ON THE VANISHING OF SELF EXTENSIONS OVER COHEN-MACAULAY LOCAL RINGS 3

immediate corollaries of Theorem 1.4 in the next section without making use of the proof

of Theorem 1.2; see also Corollary 2.7.

In this section we give a proof of our main result, Theorem 1.4. Following our proof

we state two corollaries, one of which extends the result of Huneke and Leuschke [10]

mentioned preceding Theorem 1.2. We start with a few notations and preliminary results.

2.1. Let M, N mod R. We denote by HomR (M, N) the residue of HomR (M, N) by the R-

submodule consisting of the R-module homomorphisms from M to N that factor through

free modules.

It follows from the definition that M is free if and only if HomR (M, M) = 0. We also

remark that HomR (M, N) = TorR1 (TrM, N), where TrM is the (Auslander) transpose of M;

see [17, 3.9].

2.2. ([4, 1.4.1]) Let R be a Cohen-Macaulay local ring such that depth(R) 2 and let

M mod R. If M satisfies (S2 ) and pdRp (Mp ) < for all p X 1 (R), then M is reflexive.

2.3. ([16, 2.2]) Let R be a local ring and let M, N mod R. If N is maximal Cohen-Macaulay

and pd(M) < , then TorRi (M, N) = 0 for all i 1.

For our proof of Theorem 1.4, we will make use [5, 3.1], which is well-known over

Artinian rings. Since we record an improved version of that result, we give a proof along

with its statement.

2.4. ([5, 3.1]) Let R be a d-dimensional Cohen-Macaulay local ring with a canonical mod-

ule and let M, N mod R. If pdRp (Mp ) < for all p X d1 (R) and N is maximal

Cohen-Macaulay, then the following isomorphism holds for all i 1:

Extd (TorR (M, N), ).

Extd+i (M, N ) =

R R i

To see this isomorphism, we note, by [14, 10.62], that there is a third quadrant spectral

sequence:

ExtRp (TorRq (M, N), ) = ExtnR (M, N )

p

Let p X d1 (R). Then, since pdRp (Mp ) < and N p is maximal Cohen-Macaulay over

R p , we conclude that TorRi (M, N) p = 0 for all i 1; see 2.3. Therefore TorRq (M, N) has

finite length for all q > 0. Hence, unless p = d, ExtRp (TorRq (M, N), ) = 0. It follows that

the spectral sequence considered collapses and hence gives the desired isomorphism.

We can now prove our main result.

A proof of Theorem 1.4. Note, it follows from our hypotheses and 2.2, that M is reflexive.

Set N = M and note M = 2 TrN. Therefore pdRp ((TrN)p ) < for all p X n (R).

n

Let p X (R). Then, since Np is maximal Cohen-Macaulay, it follows from 2.3 that

TorRi (TrN, N)p = 0 for all i 1. In particular TorR1 (TrN, N)p = 0, and this implies Np is

free over Rp ; see 2.1. Since M is reflexive, we conclude that Mp is free. Consequently M

is a reflexive module that is locally free on X n (R).

Let p Spec(R). We proceed by induction on heightR (p) and prove that Mp is free over

Rp . If height(p) n, then Mp is free by the above argument. So we assume height(p) = t >

n. Localizing at p, we may assume (R, m) is a Cohen-Macaulay local ring with a canonical

module , dim(R) = t > n 1, M is reflexive and locally free on X t1 (R), M is maximal

Cohen-Macaulay and Extt1 R (M, (M ) ) = 0.

4 T. ARAYA, O. CELIKBAS, A. SADEGHI, AND R. TAKAHASHI

Note that N = M

= M and N = (M ) is maximal Cohen-Macaulay. Moreover

t1

ExtR (N , N ) = 0 by the hypothesis. Hence the following isomorphisms hold:

0 = Extt1 Extt+1 (TrN, N )

R (N , N ) = R

= ExttR (TorR1 (TrN, N), )

(1.4.1)

= m (TorR1 (TrN, N))

= TorR1 (TrN, N)

= HomR (N, N).

The first isomorphism of (1.4.1) follows from the fact that N 2 TrN, while the second

and third ones follow from 2.4 and the Local Duality Theorem [4, 3.5.9], respectively.

The fourth isomorphism is due to the fact that TorR1 (TrN, N) has finite length. The fifth

isomorphism, and the freeness of N, follows from 2.1. As M is reflexive, we conclude that

M = N is free.

If R is a Gorenstein local ring and M is a maximal Cohen-Macaulay R-module, then M

satisfies (S2 ), M is maximal Cohen-Macaulay and (M )

= M. Hence, as an immediate

consequence of Theorem 1.4, we obtain Corollary 1.6.

To obtain another corollary of Theorem 1.4, we apply the next result:

2.5. ([3, B4]) Let R be a Cohen-Macaulay local ring of dimension d with a canonical

module and let M mod R. If ExtiR (M, R) = 0 for all i = 1, . . . , d, then M R

= (M ) .

Corollary 2.6. Let R be a Cohen-Macaulay local ring of dimension d with a canonical

module and let M mod R. Assume n is an integer with 1 n d 1. Then M is free

provided that the following holds:

(i) pdRp (Mp ) < for all p X n (R).

(ii) M is reflexive and ExtiR (M, R) = 0 for all i = 1, . . . , d (e.g., M is totally reflexive.)

(iii) ExtiR (M, M R ) = 0 for all i = n, . . . , d 1.

Proof. The vanishing of ExtiR (M, R) for all i = 1, . . . , d forces M to be a dth syzygy mod-

ule, i.e., a maximal Cohen-Macaulay module. Therefore the conclusion follows from The-

orem 1.4 and 2.5.

We point out that the case where R is Gorenstein and n = 1 of Corollary 2.6 yields

Corollary 1.7 advertised in the introduction.

Corollary 2.6 allows us to generalize [13, 5.5], another result of Ono and Yoshino.

Corollary 2.7. Let R be a Cohen-Macaulay local ring of dimension d with a canonical

module and let M mod R. Assume n is an integer with 1 n d 1. Then M is free

provided that the following holds:

(i) M is locally free on X dn (R).

(ii) M is reflexive and ExtiR (M, R) = 0 for all i = 1, . . . , d.

(iii) depthR (Extdi

R (M, M R )) i for all i = 1, . . . , n.

Proof. Suppose M is not free. Then the nonfree locus NF(M) of M is not empty. Let

NF(M) = V (I) for some ideal I of R with heightR (I) = t. Then it follows from (i) that

t d n + 1. Setting i = d t + 1, we obtain from (iii) that

(2.7.1) depthR (Extt1

R (M, M R )) d t + 1.

On the other hand, since X t1 (R) * V (I), we see M is locally free on X t1 (R). This implies

(2.7.2) dimR (Extt1

R (M, M R )) d t.

ON THE VANISHING OF SELF EXTENSIONS OVER COHEN-MACAULAY LOCAL RINGS 5

Let p NF(M) with heightR (p) = t. Then Mp is locally free on X t1 (Rp ), Mp is re-

flexive over Rp , ExtiRp (Mp , Rp ) = 0 for all i = 1, . . . ,t, and Extt1

Rp (Mp , Mp Rp p ) = 0.

Therefore it follows from Corollary 2.6 that Mp is free over Rp , which is a contradiction.

So M is free.

Huneke and Leuschke [10, 3.1] proved, when R is a d-dimensional complete Cohen-

Macaulay local ring such that Rp is a complete intersection for all p X 1 (R), and R is either

Gorenstein or contains Q, a maximal Cohen-Macaulay R-module M of constant rank is free

provided ExtiR (M, R) = ExtiR (M , R) = 0 for all i = 1, . . . , d and ExtiR (M, M) = 0 for all

i = 1, . . . , max{2, d}. Consequently, when R is a Gorenstein normal domain of dimension

d 2 and M is a maximal Cohen-Macaulay R-module, the result of Huneke and Leuschke

[10, 3.1] requires the vanishing of ExtiR (M, M) = 0 for all i = 1, . . . , d to conclude that M is

free, whilst Corollary 1.7 requires the vanishing of ExtiR (M, M) = 0 for all i = 1, . . . , d 1

for the same conclusion under the same setup.

As Huneke and Leuschke [10] studied the Auslander and Reiten Conjecture for mod-

ules that have constant rank, it seems worth finishing this section with a related example:

it shows that the hypothesis that M is locally free on X d1 (R) cannot be removed from

Corollary 1.6 even if M has constant rank.

Example 2.8. Let k be a field and let R := k[[x, y, z, u, v]]/(xy uv). Then R is a four

dimensional hypersurface domain. In particular any module in mod R has constant rank.

Consider the following minimal free resolution:

B A B A

(2.8.1) F = ( R2 R2 R2 R2 0),

x u y u

where A = and B = . Set M = cokerA.

v y v x

Applying HomR (, M) to (2.8.1), we have

tA tB tA tB

(2.8.2) 0 M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 .

Since t B : M 2 M 2 is injective, we conclude that Ext2i1

R (M, M) = 0 for all i 1.

Let p := (x, y, u, v). Then p is a prime ideal of R of height three. Localizing (2.8.1) at p,

we get the following exact sequence:

B A B A

(2.8.3) R2p R2p R2p R2p Mp 0.

Since x, y, u, v pRp , (2.8.3) is a minimal free resolution of Mp . In particular Mp is not a

free Rp -module, i.e., M is not locally free on X 3 (R).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We are grateful to Lars Christensen, Mohsen Gheibi, Greg Piepmeyer, Srikanth Iyengar

and Naoki Taniguchi for their feedback on the manuscript.

Part of this work was completed when Araya visited West Virginia University in January

and February 2017. He is grateful for the kind hospitality of the WVU Department of

Mathematics.

6 T. ARAYA, O. CELIKBAS, A. SADEGHI, AND R. TAKAHASHI

R EFERENCES

[1] Tokuji Araya, The Auslander-Reiten conjecture for Gorenstein rings, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 137 (2009),

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Math. Soc. 52 (1975), 6974. 1

[3] Luchezar L. Avramov, Ragnar-Olaf Buchweitz, and Liana M. Sega, Extensions of a dualizing complex by

its ring: commutative versions of a conjecture of Tachikawa, J. Pure Appl. Algebra 201 (2005), no. 1-3,

218239. MR 2158756 1, 4

[4] Winfried Bruns and Jurgen Herzog, Cohen-Macaulay rings, Cambridge Studies in Advanced Mathematics,

vol. 39, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1993. 3, 4

[5] Olgur Celikbas and Hailong Dao, Necessary conditions for the depth formula over Cohen-Macaulay local

rings, J. Pure Appl. Algebra 218 (2014), 522530. 3

[6] Olgur Celikbas and Ryo Takahashi, Auslander-Reiten conjecture and Auslander-Reiten duality, J. Algebra

382 (2013), 100114. 1

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[10] Craig Huneke and Graham J. Leuschke, On a conjecture of Auslander and Reiten, J. Algebra 275 (2004),

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[12] Tadasi Nakayama, On algebras with complete homology, Abh. Math. Sem. Univ. Hamburg 22 (1958), 300

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[14] Joseph J. Rotman, An introduction to homological algebra, Universitext, Springer, New York, 2009. 3

[15] Hiroyuki Tachikawa, Quasi-Frobenius rings and generalizations. QF 3 and QF 1 rings, Lecture Notes

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[17] Yuji Yoshino, Cohen-Macaulay modules over Cohen-Macaulay rings, London Mathematical Society Lec-

ture Note Series, vol. 146, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1990. 3

OF S CIENCE , R IDAICHO , K ITAKU , O KAYAMA 700-0005, JAPAN .

E-mail address: araya@das.ous.ac.jp

WV 26506-6310, U.S.A

E-mail address: olgur.celikbas@math.wvu.edu

ENCES (IPM), P.O. B OX : 19395-5746, T EHRAN , I RAN

E-mail address: sadeghiarash61@gmail.com

N AGOYA 464-8602, JAPAN

E-mail address: takahashi@math.nagoya-u.ac.jp

URL: http://www.math.nagoya-u.ac.jp/~takahashi/

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