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OCE 3016 Name:________________________

Fall 2001 Date:_________________________


Quiz 6
Coastal Structures

1. Define the following:


a. Seawall (12 Points)

A large control structure constructed on the open coast for the purpose of protecting property
(land, roads, buildings, etc.) from ocean waves, currents and storm surge (meteorological
tides). Usually constructed of steel reinforced concrete.

b. Filter Material (as it pertains to coastal structures) (12 Points)

Many coastal structures, such as jetties, groins, seawalls, etc. are constructed of layers of
stone. The stone size increases from the base layer to the outer (armor) layer. A woven
synthetic fabric material is placed between the layers to prevent the smaller stone from
leaching through the voids in the outer layer.

c. Groin (12 Points)

A jetty-like structure constructed on the open coast (usually normal to shore) for the
purpose of trapping longshore sediment transport and preventing erosion. Similar in shape to
a jetty but usually smaller in cross-section and length. Can cause erosion problems down
drift from the structure.

d. Bulkhead (12 Points)

A structure similar to a seawall in appearance and purpose but located where there is some
protection from the full force of the waves. This usually means that there is a wide beach
separating the structure and the ocean. The beach dissipates a portion of the wave energy
prior to the waves reaching the bulkhead.
e. Jetty (12 Points)

A structure used to stabilize a tidal inlet or a river mouth. Its construction is like that shown
in the figure. It protects vessels from waves and helps maintain the channel free of sediment
deposition.

( )
1/ 3
H s2 L p
f. Modified Hudsons Equation, N s = . (12 Points)

D50 s 1 cot ()
w

An equation for estimating the stability of the armor layer on a coastal structure such as a
jetty, groin, breakwater, etc.

Ns= modified Hudson Stability Number


Hs= significant wave height
Lp= wave length corresponding to Tp
Tp= wave period at peak of wave energy density spectrum
1
m50 3
D50= median stone diameter =
s
m50= median mass of stone
s= mass density of rock (stone)
w= mass density of water
tan = slope of structure

2. Consider the detached breakwater shown in the Figure 1 below. The purpose of this
structure is to 1) reduce the erosion of the coastline shoreward of the structure and 2)
provide wave protection for small watercraft. The water depth at the breakwater is 30 ft
and the design significant wave heights and peak periods are 8 ft and 12 s (ocean side)
and 2 ft and 5 s (shore side). The mass density of the stone that is available for armor for
the breakwater is 170 lbm/ft3 and the mass density of the water is 64 lbm/ft3. The slopes
of the structure are to be 1/3 (ocean side) and 1/2 (shore side).
a. Outline the steps required to compute the median diameter (D50) of the armor stone for
the structure if there is to be no damage ( N s 6 ). (14 Points)

1) Determine the length of the waves with maximum energy, Lp, knowing the water
depth and peak period, Tp. Use the equation for wave length in the handout or the
plot of gT2/d versus d/L.
2) Solve for D50 in the Modified Hudson Equation.
3) Set Ns= 6 and solve for D50 for a) the ocean side and b) the shore side of the
breakwater.

b. Compute the armor stone median diameters for 1) the ocean side and 2) the shore side of
the breakwater. Note that you can make use of the attached plot to obtain wave lengths
instead of solving the equations given on the handout. (14 Points)

A A

Ocean Shore

Detached
Breakwater

Figure 1. Top View of a detached breakwater located parallel to the shore. A cross-section of
the breakwater (Section A-A) is shown in Figure B below.

Ocean Shore
Side Side

Figure 2. Cross-section (Section A-A) of the detached breakwater shown in Figure 1.


b)
1) Ocean side

( )
1/ 3
H s2 L p
Ns =

D50 s 1 cot ()
w
Here:
Hs= 8 ft , Tp= 12 s , d= 30 ft

d = 30 ft = 30 = 6.47 x 10-3
gT 2
32.174 ft 12s 2 ( 32.174 )(144 )
( )
s2

From the Figure:

d = 0.075, L 30 ft 1 lb m lb
L p = 0.075 = 400 ft, tan ( ) = 3 , cot = 3, s = 170 3 w = 64 m
ft ft 3

So:
1
( 8 ft )2 ( 400 ft ) 3
= 29.47 = 0.988 ft D50 = 0.99 ft
D50 =
(
6 170 - 1 3
64 ) 29.81

2) Shore side

Here: Hs= 2 ft , Tp= 5 s , d= 30 ft

d = ( 30 ) = 3.73 x 10-2
2 2
gT ( 32.174 )( 5)

From the Figure:

d = 0.255, L = 30 ft = 117.6 ft, tan = 1 , cot = 2


Lp p 0.255 2

So:
1
( 2 ft )2 (117.6 ft ) 3
= 7.777 ft = 0.391 ft D50 = 0.39 ft
D50 =
19.875
6 170 - 1 2
64