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Designation: A941 15

Standard Terminology Relating to


Steel, Stainless Steel, Related Alloys, and Ferroalloys1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation A941; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon () indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope* DISCUSSIONThe change in properties is often, but not always, due to


precipitation hardening, but never involves a change in the chemical
1.1 This standard is a compilation of definitions of terms composition of the steel.
related to steel, stainless steel, related alloys, and ferroalloys.
alloy steel, na steel, other than a stainless steel, that
1.2 When a term is used in an ASTM document for which
conforms to a specification that requires one or more of the
Committee A01 is responsible, it is included herein only when
following elements, by mass percent, to have a minimum
judged, after review by Subcommittee A01.92, to be a gener-
content equal to or greater than: 0.30 for aluminum; 0.0008
ally usable term.
for boron; 0.30 for chromium; 0.30 for cobalt; 0.40 for
1.3 Some definitions include a discussion section, which is copper; 0.40 for lead; 1.65 for manganese; 0.08 for molyb-
a mandatory part of the definition and contains additional denum; 0.30 for nickel; 0.06 for niobium (columbium); 0.60
information that is relevant to the meaning of the defined term. for silicon; 0.05 for titanium; 0.30 for tungsten (wolfram);
1.4 Definitions of terms specific to a particular standard will 0.10 for vanadium; 0.05 for zirconium; or 0.10 for any other
appear in that standard and will supersede any definitions of alloying element, except sulphur, phosphorus, carbon, and
identical terms in this standard. nitrogen.
annealing, na generic term covering any of several heat
2. Referenced Documents
treatments.
2.1 ASTM Standards:2 DISCUSSIONThis treatment is used for purposes such as reducing
E112 Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size hardness, improving machinability, facilitating cold working, produc-
ing a desired microstructure, or obtaining desired mechanical, physical,
3. Terminology or other properties. Where applicable, it is preferred that the following
more specific terms be used: box annealing, bright annealing, full
3.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard: annealing, intermediate annealing, isothermal annealing, process
Accm, Ac1, Ac3, Ac4See transformation temperature. annealing, spheroidizing, and subcritical annealing. The term
annealing, without qualification, implies full annealing. Any pro-
Aecm, Ae1, Ae3, Ae4See transformation temperature. cess of annealing will usually reduce stresses; however, if the
treatment is applied for the sole purpose of stress reduction, it should be
age hardening, nhardening by aging, usually after rapid
designated stress relieving.
cooling or cold working.
Arcm, Ar1, Ar3, Ar4See transformation temperature.
age hardening, nsee precipitation hardening.
aging, na change in the properties of certain steels that artificial aging, naging above room temperature.
occurs at ambient or moderately elevated temperatures after atmospheric corrosion resistance, nthe ability to resist
hot working or a heat treatment (quench aging, natural degradation or alteration of material through chemical reac-
aging, or artificial aging) or after a cold-working operation tion with the surrounding atmosphere.
(strain aging). DISCUSSIONThis term generally pertains to carbon steel, low alloy
steel, or micro-alloyed steel.

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austempering, nheat treatment involving quenching a
This terminology is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,
Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee
steel object from a temperature above the transformation
A01.92 on Terminology. range in a medium maintained at a temperature above the
Current edition approved Nov. 1, 2015. Published December 2015. Originally martensite range sufficiently fast to avoid the formation of
approved in 1995. Last previous edition approved in 2013 as A941-13b. DOI: high temperature transformation products, and then holding
10.1520/A0941-15.
2
For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or it at that temperature until transformation is complete.
contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM
Standards volume information, refer to the standards Document Summary page on austenitizing, nforming austenite by heating a steel object
the ASTM website. above the transformation range.

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard


Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States

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baking, nheating to a low temperature in order to remove minimum limit for sulfur is not to be less than 0.060;
gases. (e) for carbon steels that are not required to be rephosphorized or
resulfurized, the specified maximum limit is not to exceed: 0.60 for
batch furnace, na heating device within which steel objects copper, 0.050 for phosphorus, and 0.060 for sulfur; and
are held stationary or oscillated during the thermal process- (f) for carbon steels that are required to contain boron, copper, or lead,
ing cycle. the specified minimum limit is not to exceed: 0.0005 for boron, 0.35 for
copper, and 0.25 for lead.
blank carburizing, nsimulating the carburizing operation carbonitriding, ncase hardening in which a suitable steel
without introducing carbon. object is heated above Ac1 in a gaseous atmosphere of such
DISCUSSIONThis is usually accomplished by using an inert material
in place of the carburizing agent, or by applying a suitable protective
composition as to cause simultaneous absorption of carbon
coating on the object being heat treated. and nitrogen by the surface and, by diffusion, to create a
concentration gradient.
blank nitriding, nsimulating the nitriding operation without
introducing nitrogen. carburizing, na process in which an austenitized steel object
DISCUSSIONThis is usually accomplished by using an inert material is brought into contact with a carbonaceous environment of
in place of the nitriding agent, or by applying a suitable protective sufficient carbon potential to cause absorption of carbon at
coating on the object being heat treated. the surface and, by diffusion, to create a concentration
gradient.
bluing, nsubjecting the scale-free surface of a steel object to
the action of air, steam, or other agents at a suitable case, nin case hardening, the outer portion that has been
temperature, thereby forming a thin blue film of oxide and made harder than the core as a result of altered composition
improving the objects appearance and corrosion resistance. or microstructure, or both, from treatments such as
DISCUSSIONThis term is ordinarily applied to sheet, strip, or carburizing, nitriding, and induction hardening.
finished parts. It is used also to denote the heating of springs after
fabrication in order to improve their properties. case hardening, na generic term covering any of several
processes applicable to steel that change the chemical
box annealing, nannealing in a sealed container under composition or microstructure, or both, of the surface layer.
conditions that minimize oxidation. DISCUSSIONThe processes commonly used are: carburizing and
DISCUSSIONThe charge is usually heated slowly to a temperature quench hardening; nitriding; and carbonitriding. It is preferred that
below the transformation range, but sometimes above or within it, the applicable specific process name be used.
and is then cooled slowly.
cast analysisDeprecated term. Use the preferred term heat
bright annealing, nannealing in a protective medium to analysis.
prevent discoloration of the bright surface. cementation, nthe introduction of one or more elements into
capped steel, na rimmed steel in which, during ingot the outer portion of a steel object by means of diffusion at
solidification, the rimming action was limited by mechanical high temperature.
or chemical means. certificate of compliance, nin manufactured products, a
carbon potential, nthe carbon content at the surface of a document that states that the product was manufactured,
specimen of pure iron in equilibrium with the carburizing sampled, tested, and inspected in accordance with the
medium considered, and under the conditions specified. requirements of the specification (including year of issue)
and any other requirements specified in the purchase order or
carbon restoration, nreplacing the carbon lost from the contract, and has been found to meet such requirements.
surface layer in previous processing by carburizing this layer DISCUSSIONA single document, containing test report information
to substantially the original carbon level. and certificate of compliance information, may be used.

carbon steel, na steel that conforms to a specification that certifying organization, nin product specifications, the
prescribes a maximum limit, by heat analysis in mass entity responsible for the conformance and certification of
percent, of not more than: 2.00 for carbon and 1.65 for the product to the specification requirements.
manganese, but does not prescribe a minimum limit for check analysisDeprecated term. Use the preferred term
chromium, cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, niobium product analysis.
(columbium), tungsten (wolfram), vanadium, or zirconium.
DISCUSSIONExcept as required above, it is permissible for carbon coarse grain practice, na steelmaking practice for other
steel specifications to prescribe limits (minimum or maximum, or both) than stainless steel that is intended to produce a killed steel
for each specified alloying element, subject to the following restrictions in which aluminum, niobium (columbium), titanium, and
for the heat analysis limits in mass percent: vanadium are residual elements.
(a) for wrought carbon steel products, the specified maximum limit is
not to exceed: 0.10 for aluminum, 0.60 for silicon, and 0.050 for cold working, nmechanical deformation of a metal at
titanium; temperatures below its recrystallization temperature.
(b) for carbon steel castings, the specified maximum limit is not to
exceed: 0.10 for aluminum, 1.00 for silicon, and 0.050 for titanium.
cold treatment, nexposing a steel object to temperatures
(c) for carbon steels that are required to be rephosphorized, the below room temperature for the purpose of obtaining desired
specified minimum limit for phosphorus is not to be less than 0.040; conditions or properties, such as dimensional or structural
(d) for carbon steels that are required to be resulfurized, the specified stability.

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conditioning heat treatment, na preliminary heat treat- double tempering, na treatment in which a quench-
ment used to prepare a steel object for a desired reaction to hardened steel object is given two complete tempering
a subsequent heat treatment. cycles at substantially the same temperature for the purpose
of ensuring completion of the tempering reaction and pro-
continuous-conveyance furnace, na heating device through moting stability of the resultant microstructure.
which steel objects are intentionally moved at a constant rate
during the thermal processing cycle. electronic data interchange, nthe computer to computer
exchange of business information in a standardized format.
controlled cooling, ncooling a steel object from an elevated
temperature in a predetermined manner to avoid hardening, ellipsis, nin a tabular entry, three periods (...) that indicate
cracking, or internal damage, or to produce a desired that there is no requirement.
microstructure or mechanical properties.
ferritizing anneal, na heat treatment that produces a
core, nin case hardening, the interior portion of unaltered predominantly ferritic matrix in a steel object.
composition or microstructure, or both, of a case hardened
steel object. ferroalloy, nan alloy of iron and one or more other metals,
for use as an addition to the molten metal during the
core, nin clad products, the central portion of a multilayer manufacture of steels, nickel alloys, or cobalt alloys.
composite metallic material.
ferrous material, nmetals and alloys that contain iron as the
critical cooling rate, nthe slowest rate of continuous cooling principal component.
at which austenite can be cooled from above the transfor- DISCUSSIONThe iron content is not always stated in the specification
mation range to prevent its transformation above Ms. and is not always determined by chemical analysis. The iron content
may be taken to be 100 % minus the sum of the mean values permitted
cycle annealing, nannealing employing a predetermined by the specification for all other elements having a specified range or a
and closely controlled time-temperature cycle to produce specified maximum. For conformance purposes, the mean value for
specific properties or a specific microstructure. iron, whether specified or calculated, is compared on an individual
basis to the mean values permitted by the specification for each of the
decarburization, nthe loss of carbon from the surface of a other elements having a specified range or a specified maximum. If an
steel object as a result of its being heated in a medium that element other than iron is not specified, but is listed as remainder or
reacts with the carbon. balance, then, for conformance purposes the mean value for iron is
compared to the calculated value for that other element.
defect, nan imperfection of sufficient magnitude to warrant
fine grain practice, na steelmaking practice for other than
rejection based on the specified requirements.
stainless steel that is intended to produce a killed steel that
differential heating, nheating that intentionally produces a is capable of meeting the requirements specified for fine
temperature gradient within a steel object such that, after austenitic grain size.
cooling, a desired stress distribution or variation in proper- DISCUSSIONIt normally involves the addition of one or more
ties is present within the object. austenitic grain refining elements in amounts that have been established
by the steel producer as being sufficient. Austenitic grain refining
diffusion coating, nany process whereby a base metal is elements include, but are not limited to, aluminum, niobium
either coated with another metal and heated to a sufficient (columbium), titanium, and vanadium.
temperature in a suitable environment, or exposed to a flame annealing, nannealing in which the heat is applied
gaseous or liquid medium containing the other metal, directly by a flame.
thereby causing diffusion of the coating or other metal into
the base metal, with a resultant change in the composition flame hardening, na process in which only the surface layer
and properties of its surface. of a suitable steel object is heated by flame to above Ac3 or
Accm, and then the object is quenched.
direct quenching, nin thermochemical processing, quench-
ing immediately following the thermochemical treatment. fog quenching, nquenching in a mist.
direct quenching, nin thermomechanical processing, full annealing, nannealing a steel object by austenitizing it
quenching immediately following the final hot deformation. and then cooling it slowly through the transformation
range.
document, na written, printed, or electronic record that DISCUSSIONThe austenitizing temperature is usually above Ac3 for
provides information, evidence, or official statements. hypoeutectoid steels and between Ac1 and Accm for hypereutectoid
steels.
double aging, nemployment of two different aging
treatments, in sequence, to control the type of precipitate grain growth, nan increase in the grain size of a steel object,
formed from a supersaturated alloy matrix in order to obtain usually as a result of exposure to elevated temperatures.
the desired properties.
DISCUSSIONthe first aging treatment, sometimes referred to as grain size, nthe dimensions of the grains or crystals in a
intermediate or stabilizing, is usually carried out at a higher tempera- polycrystalline metal, exclusive of twinned regions and
ture than the second. subgrains when present.

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DISCUSSIONGrain size is usually estimated or measured on the yield strength and hardness by plastic deformation or pre-
cross section of an aggregate of grains, and designated by an ASTM cipitation hardening effects induced by plastic deformation,
grain size number. (See Test Methods E112.) or both.
graphitization annealing, nannealing a steel object in such hot-finished, nthe condition of a product that has been
a way that some or all of the carbon is precipitated as cooled directly after the last hot-working operation, without
graphite. cold-working (except for straightening or flattening), and
hardenability, nthe property that determines the depth and independent of the temperature at which hot-working was
distribution of hardness induced by quenching a steel completed.
object. DISCUSSIONThe tolerances and surface finish of hot-finished prod-
uct can be different from those of cold-finished, cold-drawn, or
hardening, nincreasing the hardness by suitable treatment, cold-rolled product.
usually involving heating and cooling.
DISCUSSIONWhere applicable, it is preferred that the following
hot quenching, nan imprecise term used to cover a variety
more specific terms be used: age hardening, case hardening, flame of quenching procedures in which the quenching medium is
hardening, induction hardening, precipitation hardening, and maintained at a prescribed temperature above 160 F or
quench hardening. 70 C.
heat, na generic term denoting a specific lot of steel, based hot working, nmechanical deformation of a metal at tem-
upon steelmaking and casting considerations. peratures above its recrystallization temperature.
DISCUSSIONWhere it is necessary to be more definitive, the follow- imperfection, na material discontinuity or irregularity that is
ing more specific terms are used: primary heat, multiple heat, and
remelted heat. In product specifications, the term heat generally is
detectable by inspection.
used, without qualification, to mean the primary, multiple, or re- inclusion shape control, nthe addition of elements during
melted heat, whichever is applicable.
steel making in order to affect the inclusion morphology.
heat analysis, nthe chemical analysis determined by the induction hardening, nin surface hardening, a process in
steel producer as being representative of a specific heat of which only the surface layer of a suitable steel object is
steel. heated by electrical induction to above Ac3 or Accm, and then
DISCUSSIONWhere the analysis reported by the steel producer is not the object is quenched.
sufficiently complete for conformance with the heat analysis require-
ments of the applicable product specification to be fully assessed, the induction hardening, nin through hardening, a process in
manufacturer may complete the assessment of conformance with such which a suitable steel object is heated by electrical induction
heat analysis requirements by using a product analysis for the specified to above Ac3 or Accm throughout its section, and then the
elements that were not reported by the steel producer, provided that
product analysis tolerances are not applied and the heat analysis is not
object is quenched.
altered. induction heating, nheating by electrical induction.
heat number, nthe alpha, numeric, or alphanumeric desig- inspection, nthe process of measuring, examining, testing,
nator used to identify a specific heat of steel. gaging, or otherwise comparing the unit of product with the
applicable requirements.
heat treatment, nheating and cooling a steel object in such
a way as to obtain desired conditions or properties. intermediate annealing, nannealing wrought steel objects
DISCUSSIONHeating for the sole purpose of hot working is excluded at one or more stages during manufacture prior to final
from the meaning of this definition. thermal treatment.
high-strength low-alloy steel, na steel, other than a carbon interrupted aging, naging at two or more temperatures, by
steel or an interstitial-free steel, that conforms to a speci- steps, and cooling to room temperature after each step.
fication that requires the minimum content for each specified
interrupted quenching, nquenching in which the object
alloying element to be lower than the applicable limit in the
being quenched is removed from the quenching medium
definition for alloy steel, and the yield point or yield strength
while the object is at a temperature substantially higher than
of the product to be at least 36 ksi or 250 MPa.
that of the quenching medium.
homogeneous carburizing, na process that converts a low- interstitial-free steel, na steel that has essentially all of its
carbon steel to one of substantially uniform and higher carbon and nitrogen chemically combined with stabilization
carbon content throughout the section, so that a specific elements rather than being present interstitially.
response to hardening may be obtained. DISCUSSIONThe heat analysis limits (minimum or maximum, or
both) that are permitted to be prescribed in interstitial-free steel
homogenizing, nholding a steel object at high temperature to specifications are as given in the definition for carbon steel, except that
eliminate or decrease chemical segregation by diffusion. the 0.050 % maximum limit for titanium does not apply.
hot-cold working, nthe mechanical deformation of auste- isothermal annealing, naustenitizing a steel object and
nitic and precipitation hardening steels at a temperature just then cooling it to, and holding it at, a temperature at which
below the recrystallization temperature to increase the austenite transforms to a ferrite-carbide aggregate.

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isothermal transformation, na change in phase at any DISCUSSIONIn castings, the nickel content requirement is not
constant temperature. normally stated in the specification and is not normally determined by
chemical analysis, but is taken to be 100 % minus the sum of the mean
killed steel, na steel deoxidized to such a level that essen- values permitted by the specification for all other elements having a
tially no reaction occurred between carbon and oxygen specified range or a specified maximum.
during solidification. nitriding, nintroducing nitrogen into a solid steel object by
laser beam welding, na welding process that uses a laser holding it at a suitable temperature in contact with a
beam as the heat source. nitrogenous environment.

lot, na definite quantity of product manufactured under nonferrous material, nmetals and alloys that do not contain
conditions that are considered uniform. iron as the principal component.

low-alloy steel, na steel, other than a carbon steel or an normalizing, vreheating a steel object to a temperature
interstitial-free steel, that conforms to a specification that above the transformation range and then cooling it in air to
requires the minimum content for each specified alloying a temperature substantially below the transformation range
element to be lower than the applicable limit in the definition to achieve both grain refinement and improved homogeni-
for alloy steel. zation.

Mf , MsSee transformation temperature. overaging, naging under conditions of time and temperature
greater than those required to obtain maximum change in a
manufacturer, nthe organization responsible for the conver- certain property, so that the property is altered away from the
sion of materials into products meeting the requirements of maximum.
a product specification.
overheating, nheating a steel object to such a high tempera-
maraging, na precipitation hardening treatment applied to a ture that excessive grain growth occurs.
special group of alloy steels to precipitate one or more DISCUSSIONUnlike burning, it may be possible to restore the
intermetallic compounds in a matrix of essentially carbon- original properties/microstructure by further heat treatment or mechani-
free martensite. cal working, or a combination thereof.

martempering, n quenching an austenitized steel object in patenting, nin wire making, heating a medium-carbon or
a medium at a temperature in the upper part of, or slightly high-carbon steel before wire drawing, or between drafts, to
above, the martensite range, holding it in the medium until a temperature above the transformation range, and then
its temperature is substantially uniform throughout, and then cooling it in air, or a bath of molten lead or salt, to a
cooling it in air through the martensite range. temperature below Ae1.
martensite range, nthe temperature interval between Ms and plate-as-rolled, nthe quantity of plate product rolled at one
M f. time, either from an individual slab or directly from an ingot.
DISCUSSIONThis term does not refer to the surface condition or the
microalloyed steel, na low-alloy steel that conforms to a heat-treatment state of the material; a plate-as-rolled may be in the
specification that requires the presence of one or more as-rolled condition, or may have received one or more surface
carbide-, nitride-, or carbonitride-forming elements, gener- treatments or heat treatments, or both.
ally in individual concentrations less than 0.15 mass percent,
to enhance strength. post-weld heat treatment, nheating weldments immediately
DISCUSSIONThe most common microalloying elements are niobium
after welding, to provide tempering, stress relieving, or a
(columbium), titanium, and vanadium. controlled rate of cooling to prevent formation of a hard or
brittle microstructure.
multiple heat, ntwo or more molten primary heats, in
whole or in part, combined in a common ladle or in a precipitation hardening, nhardening caused by the pre-
common non-oscillating mold. cipitation of a constituent from a supersaturated solid solu-
DISCUSSIONA multiple heat is identified by a single heat number tion.
representative of the multiple heat, or by the individual heat numbers
of the primary heats contained in the multiple heat. The heat precipitation heat treatment, nartificial aging in which a
analysis of a multiple heat identified by a single heat number is the constituent precipitates from a supersaturated solid solution.
weighted average analysis of the individual primary heats contained in
the multiple heat. Two or more molten primary heats sequentially preheating, nheating before welding, a mechanical
strand cast (poured into an oscillating mold) constitute a series of treatment, or some further thermal treatment.
individual heats, not a multiple heat.
preheating, nfor tool steels, heating to an intermediate
natural aging, nspontaneous aging of a super-saturated solid temperature immediately before final austenitizing.
solution at room temperature.
primary heat, nthe product of a single cycle of a batch
nickel alloy, na material that conforms to a specification that melting process.
requires by mass percent more nickel than any other ele- DISCUSSIONIn the investment casting industry, the term master heat
ment. is used.

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process annealing, nin the sheet and wire industries, heating selective quenching, nquenching only certain portions of a
a steel object to a temperature close to, but below, Ac1 and steel object.
then cooling it, in order to soften it for further cold working.
semicontinuous-conveyance furnace, na heating device
product analysis, na chemical analysis of a specimen taken through which steel objects are intentionally moved in
from the semi-finished product or the finished product. accordance with a predetermined start-stop-start pattern
during the thermal processing cycle.
progressive aging, naging by increasing the temperature in
steps, or continuously, during the aging cycle. semikilled steel, nan incompletely deoxidized steel that
contained sufficient oxygen to form enough entrapped car-
quench aging, naging associated with quenching after bon monoxide during solidification to offset solidification
solution heat treatment. shrinkage.
quench hardening, nhardening a steel object by austen- shell hardening, na surface hardening process in which a
itizing it, and then cooling it rapidly enough that some or all suitable steel object, when heated through and quench
of the austenite transforms to martensite. hardened, develops a martensitic layer or shell that closely
DISCUSSIONThe austenitizing temperature is usually above Ac3 for
follows the contour of the piece and surrounds a core of
hypoeutectoid steels and between Ac1 and Accm for hypereutectoid
steels. essentially pearlitic transformation product.
DISCUSSIONThis result is accomplished by a proper balance be-
quenching, nrapid cooling in a fluid at a rate sufficient to tween section size, hardenability, and severity of quench.
preserve or produce desired material characteristics.
slack quenching, nthe incomplete hardening of a steel
DISCUSSIONWhere applicable, it is preferred that the following
more specific terms be used: fog quenching, hot quenching, inter-
object due to quenching from the austenitizing temperature
rupted quenching, selective quenching, spray quenching, and time at a rate slower than the critical cooling rate for the
quenching. Quenching is often used in solution heat treatment of particular steel composition, resulting in the formation of
austenitic steels to retain certain constituents in solution. Quenching is one or more transformation products in addition to marten-
also used for ferritic steels to develop desired characteristics (such as site.
microstructure or toughness) in thicker sections that can otherwise only
be achieved in thinner sections. Liquids and gasses are both fluids. snap temper, na precautionary interim stress-relieving treat-
ment applied to a high-hardenability steel immediately after
recrystallization, nthe formation of a new grain structure quenching to prevent cracking because of delay in temper-
through a nucleation and growth process. ing it at the prescribed higher temperature.
DISCUSSIONThis is commonly produced by subjecting a steel
object, which may be strained, to suitable conditions of time and soaking, nprolonged holding at a selected temperature.
temperature.
solution heat treatment, nheating a steel object to a suitable
recrystallization annealing, nannealing a cold-worked temperature, holding it at that temperature long enough to
steel object to produce a new grain structure without a cause one or more constituents to enter into solid solution,
change in phase. and then cooling it rapidly enough to hold such constituents
recrystallization temperature, nthe approximate minimum in solution.
temperature at which recrystallization of a cold-worked steel specified element, nin steel, an element controlled to a
object occurs within a specified time. specified minimum, maximum, or range, in accordance with
remelted heat, nthe product of the remelting of a primary the requirements of the applicable product specification.
heat, in whole or in part. spheroidizing, nheating and cooling a steel object to pro-
DISCUSSIONIn the investment casting industry, the term sub-heat is duce a spheroidal or globular form of carbide in its micro-
used.
structure.
residual element, nin steel, a specified or unspecified DISCUSSIONSpheroidizing methods commonly used are the follow-
element, not intentionally added, originating in the raw ing: (1) prolonged holding at a temperature just below Ae1; (2) heating
and cooling alternately between temperatures that are just above, and
materials, refractories, or surrounding atmospheres used in
just below, Ae1; (3) heating to a temperature above Ae1 or Ae3 and then
steel making. cooling very slowly in the furnace or holding at a temperature just
below Ae1; (4) cooling, from the minimum temperature at which all
rimmed steel, na steel that contained sufficient oxygen to
carbide is dissolved, at a rate suitable to prevent the reformation of a
generate carbon monoxide at the boundary between the solid carbide network, and then reheating in accordance with Method (1) or
metal and the remaining molten metal during solidification, (2) above. (Applicable to hypereutectoid steels containing a carbide
resulting in an outer layer low in carbon. network.)

secondary hardening, nthe hardening phenomenon that spray quenching, nquenching in a spray of liquid.
occurs during high-temperature tempering of certain steels
containing one or more carbide-forming alloying elements. stabilized stainless steel, na stainless steel that conforms to
a specification that prescribes limits (minimum or range) for
selective heating, nintentionally heating only certain por- niobium (columbium), tantalum, titanium, or a combination
tions of a steel object. thereof.

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DISCUSSIONSuch limits are sometimes expressed as a function of test report, na document that presents the applicable quali-
the carbon and nitrogen contents. In an appropriately annealed tative or quantitative results obtained by applying one or
condition, a stabilized stainless steel will resist sensitization to more given test methods.
intergranular corrosion associated with the precipitation of chromium
carbide at grain boundaries as a result of thermal exposure, such as DISCUSSIONA single document, containing test report information
annealing, stress relieving , welding, or high temperature service. and certificate of compliance information, may be used.
Resistance to sensitization to intergranular corrosion is dependent upon
the corrosivity of the environment. The condition of being stabilized Thermal-Mechanical Control Process (TMCP), na rolling
with respect to sensitization is frequently demonstrated by passing one process that produces a fine-grained ferritic steel by a
or more standard corrosion tests for sensitization. particular combination of controls on the manufacturing
process, from slab reheating to post-rolling cooling, thereby
stabilizing treatment, nany treatment intended to stabilize
achieving enhanced mechanical properties.
the microstructure or dimensions of a steel object.
DISCUSSION(TMCP) requires appropriate selection of chemical
stainless steel, na steel that conforms to a specification that composition and accurate control of steel temperature and rolling
requires, by mass percent, a minimum chromium content of reduction.
10.5 or more, and a maximum carbon content of less than thermochemical treatment, na heat treatment carried out
1.20. in a medium suitably chosen to produce a change in the
steel, na material that conforms to a specification that chemical composition of the steel object by exchange with
requires, by mass percent, more iron than any other element the medium.
and a maximum carbon content of generally less than 2.
DISCUSSIONThe iron content requirement is not normally stated in time quenching, ninterrupted quenching in which the
the specification and is not normally determined by chemical analysis, duration of holding in the quenching medium is controlled.
but is taken to be 100 % minus the sum of the mean values permitted
by the specification for all other elements having a specified range or a transformation ranges, nthose ranges of temperature within
specified maximum. For conformance purposes, this calculated value which austenite forms during heating and transforms during
for iron is compared on an individual basis to the mean values cooling.
permitted by the specification for each of the other elements having a DISCUSSIONThe two ranges are distinct, sometimes overlapping but
specified range or a specified maximum. Some chromium-containing never coinciding. The limiting temperatures of the ranges are depen-
steels may contain more than 2 % carbon; however, 2 % carbon is dent upon the steel composition and the rate of change of temperature,
generally considered to be the demarcation between steel and cast iron. particularly during cooling.
strain aging, naging induced by cold working.
transformation temperature, nthe temperature at which a
strain hardening, nan increase in hardness and strength of a change in phase occurs, with the limiting temperatures of the
metal caused by plastic deformation at temperatures below transformation ranges designated using the following sym-
its recrystallization temperature. (Syn. work hardening) bols:
Accmthe temperature at which the solution of cementite
stress relieving, nheating a steel object to a suitable in austenite is completed during heating.
temperature, holding it long enough to reduce residual Ac1the temperature at which austenite begins to form
stresses, and then cooling it slowly enough to minimize the during heating.
development of new residual stresses. Ac3the temperature at which transformation of ferrite to
subcritical annealing, nannealing at a temperature slightly austenite is completed during heating.
below Ac1. Ac4the temperature at which austenite transforms to
delta ferrite during heating.
surface hardening, na generic term covering any of several Ae1, Ae3, Aecm, Ae4the temperatures of phase change at
processes that, by quench hardening only, produce in a equilibrium.
steel object a surface layer that is harder or more wear Arcmthe temperature at which precipitation of cementite
resistant than the core. starts during cooling.
DISCUSSIONThere is no significant alteration of the chemical Ar1the temperature at which transformation of austenite
composition of the surface layer. Where applicable, it is preferred that
the following more specific terms be used: induction hardening, flame
to ferrite or to ferrite plus cementite is completed during
hardening, and shell hardening. cooling.
Ar3the temperature at which austenite begins to trans-
temper brittleness, nbrittleness that results when certain form to ferrite during cooling.
steels are held within, or are cooled slowly through, a certain Ar4the temperature at which delta ferrite transforms to
range of temperature below the transformation range. austenite during cooling.
tempering, nreheating a quench hardened or normalized Mfthe temperature at which transformation of austenite
steel object to a temperature below Ac1, and then cooling it to martensite is substantially completed during cooling.
at any desired rate. Msthe temperature at which transformation of austenite
to martensite starts during cooling.
test record, na document or electronic record that contains DISCUSSIONAll of the above changes, except the formation of
the observations and derived data obtained by applying a martensite, occur at lower temperatures during cooling than during
given test method. heating, and are dependent upon the rate of change of temperature.

7
A941 15
unspecified element, nin steel, an element not controlled to
a specified minimum, maximum, or range, in accordance
with the requirements of the applicable product specifica-
tion.

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

Committee A01 has identified the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue (A94113b)
that may impact the use of this standard. (Approved November 1, 2015.)

(1) Added the term ferrous material (3.1). (2) Edited the term annealing (3.1).

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