You are on page 1of 55

Step 2:

Selection of Topic

Step 2: Selection of Topic Steffan Merhej

Steffan Merhej

 

What is your career pathway?

Medical

Medical

What electives do you plan to take in your career pathway? (Please list all of your related electives.)

AP Bio AP Chemistry AP Physics AP BC calculus

Your capstone should take one of the topics that are common to your pathway

electives and build a real world project out of that topic. Which topic will you select for your capstone?

On Genetically Modified Organisms and whether or not the risks the come along with them are worth their benefits.

How will your chosen electives help you create a project about this theme? (Be specific about each elective.)

AP Bio and AP Chemistry will give me the necessary background to successfully understand the biological and chemical make up of the Genetically Modified Organisms I will be studying. By becoming familiar with terminology I will be better at understanding my sources.

Are you willing to work in a group?

No

Do you already have a group?

No

Step 3:

Capstone Proposal

Step 3: Capstone Proposal

Student Name

______Steffan

Merhej _______________________

Project Advisor ________Mrs.Gosselin_____________________________

Career Pathway

__________Medical

______________

My project idea focuses on a topic related to my career pathway. It will sustain my interest and I will be able to complete the required research on this topic. It offers an aspect of new learning and growth for me as I incorporate the 7 core skills. I understand that my project must have audio/visual evidence and that I will give a presentation of my work at the capstone fair in March.

Breaking your project into definable steps will make the process much easier for you. Setting up a timeline will help you begin and assist you in continuing to make progress throughout the time allotted for the project. Figuring out how much this project is going to cost may keep you from running into problems later in the project. If you put some time and effort into planning at the beginning, you will find the process of completing your project much easier to handle.

  • 1. My Project Title: (Think of a good title. This is how you

project will be identified at the fair)

GMOs: Is It Really Worth the Risk?

  • 2. My goal (s) for this project: (Make sure these have a real

world application)

TO decide whether or not the use of GMOs is worth the risk for their benefits.

  • 3. My strategy to accomplish the project:

Research and compare both sides of the argument and answer my question on the basis of my findings

4. My real world application

Displaying the risks and the benefits and allowing people to decide if

they think it is worth it.

5.

For my capstone presentation, I plan to use the following

visuals, technology and/or materials:

 

Check any that apply

 

__

x

__

Picture

___

x_

Website

Pamphlets

Video

Prezi

 

Business Cards

PowerPoint

 

x

Charts

x

Handouts

 

__

__

__

__

 

x

Other. Please specify

 

__

__

Surveys.

 

6.

If you are planning on working in a group, you must list the

names of your group members and their pathways below. The

last date to change your group is October 26 th . Reminder that

all students are individually responsible for each component of

the project.

 

First Name

 

Last Name

Pathway

 

7.

I acknowledge that I will focus my project on the use of the

following 7 core skills:

written and oral communication, strategic reading, research,

problem-solving, collaboration and technology. Please check

box for acknowledgement.

x
x

Step 3:

Capstone Proposal

4. My real world application Displaying the risks and the benefits and allowing people to decide

Parent/Guardian Acknowledgement Form

To the parents/guardians of Steffan Merhej:

The Senior Capstone Project will provide enormous benefits for your

child now and for the future. Successful completion of the Senior

Capstone Project is a valuable tool in determining their mastery of the

content they have learned over the past twelve years, as well as

providing them the opportunity to learn and practice critical 21 st

Century skills that they will need for their future endeavors.

As a parent/guardian of a student at Weymouth High School, I am

aware that my son/daughter is required to successfully complete a

Senior Capstone Project in order to graduate with his/her class in June

according to School Committee policy. If he/she fails to meet this

graduation requirement, he/she will have the opportunity to complete

the capstone project (a research paper, 15-20 pages), in one of the

following manners:

Attend evening school* from April until May, student must

successfully complete Steps 2 through 5 to qualify for this

option or

Attend summer school* after his/her classmates graduate

and receive his/her diploma at a later date.

Return to school in the fall to complete Capstone Project

*Applicable fees apply

I fully understand that this project selection decision is made

independently of the staff and administration of the high school, but is

subject to approval. I understand that if the fieldwork is a product, it

must be physically present at school as part of the Senior Capstone

Project presentation. If the fieldwork is a service or activity, it must be

documented by photos or video. This project selection and approval is

student and parent-centered. I therefore assume all responsibility

for any risks and costs that might be inherent in the project

chosen.

Finally, I know that if my son/daughter decides not to use original work

on any component of his/her research paper, fieldwork, product, or

portfolio, he/she will have to complete an entirely new project and

submit a new project by March 1, 2016 in order to be eligible to

graduate with his/her classmates and receive his/her diploma on

graduation day in accordance with School Committee policy.

Parent/Guardian E-mail: nabny@hotmail.com

Step 4: Steffan Merhej

Exploratory Research

Step 4: Steffan Merhej Exploratory Research What Is Your Working Central Question? Introduction: The first step

What Is Your Working Central Question?

Introduction: The first step in developing your capstone topic is to

identify a working central question. Since your capstone project

requires that you answer a central question, you should try to select a

question that interests and that you feel passionate about. Your central

question will be the focus of your research. You should start with a

general question that requires more than just a yes/no answer. You will

be required to do preliminary research based on your central question.

During this step, you must submit your question along with a list of

sources to your advisors before your capstone project can be officially

approved. Your central question does not need to be super complex

but it does need to be researchable, related to your career pathway,

and readily useable for a capstone project which could be visually

presented and that demonstrates the depth of the core 21 st century

skills you have learned during your years here at Weymouth High.

Central Question Examples:

Example 1: A student in the Math Academy might concentrate

on data analysis.

Central question: “How can data analysis be used to calculate

the effects of pollution on the weather in New England?”

Example 2: A student in the Humanities Academy might

concentrate on teaching.

Central Question: “How can lessons that involve hands-on

learning more effectively help young children learn?”

My central question is:

Are the benefits that come along with the use of Genetically Modified

Organisms worth the risk?

Central Question Check List.

□x

The Central Question addresses a theme from your

academy.

x

The Central Question requires more than a yes/no answer.

x

The Central Question can be expressed as a capstone

project which will demonstrate the depth of learned 21 st

Century skills by the student or students.

□x

You have read 5 sources about your central question.

□x

You have included with this step an annotated

bibliography for at least 5 sources you have read. Citations should be in MLA style and annotations should provide a summary, evaluation, and application of the information in the source. (See page 15 for guidance.)

x

The Central Question submission includes a preliminary

description of how the student/students plan to address

the capstone project which will answer your central

question.

Place your description of how your capstone will answer the central

question here.

I will educate a group of people on both the possible risks and the

benefits that come along with the use of GMOS and allow them to take a

survey and make the choice for themselves.

□x

The Central Question submission includes a discussion of

who will benefit most from this project (e.g. fields of

study, professionals, community).

Place your discussion of the impact of your capstone here.

My capstone may impact the food choices many families of Weymouth by

educating them on GMOs and possibly changing the way they purchase

groceries, either by stopping or encouraging their purchasing of GMOs.

□x

The Central Question submission identifies any

preconceived beliefs and what you will do to ensure your

research results is not effected by bias in your analysis,

interpretation of results, and implementation of the

capstone outcome.

Discuss your preconceived beliefs here.

I believe that while they are definitely clear benefits of using GMOs,

there are many possibly negative outcomes that may occur. By using

the correct and necessary precautions, GMOs may have the potential to

battle world hunger.

x

The Central Question includes an explanation of why you

feel it is important.

Discuss why your central question is important here.

Many people are very uneducated on the topic of GMOs. Many people

consume them and they have the possibility of harmfully affecting

people. It is important to educate people on the possible risks of GMOs

to allow for improvements in the field. GMOs may have the potential to

be used in many beneficial ways once their negative affects are dealt

with.

Step 5: Steffan Merhej

Researching and creating

Step 5: Steffan Merhej Researching and creating October: Core 21 Description of how you are progressing

October:

Core 21 st

Description of how you are progressing with the core skill.

Century Skill

Refer to the school-wide rubrics to help you with this.

Strategic

After finding a source, I use strategic reading to play close

Reading

attention to the certain source. Using strategic reading I see

if the source is relevant to my topic, if it contains bias, and

which parts of the source I will use in my project.

Written

After reading my selected sources, I use written

Communicatio

communication skills to write my annotated bibliographies.

n

Using these written communication skills I break down my

source and summarize the points of the source, asses the

author’s credibility and possible bias, and synthesize the

information I will be using to allow myself to use my research

most efficiently.

Research

Using the research data base to find relevant and credible

sources that I can use to both support my capstone and offer

complexity by looking at my topic with another point of view.

Problem

When I had a problem in thinking of successful ways to

Solving

conduct a real world application of my project I solved it by

scheduled a meeting with my capstone advisor.

Technology

Using my computer I access the library’s online research data

base and conduct my research. I also access the eliademy

capstone website to submit my materials.

Collaboration

Using collaboration, I partake in online discussions on the

eliademy capstone website. I collaborate by working with my

capstone advisor and fellow students by responding to the

discussion questions and replying to other responses.

Oral

I used oral communication in my meeting with my capstone

Communicatio

advisor. I had a problem in my capstone and using oral

n

communication I communicated my problem with her and

 

together we talked about the best way to go about in solving

this problem.

Journal of Progress

Current step: 4

Name: Steffan Merhej

Date: 12 September 2016

Did I check in with my advisor this week? (Yes or No) No

If yes, write the date:

Start of Week:

Place a check next to the corresponding date. Choose only one. You must do an entry 2 times a month, due on homeroom days when steps are due.

What do you plan to accomplish by the end of the week?

By the end of the week I would like to have found several sources regarding both sides of the argument of GMOs. I would like sources arguing the risks and the harmful affects of GMOs along with sources arguing their benefits

and how they can be made useful. the online eliademy discussions.

I also would like to complete my part in

What are your needs, including time, space, materials, and personal contacts?

I need to use the school’s online research database to access sources

regarding GMOs.

I will use my computer for about an hour each night to look

for these sources. I hope to maximize my overall effort on finding sources by looking for them a little each night as to not get overwhelmed and rush through the search. I also must access my eliademy account on the computer and participate in discussion.

What obstacles do you anticipate and how can you overcome these obstacles?

My biggest obstacle is procrastination.

In order to overcome this I plan on

finding all my sources early in the week spread out over all the nights and

allow time on Sunday so I can upload my work and participate in discussions. I also have the obstacle of finding good sources. To overcome this I plan on using the school research database to ensure credible sources and to research the author’s qualifications in the field of GMOs.

How can your advisor help you this week?

Mrs. Gosselin can help me get comfortable with the online course website this week. I am still unfamiliar with it but with Mrs. Gosselin’s help I will be more familiar with how everything is handled on the site and how to partake in discussion. Mrs. Gosselin can also help prompt me with ideas for responses and replies to others.

End of Week

Date: 16 September

Summarize your progress for the week here:

This week I was able to find all 5 of my sources. Finding these sources actually took a lot less time then I expected and I was able to get a small head start on my annotated bibliographies, which I will complete next week. Using technology I accessed the school’s online data base and with research I was able to come up with 5 excellent and relevant sources. With strategic reading I got a good understanding of these sources and how they will be used in my capstone. Since I was able to move ahead on my bibliographies I put off my online discussion until next week when I upload all my material.

Discuss how you employed each of the core skills this week.

Strategic reading Problem solving Technology communication

Written communication

Collaboration

Journal of Progress

Current step:

4

Name: Steffan Merhej

Date: 19 September 2016

Research

Oral

Did I check in with my advisor this week? (Yes or No) NO

If yes, write the date:

Start of Week:

What do you plan to accomplish by the end of the week?

By the end of the week I plan in finishing all my annotated bibliographies for the 5 sources I have found. I then plan on uploading my work and completing my part in the online discussion.

What are your needs, including time, space, materials, and personal contacts?

  • I will need to use my computer for a good amount of time each night to type up my annotated bibliographies and access my sources. I would most likely

work in my quite room without any disturbances so I can complete this efficiently. I also will need to access eliademy for discussion.

What obstacles do you anticipate and how can you overcome these obstacles?

Again my obstacle will be procrastination and saving this until the end of the week. To avoid this and to avoid getting over whelmed I am going to complete only 1 annotated bibliography a night every day after school and get all 5 done. On Sunday I will upload my work and my journals along with partaking in discussion.

How can your advisor help you this week?

My advisor can help me this week with guidance on the most efficient ways of completing annotated bibliographies and by providing me with information on what the most important stuff I should include in these bibliographies.

End of Week

Date: 26 September 2016

Summarize your progress for the week here:

  • I was able to complete all my annotated bibliographies for each of my 5

sources. I was able to upload all of my work onto the online website and then

partake in discussion using technology. Using strategic reading I got a clear understanding of my source and then, using written communication and problem solving, I summarized, discussed the credibility, and discussed the relevance of my sources in the annotated bibliographies.

Discuss how you employed each of the core skills this week.

Strategic reading

Problem solving Technology

communication

Written communication

Collaboration

Research

Oral

Journal of Progress

Current step: 5

Name: Steffan Merhej

Date: 10/10/16

Did I check in with my advisor this week? No

Start of Week:

Place a check next to the corresponding date. Choose only one. You must do an entry 2 times a month, due on homeroom days when steps are due.

October 10 th 2016, Step 5

What do you plan to accomplish by the end of the week?

need.

By the end of the week I would like have found all 5 of the sources I I would like to get these ready so next week I can just dive right in the

annotated bibliography portion.

What are your needs, including time, space, materials, and personal contacts?

I need my computer to access the online data base and I will do my reading in a quiet place in order to give this my undivided attention. I will allow myself 20 minutes each night, for each of the 5 nights this week, to find and read a source that will be able to be applied to my project.

What obstacles do you anticipate and how can you overcome these obstacles?

A problem I anticipate is how I will conduct my real world application using my sources to educate people on GMOs. I plan on scheduling a meeting with my advisor.

How can your advisor help you this week?

My advisor can help me this week by helping me plan a meeting with her so she can help me solve my problem and overcome the obstacles I am facing by giving me ideas on real world applications.

End of Week

Date: ____

10/16/16

______________________________

Summarize your progress for the week here: I was able to find all 5 sources and I have a meeting scheduled with my capstone advisor next week.

Discuss how you employed each of the core skills this week.

Using the research data base to find relevant and credible sources

that I can use to both support my capstone and offer complexity by

looking at my topic with another point of view.

  • I used technology by using my computer to access the library’s online

research data base and conduct my research. I also access the

eliademy capstone website to submit my materials.

After finding a source, I use strategic reading to play close attention

to the certain source. Using strategic reading I see if the source is

relevant to my topic, if it contains bias, and which parts of the source I

will use in my project.

  • I used collaboration and oral communication to plan a meeting

with my capstone advisor next week to discuss problems I am facing in

my project.

Sample journal of progress entry:

Journal of Progress

Current step: 5

Name: Steffan Merhej

Date: 10/17/16

Did I check in with my advisor this week? Yes

If yes, write the date: Wednesday, October 29, 2016

Start of Week:

Place a check next to the corresponding date. Choose only one. You must do an entry 2 times a month, due on homeroom days when steps are due.

October 24 th , Step 5

What do you plan to accomplish by the end of the week?

By the end of the week I plan to have all my discussion assignments completed, along with all of my annotated bibliographies and meet with my capstone adviser.

What are your needs, including time, space, materials, and personal contacts?

I need about an hour, each night, every night this week after school so I can do 1 annotated bibliography each day after school to spread out the work. I also need to find my brother a different way to get home after school on Wednesday so I can meet with my capstone advisor.

What obstacles do you anticipate and how can you overcome these obstacles?

An obstacle I anticipate is my real world application. I think I may have trouble getting my two rounds of survey’s out. I will speak to my capstone advisor and see if she has any tips, like examples from past years, that will help me conduct my real world application.

How can your advisor help you this week?

By meeting with me and helping me brainstorm ways to complete my real world application after I explain my project to her.

End of Week

Summarize your progress for the week here:

This week I was able to successfully meet with my capstone advisor and devise a plan to conduct my real world application. I also completed all my annotated bibliographies for my 5 sources and did my part in the online discussions,

Discuss how you employed each of the core skills this week.

After reading my selected sources, I use written communication

skills to write my annotated bibliographies. Using these written

communication skills I break down my source and summarize the

points of the source, asses the author’s credibility and possible bias,

and synthesize the information I will be using to allow myself to use my

research most efficiently.

When I had a problem in thinking of successful ways to conduct a real

world application of my project I used problem solving by scheduling

a meeting with my capstone advisor.

Using collaboration, I partake in online discussions on the eliademy

capstone website. I collaborate by working with my capstone advisor

and fellow students by responding to the discussion questions and

replying to other responses.

I used oral communication in my meeting with my capstone advisor.

I had a problem in my capstone and using oral communication I

communicated my problem with her and together we talked about the

best way to go about in solving this problem.

Step 6: Steffan Merhej

Present Findings

Step 6: Steffan Merhej Present Findings November:  Begin creation process of presentation product and submit

November:

Begin creation process of presentation product and submit an updated description of product

A power point to briefly educate subjects on GMOs. This power point will cover

the basics of the area, while still providing important information on the

benefits versus the risks of GMOs.

A survey on the subject’s education on GMOs prior to my power point.

A survey on the subject’s current standpoint on GMOs after my power point.

Describe what you have done or plan to do to share your

capstone with a real world audience beyond the

attendees at the fair. Must show proof of real world

application – picture or video.

My real world application will allow people to decide for themselves whether

or not to use GMOs. First, I will ask a series of questions on their current

knowledge and standpoint on GMOs, including whether or not they purchase

them. I will then use a power point to educate a group on both the pros and

cons of GMOs. After briefly teaching the group the crucial pieces of information

they need, I will then ask them a series of questions. These questions will be

regarding the individual’s preference on the choice of whether or not to use

GMOs. This application will educate individuals on the subject of GMOs and call

on them to asses whether the risks of GMOs outweigh their benefits.

 Review and revise list of the use of 21 century skills Core 21 Explicitly discuss

Review and revise list of the use of 21 st century skills

Core 21 st

Explicitly discuss how your project shows evidence of

Century Skill

proficiency in each of the core skills. Refer to the school-wide

rubrics to help you with this.

Strategic

To read and evaluate the information in all of my sources on

Reading

the topic.

Written

Writing annotated bibliographies or sources and using these

Communicatio

sources to write a synthesis essay.

n

Research

Find sources on the school’s research database and choosing

which sources are relevant enough to use.

Problem

Deciding to use a power point to efficiently educate groups of

Solving

people on the topic and deciding to use surveys to collect a

lot of information in an efficient manner.

Technology

Using my computer to access the online databases and

eliademy. Also to type my bibliographies and synthesis paper.

Collaboration

Working with my fellow classmates to discuss the project and

any concerns we have in the discussions page on eliademy,

our online classroom.

Oral

Expressing and concerns I have with my project or just talking about it

Communicatio

with Mrs. Gosselin, my helpful capstone advisor.

n

Steffan Merhej

Capstone Step 6

28 November 2016

Our Future With Genetically Modified Organisms

Central Question: Are the benefits that come along with the use of Genetically

Modified Organisms worth the risk?

Scientific advancement in recent years has led to the development of new forms

technology. Advancements in the fields of medicine, computers, and engineering help us

live better lives and make tasks more efficient. With new changes happening so fast, it is

hard to keep track of and make sense of it all. Considering these new advancements and

technologies are done with up to date scientific research and experiments, they are often

treated as safe and used without the consideration of possible negative effects. While

new advances may have many benefits, with little to no apparent negative short-term

effects, there is often not enough research to assure the product is safe for use and has no

unknown negative long-term effects. Recently, advances have been made in the field of

genetics, which allows humans to manipulate the genes of organisms, such as plants and

animals. By manipulating the genes of plants and combining them with the desirable

genes of other organisms, scientists are now able to produce plants with certain desirable

traits. While genetic modification has been going on naturally in our environments for

years by the reproduction of desired mutations, humans creating genetically modified

organisms, or GMOs, has recently raised much controversy over the morality, safety, and

marketing of them. While those against the use of GMOs argue that we lack adequate

knowledge of their implications to use them, those who support GMOs, such as Gregory

Conko and C.S. Prakash, argue in Genetically Modified Crops Can Help End World

Hunger that “there has always been Cassandras to claim that the latest technology was

unnatural, different from its predecessors, and inherently dangerous” (2). GMOs

certainly have clear benefits due to the produced desired traits, but due to how recently

these advancements in genetics have been made, we know so little about their negative

long-term effects. Under certain circumstances, the benefits that come along with the use

of GMOs out weigh the negative effects.

By combining the genes of plants with certain desirable genes of other organisms,

GMOs are made to be extremely efficient and beneficial in a variety of ways.

World

hunger is a major problem; today “740 million people go to bed daily on an empty

stomach, and nearly 40,000 people-half of them children-die every day due to hunger or

malnutrition-related causes” (Conko 3). This is a problem that can be solved with the use

of GMOs, which have the ability to cause agriculture to be more productive and therefore

allow more humans to be fed. By giving GMOs certain genes that cause more productive

plants, GMO crops “have already increased crop yields and food production” (Conko 3).

Not only can GMOs be used to produce more food, but they can also be used to produce

more nutritious food, which is also a major problem. In Genetically Modified Food Is an

Ethical Answer to World Hunger, Peter H. Raven states “as many as half of the total

population of the world is malnourished with respect to one or more essential nutrients”

(Raven 1). Divyahans Gupta’s The Problems Caused by Genetically Engineered Foods

Must Be Resolved explains that with the addition of genes that would allow crop to

produce essential nutrients, scientists have engineered plants to have “enhanced

nutritional value”, which, along with “increased crop production”, can serve as a

“solution to world hunger and other global issues” (Gupta 1). Vaccines, like nutrients,

can be inserted into the genes of GMOs and be used to treat illness through edible plants,

this simple method could “prevent disease and viruses from spreading in developing

countries” (Gupta 1). Along with more productive crops, GMOs can be used to reduce the

use of chemical pesticides and herbicides by fusing them into GMOs, preventing

“agricultural waste run-off” (Gupta 3). With no use for chemical pesticides and

herbicides, GMOs “are exposed to far less chemical contamination than most of the food

we eat”, possibly making GMOs healthier and safer than non-GMOs in that way, as

displayed in Conor Meade’s Genetically Modified Food Should Not Be Banned, but

Carefully Monitored (2). GMOs saved lives in this way by allowing farmers to no longer

be exposed to the pesticides, which can cause “severe health risks”, in the past “400 to

500 Chinese cotton farmers” died each year from pesticide poisoning but with the

introduction of GMOs as a replacement, pesticide use has reduced which in turn “reduced

the number of pesticide poisonings” (Conko 4). It is apparent that by using this

technology, GMOs can be beneficial and produced to solve major problems. Beyond

their benefits, it is a moral question whether or not to support the use of GMOs. Despite

so many human lives benefitting from their use, there are still many who oppose the use

of GMOs. Some believe that it is “morally imperative” to make use of this technology

for the world’s people, “more especially to those who are truly needy” and argue that the

“drive to feed the hungry” should “take precedence over other considerations” and over

come scientific objections (Raven 5-6). Are we being ignorant? Are we acting to quickly

and making irrational decisions? While the immediate effects that come along with the

use of GMOs seem extremely appealing, we must not lose sight and make decisions

without consideration and knowledge of possible long-term negative effects.

These advances in the field of genetics, which allow us to produce GMOs, are so

recent that we are still unaware of all the effects GMOs may cause in the future. With so

many benefits, the bad side of GMOs is often looked over. The whole idea of genetic

modification has been oversimplified; the process of genetic modification is often

incorrectly justified by the transfer of genes through reproduction. Joseph Mercola’s

Genetically Modified Foods Are Not Safe to Eat explains that through reproduction,

genes are inherited through “vertical gene transfer”, the process in which the genes of the

parent generation is directly passed along to offspring through reproduction (2). The

transfer of genes when creating GMOs is done through an entirely different process,

called “horizontal gene transfer”, which involves “injecting a gene from one species into

a completely different species” (Mercola 3). Very different from vertical gene transfer,

horizontal gene transfer can cause entire sets of genes to act differently, which can

possibly “yield unexpected and often unpredictable results” (Mercola 3). While some

view the ability of GMOs to be fused with pesticides and herbicides as a wonder, it has

proven to rather be a disaster. While those weeds and bugs affected were killed off by

pesticides and herbicides, the certain weeds and bugs with resistant genes lived on,

passing those genes on, the result: strains called “superweeds” and “superbugs” by

Tracey Schelmetic, in Genetically Engineered Foods Have Not Been Proven to Be

Harmful, which are tolerant to pesticides and herbicides:

“A new study of corn genetically engineered to be resistant to the western

corn rootworm has found that though the resistance is strong for the first

year or two, subsequent generations of rootworms adapt to and become

immune to the anti-pest properties.” (Schelmetic 3)

With pests tolerant to the commonly used pesticides and herbicides more and stronger

forms of it must be used, Bill Freese, science policy analyst for Center of Food Safety in

Washington, told the New York Times that “the biotech industry” is making agriculture

“more pesticide-dependent” rather than less (Schelmetic 3). GMOs are not of nature and

it is predicable that implementing them in our environment will cause unnatural effects.

A common concern of scientists is the impact of GMOs on biodiversity, GMOs have

“unintended consequences” (Schelmetic 3) that harm other organisms surrounding the

environment. Due to how new GMOs are, there is inadequate research in the area of how

GMOs may affect humans and the environment long-term. The safety of humans is on

the line. Similar to when cigarettes began being sold, the long-term effects of GMOs are

unknown, yet they are still used. When the long-term effects of cigarettes became

apparent, those who smoked them were severely harmed. Only some smoked cigarettes,

almost everyone consumes GMOs. If the long-term effects of GMOs prove harmful, we

are in big trouble. Is the survival of the human race worth the ignorance?

The risk of using GMOs is circumstantial. Situations in countries such as

Zimbabwe, whose President would “rather starve” (Conko 1) his citizens than have them

eat GMOs, are very different then those of a Western country with adequate food supply.

If GMOs have the ability to save a life that would otherwise be lost, by providing a meal

to a starving person, then their use is worth it. In countries such as the United States, the

use of GMOs are not essential to feed its citizens, knowing the possible harms that may

arise, a country must go about handling the use of GMOs with caution. The United

States does not take the necessary precautions to safely allow the use GMOs. Often

times, the United States takes sides that are generally “in favor of GMOs” (Schelmetic 4)

and the United States Food and Drug Administration, also known as the FDA, recognize

GMOs the same as any other food. GMOs go through the consumer system unnoticed

due to no guidelines requiring any sort of labeling, consumers want stricter and improved

government guidelines on the sale of GMOs. American’s have no warning of whether or

not their food contain GMOs, in Genetically Engineered Foods Should Be Labeled,

Jessica Emerson describes how the Consumer Federation of America requested the

United States government to “label biotech food and to require strict safety and

environmental testing” (2-3). If GMOs are going to be marketed in the United States

then Americans should have the right to know if they are consuming these potentially

harmful substances or not, Congressman Dennis Kucinich believes "Government has a

moral and legal responsibility to ensure the safety and purity of our food supply. We

cannot abdicate this responsibility to global corporations whose goals may be limited to

profit-making" (Emerson 2-3). The complete ban of GMOs is “short-sighted” (Meade 1)

and does not acknowledge the benefits GMOs may have in our future, with the correct

safety precautions and guidelines, GMOs can successfully be used and allowed to further

develop. So much good has come from genetic modification and with further

development the possibilities are endless. With the proper research and handling, we can

better educate ourselves on the subject and move past the negative effects and develop

genetic modification into an amazing tool. It is important for us to correctly assess how

to go about the handling of genetic modification in plants to move on with establishing

how to handle further genetic modification, such as that of human beings. Described as

an “ooplasmic transfer-the transplantation of cytoplasm from one egg into another in

order to overcome cytoplasmic defects that might have prevented normal embryogenesis”

by GK in IN THE LITERATURE: Inheritable Genetic Modification-It’s Already Here,

human genetic modification opens a whole new door with effects much greater than

genetic modification in plants (1). Setting a precedent and holding governments to a

standard of safety with GMOs will lead to the proper treatment of all new technology in

the safest and most beneficial ways possible.

My real world application will allow people to decide for themselves whether or

not to use GMOs. First, I will ask a series of questions on their current knowledge and

standpoint on GMOs, including whether or not they purchase them. I will then use a

power point to educate a group on both the pros and cons of GMOs. After briefly

teaching the group the crucial pieces of information they need, I will then ask them a

series of questions. These questions will be regarding the individual’s preference on the

choice of whether or not to use GMOs. This application will educate individuals on the

subject of GMOs and call on them to asses whether the risks of GMOs outweigh their

benefits.

Works Cited

Conko, Gregory, and C. S. Prakash. "Genetically Modified Crops Can Help End World

Hunger." Genetic Engineering. Ed. David M. Haugen and Susan Musser. Detroit:

Greenhaven Press, 2009. Opposing Viewpoints. Rpt. from "Can GM Crops Play a

Role in Developing Countries?" PBI Bulletin 2 (2004). Opposing Viewpoints in

Context. Web. 10 Mar. 2016.

Emerson, Jessica. "Genetically Engineered Foods Should Be Labeled." Genetically

Engineered Foods. Ed. Debra A. Miller. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2012. At

Issue. Rpt. from "GMO-Crop Crisis a Rapidly Growing Concern." Santa Fe New

Mexican 21 Oct. 2008. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 10 Mar. 2016.

GK. "IN THE LITERATURE: Inheritable Genetic Modification--It's Already Here." The

Hastings Center Report Mar. 2001: 7. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 31

Mar. 2016.

Gupta, Divyahans. "The Problems Caused by Genetically Engineered Foods Must Be

Resolved." Genetically Engineered Foods. Ed. Debra A. Miller. Detroit:

Greenhaven Press, 2012. At Issue. Rpt. from "Food Frenzy: Growing Concerns

Over Genetically Modified Foods." Triple Helix Online 26 Jan. 2011. Opposing

Viewpoints in Context. Web. 10 Mar. 2016.

Meade, Conor. "Genetically Modified Food Should Not Be Banned, but Carefully

Monitored." Genetically Engineered Foods. Ed. Nancy Harris. San Diego:

Greenhaven Press, 2003. At Issue. Rpt. from "Careful Stewardship of GM Crops

Is Needed, Not a Ban." Irish Times 23 June 2007: 13. Opposing Viewpoints in

Context. Web. 10 Mar. 2016.

Mercola, Joseph. "Genetically Modified Foods Are Not Safe to Eat." Genetically

Modified Food. Ed. Tamara Thompson. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press,

2015. At Issue. Rpt. from "Former Pro-GMO Scientist Speaks Out on the Real

Dangers of Genetically Modified Food."

Raven, Peter H. "Genetically Modified Food Is an Ethical Answer to World Hunger."

Genetically Engineered Foods. Ed. Nancy Harris. San Diego: Greenhaven Press,

2003. At Issue. Rpt. from "GMOs and Science: What Have We Learned?"

AgBioWorld. 2004. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 10 Mar. 2016.

Schelmetic, Tracey. "Genetically Engineered Foods Have Not Been Proven to Be

Harmful." Genetically Engineered Foods. Ed. Debra A. Miller. Detroit:

Greenhaven Press, 2012. At Issue. Rpt. from "Public Perception—Not Science—

Will Rule the GM Food Debate." Thomas Net News. 2011. Opposing Viewpoints

in Context. Web. 10 Mar. 2016.

Step 7: Steffan Merhej

Selection of Presentation Method

Step 7: Steffan Merhej Selection of Presentation Method Describe how you will share your capstone with

Describe how you will share your capstone with a real world

audience beyond the attendees at the fair.

  • I will be creating an informational power point to educate on the risks and benefits

of GMOs.

Describe how you will present your capstone to your advisor

and the attendees at the capstone fair.

  • I will use a Tri-Fold poster. One side will discuss the risks of GMOs, the other side

will discuss the benefits. The center will discuss my research findings as well as

information on deciding if the benfits outweigh the risks. I will also have my

computer out to access my portfolio.

Please sketch out and label what your tri-fold will look like and

describe in writing what your table will look like at the

capstone fair night.

My table will have my tri-fold poster in the center. The three sections of my

poster will have headings of Risks, You Make The Choice, and Benefits. I will

discuss the risks and benefits with facts and statistics from my research. I will

include information on how to make the personal choice as well as my central

question in the center section. My center section will also include information

from my findings. I will include examples of actual GMO and non-GMO products

on my table to allow for tasting as well as information on how to distinguish

between the two. My computer will be on display to present my power point.

Describe how your presentation plan will allow you to showcase your mastery of each of the

Describe how your presentation plan will allow you to showcase your

mastery of each of the core 21 st century skills

Core 21 st

Description of how the presentation of your project will help you

Century Skill

showcase your mastery of this 21 st century skill. Refer to the

school-wide rubrics to help you with this.

Strategic

My reading of sources required me to use strategic reading to decide if the

Reading

source would be beneficial to my research and what relevant information I should use to develop my understanding on the topic.

Written

Writing my synthesis as well as my annotated bibliographies required me to

Communication

use written communication. I developed my ideas on answering my central question as well as my research findings and communicated them in my writing.

Research

  • I researched by reviewing many sources and selecting relevant and reliable

sources that I found online by accessing the online research database.

Problem Solving

Developing ways to educate people on my topic and develop useful methods to create a real world application in order to answer my central question.

Technology

  • I used technology while using eliademy to access, upload, and partake in

discussions. This was also used during my use of online databases as well

 

as when I was creating a brief informational powerpoint on GMOs.

Collaboration

My meetings with my capstone advisor help by allowing me to bounce off ideas with them as well as discuss how to move forward. My online discussions in eliademy allow my questions to be answered as well as allowing me to answer my peers’ questions.

Oral

I will speak loudly and clearly when briefly presenting my project. I will be

Communication

sure to not bore my listeners while still passing on information.

Steffan Merhej

WHS

Capstone

9 January 2017

Step 8

  • I plan on displaying my real world application on my tri-fold poster. My center

section of my poster will be designated to answering my central question. This section is

where my real world application, which will be results from my survey, will be displayed.

The results from my survey, which allows those who take it to make the choice and

answer my central question for themselves, will allow me to help answer my central

question on my own. This data will be displayed and I will explain how I used my real

world application to educate people on my topic as well as help answer my central

question.

  • I will display my portfolio on my laptop at my table. In front of my tri-fold

poster, I will bring along my laptop as well as a charger to keep it from losing battery. I

will be sure get a spot near an outlet and bring an extension cord if needed. On my

computer I will have access to my entire portfolio. By uploading all my materials onto

the online course of eliademy, I will easily have access to my past work and creating my

portfolio will not be a struggle. By compiling all my steps in order into a single

document, all my work will be at hand to display and easy to find for anyone who desires

to view it.

  • I will also use my laptop to display my use of technology. Along with my

portfolio, which will display my use of technology by having all my work that I did

online at hand, I will display my other uses of technology. I will also have access to my

online survey displayed on my laptop, those who wish can see how I used technology to

distribute and gather results from my surveys. I will also have my power point showing

on my computer, those who walk by and who wish to stop and view my project will be

able to watch my brief educational power point. They will be able to view how I used

technology to educate people on my topic by creating a power point and presenting it.

Step 6:

Journal of Progress

online survey displayed on my laptop, those who wish can see how I used technology to

Journal of Progress

Name: Steffan Merhej

Date: 11/14/16

Did I check in with my advisor this week? No

Start of Week:

What do you plan to accomplish by the end of the week?

Finish all of my annotated bibliographies.

What are your needs, including time, space, materials, and personal contacts?

need about an hour each nigh on my computer to find the sources and then type bibliographies.

I

What obstacles do you anticipate and how can you overcome these obstacles?

Finding more sources because I have already found so many of them. I can look for sources with different points of view.

How can your advisor help you this week?

Helping on how to find more sources with out being redundant.

End of Week

Date: _______

11/18/16

___________________________

Summarize your progress for the week here:

I

have completed all my annotated bibliographies.

Discuss how you employed each of the core skills this week.

Strategic reading: To read and evaluate the information in all of my

sources on the topic.

Written communication: Writing annotated bibliographies.

Research: Find sources on the school’s research database and choosing

which sources are relevant enough to use.

Technology: Using the research database to find my sources and write annotated bibliographies on them.

Step 6:

Journal of Progress

Step 6: Journal of Progress

Journal of Progress

Current step:

6

Name: Steffan Merhej

Date: 11/21/16

Did I check in with my advisor this week? No

Start of Week:

Place a check next to the corresponding date. Choose only one. You must do an entry 2 times a month, due on homeroom days when steps are due.

What do you plan to accomplish by the end of the week?

Completing my synthesis paper, solidifying my ideas for my real world application, and partaking in online discussions on eliademy.

What are your needs, including time, space, materials, and personal contacts?

  • I need several hours, my sources and annotated bibliographies, and my

computer to type up my synthesis paper answering my central question.

What obstacles do you anticipate and how can you overcome these obstacles?

  • I anticipate becoming distracted while writing my essay. To overcome

distractions I will not use my phone at the time of writing the essay.

How can your advisor help you this week?

Giving me ideas on how to create a better real world application.

End of Week

Date: __________

11/27/16

________________________

Summarize your progress for the week here:

  • I completed my synthesis paper and solidified my ideas on my real world application. I also partook in discussions on eliademy.

Discuss how you employed each of the core skills this week.

Written Communication : Using my sources to write a synthesis.

Problem Solving: Deciding to use a power point to efficiently educate

groups of people on the topic and deciding to use surveys to collect a

lot of information in an efficient manner.

Technology: Using my computer to access the sources and type my synthesis.

Collaboration: Working with my fellow classmates to discuss the project

and any concerns we have in the discussions page on eliademy, our

online classroom.

Journal of Progress:

Current step:

7

Name: Steffan Merhej

Did I check in with my advisor this week? No

Start of Week:

What do you plan to accomplish by the end of the week?

  • I plan on completing my educational powerpoint.

What are your needs, including time, space, materials, and personal contacts?

  • I will need several days to decide what information I would like to include as well as synthesize this information into a powerpoint. I will use my annotated bibliographies, sources, and synthesis paper to create this powerpoint.

What obstacles do you anticipate and how can you overcome these obstacles?

  • I believe I will have trouble choosing which information I will have to leave out

of my powerpoint. There is so much available information but I must be sure to keep it brief and only use essential facts.

How can your advisor help you this week?

Helping me decide which information to use and how to best appeal to my audience when trying to educate them on a new topic.

End of Week

Summarize your progress for the week here:

Discuss how you employed each of the core skills this week.

  • I used technology when using Microsoft’s powerpoint software to create my powerpoint.

  • I used problem solving when making desicions on exactly what information would be most beneficial to include.

  • I used written communication when writing out information and creating my slides for the powerpoint.

Journal of Progress

Current step:

7

Name: Steffan Merhej

Did I check in with my advisor this week? No

Start of Week:

What do you plan to accomplish by the end of the week?

  • I plan on presenting my powerpoint as a test to seveal friends. I will be able

to practice presenting my information and see what stuff I should learn better. I will be able to see how long it takes to present my information and talk to them and see whether or not they felt it was educational and if they were bored.

What are your needs, including time, space, materials, and personal contacts?

  • I need to bring along my computer when I hang out my friends over the

weekend as well as to school. While hanging out and during studies, I will

display my powerpoint and present it.

What obstacles do you anticipate and how can you overcome these obstacles?

  • I may have trouble getting my friends to agree to spend a few minutes on learning outside of school as well as holding their attention. I plan on

How can your advisor help you this week?

  • I can display my powerpoint to my capstone advisor.

End of Week

Summarize your progress for the week here:

I showed my powerpoint to my friends on several occasions and too my study group in the library during my study. I got feedback from them on what they liked and thought needed improvement and made adjustments as necessary.

Discuss how you employed each of the core skills this week.

I used technology when using my computer to access and

display my powerpoint.

I used collaboration when working with friends to present my

powerpoint and get feedback.

I used oral communication when lecturing to teach my friends

the possible risks and benefits of GMOs and how to make the

proper choice.

I used problem solving when I received feedback from my peers

on the good aspects of my project and continued to develop

those as well as when I received constructive criticism and

decided how to go about making improvements.

Steffan Merhej

Capstone

Genetically Modified Organisms Research: An Annotated Bibliography

Conko, Gregory, and C. S. Prakash. "Genetically Modified Crops Can Help End World

Hunger." Genetic Engineering. Ed. David M. Haugen and Susan Musser. Detroit:

Greenhaven Press, 2009. Opposing Viewpoints. Rpt. from "Can GM Crops Play a

Role in Developing Countries?" PBI Bulletin 2 (2004). Opposing Viewpoints in

Context. Web. 19 September 2016

All breeding, both animal and plant, has always been intended modification of

organisms due to mutations in genes with desired characteristics passed on through DNA.

Opposition to the use of genetically modified organisms comes from people who believe

danger lies in humans changing the genes of organisms. Genetically modified organisms

are an excellent way to fight world hunger. These genetically modified crops have

already increased crop yields and reduced the use of synthetic chemical pesticides. Crops

can be modified to have resistance to pests and disease without the use of added

chemicals. Organic farming cannot compete with the productiveness of bioengineered

crops. Genetically modified crops have endless possibilities such as resistance to

extreme conditions and better nutrition in food.

While this source is somewhat current, as it was written in 2009, science has

made progress in this area since then, with new insight on this subject in the past few

years. The two authors, Gregory Conko, who has written numerous works in this subject,

and C.S. Prakash, a professor of plant genetics, attempt to persuade readers that

genetically modified crops can help end world hunger by displaying the logical benefits

of the use of genetically modified crops. Data and facts are given on how certain people

and countries have benefitted with the use of genetically modified organisms with clear

and convenient information. This source does an excellent job in displaying the clear

benefits and then overcoming common oppositions of using genetically modified

organisms.

The statistics from this source will be used as evidence to qualify the justice in

using genetically modified organisms. The ways this source overcame potential

opposition will be helpful in showing different viewpoints and complexity. This topic

relates to my question by showing the benefits of using genetically modified organisms,

which will help in justifying their use. By using information and data, which display the

positive effects of genetically modified organisms, readers will be persuaded into seeing

how their use is worth the risk.

Emerson, Jessica. "Genetically Engineered Foods Should Be Labeled." Genetically

Engineered Foods. Ed. Debra A. Miller. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2012. At

Issue. Rpt. from "GMO-Crop Crisis a Rapidly Growing Concern." Santa Fe New

Mexican 21 Oct. 2008. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 19 September

2016

Results from data of focus groups and studies on where people stand in the case

of labeling foods with genetically modified organisms shows that a majority of people are

for the labeling of these products. Some organisms, which have been genetically

modified, contain substances, which can cause health problems such as birth defects,

cancer, diabetes, and liver tumors. Consuming these foods have reduced the

effectiveness of antibiotics and increased incidence of infection, which has been caused

by mutated organisms, which cannot be killed by antibiotics. Also many allergies may

come along with the use of new genes in genetically modified organisms. Consumers

deserve more safe guidelines with dangerous substances such as these on the market. It is

demanded that the United States government takes responsibility to ensure safety for

food. We are still unsure of all the long-term consequences in this area and products with

genetic modification should be labeled.

This source is very informative and scientific. A lot of the information is simply

displayed without much detail in what the information actually shows and what it means.

While a lot of data is used in this source, a lot of it is from outdated studies and works.

The research presented is an attempt to persuade readers into supporting the labeling of

products that use genetically modified organisms.

This source relates to my research by showing a certain circumstance of the use of

genetically modified organisms. This source is helpful by showing the use of genetically

modified organisms in places, such as America, where hunger isn’t as large of a problem

and there is room for the choice of using these products. This information will help in

backing up the use of genetically modified organisms in places where they are necessary

while ensuring safety.

Gupta, Divyahans. "The Problems Caused by Genetically Engineered Foods Must Be

Resolved." Genetically Engineered Foods. Ed. Debra A. Miller. Detroit:

Greenhaven Press, 2012. At Issue. Rpt. from "Food Frenzy: Growing Concerns

Over Genetically Modified Foods." Triple Helix Online 26 Jan. 2011. Opposing

Viewpoints in Context. Web. 19 September 2016

Benefits of genetically modified crops have resulted in the rapid growth and

popularity of these types of crops due to beneficial altered genetic make up. Genetically

modified foods can decrease malnutrition and fight world hunger by producing more

crops and crops with greater nutritional value; vaccines for disease have even been

inserted into the genes of edible plants. While these genetically modified foods have

excellent short-term effects, long-term affects are generally unknown and may produce

unintended, possibly fatal, effects. The Food and Drug Administration recognize

genetically modified foods as safe and no different than normal foods, making the

labeling of them unnecessary; consumer organizations argue for their labeling.

Genetically modified organisms can be produced fused with pesticides, making spray on

chemicals unnecessary, positively affecting the environment. Genetically modified foods

have certain negative affects on the environment such as over working the resources,

uncontrollable spread over other crops, decreasing biodiversity, creating a strain of weeds

and bugs which are completely immune to pesticides, and harming soil and beneficial

insects.

Biotechnology companies are often monopolies; this makes farmers dependent

on these companies which leads to them gaining too much control over developing

countries and negatively impacting the economy.

This source is reliable and is not arguing or attempting to persuade the reader into

thinking that genetically modified organisms are either good or bad. This source presents

the benefits offered by genetically engineered foods and then acknowledges the problems

that are caused by them. This source is up to date on information and was recently

written. The source does an excellent job in clearly displaying and distinguishing claims

and evidence for both the positive and negative affects of the use of genetically modified

organisms. Both sides are backed up and the source really goes in depth of the possible

problems that could stem from this.

This topic relates to my research by displaying the problems caused by genetically

modified organisms.

This source is helpful because it will allow me to show the

negative effects of using genetically modified organisms. I will use the health risks,

environmental problems, economic problems, and political problems brought up to

display the downside that comes along with the use of genetically modified organisms.

By using the evidence offered to display these problems I can go against the use of

genetically modified organisms.

Meade, Conor. "Genetically Modified Food Should Not Be Banned, but Carefully

Monitored." Genetically Engineered Foods. Ed. Nancy Harris. San Diego:

Greenhaven Press, 2003. At Issue. Rpt. from "Careful Stewardship of GM Crops

Is Needed, Not a Ban." Irish Times 23 June 2007: 13. Opposing Viewpoints in

Context. Web. 19 September 2016

Banning genetic modification is shortsighted and doesn’t take all the possible

benefits into account. Genetically modified crops, which are fused with pesticides, are

exposed to far less chemicals than normal crops, making them safer in that way. New

advances in genetic modification may produce crops, which can survive climate change

and extreme conditions such as drought. With more research and scientific development

genetic modification can lead to a sustainable future. Science does not say genetic

modification is harmful and if harnessed and used correctly, it may greatly benefit the

environment. Problems in the politics rather than the science of genetically modified

organisms should be addressed to make the use and development of genetic modification

safer and more efficient in the future.

This source offers suggestions on how genetically modified organisms should be

dealt with in the future. Rather than simply stating whether genetic modification is good

or bad, the author displayed why they should not be banned but more carefully

monitored. The source uses weak evidence and ignorance, believing that since there is no

evidence that it may be harmful, it is fine to use. While evidence displaying the benefits

is weak, the source uses excellent analysis on ways to improve how we deal with

genetically modified organisms today and ways we can use genetic modification to our

benefit in the future.

This source relates to my research by offering a point of view on genetically

modified organisms that believes in their positive benefits but understands the necessary

changes to be made in the area. This source will be helpful in explaining where to move

forward and compromise between attitudes on genetically modified organisms. By

bringing up long term ideas on where to move forward in this area this source will

display how certain conditions can be made which justify the use of genetically modified

organisms.

Mercola, Joseph. "Genetically Modified Foods Are Not Safe to Eat." Genetically

Modified Food. Ed. Tamara Thompson. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press,

2015. At Issue. Rpt. from "Former Pro-GMO Scientist Speaks Out on the Real

Dangers of Genetically Modified Food." 19 September 2016

Genetic engineering has been over simplified and small changes can have

unintended results which may creates rogue proteins that may be allergenic or toxic.

These unpredictable results are due to horizontal gene transfers, which injects genes from

one species into that of a different species; this is much different from vertical gene

transfer, which is the gene transfer from parent to offspring through reproduction.

Genetically modified foods are less nutritious, have health risks, are inadequately

regulated; harm the environment, and a measly solution to world hunger. Genetically

modified crops are also contaminating and polluting normal crops. Research of

genetically modified organisms is unreliable due to industry funded research, short trials,

difficulty in conducting research, and no safety monitoring of approved items. Unless a

food is certified as organic, it most likely contains genetically modified organisms.

This is a very up to date current source with recently found scientific information.

The author, Joseph Mercola, attempts to persuade the reader into believing genetically

modified organisms are unhealthy and should be treated with caution because so little is

known about them. This source overcomes common misconceptions in this area by

scientifically explaining how genetic modification is over simplified with simple to

understand yet scientific evidentiary support.

The source reveals the false research

conducted on genetically modified organisms and why results should not be trusted. By

comparing genetically modified organisms to cigarettes long ago, genetically modified

organisms are described as something that may seem harmless now but may end up

proving to be a disaster to health like cigarettes, except not everyone smoked but almost

everyone consumes genetically modified organisms.

This source relates to my research by offering a point of view, which is

completely against the use of genetically modified organisms. This is a helpful source

and has a lot of scientific evidence against the use of genetically modified organisms. By

using the evidence which displays how genetic modification has been over simplified and

how there may be possible unknown dangers I will display why genetically modified

organisms should not be used and overcome evidence that argues that genetically

modified organisms are safe.

Raven, Peter H. "Genetically Modified Food Is an Ethical Answer to World Hunger."

Genetically Engineered Foods. Ed. Nancy Harris. San Diego: Greenhaven Press,

2003. At Issue. Rpt. from "GMOs and Science: What Have We Learned?"

AgBioWorld. 2004. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 10 Mar. 2016.

Many people throughout the world are starving, receiving insufficient calorie

intake, which makes them unable to experience proper brain development as infants or

maintain body mass as adults. A lot of the time hunger is caused by poverty, with food

being unaffordable. Using technologies to battle this hunger is the moral and ethical

thing to do. Examination of laboratory results shows inserting genes from one organism

into another do not make them unsafe. Nothing justifies traditional transfer of genetic

traits as safe, but modern scientific ones as not; a belief that must be overcome in order

for advancement in this area. There have been no single cases of illness as a result from

consuming genetically modified organisms. Agriculture must become much more

productive in order to feed the world and the use of genetically modified organisms in

crops can make feeding the world much more efficient; crops can be made more

productive with lower input. Not only can genetic modification yield more crops, but

also make crop more nutritious. Not only is it scientifically logical to go about with these

methods, it is morally imperative to feed the needy. Political bans based on scientific

objections are invalid and the drive to feed hunger should over power other

considerations.

This mainly focuses on the humanitarian side of the use of genetically modified

organisms but does use some slight scientific evidence. Considering this source is from

over a decade ago the scientific reasoning is outdated, but the human values remain the

same. The author discredits scientific reasoning to display how genetically modified

organisms are not unsafe and further goes on to argue that the use of genetically modified

organisms are the solution to world hunger. The facts are limited and are all presented in

favor of the author’s argument, while little is shown of the opposing side. The author

attempts to persuade the reader to support the use of genetically modified organisms by

displaying their safeness and the morality of the argument.

This source relates to my research by viewing genetically modified organisms as a

tool to end world hunger. This is a helpful source because it adds a point of view that

values the humanitarian side of the argument over the use of genetically modified

organisms. This source will help in showing the morale side of the argument on

genetically modified organisms. By showing conditions where using genetically

modified organism would be the morale thing to do, I will use this source to justify the

use of genetically modified organisms in certain situations.

Schelmetic, Tracey. "Genetically Engineered Foods Have Not Been Proven to Be

Harmful." Genetically Engineered Foods. Ed. Debra A. Miller. Detroit:

Greenhaven Press, 2012. At Issue. Rpt. from "Public Perception—Not Science—

Will Rule the GM Food Debate." Thomas Net News. 2011. Opposing Viewpoints

in Context. Web. 10 Mar. 2016.

While there are clear benefits, for crops, in the use of genetically modified

organisms, there has not been enough thorough studies to evaluate if it safe for human

health. There are valid concerns of the negative affects genetically modified organism

may cause. Plants, which are toxic to some pests are resistant enough for a sort time but

these pests, often insects adapt and become immune to the resistance; this can cause

insects to be completely immune to any resistance, which can also happen with plants.

Genetically modified organisms can produce toxins that may be harmful to other plans

and animals, which may have an impact on biodiversity. United States Policy is usually

in favor of genetically modified crops, real opposition to genetically modified crops

occurs in Europe, where the banning of genetically modified organisms occurs often.

Environmentalists fight for the labeling of genetically modified organisms to make the

consumer aware.

This source is current and up to date and is full of examples. The author uses

comparisons of Bisphenol-A in plastic to genetic modification in food; arguing the actual

science behind the case of the safety of products is not as important as public perception.

The research does not attempt to persuade the reader into believing whether genetically

modified organisms are good or bad, but rather to analyze how valid public’s perception

of genetically modified organisms is and how it affects their use. The author clearly

presents both sides of the argument and backs up claims with proper and relevant

evidence.

This source relates to my research by evaluating the safety of genetically modified

organisms and the factors that will affect how the public perceives them. This source is

helpful by displaying both the benefits and negative effects of using genetically modified

organisms. This source will help me show the factors, which cause both support and

opposition to the use of genetically modified organisms and how this affects public

opinion, which will affect policy. By showing how perception may be worth more than

actual facts, this can help justify arguments from certain sides.

Chien, Shanley. "Genetically Modified Food Is Healthy." Global Sustainability. Ed.

Dedria Bryfonski. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2016. Opposing

Viewpoints. Rpt. from "GMOs: The Scarlet Letters of the Grocery Aisle?" Medill

Reports Chicago (10 Mar. 2015). Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 23 Oct.

2016.

Those who are against GMOs sometimes mislead the public. GMOs can be

beneficial towards food by contributing to their nutritional value along with adding to

their preservation. Though there are numerous critics, many scientists are actually for the

use of GMOs. While many companies claim to be GMO free, this claim is very hard to

prove and may not always be true. There are several types of genetic engineering, the

most common being used to resist insects and disease with out chemicals, cross breeding

for desired traits, and use of agrobacterium to move specific genes. GMOs could help

limit food waste, help farmers, and battle world hunger.

This source is very biased towards the claim of GMOs being healthy. One of the

main arguments is an attack on those who are against GMOs but the argument isn’t very

strong and is simply vaguely stated claims. The source then tries to persuade readers

from thinking that GMO free products are not always really GMO free simply because it

is hard to prove it. The source did do an excellent job in providing details and examples

of the common types of genetic engineering. For the benefits of GMOs, little explanation

and examples were provided. The source did not dive into the risks of GMOs at all and

only described the problems of farming giants like Monsanto. This is an informative, yet

poorly organized, argumentative source.

This source relates to my research by arguing that the use of GMOs is healthy.

This source is beneficial by arguing against the bad wrap GMOs usually get and argues

the purity of “GMO free”. This source will help me explain the different types of genetic

engineering and the benefits they came along with. This source will also help me in

arguing for the benefits of GMOs and why they should by used while also being against

the large corporations like Monsanto, which have negative effects.

Walia, Arjun. "Genetically Modified Food Is Unhealthy." Global Sustainability. Ed.

Dedria Bryfonski. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2016. Opposing

Viewpoints. Rpt. from "10 Scientific Studies Proving GMOs Can Be Harmful to

Human Health." Collective-Evolution.com. 2014. Opposing Viewpoints in

Context. Web. 23 Oct. 2016.

Toxins from GMOs are being detected in maternal and fetal blood; these toxins

prove to be very dangerous to the fetus. The actual DNA from GMOs can be transferred

into humans who eat them and while GMOs have been linked to cancer, this is a major

concern. GMOs can also have an effect on triggering or exacerbating gluten-related

disorders. In animal studies with rats, GMOs have been linked to rat tumors, which can

be related to humans. Glyphosate, used by Monsanto, has been linked to birth defects,

autism, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. When used to feed animals, GMOs

also have disastrous affects. Very little scientific evidence is used to assess the risks of

GMOs.

This source is very informative and useful. Clear evidence is used in studies

where toxins were found in blood. While little explanation and evidence was used to

back up the claim of transferring GMO DNA to human DNA, all of the other attacks on

GMOs were well organized. Very specific disorders are listed and reports of specific

studies are provided to convince us of the harm caused by GMOs. The harm of

glyphosate is deeply considered and explained, with several examples of its negative

effects.

This source will help me in my research by displaying how unhealthy GMOs truly

are. This source will help me provide specific examples in the harm of GMOs and will

account for a lot of the evidence I use when backing up my claims on the harm of GMOs.

I will use this source, unlike the other ones that also attack GMOs, to provide examples

of specific studies, cases, and reports on the harms of GMOs in many areas such as

animal use, dangers of glyphosate, gluten disorders, and toxin detection in blood.

"National and international efforts continue against GMOs." The New American 18 May

2015: 6. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 23 Oct. 2016.

Many countries have issued different degrees of bans on GMOs and even more

countries in the world have adopted rules regarding the labeling of GMOs. Many

initiatives have been taken to call for the labeling of GMOs but companies like Monsanto

put large amounts of money in efforts to defeat these initiatives. Propositions in states

like California, that call for the labeling of GMOs, allowed for voters to decide whether

these labels should appear on food packages.

This source is somewhat informative but very brief and concise. While getting

right to the point is sometimes crucial, this source somewhat jumps the gun. The source

speaks about GMO labeling on an international scale and then considers the issue in

America. The source only provides one single example of a proposition but this

proposition is very well explained and many aspects of it are considered. The source

provides information both on the factors supporting and against this proposition and how

this can be generalized to the common results we get in America when taking initiative to

label GMOs.

I will use this source in my research to bring up the issue of GMO labeling and

how this plays a role in the use of GMOs. I will talk about the numerous steps taken to

call for the labeling of GMOs and use examples from the source such as the people of

California’s initiative and how GMO companies like Monsanto put so much effort into

battling these initiatives. This source will help me question how healthy GMOs can truly

be if so much effort is put in to not allow their labeling.

"A plant breeder takes the 'mystery' out of GMO crops." Southeast Farm Press, 25 Aug.

2016. Agriculture Collection, Accessed 20 Nov. 2016.

Our current standards of plentiful, nutritious, and safe foods available to us, even

in the winter, are as high as it has ever been. Many of the fruits and vegetables we are

used to, such as brussel sprouts and oranges carrots, were developed not long ago. With

gene splicing, we can now produce genetically modified organisms without waiting for

nature to make desirable crops. Gene splicing is just a scientifically advanced method of

nature’s natural ability to manipulate the genes of organisms to create new variety.

GMOs go through safety testing that conventional crops do not. Animal testing is used to

ensure that the GMOs are nontoxic.

This source juxtaposes the safety of GMOs with the safety of conventional crops.

This source used flawed reasoning; they use the fact that nature increases variety with

natural selection and attempt to compare this to gene splicing of DNA in a laboratory.

Nature’s way of manipulating genes is very different from the creation of GMOs and

cannot be used to support the argument that GMOs are safe. The source argues that

GMOs are the most safety-tested foods in history but ignores the fact that this testing is

only necessary because we know so little of GMOs. Animal testing is used as evidence

but animal testing cannot always be used to assure safety.

This source will help me in my research by presenting the safety of GMOs. I will

use this source to explain that nature has been developing crops in this manner and that

gene splicing simply uses scientific technology to speed up this process. I will use the

evidence of the safety tests to further back up my claim of the safety of GMOs. The

source goes into detail on the extensive testing done to ensure the safety of these

products.

"Long-term study finds no negative effects from GM food." Southwest Farm Press, 22

Mar. 2012. Agriculture Collection, Accessed 20 Nov. 2016.

Scientists of an international research consortium investigated the long-

term potential negative affects of GMOs in animals. Pigs, mice, and salmon displayed no

harmful effects of genetically modified food. No research has proven GMO products as

harmful to humans or animals. Researchers in Australia failed to prove any negative

effects. Biomarkers were used when testing the animals to measure harmful

abnormalities objectively. While no negative effects were found, a GM product did in

fact cause an allergic reaction.

There is a lack of ample evidence provided; this source only uses evidence based

off of a single animal research study. The source uses a logical fallacy by arguing that

GMOs are safe just because there has not been research arguing against their safety. The

one piece of evidence used, the animal research, does not provide much assurance. Only

2 types of genetically modified plants were used and only 3 animals were studied.

Animal research cannot always be applied to humans.

I will use this source to argue for safety of GMOs and against the possibility of

there being potential negative long-term effects. I will use this source as evidence to

argue that there has been long-term research done that have not indicated any long-term

effects. By using the fact that no biomarkers in research with pigs, salmon, and mice

showed any abnormalities, I will argue that GMOs are not harmful. By describing that

the research was long-term and even lasted the entire lives of some of the subjects, I will

argue that we are aware of potential effects on a long-term scale.

"Genetically Modified Food Is Unsafe." Global Sustainability, edited by Dedria

Bryfonski, Greenhaven Press, 2016. Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints

in Context, Accessed 20 Nov. 2016. Originally published as "10 Reasons to Avoid

GMOs," 2015.

The best diet is a no GMO diet. Animal research shows GMOs causing

organ damage, gastrointestinal disorders, immune system disorders, accelerated aging,

and infertility. Many health problems increased in numbers after the introduction of

GMOs. GMOs contaminate the environment; GMOs can cross-pollinate and have

traveling seeds. GMO actually increases the use of harmful herbicides and could

potentially create weeds that are resistant to herbicides. By transferring genes from one

organism to another, we potentially can produce new toxins, allergens, carcinogens, and

nutritional deficiencies. GM crops in the wild can cause harm to wildlife as well.

This job does an excellent job arguing against the use of GMOs. While this

article is ridden with bias and has no evidence accounting for the other side of the

argument, there is ample evidence used to back up the claim. The article makes specific

reference to research and studies. The article brings up numerous issues with the use of

GMOs and descriptively defines and explains each conflict to help the reader understand.

The article not only provides evidence on negative effects, but also counter argues claims

that support GMO research.

I will use this source to help me argue against GMOs and as a counterargument

against supporters of GMOs. I will use evidence from the specific research on the

increase of disorders in Americans since the introduction of GMOs. I will use specific

data on the amount of herbicide used on GMOs. I will also attack claims that state

research has been conducted on GMOs with evidence proving that independent research

and reporting is attacked and suppressed. I will argue the fact that GMOs end world

hunger by explaining how GMOs actually do not increase yields and works against

feeding the world. This source explains how GMOs divert money that could be spent

elsewhere.

Robbins, John. "Genetically Modified Foods Are Not the Answer to World Hunger."

Global Sustainability, edited by Dedria Bryfonski, Greenhaven Press, 2016.

Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, Accessed 20 Nov. 2016.

Originally published as "Can GMOs Help End World Hunger?", 10 Dec. 20

Biotech companies to promote GMOs spend countless dollars. GMOs have clear

negative effects if they must be promoted so much in order for consumers to be interested

in purchasing them. Monsanto used Golden Rice to gain support and popularity, yet this

early promise was erroneous.

To even produce golden rice many resources are needed

and it does not even work to help satisfy the nutritional needs of those in need. Biotech

companies are all about making profit and attempting to gain control over the world’s

food supply. Monsanto also makes the seeds of their crops sterile, this causes farmers to

be forced to purchase more seeds rather than use collected ones.

This source is biases and solely uses evidence against GMOs. One of their main

arguments is flawed and does not prove that GMOs are not the answer to world hunger.

The source argues that biotech companies spend a lot promoting GMOS but this does not

ensure danger. Many organic companies and conventional companies spend a lot of

money promoting their food. The source also takes all credibility away from the golden

rice project. Ending world hunger is a difficult task and every solution is not perfect.

The source does offer evidence as to how these companies are focused on profit and not

feeding the world. The article also offers evidence on suicide seeds.

I will use this source to argue against the use of GMOs. I will use this source to

attack biotech companies, which control GMOs, to argue against their use. I will use

evidence that proves biotech companies such as Monsanto have the desire to acquire

maximum profit and not try and help solve problems.

I will use evidence on the

companies attempt to maximize profits off of farmers with the use of suicide seeds, this

causes farmers to become dependent on Monsanto and the world dependent on farmers

for food.

Monsanto Corporation. "Genetically Modified Foods Are Safe to Eat." Genetically

Modified Food, edited by Tamara Thompson, Greenhaven Press, 2015. At Issue.

Opposing Viewpoints in Context, Accessed 20 Nov. 2016. Originally published as

"Commonly Asked Questions About the Food Safety of GMOs," 2014.

Biotechnology is used to create variety in plant seeds that produce crops with

desirable characteristics. Monsanto studies, breeds, grows and sells both conventional

and GM seeds on a global scale. The traits of these GM plants, grown from the seeds, aid

famers in increasing yield of crops and conserve the use of resources. Genetic

modification can produce a variety of desirable traits such as resistance to insects,

resistance to weeds, drought tolerance, and increased nutritional value. There is no

credible evidence of harm to humans or animals from they extensive testing done to GM

crops. Scientists are sure to regulate all GM crops. GMOs are not labeled but non-

GMOs are. There is no evidence of any new allergens being introduced in GM foods.

This source, directly from the Monsanto Corporation itself, is heavily biased

towards supporting GMOs. They describe their seed distribution yet fail to mention their

creation of suicide seeds, effectively making farmers dependent on Monsanto for seeds.

The source describes how consumers can avoid GMOs by looking for products with a

label certifying no GMOs but does not explain the extent biotech companies go to simply

not label their products as containing GMOS. The source only alludes to 2 studies of the

long-term effects of GMOs. The main claim the source uses to argue the safety of GMOs

is the fact that there is no evidence proving their harmfulness.

I will use this source to argue for the safety of GMOs. This source gives me the

point of view of Monsanto, a biotech company. This source explains Monsanto’s role

and their standpoint on GMOs. I will use evidence from this source to explain what

Monsanto does exactly. I will use the evidence of the testing and regulations of GMOs as

evidence to the claim of GMOs being safe. I will reference this source when discussing

the labeling of GMOs. This source will provide clear evidence of the benefits and safety

of GMOs along with counterarguments against claims from critics, such as the

counterargument that GMOs do not contribute to allergies.