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Aggregate blending Absorption Specific Gravity

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BLENDING,

ABSORPTION, &

SPECIFIC GRAVITY

Aggregate Blending, Absorption & Specific Gravity 1

Topics to be Covered

Aggregate Specific Gravities

Gradations

Blending Stockpiles

Batching

Specific Gravity Tests for

Aggregates

Two tests are needed

4.75 mm sieve)

sieve)

Aggregate Blending, Absorption & Specific Gravity 3

Apparent Specific

Gravity, Gsa

Mass of Aggregate,

oven dry

Gsa =

Volume of aggregate

Bulk Specific Gravity, Gsb

Surface Voids Mass of aggregate,

Gsb = oven dry

Vol of agg, + surface voids

Effective Specific Gravity, Gse

Surface Voids Mass, dry

Gse =

Effective Volume

Particle not filled with asphalt

Absorbed asphalt

Effective volume = volume of solid aggregate particle +

volume of surface voids not filled with asphalt

Water Absorption

Surface Voids

Solid Agg.

Particle Oven dry weight

Coarse Aggregate Specific

Gravity

ASTM C127

Dry aggregate

Soak in water for 24 hours

Decant water

Use pre-dampened towel to get SSD condition

Determine mass of SSD aggregate in air

Determine mass of SSD aggregate in water

Dry to constant mass

Determine oven dry mass

Coarse Aggregate Specific Gravity

Coarse Aggregate Specific Gravity

Coarse Aggregate Specific Gravity

Calculations

Gsb = A / (B - C)

A = mass oven dry

B = mass SSD

C = mass under water

Gs,SSD = B / (B - C)

Gsa = A / (A - C)

Water absorption capacity, %

Absorption % = [(B - A) / A] * 100

Coarse Aggregate Specific Gravity

Calculations - Example Problem

Given:

Mass oven dry - 3625.5 (A)

Mass SSD - 3650.3 (B)

Mass under Water - 2293.0 (C)

Coarse Aggregate Specific Gravity

Calculations - Example Problem

Apparent Specific Gravity - Gsa

A / (A - C)

Bulk Specific Gravity - Gsb

A / (B - C)

Absorption, %

(B - A) / A

Coarse Aggregate Specific Gravity

Calculations - Example Problem

3625.5/ (3625.5-2293.0) = 2.721

Bulk Specific Gravity - Gsb

3625.5 / (3650.3 - 2293.0) = 2.671

Absorption, %

(3650.3 - 3625.5) / 2293.0 = 0.68 %

Aggregate Blending, Absorption & Specific Gravity 14

Fine Aggregate Specific Gravity

ASTM C128

Dry aggregate

Soak in water for 24 hours

Spread out and dry to SSD

Add 500 g of SSD aggregate to pycnometer of known

volume

Pre-filled with some water

Add more water and agitate until air bubbles have been

removed

Fill to calibration line and determine the mass of the

pycnometer, aggregate and water

Empty aggregate into pan and dry to constant mass

Determine oven dry mass

Fine Aggregate Specific Gravity

Fine Aggregate Specific Gravity

Aggregate Blending, Absorption & Specific Gravity 17

Fine

Aggregate

Specific

Gravity

Fine Aggregate Specific Gravity

Calculations

Gsb = A / (B + S - C)

A = mass oven dry

B = mass of pycnometer filled with water

C = mass pycnometer, SSD aggregate and water

S = mass SSD aggregate

Gsb,SSD = S / (B + S - C)

Gsa = A / (B + A - C)

Water absorption capacity, %

Absorption % = [(S - A) / A] * 100

Fine Aggregate Specific Gravity

Calculations - Example Problem

Given

A = mass oven dry =489.3

B = mass of pycnometer filled with water = 666.5

C = mass pycnometer, SSD aggregate and

water = 982.3

S = mass SSD aggregate = 500.1

Fine Aggregate Specific Gravity

Calculations - Example Problem

Gsb = A / (B + S - C) = 498.9/(666.5+500.1-982.3)

= 2.707

Gsb,SSD = S / (B + S - C) = 500.1/(666.5+500.1-982.3)

= 2.714

Gsa = A / (B + A - C) = 498.9/(666.5+498.9-982.3)

= 2.725

Water absorption = [(S - A) / A] * 100 =

(500.1-498.9)/498.9 = 0.24 %

Aggregate Gradation

Distribution of particle sizes expressed

as percent of total weight

Types Of Gradations

* Open graded

- Few points of contact

- Stone on Stone contact

- High permeability

* Well graded

- Good interlock

- Low permeability

* Gap graded

- Lacks intermediate sizes

- Good interlock

- Low permeability

Aggregate Blending, Absorption & Specific Gravity 23

Superpave Aggregate Gradation

Percent Passing Design Aggregate Structure

100

max density line

nom max

max size

size

control points

0

.075 .3 2.36 4.75 9.5 12.5 19.0

Aggregate Blending, Absorption & Specific Gravity 24

100 Definitions 100

100 99

90 Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size 89

72 72

one size larger than the first sieve to

65 65

retain more than 10%

48 48

36 Maximum Aggregate Size 36

22 one size larger than nominal maximum 22

15 size 15

9 9

4 4

Superpave Mix Size

Designations

Superpave Nom Max Size Max Size

Designation (mm) (mm)

19.0 mm 19 25

12.5 mm 12.5 19

9.5 mm

12.5 mm

19.0 mm

Blending of Aggregates

Reasons for blending

Obtain desirable gradation

Single natural or quarried material not

enough

Economical to combine natural and

process materials

Blending of Aggregates

Numerical method

Trial and error

Basic formula

Blending of Aggregates

P = Aa + Bb + Cc + .

Where:

P = % of material passing a given sieve for

the blended aggregates

A, B, C, = % material passing a given

sieve for each aggregate

a, b, c, . = Proportions (decimal fractions)

of aggregates to be used in blend

Blending of Aggregates

P = Aa + Bb +

P3/8 = (0.30 * 100) + (0.70 * 100) = 100.0

M aterial Aggregate Aggregate

No. 1 No. 2 Blend T arget

% Used a 30.0% b 70.0%

Sieve % Passing % Batch % Passing % Batch

3/8 A 100 30.0% B 100 70.0% P

100.0% 100

No. 4 90 27.0% 100 70.0% 97.0% 90 to 100

No. 8 30 9.0% 100 70.0% 79.0% 36 to 76

No. 16 7 2.1% 88 61.6% 63.7%

No. 30 3 0.9% 47 32.9% 33.8%

No. 50 1 0.3% 32 22.4% 22.7%

No. 100 0 0.0% 24 16.8% 16.8%

No. 200 0 0.0% 10 7.0% 7.0% 2 to 10

Blending of Aggregates

P = Aa + Bb +

P3/8 = (0.30 * 100) + (0.70 * 100) = 100.0

M aterial Aggregate Aggregate

No. 1 No. 2 Blend T arget

% Used a 50.0% b 50.0%

Sieve % Passing % Batch % Passing % Batch

3/8 A 100 50.0% B 100 50.0% P

100.0% 100

No. 4 90 45.0% 100 50.0% 95.0% 90 to 100

No. 8 30 15.0% 100 50.0% 65.0% 36 to 76

No. 16 7 3.5% 88 44.0% 47.5%

No. 30 3 1.5% 47 23.5% 25.0%

No. 50 1 0.5% 32 16.0% 16.5%

No. 100 0 0.0% 24 12.0% 12.0%

No. 200 0 0.0% 10 5.0% 5.0% 2 to 10

Classroom

Problem

Aggregate Blending, Absorption & Specific Gravity 33

Blending of Aggregates

% % % % % %

Sieve Size Pass Batch Pass Batch Pass Batch Blend Specification

3/8 100 70.0% 100 25.0% 100 5.0% 100.0%

No. 4 87 60.9% 100 25.0% 100 5.0% 90.9% 90 to 100

No. 8 63 44.1% 100 25.0% 100 5.0% 74.1% 36 to 76

No. 16 19 13.3% 93 23.3% 100 5.0% 41.6%

No. 30 8 5.6% 88 22.0% 100 5.0% 32.6%

No. 50 5 3.5% 55 13.8% 100 5.0% 22.3%

No. 100 3 2.1% 36 9.0% 97 4.9% 16.0%

No. 200 2 1.4% 3 0.8% 88 4.4% 6.6% 2 to 10

34

Batching of Aggregate

Blends

Why Batch?

We Want To Reproduce the Desired

Gradation for Mix Design

Batching

Things We Need To Know To Batch

% of Each Stockpile in Blend

% Retained For Each Sieve of Each

Stockpile

Batching

Mper sieve = %Ret * %Agg * Mbatch

Mper sieve = Mass of one aggregate in the blend for one sieve size

%Ret = Percent retained on the sieve expressed in decimal form

%Agg = The percent of the stock pile to being used in the blend in decimal form

EXAMPLE:

How much 1.18 mm material do I need from Aggregate #1 for a

4,000 gram batch given the following:

% Retained on 1.18 mm sieve = 23.0 %

% Agg. #1 Used in Blend = 30.0 %

Total Batch wt. = 4000 grams

Example

Problem

Aggregate Blending, Absorption & Specific Gravity 38

Batching of Aggregates

Total Batch Size: 4600.0 grams

Material Aggregate Aggregate Mass of Mass of

No. 1 No. 2 Agg Agg

% Used 50.0% 50.0% #1 #2

Sieve % % % %

Passing Retained Passing Retained

No. 4 90.0 10.0 100.0 0.0 230.0 0.0

No. 8 30.0 60.0 100.0 0.0 1380.0 0.0

No. 16 7.0 23.0 88.0 12.0 529.0 276.0

No. 30 3.0 4.0 47.0 41.0 92.0 943.0

No. 50 1.0 2.0 32.0 15.0 46.0 345.0

No. 100 0.0 1.0 24.0 8.0 23.0 184.0

No. 200 0.0 0.0 10.0 14.0 0.0 322.0

Passing 200 0.0 0.0 0.0 10.0 0.0 230.0

Total Mass 2300.0 2300.0

Aggregate Blending, Absorption & Specific Gravity 39

Classroom

Problem

Aggregate Blending, Absorption & Specific Gravity 40

Batching of Aggregates

Total Batch Size: 4600.0 grams

Material Aggregate Aggregate Mass of Mass of

No. 1 No. 2 Agg Agg

% Used 30.0% 70.0% #1 #2

Sieve % % % %

Passing Retained Passing Retained

No. 4 90.0 10.0 100.0 0.0 138.0 0.0

No. 8 30.0 60.0 100.0 0.0 828.0 0.0

No. 16 7.0 23.0 88.0 12.0 317.4 386.4

No. 30 3.0 4.0 47.0 41.0 55.2 1320.2

No. 50 1.0 2.0 32.0 15.0 27.6 483.0

No. 100 0.0 1.0 24.0 8.0 13.8 257.6

No. 200 0.0 0.0 10.0 14.0 0.0 450.8

Passing 200 0.0 0.0 0.0 10.0 0.0 322.0

Total Mass 1380.0 3220.0

Aggregate Blending, Absorption & Specific Gravity 41

Combined Specific Gravity

( PA + PB + PC )

G sb =

PA PB PC

+ +

GA GB GC

each aggregate in blend

of each aggregate

- Example Problem -

( PA + PB + PC ) Where: PA, PB & PC = percent by mass of

Gsb =

PA + PB + PC each aggregate in blend

GA, GB & GC = Bulk Specific Gravity

GA GB GC

of each aggregate

PA = 50% GA = 2.695

PB = 25% GB = 2.711

PC = 25% GC = 2.721

( 50+ 25 + 25 )

Gsb = = 2.705

50 + 25 + 25

2.695 2.711 2.721

Questions

does it all

make

sense?

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