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Structures 3 (2015) 137152

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Structures

journal homepage: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/structures

Modelling of beam response for progressive collapse analysis


P.M. Stylianidis , D.A. Nethercot, B.A. Izzuddin, A.Y. Elghazouli
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: A fundamental aspect of the progressive collapse behaviour of building structures is the response of axially re-
Received 20 February 2015 strained beams following partial or total loss of the load bearing capacity of a supporting member. Owing to
Received in revised form 8 April 2015 the various complex effects involved such as material and geometric nonlinearity, advanced numerical ap-
Accepted 8 April 2015
proaches tend to be the most effective tools for modelling performance. Such approaches, however, lack the sim-
Available online 18 April 2015
plicity needed for common use and may provide only limited capability for understanding structural behaviour.
Keywords:
For such purposes, more limited analysis approaches that can address adequately the basic features of perfor-
Analytical method mance are likely to be more productive. One such method for modelling the response of axially restrained
Arching action steel and composite beams following column loss is presented in this paper. The method involves explicit model-
Catenary action ling of the connection behaviour and employs conventional structural analysis principles to describe beam per-
Column loss formance using accessible spreadsheet calculations. Following careful verication against detailed numerical
Composite structures analyses and validation against available experimental results, the proposed method is deemed capable of
Robustness modelling the various complex features of response with excellent accuracy. Therefore, it may form a promising
advance in studying and understanding the basic mechanics of the problem.
2015 The Institution of Structural Engineers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction consensus however, its suitability as a measure of resistance to progres-


sive collapse is somewhat doubtful [5]. Relevant studies [610] have
The last two decades have seen an increasing growth of general in- demonstrated that tying alone does not account for all the mechanisms
terest into the behaviour of building structures in progressive collapse; likely to be necessary to arrest collapse, while the connection deforma-
this has been stimulated to a considerable extent by successive notable tions required in order to develop catenary action i.e. the load carrying
incidents such as the collapses of the Murrah Building in 1996 and the mechanism associated with tying are often considerably greater than
WTC Twin Towers in 2001. However, progressive collapse and the asso- the available deformation capacities.
ciated property of robustness have been recognised in some quarters for As the interest in the more scientic treatment of the topic increases,
many decades, with their origin being traditionally dating back to the so the need for a sound understanding of the mechanisms by which pro-
well-known collapse of the Ronan Point building in 1968. Most of the gressive collapse is triggered becomes more important. Research stud-
current formal design approaches to assessing or increasing resistance ies during the past decade have been directed at meeting this need by
to progressive collapse essentially originate as a direct consequence of seeking to move the design basis from prescriptive requirements to ap-
the work conducted in the UK following the Ronan Point collapse [1]. proaches based on understanding, modelling and quantitative assess-
These approaches however, have tended to be of a prescriptive nature ment. Much of the recent work conducted worldwide [e.g. 615] is
since they only impose certain conditions on the basis that their inclu- based on the alternative load path concept. Most frequently, the alter-
sion will ensure better performance than had they been omitted, there- native load path analysis considers the consequences of a threat-
by offering limited capability for assessing the actual level of robustness independent sudden column removal on the surrounding structure. It
possessed by the structure. may incorporate the essential features of the problem such as dynamic
One such common approach for addressing progressive collapse in effects, material and geometric nonlinear effects and interaction be-
steel and composite buildings is through the provision of a suitable tween the various structural and non-structural components. Therefore,
level of tying resistance in the frame components. Tying requirements the alternative load path approach offers the advantage of demonstrat-
aim at enhancing structural robustness by increasing the degrees of ing the actual structural behaviour in a quantitative manner.
continuity, ductility and load transfer capacity. Various forms of the The level of structural analysis used to examine the behaviour of the
tie-force method are addressed in most design codes such as the damaged structure may vary from static applications employing elastic
Eurocodes [2] and recent US Guidelines to robustness [3,4]. By general theory and dynamic load factors to sophisticated numerical approaches
including dynamic effects, second-order geometric effects and inelastic
Corresponding author at: Tel./fax: +357 25 106334. material behaviour [16]. Studies have shown that rather different out-
E-mail address: p.stylianidis@outlook.com (P.M. Stylianidis). comes result depending on which analysis approach is employed [17,

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.istruc.2015.04.001
2352-0124/ 2015 The Institution of Structural Engineers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
138 P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152

18]. Apparently, the more sophisticated the analysis the more represen- Static load-deection analyses may be conducted using convenient
tative the results. However, linear static applications have the advan- methods that incorporate whatever degree of sophistication is consid-
tage of being simple to implement, while sophisticated analyses may ered appropriate. Although advanced nite element models may be
be extremely demanding in terms of computing capability and there- employed, simplied analytical methods are likely to be more suitable
fore unsuitable for routine use. Much of the recent research work on for conducting rapid parametric studies and understanding the me-
the topic involved the use of such computationally intensive analyses chanics of the problem, provided they are capable of addressing suf-
[e.g. 1315]. Although such studies may be useful for identifying specic ciently the basic features of the behaviour.
features of behaviour for further consideration, for the purposes of se- The basic features of beam behaviour following column removal are
curing detailed understanding of the structural response and thus mak- discussed in the next section where it is conrmed that performance de-
ing direct quantitative links between cause and effects, more limited pends to a considerable extent on the behaviour of the connections be-
approaches are likely to be more productive. tween the beam and its supporting members. A mechanical approach
Based on that concept, work at Imperial College London during the for modelling connection behaviour in progressive collapse, which has
past decade has been concerned with the development of an alternative been previously devised at Imperial College [20], is briey described
method for implementing the alternate load path approach in a way next. Based on that mechanical approach, an analytical method for
that all the essential features of the problem are addressed but which modelling the response of steel and composite beams using convention-
does not require unduly complex analysis. The basic framework has al structural analysis principles is developed in the reminder of the
been developed by Izzuddin et al. [19] and it is described in Figs. 1 and paper. It is demonstrated that the new analytical method may effective-
2. It permits reduction of the level of structural representation considered ly address the basic features of behaviour to a similar degree of accuracy
in the analysis as described in Fig. 1, with the responses at higher levels as detailed numerical models. This new development streamlines con-
being assembled from the responses at lower levels based on a simple siderably the necessary analyses, thereby making it possible to conduct
multi-level approach. Whatever the level of structural idealisation, only rapid parametric studies that provide insights into the behaviour of
nonlinear static analysis is required with the dynamic effects being building structures during progressive collapse and facilitates under-
accounted for based on an energy-balance concept as described in Fig. 2. standing of the mechanics of the problem.
For any level of suddenly applied gravity load (Pn = nPo), the maximum
dynamic displacement (wd,n) is determined from the nonlinear static re-
sponse based on the equivalence between the work done by the load 2. Key features of beam response following column removal
and the energy absorbed by the structure as shown in Fig. 2(a) and (b).
By plotting the suddenly applied gravity loading against the maximum The double-span mechanism created by two adjacent beams follow-
dynamic displacement, a pseudo-static (Pwd) curve representing the ing loss of the intermediate column as illustrated in Fig. 3 represents a
maximum nonlinear dynamic response is obtained as demonstrated in simple and commonly used representation of the alternative load path
Fig. 2(c). Therefore, the maximum dynamic displacement corresponding concept for examining beam and connection behaviour. Either the dam-
to the actual gravity load Po can be readily determined from the aged unloaded structure is considered and the gravity loading is then
pseudo-static response. applied, or the intact loaded structure is considered and then notional
The Imperial College method provides, within a simplied frame- column removal is performed. Depending on the position of the re-
work, a complete representation of the progressive collapse phenome- moved column within the frame, a degree of axial restraint may be pro-
non. Essentially, the analysis phase can be limited only to the vided to simulate interaction with the surrounding structure. The
prediction of the nonlinear static responses of the individual beams. double-span beam approach has been adopted in several recent

(b) Multiple-floor system

(c) Single-floor system

Removed column Boundary spring

(a) Full structure / affected structural bay (d) Individual beam systems

Fig. 1. Sub-structural levels for progressive collapse assessment (based on Izzuddin et al. [19]).
P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152 139

P P P

d,1 > 1 d,2 > 2


P = Po
2 Po 2 Po

Dynamic
demand
1Po 1Po

,1 ,2 w ,1 ,2

(a) Dynamic response ( P = 1 Po ) (b) Dynamic response ( P = 2 Po ) (c) Pseudo-static response

Fig. 2. Simplied dynamic assessment and denition of pseudo-static response [19].

numerical and experimental studies of progressive collapse where non- combinations may be seen during the different stages of the response
linear static applications were employed [11,12,2126]. as demonstrated in the typical diagram of Fig. 4(b) [27].
Previous studies have shown that the form of behaviour varies de- At relatively small deections, the behaviour may be enhanced by
pending on the type of the connections employed. Axially restrained compressive arching action as shown in Fig. 4(a). Both the beam axial
beams with semi-rigid or rigid connections suffering column loss exhib- compression and the connection bending moments may reach relative-
it the form of loaddeection response shown in Fig. 4(a) [19,27], ly high values during that stage as shown in Fig. 4(b). The compressive
where the corresponding behaviour in the absence of axial restraint is arching action may be limited by reduction in the stiffness of the con-
also presented. The gure describes the full range of behaviour indepen- nection compression zone due to instability effects as illustrated in
dently of any deformation limits that may be imposed by the available Fig. 3(a). Following a peak in the load carrying capacity (i.e. between
ductility of the connections in practice. The response comprises various points B and C), the effects of arching action gradually decrease and
phases, where different mechanisms are mobilised in each phase to re- the beam axial load becomes tensile in the subsequent stages (i.e. be-
sist collapse. Following the initial elastic phase which essentially resem- yond point D). While transferring from the compressive arching to
bles behaviour under normal loading conditions, the post-elastic the tensile stage, the beam may exhibit an unstable snap-through re-
response (i.e. beyond point B in Fig. 4) is governed by the effects of ma- sponse until a new stable equilibrium position is adopted. Meanwhile,
terial and geometric nonlinearity. the peak of the compressive axial load is associated with a neutrally sta-
As shown in Fig. 3, the support connections are subject to hogging ble compressive arching condition where the load carrying capacity is
bending moments, whereas the mid-span connections are subject to similar to the corresponding capacity in the absence of axial restraint
sagging bending moments after column loss. In the absence of axial re- (i.e. point C).
straint, the response depends exclusively on the bending moment ca- The same effect arises at the end of the compressive arching stage
pacity and rotational stiffness of the connections. In the post-limit when the compressive axial load decreases to zero (i.e. point D). In
phase, the stiffness of the system decreases with decreases in the rota- the subsequent tensile stage, any increase in the deection entails sig-
tional stiffness of the connections due to material yielding or instability nicant increases in the load carrying capacity, as shown in Fig. 4(a),
effects. In addition to the bending moments, the connections are subject due to the axial tension developed in the beam. As the ratio between
to axial forces that are generated in the beams due to the effects of geo- the beam tensile force and the connection bending moment increases,
metric nonlinearity in the presence of axial restraint. Various the bending moment effects become less signicant and connections

Support joint Support joint


Mid-span joint

Removed column

(a) Compressive arching stage

Support joint Support joint

Mid-span joint Removed column

(b) Tensile catenary stage

Fig. 3. Double-span beam condition created by column removal.


140 P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152

Beam gravity load


Compressive Transient Tensile Connection

tic
se arching tensile catenary bending
as
a C
El ph stage stage stage moment

Axially Axially E D
restrained unrestrained
beam beam
B
C D
B
E
A A
Beam deflection Beam axial compression Beam axial tension

(a) Beam nonlinear static load-deflection response (b) Beam axial load - connection bending moment interaction
Fig. 4. Typical forms of beam and connection behaviour following column removal.

undergo extensive tensile deformations. At very large deections (i.e. proposed by Del Savio et al. [28]. Each spring model comprises a set of
following point E), prying action in the connections (i.e. between the rigid bars where each bar is associated with a distinct zone (i.e. ten-
beam compressive anges and the supporting members) may be elim- sion, compression or shear) of the connection connected with linear
inated as illustrated in Fig. 3(b) and tensile catenary action becoming springs that model the behaviour of the various connection components
the principal load carrying mechanism. A comprehensive analysis of and rigid links that transfer the total tensile (FT) and compressive (F C)
the behaviour following column removal is provided elsewhere [27]. forces to the support.
Therefore, some important features of the behaviour are identied: In the method proposed in [20], each spring is modelled based on a
bi-linear force-deformation approximation, where the component char-
Beams may undergo very large deections, resulting in extensive acteristics are determined using the principles of EC3 [29] and EC4 [30].
connection deformations that develop well beyond the elastic range. Important features of the behaviour such as material nonlinearity,
Performance is governed by nonlinear geometric effects. strain-hardening and deformation reversal are accounted for. However,
In the presence of axial restraint, compressive arching and tensile rather more sophisticated characterisation approaches based on tri-
catenary actions are mobilised. linear or multi-linear approximations may also be adopted.
The compressive arching and tensile catenary effects depend on the The proposed method comprises a mechanical approach for assem-
ability of the connections to transmit the axial forces generated in bling the behaviour of the various components to form the overall con-
the beams. nection behaviour at each stage of beam response following column
The beam axial forces may develop disproportionally to the connec- removal. In particular, explicit formulae linking the connection defor-
tion bending moments during the different stages of the response. mations i.e. rotations (, ) and horizontal deformations (u, u) as de-
The support connections of the double-span beam are subject to ned in Fig. 5 with the connection bending moments (M, M) and
hogging bending moments whereas the mid-span connections are beam axial load (N) are provided as follows:
subject to sagging bending moments. Therefore, they may exhibit
quite different responses depending on their type and geometry. 0 0 0 0 0 0
M 1 Nz 1 1 1
The connection compressive components may undergo deformation
reversal following a decrease in the axial compression towards the
end of the compressive arching stage. M 1 Nz1 1 2
A different form of response develops at very large deections dur-
ing the tensile stage when the beams actually exhibit catenary be-
0 0 0 0 0 0
haviour owing to the absence of prying action in the connections. u M 2 Nz 2 2 3

u M 2 Nz2 2 : 4
It is conrmed that the performance of the connections is of crucial
importance for the response of the structures during progressive col-
lapse. Beam behaviour depends to a considerable extent on the ability The parameters i, i and i depend on the properties of the connec-
of the connections to transmit the sorts of loading (i.e. bending mo- tion components and may vary along with variations in the stiffness of
ments and axial forces) generated following an initial damage whilst the components during the analysis. Full details may be found in [20].
delivering the deformations needed to arrest collapse without In the present paper, the addition of a note denotes that the quantity
exhausting their ductility limits. Therefore, a correct description of the is associated with the hogging region (i.e. the region of the support
connection behaviour under the sorts of conditions experienced after connection).
column removal is fundamental for any realistic analysis. Any possible combination between the connection bending mo-
ments (hogging or sagging) and the beam axial load seen during the
3. Modelling of connection behaviour for progressive compressive arching and tensile catenary stages may be accounted for,
collapse analysis with the corresponding different modes of connection deformations
being explicitly modelled. Material nonlinearity is considered in a sim-
By considering the key features discussed in the previous section, plied yet reasonably sufcient manner, thus allowing for a complete
Stylianidis and Nethercot [20] developed a mechanical method for de- representation of the full range of the behaviour up to failure. The re-
scribing the behaviour of bare steel and composite connections during sponse may be traced in a step-by-step fashion using only spreadsheet
progressive collapse. In the case of a double-span beam condition im- calculations. Failure can be determined by comparing the component
posed by column removal, the response is simulated by the spring deformations with the corresponding deformation limits in each step
models shown in Fig. 5, which have been devised based on the concept of the analysis.
P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152 141

Removed column

Shear Compression Tension Tension Compression


zone zone zone zone zone

FC
F' T ' M

N
N

M' FT
C
F'

Component
Rigid link
Support connection Mid-span connection

Fig. 5. Modelling of connection behaviour following column removal.

Support joint Support joint

Removed column Mid-span joint

(a) Double-span beam mechanism


: Beam flexural rigidity
: Beam axial rigidity
: Support axial stiffness
: Support connection stiffness
: Mid-span connection stiffness
: Beam span

(b) Structural representation


: Uniformly distributed load
: Mid-span point load
: Support connection bending moment
: Mid-span connection bending moment
: Beam axial load
: Beam deflection
: Support connection rotation
: Mid-span connection rotation
: Support axial deformation

(c) Component forces and deformations

Fig. 6. Modelling of beam behaviour following column loss.


142 P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152

4. Analytical representation of the beam nonlinear static response 4.1. Connection bending moments
following column removal
Following column removal, the support connections of the double-
Based on the axially restrained double-span beam concept, an ana- span beam are subject to hogging bending moments (M) whereas the
lytical method for describing the nonlinear static response of bare mid-span connections are subject to sagging bending moments (M) as
steel and composite beams following column removal is developed in shown in Fig. 6(c). The bending moment diagram depends both on
this section. Provided the double-span beam structure is symmetric in the connection characteristics and the exural stiffness of the beam
terms of geometry and loading with respect to the centreline of the re- whereas it may also be inuenced by the presence of axial load at rela-
moved column as illustrated in Fig. 6(a), the two individual beams ex- tively large deections. Composite beams exhibit different behaviour
hibit identical independent responses. Therefore, consideration may under sagging and hogging bending moments. Under hogging bending
be given only to half of the structure. Based on this assumption, the moment, the concrete is in tension and it is likely to be cracked,
unloaded structure in its damaged condition is modelled as shown in resulting in a reduction in the axial and exural stiffness of the compos-
Fig. 6(b). ite section. Since this may inuence performance, the model of
The behaviour of the beam section is considered as linear elastic Fig. 6(b) is modied as shown in Fig. 7, where the beam component
and therefore it may be described based on the axial and exural ri- comprises two sections with different stiffness. The uncracked stiffness
gidity. Some effects such as yielding and local buckling are likely to (i.e. EI, EA) is considered in the region of sagging bending moment and
develop only in the vicinity of the connections and therefore they the reduced cracked stiffness (i.e. EI, EA) is considered in the hogging
may be included in the connection modelling, whereas out-of- moment region. The width of the concrete ange may be determined
plane effects, such as lateral buckling, are ignored. Similarly, the be- based on the effective breadth approach of EC4 [30]. The nominal dis-
haviour of the adjacent structure is considered as elastic and, there- tance between zero bending moments may approximately be assumed
fore, the effects of axial restraint are modelled by employing a linear as constant and determined according to the EC4 simplied approach
elastic boundary spring. The stiffness of the boundary spring may ap- by treating the double-span beam structure as a single-span beam sup-
proximately be assumed as the stiffness provided by the structural ported at both ends. The uncracked section modulus can be determined
components in the immediate vicinity of the damaged structure based on the traditional transformed section method with transforming
i.e. the axial stiffness of the beam and the connection on the opposite the effective breadth of the concrete ange to an equivalent breadth of
side of the support connections [8] and/or the exural stiffness of the steel.
intact column sections that support the double-span beam [12]. Al- The bending moments and shear forces can be determined based on
ternatively, it may be assessed based on the forcedeformation the stiffness method and the concept of releasing clamped structures.
ratio obtained from a linear elastic analysis of the neighbouring The nodal forces corresponding to the element loads (i.e. q) of the
structure loaded by axial forces applied in the direction of the equivalent clamped structure are dened as described in Fig. 8. The dis-
double-span beam [11]. However, detailed modelling of the connec- placement modes of the released structure are shown in Fig. 9. For each
tion behaviour, accounting for the effects of material nonlinearity
and the interaction between bending moments and axial forces,
Equivalent
is considered. In particular, the connection behaviour is modelled
clamped
using the mechanical approach described in the previous section [20]. structure
Therefore, the rotational springs shown in Fig. 6(b) actually represent Lh Ls
the detailed spring models of Fig. 5.
Two schemes of gravity loading are considered including uni-
formly distributed load (q) and mid-span point load (P). The internal Fixed-end
qL2h qL2s
forces and component deformations developed following the appli- bending
12 12 moment
cation of the gravity loading are described in Fig. 6(c), where the in-
ternal forces are considered to be positive when acting in the diagram
illustrated directions. Using conventional structural analysis princi-
ples, explicit relationships between the gravity loading (q or P) and
qL2h qL2h qL2s qL2s
the beam deection (w) as well as analytical expressions linking 12 12 12 12
the component forces (i.e. M, M and N) and deformations (i.e. , Fixed-end
and s) with the gravity loading and beam deection are derived. reactions
The set of those analytical expressions forms an explicit method for qL h qL h qL s qL s
describing the complete behaviour. A detailed description of the 2 2 2 2
method is given next.
qL2h qL2s _ qL2h _ qL s
2

12 12 12 12 Equivalent
nodal forces
qL s qL h qL s
+
2 2 2
EI', EA' EI, EA
Lh Ls M0
L Internal
forces
M' Q0
M (Directions
M' (_) M0 indicate
positive sign
(+) M Q0 convention)
Q

Fig. 7. Modelling of composite beams with non-uniform stiffness. Fig. 8. Nodal forces of the clamped structure.
P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152 143

Displacement 2
4EI 0 8EI 24EI 0 24EI qL
mode 1 M 2 w 2 w 11
L L L L 48

Displacement
0 24EI 0 24EI 96EI 0 96EI qL
mode 2 Q 2 3 w 3 w : 12
L2 L L L 4
0

Displacement The set of the above expressions does not include the effects of the
mode 3 beam axial load, but those effects may be incorporated by considering
0 the equilibrium conditions. Based on Fig. 10, the following equilibrium
equations are obtained for each section:
Displacement w 
mode 4 0 qL2 0 L 0
M Q M N 13
8 2 2

Displacement
mode 5 qL2 0 L 0 Nw
M Q M : 14
0 8 2 2

Fig. 9. Displacement modes of the released structure.


The axial load is considered to be applied to the centroid of the beam
cross-section. In composite beams, the centroids of the effective cross-
uniform section, the nal forces are obtained by considering the sum of
sections in the hogging and sagging moment regions are different
the nodal forces caused by the deformations shown in Fig. 9 and the
when cracking of the concrete under tension is considered. Therefore,
equivalent nodal forces dened in Fig. 8:
Z represents the distance between the centroids of the two cross-
2 3 sections. Most likely, the concrete at the mid-span of the beam is subject
4EI0 2EI 0 6EI0 2 3
6 L 2 7 2 3 qL2h to compression, therefore Z is included in Eq. (13) instead of Eq. (14).By
2 0 3 6 h Lh Lh 7 0 6 7 substituting M and M0 from Eqs. (7) and (8) respectively into Eq. (13)
M 6 07 6 12 7
6 2EI0 4EI
0
6EI 7 6 7 6 2 7
4 M 5 6
0
2 7 4 56
0 qLh 7 5 as well as M0 and M from Eqs. (10) and (11) respectively into Eq. (14)
6 L Lh Lh 7 6 7
Q
0 6 h 7 0 6 12 7 and solving each of the resulting equations for Q0, the following expres-
6 0 0 7 w 4 qL 5
4 6EI 6EI 0 12EI 5 sions are obtained:
2 2 h
Lh Lh L3h 2
0 24EI0 0 24EI0 0 96EI 0 0 qL 2N w 
2 3 Q 2 3 w 15
4EI 2EI 6EI 6EI 2 3 L 2
L L 4 L 2
6 L qL2s
6 Ls L2s L2s 7
7 2
3 6 12 7
2 0 3 6 s
6 2EI 4EI 6EI 6EI 7
0 6 7
2 7 6
M 2 7
6 M 7 6 Ls6 7 6 7 6 qLs 7
6 7 Ls L2s Ls 7 6 7 6 7
4 Q 0 5 6
6 6EI 6EI 12EI 12EI 7
7
6 0 7 6 12 7:
4 w 5 6 qLs 7
0
Q
24EI 0 24EI 96EI 0 96EI qL Nw
2 3 w 3 w : 16
6 2 3 7 6 7 L2 L L L 4 L
Q 6 Ls L2s L3s Ls 7 w 6 2 7
6 7 4 5
4 6EI 6EI 12EI 12EI 5 qL
2 2 3 s As compared to Eqs. (9) and (12) respectively, the additional com-
Ls Ls Ls L3s 2
ponents included in Eqs. (15) and (16) represent the effects of the
6
beam axial load.
The shear force at the mid-span of the beam is:
Specifying the exact location of the point of inection can be rather
difcult since it varies along with possible variations in the connection 0 qL
bending moments and the beam axial load during the analysis. Unless Q P: 17
2
it is located very close to either of the connections however, its inuence
on the bending moment diagram is rather insignicant. Therefore, to
simplify the process, a constant point of inection is considered at the
mid-span of the beam (i.e. Lh = Ls = L / 2). Based on this assumption,
Eqs. (5) and (6) are developed as shown next (where, Q does not q
N M0
need to be further considered and it is excluded from the following set
of equations): w/ 2 - Z
M' N
0 8EI 0 0 4EI0 0 24EI0 0 qL2 Q0
M 2 w 7
L L L 48
L/ 2
0 4EI0 0 8EI0 0 24EI 0 0 qL2 P
M 2 w 8 M0 q
L L L 48
M
0 0
24EI 0 24EI 0 96EI 0 qL
0 w/ 2 N
0
Q 2 3 w 9
L2 L L 4 Q0 N
L/ 2
0 8EI 0 4EI 24EI 0 24EI qL2
M 2 w 2 w 10
L L L L 48 Fig. 10. Equilibrium of the system.
144 P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152

By substituting the above expression into Eqs. (15) and (16) and 4.2. Beam axial load
solving the set of the resulting equations for 0 and w0, the following
equations are obtained: The connection bending moments and the axial load generated in
the beam should be in equilibrium with the beam gravity loading.
3 3 2 2 Based on Fig. 10, the overall equilibrium equation is obtained as
0 1 0 1 2 qL 3qL PL PL NwL
w 18 shown next:
2 2 L 192EI 192EI0 48EI 48EI 0 48EI
NL w 
qL2
24EI 0 2 M
0
PLN w M: 24
2
0 L 0 L 1 qL4 3qL4 PL3 PL3
w w 19 By substituting M and M from Eqs. (22) and (23) into Eq. (24), the
8 8 2 768EI 768EI0 192EI 192EI0
following expression that links the beam axial load with the gravity
NL w 
2 2
NwL
: loading and the beam deection is obtained:
192EI 96EI0 2
!
1 qL2
By incorporating the above expressions for and w , Eqs. (7) and 0 0 N 3 q PL 3 P3 25
3 2
(11) are developed as shown next:
where:
0 3EI 0 0 EI0 4EI0 0 0 0
M 2 w q 1 P 2 N 3 20 0 0 0 0
L L L 3 w; 3 ; 3 ; 3 :

4.3. Axial deformation


EI 0 3EI 4EI
M 2 w q 1 P 2 N 3 21
L L L In the presence of axial restraint, the beam section, the axial support
and the connections are subject to axial deformations due to changes in
where: the geometry effects. For calculating the beam axial load, detailed repre-
sentations of those deformations are required. Based on the second-
5 w 
2 0 2 0 0
0 17L EI L 0 5L EI L 0 EI w order approximation shown in Fig. 11, the total axial deformation may
1 ; 2 ; 3
96 96EI 24 24EI 24EI 12 2 be expressed with respect to the beam deection as = w2 / 2 L. There-
L2 EIL2 5L EIL EI w  5w fore, the following equation may be adopted:
1 ; 2 ; 3 :
32 32EI0 24 24EI 0 12EI 20
24
w2 0 a
u u b : 26
2L

Finally, by substituting and from Eqs. (1) and (2) into Eqs. (20) In Eq. (26), u and u represent the horizontal deformations of the
and (21) and solving the set of resulting equations for M and M, the fol- support and mid-span connections (Fig. 5), a is the sum of the axial de-
lowing expressions that link the connection bending moments with the formations of the beam section and the axial support and b is an addi-
beam deection, the beam gravity loading and the beam axial load are tional deformation due to bending of the beam. For consistency, a
obtained: reference line should be assigned in parallel with the beam longitudinal
axis and each of the above deformations should be determined with re-
0 0 0 0 0
M N q P 22 spect to that line. The reference line may be located at any level of the
beam depth.
The deformations of the connections can be determined based on
the connection mechanical approach described in Section 3 [20] using
M N q P 23 Eqs. (3) and (4). The horizontal deformation of each connection de-
pends on the corresponding rotation and the distance between the con-
nection centre of rotation and the line considered as a reference for
where:
assessing the axial deformation of the system. Since the connection
0 rotation depends on the interaction between the applied bending mo-
1 2 ; 1 2
0 ment and axial load, the sign of the connection horizontal deformation
1 2 ; 1 2

0
1 2 ; 1 2 may differ from the sign of the axial load transferred from the beam.

0
1 2 ; 1 2 As noted previously, the behaviour of the beam section and the axial
support is considered as linear elastic. Therefore, the sum of the axial

 
1 0 0 L 3 8EI0 1 z 3EI 0 3 03
1 z 3 z ; 2
a01 1 1
EI L EI
  0 
1 0 4w 8EI w
1 0 1 31 ; 2 1
1 L L L
L 3EI 1 01
0
1 0 1 ; 2
1 EI EI
0 0
L 3EI 2 2
1 0 2 ; 2
1 EI EI
0 0
3 L 8EI 1 3EI 3 L
01 0 ; 01 0 ; :
1 1 EI L EI 1 1 EI Fig. 11. Approximation of second-order geometric effects.
P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152 145

max
Therefore, the total axial deformation is expressed in terms of M, M,
=0 Reference N, w, q and P by incorporating the expressions for u, u, a and b i.e.
N. A. line 1 Eqs. (3), (4), (27) and (30) respectively into Eq. (26).

4.4. Beam gravity loading


Reference
line 2
By substituting M, M and N from Eqs. (22), (23) and (25) respective-
max
ly into the nal expression for the total axial deformation dened in
Section 4.3, an equation linking the beam gravity loading (q and P)
Fig. 12. Beam exural deformation along different reference lines.
with the beam deection (w) is obtained. The resulting equation may
be developed in two ways:
deformations of these components (a) can be obtained using an effec-
By solving the equation with respect to q, the following qw rela-
tive axial stiffness dened as Ka = 1 / (1 / Ks + L / EA) where Ks is the
tionship is obtained:
stiffness of the axial support and EA / L is the axial stiffness of the beam
section (Fig. 6) as follows: 1 3 P
q : 31
2
a N
a: 27
K
By solving the equation with respect to P, the following Pw rela-
tionship is obtained:
The total axial deformation may also be inuenced by the exural
deformation of the beam section. This depends on the level of the line 1 2 q
considered as a reference for dening the total axial deformation. As P 32
3
shown in Fig. 12, no additional deformation due to beam bending
should be considered when the reference line coincides with the where:
beam neutral axis (i.e. Reference line 1). If any other reference line is
2
adopted however (e.g. Reference line 2), the corresponding exural de- w 0 0 0
1 3 2 2 2 2 Y 1
formation of the beam section should be taken into account. 2L 3
In composite beams, the level of the neutral axis is different in the L2 0 0
2 3 2 2 Y 1 Y 3
hogging and sagging moment regions. Therefore, it is not possible to de- 3 2 3
ne a specic line in parallel with the longitudinal axis which is not sub- L 0 0
3 3 2 2 Y 1 Y 4
ject to deformation due to beam bending. Provided the reference line 3 3
coincides with the hogging neutral axis, the corresponding deformation 0 0 0 0 1
2 2 z 2 z2 a Y 1 Y 2 :
due to sagging bending moment should be taken into account. This may K
be approximated as follows:

ZLs
Each of the above load-deection relationships applies to a different
b M x dx: 28
EI scheme of gravity loading. In particular, Eq. (31) links the beam deec-
0
tion (w) with a uniformly distributed loading (q) applied to the beam.
However, it may also consider the effects of a constant point load (P) ap-
Based on Fig. 13, Mx is calculated as: plied to the mid-span of the double-span beam. Clearly, in the absence
2 of mid-span point load (i.e. P = 0), Eq. (31) is simplied accordingly.
qx Nwx
Mx M Px : 29 Similarly, Eq. (32) links the beam deection with a point load (P) ap-
2 L plied to the mid-span of the double-span beam, while it may also ac-
count for the presence of a constant uniformly distributed load (q).
Therefore, Eq. (28) is developed as shown next:

b MY 1 NY 2 qY 3 PY 4 30 4.5. Concluding remarks

where: The set of the equations obtained in Sections 4.14.4 forms an ana-
lytical method for describing the complete static behaviour of axially re-
Ls wL2s L3s L2s strained beams following column removal. The nonlinear load
Y1 ; Y2 ; Y3 ; Y4 : deection response can be accurately traced in a step-by-step fashion
EI 2EIL 6EI 2EI
i.e. using the spreadsheet approach by gradually increasing the beam
The length of the sagging moment region (Ls) may be approximately deection and assessing the corresponding level of gravity loading
taken as L / 2 or calculated precisely during the analysis. using Eq. (31) or Eq. (32). Apart from the loaddeection response,
the beam axial load and the connection bending moments may be
assessed in each step of the analysis using Eqs. (25), (22) and (23) re-
P
q spectively. In addition, the connection deformations can be dened
N using Eqs. (1)(4), thereby making it possible to make direct compari-
Mx sons with the corresponding deformation limits in each step and thus
M' M determine the ultimate capacity of the system. Therefore, a detailed rep-
wx/L w
N resentation of the full range of the response up to failure is developed.
x N Although the method has been based on axially restrained compos-
Ls ite beams, it is also applicable to axially restrained bare steel beams as
L well as composite or bare steel beams with different boundary condi-
tions. Those cases may be covered by applying minor simplications
Fig. 13. Assessment of sagging bending moment. as described next:
146 P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152

When the beam comprises only a bare steel section, a uniform stiff- total depth of the slab is 130 mm. Full shear connection between the
ness should be considered (i.e. equal stiffness in both the hogging steel beam sections and the composite slab is considered and the width
and sagging moment regions). Connection behaviour may still be of the slab is determined based on the effective breadth approach of
modelled based on the mechanical approach described in Section 3, EC4 [30].
by employing suitable connection spring models. More information As shown in Fig. 15(a), the beam-to-column joints of the bare steel
is provided in the corresponding publication [20]. structure consist of ush endplate connections with four rows of bolts.
The behaviour of axially unrestrained beams may be modelled by con- The same bare steel connection arrangements are used as part of the
sidering an innitesimal value for the stiffness of the axial support composite joints employed in the composite structure as shown in
(Ks). In the absence of axial restraint, no axial load should be generated Fig. 15(b), where the slab is intended to contribute to the behaviour.
in the beams and therefore performance should be governed only by The material properties of the various steel components are given in
exural effects. Beams may be considered as axially unrestrained Fig. 15.
when the degree of axial restraint provided by the surrounding struc- The study involves notional removal of the central column as
ture is relatively low, e.g. when the beam is located adjacent to the depicted in Fig. 14. Following column removal, the two internal beams
edge of the frame. will form a double-span beam mechanism while the two adjacent
The behaviour of cantilever beams may be approximated by consider- beams on either side will provide a degree of axial restraint to the sys-
ing innitesimal values for both the stiffness of the axial support (Ks) tem. Various alternative arrangements are considered for each structure
and the rotational stiffness of the mid-span connection (Sj). Some including different combinations of beam span lengths (L), connection
beams may be regarded as cantilevers when, apart from the absence endplate thicknesses (tp) and amounts of connection reinforcement. In
of axial restraint, the degree of rotational restraint provided by one particular, the following combinations are applied:
of the supporting members is relatively low. A representative example
is shown in Fig. 1(d) where the primary beam is modelled as a) Bare steel structure with L = 6 m and various connection endplate
cantilever. thicknesses (i.e. tp = 8, 10, 12 and 14 mm).
b) Bare steel structure with tp = 10 mm and various beam span lengths
(i.e. L = 4, 6, 8 and 10 m).
The proposed method comprises in-plane analyses of the beam c) Composite structure with tp = 10 mm, L = 6 m and various amounts
behaviour following column removal. In effect, progressive collapse of connection reinforcement (i.e. 2, 4, 6 and 8 reinforcement bars).
triggered by the loss of a load bearing member is likely to be a d) Composite structure with tp = 10 mm, 416 connection reinforce-
3-dimensional problem. Owing to the inherent simplications, the pro- ment and various beam span lengths (i.e. L = 4, 6, 8 and 10 m).
posed method is incapable of addressing 3-dimensional effects such as
changes in the effective width or membrane action likely to be generat-
ed in the slab, which may only be simulated by detailed nite element 5.2. Modelling of connection behaviour
analyses [15,31,32]. Although the importance of such effects should be
appropriately appraised, the proper use of simpler analysis tools similar For the set of the above structural arrangements, the mechanical
to the analytical method proposed herein offers several advantages over properties of the connection components are determined based on the
complex and time-consuming detailed analyses as discussed in component method of EC3 [29] and EC4 [30]. Each bolt-row consists
Section 1. of several basic components acting in series, i.e. endplate in bending,
bolts in tension and beam web in tension the columns are considered
5. Verication study as rigid and therefore no consideration is given to the contribution of
the column web in bending. The effective design resistance and elastic
5.1. Layout of the study stiffness of each bolt-row, as dened based on the corresponding prop-
erties of the constitutive components, are given in Table 1. In this study,
The analytical method developed in Section 4 is veried herein against the post-limit stiffness of each bolt-row is dened based on the corre-
detailed numerical models using the nonlinear structural analysis pro- sponding effective elastic stiffness by considering 1% strain-hardening.
gram ADAPTIC [33]. Consideration is given to the substructure shown in The mechanical properties of the connection reinforcement are present-
Fig. 14 which consists of four identical beams carrying a uniformly distrib- ed in Table 2. Similarly to the bolt-rows, the post-limit stiffness is
uted gravity loading (q) and supported by UC305 305 118 steel modelled based on the corresponding elastic stiffness by considering
columns, with the beam longitudinal axes being perpendicular to the 1% strain-hardening.
major axes of the column cross-sections. Two different types of structure Modelling of the compression zone of the bare steel connections and
are considered including bare steel and composite. The bare steel struc- the support connections of the composite structure should account only
ture comprises only UB406 140 39 steel beam sections (i.e. the com- for the behaviour of the beam ange/web in compression which is
posite slab shown in Fig. 14 is excluded) while the composite structure approximated as rigid-perfectly plastic with a design resistance of
comprises the same steel beam sections acting compositely with a com- 660.0 kN. On the other hand, the compression zone of the mid-span
posite slab. The slab consists of reinforced concrete C30/37 cast on a trap- composite connection comprises the concrete slab which is under
ezoidal steel decking. The height of the steel decking is 60 mm and the compression. For simplicity, a constant centre of compression at the

q q q q

Adjacent Adjacent Support Mid-span Removed Beams: UB 40614039


beam connection connection connection column Columns: UC 305305118

L L L L

Fig. 14. Layout of the structure.


P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152 147

90 FC
Br 1 z M
70 F' N
Br 2
70
Br 3 N
70 M' z' F
Br 4
C
6 F'

90 (Dimensions in mm) Support connection Mid-span connection

(I) Connection layout (II) Connection spring models

(a) Bare steel

50
20 Rebar M
60 z FC
F' T
90
Br 1 N Z N
70
Br 2
70 M'
Br 3
70 z' FT
Br 4
C
6 F'

90 (Dimensions in mm) Support connection Mid-span connection

(I) Connection layout (II) Connection spring models

(b) Composite

Beams: UB 40614039 [S355] ; Columns: UC 305305118 [S355] ; Endplates: 400150 t p [S275] ; Bolts: M20 [8.8] ; Rebar: 16 [S460]

Fig. 15. Connection layout and modelling.

mid-thickness of the solid section of the slab is considered in this bolt-row forcedeformation characteristic with respect to the resistance
study however, a rather more detailed approach that accounts for of the bolts. The limits presented in Table 3 are based on the above
the actual depth of the slab in compression based on the distribution criteria, where it is shown that the deformation capacity is limited by
of the stresses may be adopted [20]. failure of the bolts when the endplate thickness is 12 or 14 mm.
Connection failure is dened as the failure of a single connection In the composite structure, failure of the support connections may
component in the tension zone. Most likely, failure of a bare steel be governed by fracture of the reinforcement. Deformation limits are
endplate connection is governed by the deformation capacity of the determined based on the model proposed by Anderson et al. [34], by
most remote bolt-row with respect to the centre of compression. There- considering 10% ultimate strain for the bare reinforcement. For 6 m
fore, the top (i.e. Br 1) and the bottom (i.e. Br 4) bolt-rows are regarded beam span, the limits are given in Table 2. For 4 m, 8 m and 10 m
as the most critical components of the support and mid-span connec- beam span lengths, the deformation capacities of 416 connection rein-
tions respectively. In this study, the bolt-row deformation capacity is forcement are dened as 13.5 mm, 11.0 mm and 7.0 mm respectively.
considered as equal to 100 times the yield deformation on the presump-
tion that the force in the bolt-row does not exceed the tensile resistance
of the bolts. Otherwise, the deformation capacity is determined from the 5.3. Modelling of axial restraint

Table 1 The degree of axial restraint depends on the axial stiffness provided
Mechanical properties of connection bolt-rows. by the neighbouring structure on either side of the double-span beam
Endplate thickness Bolt-row Design resistance Elastic stiffness mechanism. In this study, an axial restraint is imposed by the adjacent
(mm) (kN) (kN/mm) beams and connections as depicted in Fig. 14. Since the behaviour of
8 Br 1 66.1 261.6 both components is considered as linear elastic, the axial support
Br 2 34.4 141.5 may be modelled based on the corresponding effective elastic stiffness
Br 3 34.4 141.5 (i.e. Ks). The axial stiffness of the beam-to-column connections is differ-
Br 4 64.3 255.1 ent when subject to tension or compression. Therefore, different values
10 Br 1 103.2 470.5
Br 2 53.8 264.0
Br 3 53.8 264.0 Table 2
Br 4 100.5 459.8 Mechanical properties of connection reinforcement.
12 Br 1 148.7 720.2
Rebar Design resistance Elastic stiffness Deformation capacitya
Br 2 77.4 425.5
amount (kN) (kN/mm) (mm)
Br 3 77.4 425.5
Br 4 144.7 705.6 216 176.2 212.4 7.0
14 Br 1 183.7 974.9 416 352.3 424.7 13.2
Br 2 105.4 613.0 616 528.5 637.1 13.8
Br 3 105.4 613.0 816 704.7 849.5 14.2
Br 4 182.3 958.0 a
Corresponding to 6 m span.
148 P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152

Table 3 Boundary spring


Deformation capacities of the most critical bolt-rows.

Endplate thickness Deformation capacity (mm)


(mm) Beam elements
Support Mid-span
connectionBolt-row 1 connectionBolt-row 4 L
Support connection Mid-span connection
8 31.8 32.0
10 27.3 27.4
spring model spring model
12 18.8a 19.7a (a) Bare steel
14 10.3a 10.7a
a
Limited by the tensile resistance of the bolts.
Boundary spring Rigid links Concrete flange

are obtained for the compressive and tensile stiffness of the axial sup-
port for each arrangement as shown in Table 4. Beam elements
L
5.4. ADAPTIC modelling Support connection Mid-span connection
spring model spring model
The models employed in the ADAPTIC [33] numerical analyses are (b) Composite
presented in Fig. 16. Due to symmetry, only half of the double-span
beam system is considered. The steel beams and the concrete ange Fig. 16. Finite element beam models.
are modelled by cubic elasto-plastic 2D beam-column elements that
allow for material and geometric nonlinearity. Composite action and
deformation of the bottom bolt-row of the mid-span connection apart
full shear connection between the two components is effected through
from the 10 m beam span case where resistance is governed by failure
a series of rigid links. The spring models shown in Fig. 15 are employed
of the support connection due to rebar fracture. Performance after the
for simulating the responses of the connections. The rigid links included
specied failure points is only of academic interest.
in the spring models are modelled by 2D contact elements while the
In some cases, minor discrepancies are observed at very large de-
various connection components are modelled by 2D elasto-plastic ele-
ections and typically well beyond failure. The analytical method is
ments based on the mechanical properties dened in Section 5.2. The
based on the assumption that the behaviour of the beam section is
axial restraint is approximated by a linear elastic boundary spring
linear elastic, whereas the advanced numerical analyses may ac-
using the effective stiffness values obtained in Section 5.3.
count for nonlinear effects due to yielding and/or local buckling. Al-
though such effects are intended to be described by the connection
5.5. Analyses and results behaviour, yielding of the beam web most likely in the vicinity of
the connections due to the substantial tensile forces developed at
Full descriptions of the behaviour of the different arrangements fol- large deections may indeed result in decreases in the stiffness of
lowing column removal have been obtained by numerical nonlinear the system.
static analyses using ADAPTIC and analytical applications using the pro- An important feature of the proposed analytical method is that it
posed method. The analytical load-deection curves have been deter- is not limited only to the prediction of the loaddeection response
mined using the qw relationship of Eq. (31), by setting P = 0 (i.e. no but it can provide a complete description of performance including
point gravity load is applied to the mid-span of the double-span representations of the behaviour of the various constitutive compo-
beam). Starting from the unloaded condition, a step-by-step analysis nents. Using Eqs. (22), (23) and (25), the connection bending
was conducted for each case using the Excel spreadsheet software, moments (M and M) and the beam axial load (N) have been deter-
where the beam deection was increased by 1 mm and the correspond- mined at each step of the analysis and they are plotted against the
ing gravity loading was assessed at each step of the analysis. The beam deections in Fig. 18. Again, agreement between the results
resulting curves are compared with the corresponding ADAPTIC predic- of the two methods of analysis is excellent and it is therefore
tions in Fig. 17 where it is conrmed that agreement between the two established that the analytical method may address in detail every
methods of analysis is excellent. aspect of performance.
Failure points due to reaching the specied connection deformation Although both methods of analysis are based on similar model-
limits are also predicted with excellent accuracy as shown in Fig. 17. For ling simplications (i.e. they are both in-plane analyses and thus
each bare steel arrangement, the deformation capacity of the support incapable for addressing 3D effects), the potential of describing the
connection is dened as critical. On the other hand, collapse resistance complete behaviour of axially restrained beams using only spread-
of the composite arrangements is dened based on the limit sheet calculations instead of sophisticated nite element software
is a promising advance in studying the mechanics of the problem.
Provided the various formulae are suitably incorporated into a
spreadsheet program, the proposed method may easily be applied
Table 4
Stiffness of axial support.
for rapid examinations of different alternatives. The interplay
between the behaviour of the various components and the inuence
L (m) Ks (kN/mm) of each individual component on overall performance can be
Bare steel frame Composite frame assessed directly by comparing the corresponding results. This is
Compressive Tensile Compressive Tensile facilitated considerably by the faculty of illustrating graphically the
complete set of the results as shown in Figs. 17 and 18. Therefore,
4 261 221 301 250
6 174 143165a 187228b 166197b important aspects of the behaviour such as the effects of the beam
8 131 120 151 137 axial load on the connection response, the physical reasons behind
10 104 97 121 111 the compressive arching and tensile catenary actions and the
a
Depending on the endplate thickness. connection deformation modes likely to govern performance can
b
Depending on the amount of reinforcement. be comprehensively explored.
P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152 149

80 80
q (kN/m) q (kN/m)
70 70
L=4m
60 60 L=6m
tp = 8 mm
50 50 L=8m
tp = 10 mm
40 tp = 12 mm 40 L = 10 m
30 tp = 14 mm 30
20 20
10 10
w (mm) w (mm)
0 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
(a) Bare steel beams with various connection endplate thicknesses (b) Bare steel beams with various span lengths
(L = 6 m) (tp = 10 mm)

80 80
q (kN/m) q (kN/m) L=4m
70 70
60 60 L=6m
216
50 50 L=8m
416
L = 10 m
40 616 40
30 816 30
20 20
10 10
w (mm) w (mm)
0 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
(c) Composite beams with various amounts of reinforcement (d) Composite beams with various span lengths
(L = 6 m, tp = 10 mm) (tp = 10 mm, rebar 4 16)

ADAPTIC Dashed curves: Analytical method Failure defined by ADAPTIC Failure defined by analytical method

Fig. 17. Beam nonlinear static responses.

6. Validation against experimental results restraint is provided by the adjacent frames owing to the rotational stiff-
ness possessed by the adjacent connections of the support joints. The
The proposed analytical method has also been validated against the rotational stiffness of each adjacent connection (Sj) is approximated
results of an experimental study performed at the University of Lige as as 3046.7 kNm based on the elastic stiffness of the bolt-rows and the
part of the collaborative research project on structural robustness re- post-limit stiffness of the reinforcement bars i.e. it is assumed that
ported in [11]. The study adopted the concept of column removal to ex- when the axial restraints are actually activated, the design resistance
amine the behaviour of a composite frame building designed according of the reinforcement bars has already been exhausted owing to exces-
to the provisions of EC4. A substructure was isolated from the frame and sive rotation of the support connection on the other side of the support
tested as shown in Fig. 19(a). It comprises a symmetric double-span joint. Therefore, the adjacent frame provides an axial stiffness (Kj) of
composite beam with a missing column in the middle and an adjacent 2.74 kN/mm which is obtained based on the rotational stiffness of the
system on each side representing the axial restraint provided by the adjacent connection as described in Fig. 19(b). The sum of the axial stiff-
neighbouring structure. Details of the beam-to-column joints are pre- ness provided by the horizontal jack and the axial stiffness provided by
sented in Fig. 20. The same joint congurations were also tested in iso- the adjacent frame yields a total axial stiffness (Ks) of 6.02 kN/mm.
lation against combined loading at the University of Stuttgart [11]. The test involved progressive application of a vertical load to the
The mechanical approach for modelling connection behaviour de- mid-span of the double-span beam system through a vertical jack, as
rived by Stylianidis and Nethercot [20] was validated against the results shown in Fig. 19(a), until collapse of the specimen. The analytical meth-
of the joint tests performed at the University of Stuttgart. In that valida- od developed in Section 4 has been used for simulating performance by
tion study, the mechanical properties of the various components have considering half of the symmetric double-span beam system as shown
been dened based on the actual material properties given in [11]. in Fig. 19(c). For describing the load-deection curve, Eq. (32) which
The properties of the tensile components are given in Table 5. The com- links the mid-span deection with a point load applied to the mid-
pression zone of the support connection which is subject to hogging span of the system has been employed. The analytical prediction is
moment after column loss comprises the beam ange/web and the col- shown in Fig. 21 where it is conrmed that it closely resembles the cor-
umn web in compression. The behaviour of those components has been responding test curve.
approximated by a bi-linear characteristic dened by 290.2 kN design In the test, the reinforcement in the vicinity of the support connec-
resistance, 1283.8 kN/mm effective elastic stiffness and 13.0 kN/mm tion fractured at approximately 615 mm mid-span deection. Although
post-limit stiffness. The centre of compression of the mid-span connec- the system was still able to support some additional load applied by the
tions which are subject to sagging moments after column loss was vertical jack until collapse, the stiffness reduced considerably after the
assumed at the mid-thickness of the concrete slab section in compres- reinforcement loss as shown in Fig. 21. The proposed analytical method
sion based on the rectangular stress distribution assumption. More does not account for the effects of progressive failure of the various con-
details about the connection modelling may be found in the corre- nection components but essentially considers that failure of the most
sponding publication [20]. critical connection component triggers collapse of the system. There-
As shown in Fig. 19(a), two horizontal jacks calibrated so as to exhib- fore, comparison should be limited only to the behaviour up to failure
it a tensile stiffness of 3.278 kN/mm on each side of the substructure of the connection reinforcement. This includes the elastic phase, a plas-
were employed. As described in Fig. 19(b) however, additional axial tic phase governed by exural effects where some gradual gain in
150 P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152

180 180 1250


M' (kNm) M (kNm) N (kN)
150 150 1000
750
120 120 500
90 90 250
60 60 0
-250
30 30 -500
w (mm) w (mm) w (mm)
0 0 -750
0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000
(I) Support connection bending moment (II) Mid-span connection bending moment (III) Beam axial load
ADAPTIC Analytical method: tp = 8 mm tp = 10 mm tp = 12 mm tp = 14 mm
(a) Bare steel beams with various connection endplate thicknesses (L = 6 m)

180 180 1250


M' (kNm) M (kNm) N (kN)
150 150 1000
750
120 120 500
90 90 250
60 60 0
-250
30 30 -500
w (mm) w (mm) w (mm)
0 0 -750
0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000
(I) Support connection bending moment (II) Mid-span connection bending moment (III) Beam axial load
ADAPTIC Analytical method: L=4m L=6m L=8m L = 10 m
(b) Bare steel beams with various span lengths (tp = 10 mm)

400 400 1250


M' (kNm) M (kNm) N (kN)
350 350 1000
300 300 750
250 250 500
200 200 250
150 150 0
100 100 -250
50 50 -500
w (mm) w (mm) w (mm)
0 0 -750
0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000
(I) Support connection bending moment (II) Mid-span connection bending moment (III) Beam axial load
ADAPTIC Analytical method: 2 16 4 16 6 16 8 16
(c) Composite beams with various amounts of reinforcement (L = 6 m, tp = 10 mm)

400 400 1250


M' (kNm) M (kNm) N (kN)
350 350 1000
300 300 750
250 250 500
200 200 250
150 150 0
100 100 -250
50 50 -500
w (mm) w (mm) w (mm)
0 0 -750
0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000
(I) Support connection bending moment (II) Mid-span connection bending moment (III) Beam axial load
ADAPTIC Analytical method: L=4m L=6m L=8m L = 10 m
(d) Composite beams with various span lengths (tp = 10 mm, rebar 4 16)

Fig. 18. Component forces vs. beam deections.

resistance due to strain-hardening is observed and the tensile stage given joint conguration is approximately 10 mm. Based on this defor-
where performance is enhanced by the tensile axial load developed in mation limit, it has been possible to obtain an explicit prediction of fail-
the beams. The analytical prediction represents the behaviour in each ure of the substructure i.e. denoting, in effect, a distinct reduction of
of those phases with great accuracy. its capability for supporting additional loading due to reinforcement
In the relevant validation study reported in [20], which involved an- rupture in the vicinity of the support connection. The failure point de-
alytical representations of the joint behaviour, it was determined that ned based on the analytical process is in good agreement with the cor-
the deformation capacity of the connection reinforcement for the responding experimental prediction as shown in Fig. 21.
P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152 151

Horizontal jack Vertical jack Horizontal jack

1.055 m

1.5 m 4.0 m 4.0 m 1.5 m

(a) Substructure test configuration

K Hj S''j S'j EI', EA' EI, EA Sj S''j N Kj N

1.055 m Adjacent
connection
Support
connection
Mid-span
connection
P/2 h

Adjacent frame
1.5 m 2.0 m 2.0 m Axial stiffness provided by the adjacent frame: K j S''j / h 2

(b) Modelling of axial restraint

P/2

Ks S' j EI', EA' EI, EA Sj


Total axial stiffness provided by the horizontal
jack and the adjacent frame: K s = K Hj + K j
2.0 m 2.0 m

(c) Simplified structural representation

Fig. 19. Test layout [11] and modelling of the structure.

Overall, agreement between the analytical predictions and the test employing suitable modelling approaches and implementing quantita-
results may be regarded as excellent in the sense that the analytical tive comparisons between alternative arrangements rather than relying
method relies on some deliberate simplications and assumptions. on prescriptive rules. A continuing research programme at Imperial Col-
One such simplication is associated with the representation of the be- lege London aims at providing such a facility through the development
haviour of the connection components. Although the simplied bi- of a complete design framework. The present paper presents part of the
linear approximations have been deemed to be effective in describing work conducted on simplifying the analysis required to describe the be-
the basic features of performance [20], more sophisticated simulations haviour of building structures following column removal.
i.e. using tri-linear or multi-linear characteristics may provide more An explicit analytical method for modelling the nonlinear static re-
detailed representations. The mechanical approach for modelling con- sponse of axially restrained steel and composite beams following col-
nection behaviour derived in [20] is sufciently general to allow various umn removal is developed. A detailed description of the derivation
techniques for component characterisation. Therefore, it offers the pos- process including denition of all the necessary assumptions and sim-
sibility of incorporating whatever degree of sophistication is considered plications is provided. The procedure is based on the slope-deection
appropriate. In this regard, the connection characteristics may also be approach which is developed in a way that suitable representations of
developed so as to incorporate explicit representations of failure, thus the connection behaviour during progressive collapse are incorporated
allowing for modelling the effects of progressive failure of the constitu- into the analysis.
tive components on the beam response. The proposed analytical method comprises a set of explicit formulae
that link the imposed beam deection with the beam gravity loading
7. Conclusions and the various component forces and deformations such as connec-
tion bending moments, beam axial load and connection rotations de-
Methods for assessing the susceptibility of building structures to veloped during the different stages of the response. Behaviour can be
progressive collapse need to become more similar to conventional actually traced through an incremental step-by-step analysis using the
structural design in terms of understanding structural behaviour, spreadsheet method, thus allowing for detailed representations of the
full range of the response up to failure to be derived.
Verication studies are conducted based on results obtained from
500
rigorous numerical analyses using ADAPTIC and available tests, where
40 60 Rebar 1 excellent agreement is obtained in all cases. The results conrm that
40 Rebar 2 the proposed method is capable of describing explicitly the rather
40 60 Rebar 3
45 Br 1
8 5 3 8 70 Table 5
Br 2
45 Mechanical properties of the connection tensile components [20].
M20 Component Design resistance Elastic stiffness Post-limit stiffness
30 100 30 (Dimensions in mm)
(kN) (kN/mm) (kN/mm)

Beams: IPE 140 ; Columns: HEA 160 ; Endplates: 160 1608 Rebar row i 54.3 264.6 5.3
Bolt-row 1 144.4 118.7 5.8
Bolt-row 2 144.4 100.1 5.7
Fig. 20. Joint layout [11].
152 P.M. Stylianidis et al. / Structures 3 (2015) 137152

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