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THE BEST-EVER

WHEAT- AND GLUTEN-FREE


BAKING BOOK
Over 200 Recipes for Muffins, Cookies, Breads, and More

MARY ANN WEN NIGER WITH MACE WENNIGER

FAIR WINDS
PRE S S
BEVERLY , MASSACHUSETTS
Text 2005 by Mary Ann and Mace Wenniger

First published in the USA in 2005 by


Fair Winds Press, a member of
Quayside Publishing Group
100 Cummings Center
Suite 406-L
Beverly, MA 01915

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized, in any form
or by any means, electronic or mechanical, without prior permission in writing from
the publisher.

12 11 1009 3456

ISBN - 13: 978-1-59233-131-4


ISBN - 10: 1-59233-131-9

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data available

Cover design by Mary Ann Guillette


Design by Leslie Haimes

Printed and bound in Canada

The information in this book is for educational purposes only. It is not intended to replace
the advice of a physician or medical practitioner. Please see your health care provider before
beginning any new diet or health program.
We dedicate this book to our friends who offered so much

and made this book possible, particularly to Eleanor Kin~

-who helped us so much -with each of these recipes

and pa~es, and to you, our ne-w friends -with

-whom -we no-w share our stories, recipes, and fun.


contents

CHAPTER 1
CHAPTER
2
CHAPTER
3
CHAPTER
4
CHAPTER
5
CHAPTER
6
CHAPTER 7
INTRODUCTION 9

Muffins for Breakfast and Tea 35

Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes 75

Our Daily Breads 101

Sweet Treats: Exquisite Cookies 141

Special Pleasures: Yummy Cakes 179

Fun and Easy to Eat: Desserts to Die For 221

Juicy Endings or Hearty Meals: Lush Pies 245

APPENDIX References and Source Guide for Gluten-Free Baking 267

INDEX 273

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 285

ABOUT THE AUTHORS 287

7
Introduction

Why We Wrote This Book


Why bake? I asked this question to a friend of mine, a book illustrator who
seems to work day and night, yet always has home-baked cookies in a copper
tin for us after a hike in the woods, when we are ready for a hot cup of tea
and a bit of sweet stuff. "To relax in-between," was her answer. There were
no great considerations, just the fun of making and offering home-baked
treats. That's it. That is what this book is about. Through the years my Ph.D.
daughter has turned to baking chocolate chip cookies for a quick fix, a
touch of warmth, of cheer.
If you add the health benefits of the new protein-rich flours I will
introduce you to in this chapter, you will realize that avoiding the glycemic
and dull-tasting wheat flours and choosing to experiment with alternative
flours is an option now thanks to the wisdom and initiative of several flour
missionaries who have brought these new flours to us during the last fifty
years.
This section is packed with information about alternative flours, their
tastes, textures, wheat- and gluten-free properties, and where to purchase
them. It is the first informative writing of its kind to be included in any
cookbook. It provides a unique in-depth list of gluten- and wheat-free flours,
their country of origin, and their health benefits, as well as our personal
recommendations regarding each of the flours.
We attended the first U.S. International Conference on Celiac Disease,
held in Baltimore, Maryland, in June 2000. While there, we buttonholed
vendors of gluten-free flours and sought out detailed information about the
many flours available for purchase in the United States. Thus officially began
our most intensive research. In this book, we offer for the first time the
researched but never-presented-in-full flours that we call alternative flours,
which are better in many ways than wheat, and are fully safe for gluten- and

9
wheat-free children and adults. How exciting for you and for us! This is an
untouched field of unusual flours, which we refer to as "alternative flours"
because we use them as an alternative to wheat.
Recently, we had the privilege of spending a day with friendly, cheer-
ful Bob Moore, the owner and visionary who started Bob's Red Mill in
Oregon-and the new flour revolution along the way. On a Friday afternoon
in late August, when we were in Oregon for a wedding, we stopped in his
retail store, searching rather naively for Bob.
By chance, he had just stopped by. He dropped his packages and warmly
welcomed us and told us his story in a humble way that belied his position as
the head of a huge company. It is a cause that has persisted in spite of a fire
that demolished his buildings. Inspired by a Biblically-based conviction of the
wholesomeness and holiness of baking breads, he single-handedly reached
out to the world for their grains to offer his customers.
Moore's story is that he was retired when he read a library book about an
old stone grain mill in New Hampshire. Inspired, he and his sons brought old
milling stones from all over the United States to his barn in Oregon, where
his business of stone-grinding grains to preserve every nutritious particle was
begun. Today, you can order all the grains we introduce you to from them
online or from their catalogue. Moore anticipates offering gluten-free oats
soon. Presently, he packages and stores oats in his gluten-free building, but
he cannot yet guarantee that his oats are grown alone, without other grains.
(Bob Moore suggests approaching the Quaker Oats Company for gluten-free
oats, since their suppliers are vast farms of oat growers.) The same friendly,
open spirit can be tapped at the Bob's Red Mill customer hotlines. Many
recipes in this book were adapted from recipes sent to us by Bob's Red Mill.
There are other companies that offer alternative flours and good advice,
including Ener-G Foods in Seattle, Washington, and Arrowhead Mills in
Hereford, Texas.
While we researched and tasted flours, we experimented with baked
goods. Our experiments yielded wonderful baked goods, which we offer in
the chapters that follow.
Read on for basic principles for successful wheat- and gluten-free
baking, including tips regarding utensil selection, stirring, pan preparation,
presentation, and storage of these fragile baked goods. Sources of gluten-free
flavoring are offered. We also give information about the binders that hold
gluten-free baked goods together such as guar and xanthum gums, gelatin,
applesauce, and mayonaise.
In the early days of our gluten-free baking experimentation, we used rice
flour without any binders. Our results were disappointing. Our baked
breads, cookies, cakes, and muffins were bland tasting and fell apart at a

10 Introduction
touch. We researched additives that would make gluten-free baked goods
hold together. In this section, we share our findings with our readers. We
started by using gelatin and methyl cellulose as binders. We finally heard
about xanthan gum, a root product that bakers use in cookies. Later, we
learned about another binder, guar gum. Experiments with different types of
gums produced a variety of textures in our baked products. Guar gum pro-
duces a spongy texture and is particularly useful in cakes. Xanthan produces
a stretchy texture, making it best to use in breads. We use xanthan gum in
most of our baking.
For years, we had to mail order both gums from a baker's supply house
in California, because local retailers did not stock them. Shipping was time
consuming and costly. Today, much to our relief, these two gums are available
at most health food stores, as is carrageenan, a seaweed derivative that also
works as a binder.
Baking is an art as well as a science. We invite you to experiment with
the additives, flours, herbs, spices, and toppings, always keeping in mind that
the smells and crusts on baked goods are 80 percent of the offering.

Gluten-Free Ingredients
This is an exciting time to be interested in baking, with the new heightened
awareness of the deleterious health effects of refined white breads. A wide
variety of healthful, tasty grains are now sold in supermarkets, including rice,
soy, quinoa, teff, barley, corn, tapioca, millet, and amaranth, which are stun-
ningly low in carbs. These grains are full of protein, easy to bake with, and
truly delicious.
Bread machines can help take the work and supervisory time out of
homemade breads. But we think there is nothing like being hands-on with
your baking, especially with gluten-free flours. They do not require kneading,
just stirring, and not much of that. Baking breads with gluten-free flours is
faster than wheat-flour baking. Everything happens more quickly since there
is only minimal rising possible with these grains. So it is fun to do the whole
thing from start to finish, as easily as making a meat loaf.
Today, you can be creative in your baking. You will get to know these
flours, their characteristics, and interchange them in recipes or make up your
own as you catch on to the basic principles involved. We hope that we will
open these doors for you and draw you away from the sameness of the white
flours that celiacs have been tied to by commercial gluten-free bakers and
many recipe books. The textures and whole grains of the various new flours
will seem so much more healthy and tasty, with more protein and less carbs
than rice and tapioca and potato flours.

11
Sweet-enhancing spices such as allspice, anise, caraway, cardamom,
cinnamon, cloves, cumin, ginger, mint, and nutmeg are found in every
supermarket. Using seeds such as flax, poppy, dill, and sesame changes flavor
and adds texture.
Pure alcohol extracts (such as almond, walnut, hazelnut, and vanilla),
made without gluten-based additives, are available, as are alcohol-free
flavorings.
Liqueurs, wines, and spirits (rum and brandies) add flavor to wheat-
and gluten-free desserts. Whiskey, bourbon, and other distilled alcoholic
beverages without gluten-based additives are gluten-free because distilled
alchohols have their gluten and wheat proteins cooked away.
We love our newfound grains: wheat-free and gluten-free, these low-
carbohydrate grains are healthful and much richer and more satisfying than
the pasty wheat products. These lusty, interesting alternative grains have
come onto the shelves of supermarkets and health food stores during the last
ten years. Some grains contain gluten, like wheat, rye, barley, kamut, and
spelt, and must be avoided by celiacs, people with gluten intolerance. Grains
such as amaranth, quinoa, rice, teff, soy, corn, tapioca, buckwheat, and potato
flours are gluten-free as well wheat-free-these are the grains now being
purchased by bakers who are not only looking for new textures and subtle
flavors, but are also seeking to avoid wheat and gluten.
A New Hampshire bakery that I love to visit, recently advertised gluten-
free spelt bread. "Wrong, wrong, wrong!" we shouted. This is what can befall
unknowing celiacs. I practically stamped my feet. When we confronted the
owner, she said the folks in Brattleboro, Vermont, who grew and marketed
the spelt claimed it was gluten- and wheat-free (which is not true). Spelt, a
variety of wheat, is neither wheat- nor gluten-free. The point of this tale is
that we celiacs must educate ourselves about the properties of each grain on
the market. I will try to do so here in this book, but you must continue your
own investigations, taking note of what you like best.
Remember, these grains are a bit tricky to bake with, since they toughen
easily with too much handling. Without gluten, which aerates and suspends
cells so baked goods become light, I have found it important to hardly stir
my products and to prepare everything ahead (toppings, oven, baking pans,
timer, etc.) so baked goods can be popped immediately into the oven once
mixed.
Gluten also serves as the binder that holds baked goods together and
makes them rise. Today, the special additives that work as binders, which are
used in these recipes to hold together our muffins and breads, are available at
most health food stores. These binders-guar gum and xanthan gum-are
made from plants.

12 Introduction
Celiac Disease versus Wheat Allergy versus
Wheat or Gluten "Sensitivity"
CELIAC DISEASE
Celiac disease is a genetically based au toimmune disorder. People with celiac
disease must avoid gluten, a protein found in all varieties of wheat, including
spelt, kamut, and triticale, and derivatives of wheat, as well as rye and barley.
(It may be noted that actually, gluten is found only in wheat, not rye or
barley. However, since rye and barley also have harmful proteins similar to
wheat's, celiac patients have arbitrarily designated any protein in any grain
that is harmful to celiac patients as "gluten.") If gluten is ingested by a
person with celiac disease, his immune system will attack his villi, the finger-
like projections that line the small intestine. When the villi are damaged, the
intestine cannot adequately absorb nutrients. Anemia, osteoporosis, diarrhea
or constipation, unintentional weight loss, neuropathy, lymphoma in rare
cases, and other serious conditions may result. The remedy is simple: a
gluten-free diet.
Gluten is a protein found in wheat that provides elasticity to wheat-flour
dough when kneaded or mixed. The proteins of rye and barley do not have
this elasticity, which traps gas that is released when yeast ferments or when
leavening agents such as baking powder act. Gluten allows batter to rise and
yet still hold together. Grains such as amaranth, quinoa, rice, millet, buck-
wheat, soy, corn, and tapioca and potato flours are gluten-free as well as
wheat-free.

WHEAT ALLERGY
Though relatively uncommon, some people have a true wheat allergy (an IgE
mediated allergy) and must avoid wheat in all of its forms (cracked wheat,
farina, graham flour, semolina, wheat bran, wheat germ, wheat germ oil,
wheat starch, whole wheat flour, white flour, wheat stabilizers, durum wheat,
matzo meal, etc.) as well as kamut, spelt, and triticale. If you are avoiding
wheat, watch out for other products derived from wheat.
Like other allergies, a wheat allergy may appear as a respiratory response
(wheezing), a skin rash, or gastrointestinal upset. These people can use
gluten-free flours, and if they have no reason to believe they are also allergic
to rye or barley, they can use those grains as well. This type of allergy can be
determined by clinical testing.

13
WHEAT OR GLUTEN IISENSITIVITYII
Some people who have tested negative for celiac disease or a wheat allergy
may have a self-reported sensitivity to wheat- and/or gluten-based products.
They may experience headaches or feel sleepy or bilious when they eat wheat
or gluten. These individuals may be able to tolerate small amounts of wheat
or gluten. (Barley and rye are technically wheat-free but may contain the
offending protein causing the wheat sensitivity.) A trial period of removing
the grains from the diet, along with careful tracking of symptoms, preferably
under medical supervision, is the best way to tell.
Those with wheat sensitivity typically follow a wheat-free diet, using the
gluten-free grains as well as barley and rye. Those individuals with gluten
sensitivity will typically follow the gluten-free diet, avoiding all wheat, rye,
barley, kamut, spelt, triticale, and any other form of wheat or gluten. They
mayor may not choose to eat oats, which are slightly genetically removed
from wheat, rye, and barley.
Whether you have celiac disease or wheat allergy, be aware that cross
contamination with wheat- or gluten-containing grains can occur during
harvesting, processing, food transportation, or food preparation. People
avoiding gluten or wheat must be vigilant. If you are in doubt about the
safety of a product, do not use it.

THE OATS ISSUE


Good old-fashioned oats are inherently gluten-free in themselves; this fact
is-as of lOOS-accepted and celebrated, but with caveats. Noted nutrition-
ists have summarized the current findings as follows: Based on numerous
studies both in Europe and in the United States on adults and children, it
appears that the majority of people with celiac disease can tolerate oats.
However, it has been generally recommended that individuals with celiac
disease avoid oats, due to potential cross contamination with other grains
that can occur if the oats are grown in agricultural fields near wheat, and
during milling or processing alongside gluten-containing grains. Another
concern involves those people with a true oat allergy or the small percentage
of people who may react, as with celiac disease, to the oat protein itself,
although these occurrences tend to be rare.
At the writing of this cookbook, some celiac support groups and some
celiac medical centers have not yet completely accepted the use of oats in the
gluten-free diet, although most have. For example, the Celiac Disease Center
at Columbia University recommends that those with celiac disease who wish
to add oats to their diet do so only when they are stable on their gluten-free
diet and have negative celiac antibodies. Furthermore, the oats must come
from a facility that processes only oats, so there is no danger of cross

14 Introduction
contamination. Close monitoring by a physician is recommended for celiacs
who eat oats.
If you are interested in broadening your healthful possibilities, read on.

All about Alternative Grains


THE WONDERFUL STORY OF GRAINS
So old, and yet many are so new to us-a huge bounty of alternative grains is
available from all over the world today thanks to the fortitude of many grain
explorers and the use of the Internet and international trade. It amazes me
what grains are available for restricted diets and how terrific they taste, feel,
and smell. I recommend them not as a wacky fad food, but as newfound
gold, wonderful for everyone. If you want a lot of energy, try these protein-
powered grains.
"What exactly is a grain?" we asked. Grains are plants in the grass family
that bear fruits that we call kernels or grains, which are covered with a hard,
thin, dry skin, unlike culinary fruits, which have soft, thicker, succulent
skins. Where do grains come from? To cite a few places, Europe-barley,
oats, rye; Africa-sorghum, millet, teff; Asia-rice; United States-corn,
Indian grass, sorghum. The cereals, or grains, are milled, or ground, to
produce flour. Historically, grains were milled between two large stones that
moved in opposite directions, powered by animals or even windmills.
Stone-ground flours are considered the best because they are full of nutrients.
There are small and medium-size flour manufacturers that take great pride in
producing stone-ground grains!
To explain it more technically, we will discuss plant taxonomy. We
learned that taxonomy is the systematic arrangement of plants according to
major groups and is referred to in studying grains. The plant species known
as grass contributes most grains to the world and, even without considering
wheat, the majority of flours available to the gluten-free baker are from
grasses. Rice and corn are grasses. Sorghum, millet, amaranth, flax, quinoa,
tapioca, and teff are members of the grass family that are closely related to
rice and corn based on taxonomy. Based on several protein studies, these
grains have been determined safe for a gluten-free diet.
Grains distantly related to wheat, such as buckwheat, which is akin to
rhubarb, as well as quinoa and amaranth are also considered safe for use in
a gluten-free diet for folks with a wheat allergy or sensitivity. Montina, or
Indian grass, is another new gluten-free product that came on the market
recently. Now that the door has opened, I am sure there will be others.
I think you will have a wonderful time discovering each grain, its history,
and its gift to us.

15
Grain Composition
An explanation of how grains are made up might help you understand the
products you find in markets. All grains are composed of several layers. Most
come from grasses and are the grindable, edible seeds of those grasses. The
grain kernel has four parts:
1. Husk-The outer layer, or husk, is generally inedible and usually removed
by various methods, ranging from sophisticated winnowing machines to
the more primitive tossing the grains in the air and letting the wind blow
away the chaff. After the outer layer is taken away, what is left is the whole
grain, which is totally nutritious and delicious when cooked.
2. Bran-The next layer is the bran. It is the prime source of insoluble fiber
and is rich in vitamins and minerals.
3. Germ-The germ, or embryo of the seed, lies beneath the bran. When
seeds germinate, this is the part that grows. The germ is rich in enzymes,
protein, minerals, fat, and vitamins.
4. Endosperm-If we polish off the bran layer and the germ, we are left with
the starchy center, or endosperm. The endosperm layer gives us the flours,
readily assimilated carbs. Gluten-free flours such as quinoa,
amaranth, millet, and teff are exceptionally high in protein and higher in
fiber than some of the refined gluten-containing flours. Hypoglycemics
avoid endosperm carbohydrates in their diets. These carbohydrates too
quickly push blood sugars into the system raising the blood sugar levels.
This quick rise in blood sugar levels is followed by a quick drop in blood
sugar levels. This cycle leaves one feeling drained.

The Reason We Combine Several Different


Flours in Our ReCipes
We combine different cereal grain flours with bean and nut flours for texture
and taste but most importantly for nutrition. When cereal flours like rice,
corn, quinoa, teff, and so forth, are combined with bean flour, soy flour, or
nut flour, they make a full and complete protein with all the essential amino
acids equal to the protein found in meat! These are dynamite foods, not just
baked goods.
The following basic gluten-free flour mixture can be made ahead and
stored for handy access. However, to vary taste and texture, I prefer to use
different gluten-free flours, interchanging them as availability and taste
dictate.

16 Introduction
Gluten-Free Flour Mixture
21/2 cups (400 g) rice flour
1 cup (160 g) potato starch flour
1 cup (120 g) tapioca flour
1/2 cup (65 g) cornstarch
1/2 cup (70 g) bean flour (either soy or garbanzo and/or fava bean flour)
2 tablespoons xanthan gum

HoW" Do You Make Really Good Baked Goods


Using These Alternative Flours?
Use additives! Many of our recipes contain eggs. The eggs help hold baked
goods together. Egg replacement products such as that made by Ener-G
Foods are suggested if you are egg-sensitive. We found that eggs are essential
in gluten-free baked goods. Better'n Eggs (98 percent egg white) is another
gluten-free (and cholesterol-free) alternative to whole eggs that gives cakes an
extra lift. We are just beginning to experiment with this product. If you cook
vegan, you can use xanthan gum or guar gum as a substitute for eggs and
gluten to hold breads, muffins, and cakes together. I also find that apple-
sauce, honey, molasses, mayonnaise, yogurt, and sour cream work well as
binders if you don't have the gums on hand.
Without gluten to hold your gluten-free breads and muffins together, it
will be important to stock up on one of the binders discussed below. Two
additives now available at health food stores are xanthan gum and guar gum.
These can also be ordered by mail from Ener-G Foods (see appendix for
address) .

XANTHAN GUM
This is a powder made from the dried cell coat of the microorganism
Xanthomonas campestris that has been fermented with corn sugar. Bakers use
it, even when baking wheat products, because it ensures that the baked prod-
uct holds together. Xanthan gum does not affect the taste of the baked good.

GUAR GUM
This is a powder made from the seed of the Cyamopsis tetragonobus plant.
As defined in Webster's, it is made from the ground endosperm of guar seeds.
Guar gum is used as a thickening agent and provides sizing. It can be added
to any muffin or bread recipe.

17
Baking Tips
Cream your fats with sugar when you can. This makes lighter products.
Cakes that begin with a creamed butter-and-sugar mixture are light and
tender.
Don't omit salt. Salt has a strengthening effect on proteins. In dough, it
gives support and structure to the product. This is particularly important
in free-form baked goods: scones, muffins, shortbreads, and cookies.
Be careful how you mix salt with yeast, because it can kill the yeast. Salt
should be added to a yeast batter only after being well stirred into dry
ingredients (flour, etc.).
Solid fats such as butter and vegetable oil shortening act as leavening in
baked goods (such as cakes) when creamed with sugar. The granular qual-
ity of sugar helps it to trap air as it is "smashed" into soft butter while
creaming. What happens is that fat molecules hold air in the batter and
expand when the heat of the oven reaches them.

Special Characteristics of Alternative Flours


1. Interesting flavors. Alternative grains are varied in taste. Some, like buck-
wheat, teff, and quinoa, taste nutty. Some, like barley and corn, are sweet,
and some, like soy, taste bitter. Rice, tapioca, and potato flours are neutral
and may be used to dilute strongly flavored flours. Hazelnut flour com-
bines well with the coarse textures of alternative flours such as quinoa and
amaranth. Corn bakes well by itself, without added flours, when mixed
with eggs and butter to make rich corn breads.
2. Stickiness. When you use alternative flours, the dough will be sticky and it
becomes heavy fast. It is helpful to mix all wet ingredients together, blend
all dry ingredients, then combine the wet and dry at once, hardly stirring,
just until the dry ingredients are moistened by the wet. When using rice
flour, you have to be careful not to overbeat the dough, because it will
become very moist and heavy. Bread machines, if used, should have the
second kneading function turned off.
3. Fragility. Baked products dry out quickly. Refrigerate them to keep them
fresh longer.

18 Introduction
Alternative Grains and Grain Flours
(Wheat-Free and Gluten-Free)
AMARANTH FLOUR
This ancient Aztec grain, about half the size of millet, is loaded with protein,
iron, calcium, phosphorous, and fiber. Amaranth flour has a strong, wild
flavor and it has a high starch content and acts like a binder because it is
mucilaginous (gluey). It combines well with other flours to make superb,
finely textured baked goods. It is also used in breakfast cereals and milled
into flour for pastas, muffins, and breads.
Amaranth is not a cereal grass. It comes from an annual related to
spinach and Swiss chard. It is maroon in color with shaggy heads containing
millions of tiny seeds. Its protein content is 18 percent. Amaranth has a high
starch content and is higher in iron and calcium than conventional grains.
The amaranth germ and seed coat has a lot of oil, minerals, and protein.
Amaranth is available in Asian markets and is now grown in Nebraska and
Colorado.

BUCKWHEAT FLOUR
This grain is not a member of the wheat family at all. Buckwheat is actually
the fruit of an herbaceous plant related to rhubarb, a little like amaranth. Its
edible seeds are used as a cereal grain. It comes closer to the density of
animal protein than any other plant product. Buckwheat has huge amounts
of thiamine, riboflavin, calcium, and phosphorus. It is amazingly high in
protein, contains a small amount of fat, and is high in B-complex vitamins,
especially vitamins Bl and B2. It is known as a blood-building food because
eating it neutralizes toxic acidic wastes.
Buckwheat flour is milled from whole toasted buckwheat. It is heavily
textured and strongly flavored, slightly bitter. Its delicious nutty taste is good
in buckwheat pancakes when combined with other gluten-free flours.
Commercially processed buckwheat pancake flour mix is not safe for
celiacs because it is combined with wheat flour. We discovered this fact when
I made pancakes with it and my husband had an adverse reaction to it. You
can make safe buckwheat pancakes by mixing rice flour and buckwheat flour
with eggs for your own gluten-free mix (see recipe in chapter 2).

BUCKWHEAT GROATS
Buckwheat groats are dehulled, unroasted buckwheat. Groats are used to
make kasha and cereals. There are also oatmeal groats, so don't get confused.
Buckwheat groats are okay for celiacs. Generally, buckwheat groats are

19
soaked overnight. I recommend toasting groats before using them. They can
be cooked in ten minutes for use in salads or muffins. I put groats in my
gluten-free granola, where they add to the flavor and aroma.

INDIAN RICEGRASS
Dr. David Sands, a faculty member at Montana State University, began
searching for crop alternatives in the 1990s. During his studies, he identified
a perennial native grass called Indian ricegrass. Testing the seed produced
from this rugged plant revealed a high level of protein and fiber, and most
significantly, it was found to be gluten-free.

MILLET
Millet, one of the oldest grains known to man, originated in East Asia, where
it was a dietary staple until the Tang Dynasty (618-907cE). Millet was grown
in northern China, and rice was the predominant grain of southern China.
Millet also flourished in the Roman Empire. It is now grown extensively in
Colorado.
Millet is a grass plant that has numerous small seeds on each grain.
The smallest of cereal grains, this tiny yellow seed has the most complete
protein (6 percent to 11 percent) and significantly more iron than any other
cereal grain.
It is gluten-free; high in carbohydrates; and very rich in amino acids,
phosphorous, and B vitamins. It has a high alkaline content, so it is easy to
digest. If cooked with a tiny bit of water, it fluffs like a light pilaf. Use more
water, and it cooks up to be like mashed potatoes. The edible seeds are eaten
most commonly in cereals or as a side dish, similar to rice. The seeds are
milled into flour, which you can use for breads and muffins. Sweet tasting
when fresh, millet quickly gets rancid.
Our favorite way to eat millet is in a waffle made with buckwheat flour
too. It is also delicious in cookies, pancakes, and muffins.

OATS
Oats are high in carbohydrates, with 13 percent protein and 7.5 percent fat,
and they are a good source of calcium, iron, vitamin Bl, and nicotinic acid.
Oat flour is commonly used in breads, cereals, granola, and other baked
products. Rolled oats are made from flattened kernels with the hulls removed
and are used in oatmeal. Oat groats, used in breakfast cereals, are kernels
with the husks removed.
As previously stated on page 14, oats are inherently gluten-free. However,
it has been generally recommended that individuals with celiac
disease or wheat allergy avoid oats, due to potential cross contamination with
gluten-containing grains. Only uncontaminated oats (Le., oats processed and

20 Introduction
packaged in totally wheat- and gluten-free environments) can be considered
to be gluten-free.

OAT FLOUR
Please read oats disclaimer on page 14. Celiac groups claim only uncontami-
nated oats can be considered to be gluten-free. However, our celiac, Mace,
has been eating oatmeal daily from Quaker Oats and McCann's with no bad
effects at all.
Oat flour is high in protein and rich in vitamins as well as calcium,
iron, and phosphorous. Oat bran is the edible outer covering of the whole
oat groat.
Oat flour is now deemed by many celiac research centers as gluten-free if
it is grown and processed in a gluten-free environment (see page 14). The
natural antioxidant in oats makes baked goods made with oat flour stay fresh
longer. Oat flour is sweet, so it is wonderful in breads and pancakes.

QUINOA FLOUR
This is our favorite flour, with its subtly sweet yet nutty flavor. It comes from
a leafy plant relative to lamb's quarters, with goosefoot-shaped leaves. Quinoa
is grown in the mountains of Peru and Bolivia. This grain dates back several
thousand years. It was crucial to the Inca diet. The name quinoa, pronounced
"keen-wa," is Incan for "mother grain. "
Quinoa is classified as a leafy grain, similar to amaranth and buckwheat.
It has almost double the protein content of hard spring wheat (durum),
which has the most protein of all wheat germs. Quinoa is widely used in
breakfast cereals and pastas, as a side dish, and ground into flour for baking.
Quinoa is called the super grain. The World Health Organization says
quinoa has closest to the ideal protein balance of any grain, being equal to
milk in protein quality. Quinoa is also high in B vitamins, iron, zinc, potassi-
um, calcium, and vitamin E.

SORGHUM FLOUR (A GLUTEN-FREE MEMBER OF THE GRASS FAMILy)


Grown in hot climates such as Africa and India, sorghum is a grain of many
names: milo, durra, shallu, kafir corn, Egyptian corn, great millet, and Indian
millet; and in India, it is known as jowar, cholam, and jonna. Sorghum ranks
fifth in the world's cereal crop production. It thrives in hot, arid climates. In
Africa, it is eaten as a fresh vegetable, much as we eat corn on the cob in the
United States.
Best known for its original use as animal feed in the United States,
sorghum is quickly becoming a popular flour for baked products such as
breads, pizza crust, and cereal. Sorghum contains large amounts of carbohy-
drates; 10 percent protein; 3.4 percent fat; calcium; and smaller percentages of

21
iron, vitamin Bl, and nicotinic acid. It is often used in combination with
other, lighter gluten-free flours because of its dense quality and somewhat
sweet and nutty flavor. The grain itself can also be ground into meal for
porridge, cakes, and flat breads. We make wonderful currant scones with pure
sorghum. (See "Sorghum Scones" on page 66.)

TEFF
Teff is the smallest grain in the world. It is a leafy cereal grain similar to
millet. Teff was grown in isolation in the windswept Simien Mountains at the
source of the Nile in Ethiopia until King Haile Selassie was overthrown in
1974. The Ethiopian government discourages teff's cultivation, but due to
the initiative Wayne and Elizabeth Carlson, who worked for the Red Cross
in Ethiopia, teff is now grown at their ranch in Caldwell, Idaho, and sold as
flour or grains. Teff flour is used for the baking of enjera, traditional
Abyssinian flat bread. Enjera is a porous, soft, thin crepe with a slightly sour
flavor. Enjera is decorative flat bread that becomes plate, fork, knife, and
spoon to Ethiopians in that they enjoy eating with it, using pieces of the
enjera to scoop up portions of the spicy stew called wot, the companion to
the enjera.
Teff is delicious. It tastes like hazelnuts. Teff is gluten-free and wheat-free.
Nutritionally, it is a powerhouse. Teff is rich in phosphorous, magnesium,
copper, zinc, calcium, and manganese. Teff's iron content is three times
greater than wheat's. According to experts, a daily intake of one teff enjera
supplies enough essential amino acids to sustain life without another protein
source. Most common teff is brown, but red and ivory varieties are available.

Bean and Legume Flours


(Wheat-Free and Gluten-Free)
The following bean derivative high-protein flours are unique tasting and are
best used in combination with other gluten-free flours for baking and
cooking. They add great texture and nutrition to baked goods; however, they
should be used in conjunction with other flours (not more than one-third
bean flour). In recipes in this book calling for bean flour, you may use
garbanzo, fava, or a blend of both flours unless a particular bean flour is
specifically designated.

FAVA BEAN FLOUR


Fava bean flour is made from the fa va bean. It is bitter before baking. It is
often combined with garbanzo bean flour and yields an excellent texture and
taste.

22 Introduction
GARBANZO BEAN FLOUR (CHICKPEA FLOUR)
This flour is made from chickpeas that are toasted and then milled. Garbanzo
bean flour is wheat-free and gluten-free. Garbanzo bean flour is often com-
bined with rice flour to make baked goods more protein-rich. Garbanzo flour
is mucilaginous; hence, it makes a good thickener in soups and sauces.

SOYA GRANULES
Soya granules are nutty nuggets of toasted soybeans that taste great when
added to muffins. Soya granules add a hearty, rough texture reminiscent of
old-fashioned whole wheat.

SOY FLOUR
Soy flour is generally light tan in color with a "beany," slightly bitter flavor,
which we like a lot. Soy flour is a fine-powdered flour very high in protein
and phytoestrogen. It can be used for a variety of products, such as breads,
rolls, doughnuts, cakes, and pancake and waffle mixes. Due to its strong fla-
vor, soy flour is best used in combination with other gluten-free flours.
Soy is produced from the same soybean plant as tofu. According to one
source, Arrowhead Mills, soy flour is higher in fat than other flours, lower in
carbs than other flours, and it is an excellent source of protein.
Soy has what might be called an assertive flavor. Generally, in baking, it is
used conservatively with only half of the total flour being soy. If more is used,
the baked product might get tough. We combine it with tapioca, rice, and
amaranth flour.

Corn Flours (Wheat-Free and Gluten-Free)


CORN FLOUR
Corn, also known as Indian corn or maize, exists in many varieties and is a
staple carbohydrate of the gluten-free diet. Corn flour is used to make cere-
als, pastas, breads, and tortillas. Hominy (hulled kernels), masa (a type of
dough used in Latin American tortillas), grits, polenta, and griddlecakes are
made with corn.

CORN GRITS
Corn grits are coarsely ground from white or yellow corn and are often used
in corn breads and casseroles.

23
CORNMEAL
Cornmeal comes as both yellow and white meal and can be used alone or
combined with other flours to prepare Mexican dishes. Due to its lack of
elasticity, corn is generally not used to make leavened yeast breads. It is great,
however, in baking-powder breads. We recommend using yellow cornmeal
for preparing the recipes in this cookbook. Yellow cornmeal is milled from
yellow corn and is used for making breads and polenta.

CORNSTARCH
Cornstarch is a refined product made from white corn. It is used in
combination with other flours such as tapioca for baking. It is also great
as a thickener. I use it to thicken pies and gravies.

POPCORN FLOUR
Popcorn flour is full of flavor and is similar to cornmeal. Popcorn flour is
best combined with other flours in baking breads and muffins. It can also
be used as a coating when frying meats.

Nut and Seed Flours


(Wheat-Free and Gluten-Free)
ALMON D MEAL FLOU R
Almonds are milled into a sweet-tasting flour or used as coarse bits in white
and brown breads, cakes, and cookies that are quite delicious and safe for
celiacs. I often use almonds and almond meal in cakes and cookies. You can
buy almond meal flour now from Bob's Red Mill. (See appendix.)

FLAX
Flax is usually referred to as flaxseed or flaxseed meal. Flaxseeds are used to
increase the fiber and omega-3 fatty acid content of foods. Flaxseeds added
directly to baking ingredients increase nutritional value, provide a nutty
flavor and a seedlike texture, and impart color to muffins.
Flaxseed meal, once prized by the ancient Egyptians, has a robust,
nutty flavor. A quarter cup or more adds amazing nutrition to your pancakes,
muffins, and breads. Flaxseed meal can be used as a substitute for oil or
butter. It is a natural cholesterol controller. It contains tons of omega-3 fats.
(One gram serving equals 2400 milligrams of omega-3.)

24 Introduction
HAZELNUT MEAL
Hazelnut meal, made from pure ground hazelnuts, is full of sweet, nutty
flavor. Hazelnuts are milled into a flour low in carbohydrates and containing
a significant amount of protein, comparable to bean flour. It's perfect for
adding a rich flavor to all baked goods.

NUTQUIK
NutQuik is a boxed product made from ground almonds and guar gum. It is
terrific for jazzing up banana bread, muffins, piecrusts, and cookies.

SESAME SEED FLOUR


Sesame seed flour is ground from whole white, brown, or black seeds and is
used in small quantities in cookie and bread recipes. I like to use sesame
seeds as toppings on baked goods.

Potato Flours (Wheat-Free and Gluten-Free)


POTATO FLOUR
Potato flour is dense flour made from the whole potato, skin and all. It
should not be confused with potato starch flour. It is used with potato flakes
in pancakes, breads, and cookies.

POTATO STARCH OR POTATO STARCH FLOUR


To make potato starch flour, the potatoes are washed and peeled. The pota-
toes are then sliced, drum-dried, then ground or milled into a fine, dustlike
powder. Potato starch flour is notably high in the minerals leucine and
valine. It acts as an emulsifier similar to cornstarch. It is commonly used as a
stabilizing agent in baking cakes. When used as a thickener in soups, potato
starch flour should be mixed with water first. It has a bland taste, and works
well when combined with rice flours and other gluten-free flours in baking,
producing a consistency that resembles wheat bread's.
Potato starch flour is good for light cakes, but be sure to use only three
quarters of the amount of potato starch flour as you would of wheat flour.

Rice Flours (Wheat-Free and Gluten-Free)


Rice is the second largest cereal crop in the world. It is grown from grasses,
different from wheat. It is a staple food in Asia, as well as for the celiac
population. This edible starchy grain is found in many varieties, including
white, brown, texmati, basmati, and jasmati; each has its own distinctive

25
flavor. White rice is milled to remove the husks and bran. It contains far
fewer nu trients.

BROWN RICE FLOUR


Brown rice, processed to remove only the husks, contains 8 percent protein
and is a good source of thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, and calcium.

SWEET RICE FLOUR


Sweet rice flour, often called sticky rice, is a good thickening agent for
sauces, or it is used in bread recipes. Sweet rice flour is widely used in
gluten-free cereals, pastas, and bread, often in combination with other gluten-
free flours or ground nuts.

WHITE RICE FLOUR


White rice flour, which comes in two textures, regular and fine, has a bland
flavor and is best used to avoid the grainy texture of all-rice breads. Parboiled
white rice is enriched with iron and B vitamins. Rice bran added to baked
goods provides an additional fiber source. Rice flour is widely used in
gluten-free cereals, pastas, and bread, often in combination with other gluten-
free flours or ground nuts.

Root Flours (Wheat-Free and Gluten-Free)


ARROWROOT
Arrowroot is a tasteless white powder that, when heated with water, forms a
thick paste that gels when cooled. It can be used as a thickening agent in
place of cornstarch or as an additive in baking. I prefer arrowroot over corn-
starch when thickening gravies.

TAPIOCA FLOUR
Tapioca flour, milled from the root of the tropical cassava plant, is a bright
white, finely powdered flour used to thicken soups, fruit pies, puddings, and
gravies. The starch provides a chewy texture to gluten-free baked goods.

XANTHUM GUM
This powder, made from the root of a plant, can be used as a gravy or sauce
thickener as well as a binder sibstitute for gluten in our recipes.

26 Introduction
Wheat-Free Grains and Flours
These grains are not gluten-free, but they are wonderful for those who can
tolerate gluten and who want healthful, wheat-free grains. We do not provide
recipes with barley or rye in this book.

BARLEY
Barley is a cereal from the top of a grass, which may be ground into flour
with a nutlike flavor. It is high in carbohydrates and contains three times as
much protein, calcium, and phosphorous as rice. Barley is also used to make
malt in beer brewing and in the distillation of alcoholic beverages, which is
why celiacs avoid all beers except rice beer. Barley is used in soups and stews
as an emulsifier. Pearl barley, a very popular form of barley in most parts of
the world, is frequently added to soup.
Sometimes called the oldest cultivated grain, barley has tough outer
layers, the husks, which are pearled, or scoured with abrasives, to get to the
whole barley grain.

BARLEY FLOUR
Barley flour, made from pearled barley grain, is not gluten-free but it is
wheat-free.
Barley flour is sweet. It is wonderful in cakes, cookies, muffins, and quick
breads because it has a binding effect. Because it contains relatively low
amounts of gluten, barley flour is generally used to make unleavened bread.
As a carrying agent and smoother, barley cannot be beat. Combined with
other flours, it gives a deliciously light, moist texture and sweet flavor.

RYE
Rye is an edible cereal grass. Rye is high in carbohydrates and provides small
amounts of protein, potassium, and B vitamins. In Europe, rye flour is second
only to wheat in popularity and in nutrition. Rye is not gluten-free, but it has
so little gluten that rye is usually combined with wheat flour or wheat gluten
in bread making.

27
Hidden Wheat and Gluten
to Be Careful About
Gluten can be found as an ingredient or as a component of emulsifiers,
stabilizers, and anticoagulants in a wide variety of foods.
Modified food starch, found in certain cream cheeses, yogurts, and sour
creams, may contain gluten, depending on the source. It can be made from
tapioca, corn, wheat, potato, rice, and other starches, although corn is the
most common. If a label manufactured in the United States reads "starch,"
the source is corn and therefore okay for gluten-free and wheat-free diets.
Dextrin can be made from corn, wheat, potato, arrowroot, rice, or other
starch, and must be researched. In the United States, maltodextrin is made
from potato, corn, or rice starch and is gluten-free. If a manufacturer choos-
es to use wheat as the source, it will be listed as "wheat maltodextrin."
Pure liqueurs and extracts made from distilled alcohol are gluten-free and
wheat-free as no toxic protein is carried over in the final product. Gluten
does not carryover in the final distillation of alcohol; thus, the final prod-
uct (the extract) does not contain gluten. However, gluten could be intro-
duced after distillation, which is why it is recommended to avoid extracts
with gluten-based additives. Alcohols, liqueurs and extracts to which nat-
ural or artificial flavorings have been added in after distillation should be
investigated. Find out what the flavoring is. A phone call will do it.
Baking soda and cream of tartar are gluten-free. Commercial baking
powder is almost always made with cornstarch but could be made with
wheat starch, so you need to check to be sure it is gluten-free.
Pure spices and herbs are wheat- and gluten-free. Commercial spice blends
or seasonings, however, may contain wheat, gluten, or a combination of
both as an anticaking agent. Seasoning preparations and sauces (e.g., taco
sauce, horseradish, and most soy sauces) may contain wheat starch or
hydrolyzed wheat protein as a thickener.
Oil blends that contain wheat germ oil or blends from unknown sources
should be avoided.
Dry-roasted, coated, flavored, or seasoned nuts and seeds may be coated
with wheat during processing to hold seasonings and prevent clumping.
Nondairy beverages (milks such as soy, hazelnut, etc.) must be researched
for gluten as they may contain barley flavoring, which may be listed as nat-
ural or artificial flavoring.
Most confectioners' sugar contains corn starch as an anticaking agent, but
some brands use wheat starch.

28 Introduction
Commercially prepared chocolate (or butterscotch) can contain barley
malt (which contains gluten) as a flavoring. Be sure that the chocolate you
are using is gluten-free. A chocolate candy bar may be gluten-free, but the
conveyor belt over which it passed in the factory may have been dusted
with flour to keep the candy from sticking to the belt
Chicken and beef bouillon may contain hydrolyzed wheat protein.
Malt flavoring (gluten) is found in many commercial puddings and in
cereals.
Discovering hidden gluten and wheat requires perseverance and careful
research. Hidden gluten and wheat may not be listed as ingredients when they
are used as processing agents. In addition, manufacturers may change their
ingredients labels at any time. Use listings of gluten-free products compiled by
reliable celiac support groups and organizations as guides to locating gluten-
free items. Wheat-free listings and resources are also readily available. Call
manufacturers to check on the gluten-free or wheat-free status of any product
in question, and make an informed decision.

Enhancing Baked Goods with Flavorings


In your sweet kitchen where you will be playing with our recipes, you might
want to stock as many of the following flavorings as you can find. I am sure
that you will find that a little fussiness about high-quality and varied flavor-
ings will enhance your baked goods and increase your excitement about the
magic of baking. Please note that many ingredients in the recipes found in
this book bear the designation "GF" (gluten-free) . You should verify that the
brand or variety of that ingredient you choose is gluten-free.
Great-tasting cookies and muffins do not have to rely on sugar for taste.
That is the hazard that doctors at celiac conferences obsess about. So, this
section casts light on this potential pitfall and will hopefully deter you and
yours from excess sugar.
A story here to illustrate my point, ....
Recently, I traveled thirty miles to check out a new shop in the mall that
advertised itself as low-carb and gluten- and wheat-free. It was a great shop
and the owner was helpful and enthusiastic. He is listed in our appendix and
will help you shop by phone. I found some delicious English muffins all the
way from Canada (see appendix). However, I was appalled by the price and
horribly sweet taste of the four concave "spice" muffins I found-$6.00 for
four muffins that were almost inedible.
What the celiac has to put up with! The solution: you become your own
best baker. Those horrid muffins defy description. They made me feel queasy

29
with their naked sweetness. Yet, there was no fat in them; what a shame to
substitute mega amounts of sweetener for every other possible flavor-butter,
cardamom, cinnamon, vanilla, almond. After that experience, I decided to
focus here on highlighting the many wonderful possibilities for flavoring our
baked goods that we have available today in supermarkets and specialty
markets, and also on the Internet.

BUTTER
Butter is one of our favorite flavors. I recommend that you use unsalted
butter to bake with. Salted butter does not have the glorious flavor of unsalt-
ed butter. As a neighbor of mine says, "with unsalted butter, you taste the
butter, not the salt." All the popular brands of butter offer both types. Try
them both. If you are impulse baking, use whatever you have on hand, but
slightly reduce the salt in your recipe if you use salted butter.

CHOCOLATE
Chocolate has chemical properties that lift the spirits. It is also a stimulant,
having a certain amount of caffeine, and a source of vitamin B. But most
importantly, it is, of course, a source of great pleasure.
Commercially prepared chocolate (or butterscotch) can contain barley
malt (which contains gluten) as a flavoring. Be sure that the chocolate you
are using is gluten-free.

Chocolate Liquor
The story of chocolate is that the beans from the cocoa tree (an evergreen
from West Africa or Brazil) are dried, then roasted and cracked. It is the
inside, the nib, that is ground up to form a paste called chocolate liquor-
protein and carbs suspended in oil, the cocoa paste.

Pure Cocoa Powder


We always thought that cocoa powder was a poor man's substitute for choco-
late in bar form and hence avoided recipes with cocoa powder in them.
Wrong again! Cocoa powder is the purest form of chocolate. According to
one book we read, cocoa is pure chocolate liquor with three quarters of the
cocoa butter removed. The remaining cocoa cakes are pulverized, ground
into fine powder. Another process is sometimes done first: a Dutchman in the
East Indies named Van Houten (a name still found on cocoa boxes) treated
the nibs with an alkaline solution that made the flavor milder and the color
darker. Cocoa produced this way is called Dutch-processed.
Searching for good cocoa? Like butter, smell it. Smelling the cocoa will

30 Introduction
tell you its flavor potential. Making chocolate cakes and desserts is definitely
worth the time.

Unsweetened or Pure Chocolate


This bitter chocolate contains chocolate liquor, cocoa solids, and cocoa butter.
Many other flavors often are added, such as vanilla, coffee, or ground nuts.

Bittersweet or Semisweet Chocolate


This is pure chocolate liquor with sugar, vanilla, extra cocoa butter, and
lecithin (made from soybeans). Note that the higher the cocoa mass on the
label, the lower the amount of sugar and the more bitter the flavor.

Milk Chocolate
Milk chocolate is a blend of pure chocolate liquor, milk solids, butter, vanilla,
and extra cocoa butter, with lecithin added as a smoother. It does not have a
long shelf life because the milk solids can become rancid.

Carob
Carob is a healthy substitute for chocolate. It is full of protein and vitamins B
and A.

VANILLA
For your baking, there is nothing so basic, next to butter and salt, as vanilla.
Vanilla comes from a pod fruit of a climbing orchidlike plant. Sweating them
in the sun for months enables the pod's enzymes to free the flavor, color, and
smell.

Vanilla Bean
Dried whole vanilla bean can be placed in a storage container of sugar or
gently poached in liquid such as milk, imparting vanilla flavor to those items,
which can then be used to flavor your baked goods.

Vanilla Extract
Pure alcohol extracts (without gluten-based additives) are available. In the dis-
tillation of alcohol, the toxic protein fraction (gliaden or gluten) does not
carryover in the final distillate; thus, the final product (the extract) does not
contain gluten. Gluten could, however, be introduced after distillation, which
is why it is recommended to avoid extracts with gluten-based additives. This
same theory applies to alcohol (such as rum, whiskey, bourbon, etc.).
Today at health food stores, you can also find alcohol-free vanilla flavor-
ing, which is another safe alternative.

31
Vanilla Powder
Vanilla powder is made by grinding the whole dried bean to a powder, which
can be used well by celiacs and is useful for foods where you don't want to
add too much liquid, such as icings. It is good in custard and puddings since
long cooking can affect the potency of regular vanilla.

Imitation Vanilla
This is made from 100 percent artificial ingredients. It is harsh and should be
avoided.

BOLD ALCOHOL-FREE BOTTLED FLAVORINGS


There are many natural flavorings offered in alcohol-free suspensions made
by Frontier Natural Flavor Company in Norway, Iowa. My favorites are the
alcohol-free (and gluten-free) almond and walnut flavorings.

FLOWERS
Some fresh flowers and leaves make beautiful and flavorful additions to pies,
tarts, icings, and cookies. Our favorite edible flowers are apple blossoms, bor-
age flowers, day lilies, hibiscus, nasturtiums, lilacs, hollyhocks, pansies,
roses, tulips, and violets. Sugared rose geranium leaves and mint leaves make
lovely garnishes.

SPICES

Allspice
Allspice berries are small fruits of a tree in the myrtle family. Jamaican all-
spice is the most aromatic and flavorful. It is used, ground, in combination
with cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, and ginger.

Anise
Anise has a licorice flavor. It is often used in desserts featuring nuts. It lends
a special flavor to cakes, breads, and pies.

Cumin
Cumin is a spice that my friend Anita from New Delhi, India, uses constantly.
She stirs it into hot oil and then sears meat or fish in the flavored oil. I use
cumin to create late-day muffins.

Caraway Seed
This savory spice, a small sliver of a seed, is used crushed or whole-
frequently used in breads and rolls and terrific in lemon pound cake as a
teatime treat.

32 Introduction
Cardamom
Native to India, cardamom has a sweet, lemony flavor and an amazing aroma.
The first time I crushed a cardamom pod, I found about twenty little seeds,
which were easy to pulverize. The resulting powder was so fragrant and invit-
ing, I almost fainted with pleasure.

Cinnamon
Cinnamon might be the most popular of all spices. It is similar to cardamom
in its aroma, but it is musty rather than sharp and clear. It is made from the
inner bark of a tree native to Sri Lanka.

Cloves
Richly spicy, dark, and heavy, cloves smell like a winter's supper to me.
Cloves are wonderful in fruit pies and quick breads.

Ginger
The blond root of a flowering plant, it is smooth and gently aromatic. Ginger
adds heat and spice to baked goods.

Mace
Mace is a subtle spice for which men traveled thousand of miles. It is found
in allspice, pumpkin pie spice, and apple pie spice.

Nutmeg
This is the fruit of a large tree. It has a warm, woody taste, great in puddings.

Star Anise
The dried fruit of a Chinese evergreen tree, it tastes sweet and a little bit like
licorice.

33
CHAPTER ONE

Muffins for
Breakfast and Tea
The fragrance of cooking muffins will make your house a happy home.
Morning can be a cozy time for making something yummy that smells
homey. Making muffins takes only a few minutes. Sometimes, I practice yoga
while my sleepily assembled muffins are baking.
It is hard to beat homemade muffins if you want something delicious and
comforting at breakfast or teatime. Growing up, on rainy mornings my moth-
er made bran muffins. I can still smell the buttery bran aroma of them bak-
ing, which filled our small house. Licking the leftover batter in the brown
striped crockery bowl was something to sneak in for. No dishwashers in
those days, so the bowl sat half submerged in water in the sink as Mom got
diverted. Those few tip-of-the-finger swipes were slightly crisp, with the bran
not yet softened, and a little bit sweet. One of my first inventions for my celi-
ac husband was a muffin using rice bran.
Mom's muffins had many different tastes because they were made from
whatever ingredients she had on hand. In fact, she used to say that you could
make muffins from almost anything, even old shoes, if you added enough
butter, eggs, and baking powder. That is the philosophy of this baking book.
Be flexible. You are now a creative baker, forging ahead in a new territory. My
children comment that no recipe stays the same. So be it. I use what's on
hand and push the mixture to be the best ever each time.

A Unique American Tradition


Muffins are little cakes baked in muffin tins or cups of any sort. Muffins do
not look as fancy as croissants, and they do not have the popular appeal of
bagels, but they are a cherished and unique American tradition. They can be
made quite easily in an infinite variety of healthy and tasty combinations, and
they whip up so easily that the littlest kids can lend a hand.
Even the word muffin suggests homey charm. The origin of the word

35
might be the Old French word mouffle, meaning "soft bread," or it might be
derived from muffen, the plural form of a German word for cake. Both terms
fit English muffins.
English muffins first appeared in the eighteenth century, when buttered
muffins were made with slow-rising yeast. The muffins were toasted on the
fire and kept warm in a special covered serving dish accompanied by meats,
cheeses, and little cakes. They were necessary for late-afternoon tea, that
delightful custom that precedes English supper. Today's baker can prepare
two different types of muffins: yeast and soda.
In Europe, yeast breads and rolls are still made fresh every day. We pre-
pare yummy gluten-free English muffins that are made with yeast. After a
short rising period, they are cooked on top of the stove. The muffins must be
flipped over during cooking so each side is slightly browned. A recipe for
gluten-free English muffins is included in this chapter.
The second muffin type, the soda muffin, is strictly an American inven-
tion. Soda muffins were first produced in nineteenth-century America when
chemical leavening agents, baking soda and later baking powder, were invent-
ed to make dough rise quickly. Baking powder is a combination of baking
soda and cream of tartar, which chemically interacts with flour cells to quick-
ly aerate them.

Leavening Basics
BAKING SODA
I think it is important to understand how the leavening works, so you will
catch on to the quick stirring tips we give you. Baking soda is bicarbonate of
soda. By itself, it has no leavening power, but when it interacts with an acid
such as buttermilk; yogurt; sour cream; molasses; dark brown sugar; maple
syrup; or lemon, lime, or orange juice, the lifting action occurs.
Bu t since baking soda begins to release carbon dioxide as soon as it is
moistened by the liquid acids in a recipe, it is important to thoroughly
blend all the dry ingredients together and make sure the soda is evenly
mixed throughou t before combining the liquid ingredients and adding them
at the last moment-when the muffin tins are ready and the oven is hot.
If too much time elapses, the gases will dissipate and your baked goods
will not rise.
Too much baking soda added to a batter will produce an unpleasant taste.
Be sure to measure correctly.
If there isn't enough acid in your recipe, you must add baking powder.

36 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea


Often, it takes a combination of baking powder and baking soda to ensure a
nicely risen muffin or quick bread. Using baking powder and soda together
and independently quickly became popular, because batters containing these
items do not require a rising period, making them extremely efficient for the
baker. The soda muffin is baked in a muffin tin or in number of 2- to 3-inch
(5- to 7.5-cm) cups that hold the batter.

BAKING POWDER
American ingenuity came up with a product that combined baking soda
with tartaric acid and a neutral, moisture-absorbing starch such as cornstarch
or potato starch, to produce baking powder. This old-style baking powder
acted too fast, however. Now there is a double-acting baking powder made
with two acidic salts, mono calcium phosphate and sodium aluminum sulfate.
The first of these acids reacts to the liquids, creating a network of bubbles in
the batter, and the second acid in the double-acting baking powder reacts
after the batter goes into the hot oven, lifting the bubbles and expanding
them as the mixture solidifies. This type of baking powder is less time sensi-
tive than the single acting variety, but it is still best to act quickly and pop
muffins into the oven once the dry ingredients have been moistened.
Some people detect a metallic taste in products using relatively large
amounts of commercial baking powder, such as biscuits and scones, because
of the aluminum sulfate. One solution is to make your own baking powder.
For every teaspoon of baking powder called for in a recipe, combine 1;2
teaspoon baking soda, 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar, and 1/2 teaspoon
cornstarch. Blend well and use immediately, as this mixture quickly looses
potency. To test the potency of your baking powder, stir 1/2 teaspoon into a
cup of warm water. If it bubbles and fizzes, it is still potent.
Another solution is to use a commercial baking powder made from other
ingredients, such as the sodium-free Featherweight Baking Powder, which,
significantly for us, is advertised as gluten-free.
Although commercial baking powder is almost always made with corn-
starch, it could be made with wheat starch, so you need to check to be sure it
is gluten-free.
Who would have thought that there could be so much to making
muffins? I go into detail here because the thrust of this baking book is to
empower you as a baker, to give you enough information that you can invent
muffins successfully. Just be sure there is an acidic ingredient that combines
with your leavening, the baking soda and/or baking powder.

37
Let Your Batter Be Your Canvas
One great advantage to making muffins is that you can add almost anything
to the basic batter. I enjoy adding different textures and tastes to the batter. I
toss in this and that-a few bananas, nuts, vegetables, spices and herbs,
juices, liquors, chocolate, ginger, et cetera-until it tastes terrific.
Make muffins from almost every carbohydrate-vegetables such as zuc-
chini; parsnips and carrots; popular American fruits such as cranberries,
apples, and blueberries; and grains such as corn and rice bran are traditional
choices and good ones for gluten-free baking.
I have enhanced muffins using squash, pumpkin, celery, and breakfast
cereals. I have jazzed muffins up with shots of brandy or sherry, peanut and
soy butters, applesauce, yogurt, spices, and eggs. Savory muffins, flavored
with herbs, sausage, or bacon, are delicious possibilities.
Chocolate can be hidden inside muffins as easily as you can hide it in a
croissant. You can stir raisins into muffin batter or infuse it with shredded
cheese. Beware of the aroma when you toast these: it is truly mouthwatering.
If your muffins turn out a bit heavy, it might be from stirring the batter
too much. Remember, baking powder products need hardly any stirring. The
rising action happens instantly. You must not beat muffin batter, as it will
toughen.
Using the flours and the bran from alternative grains produces delicious
muffins that are nutritious and out of the ordinary. They are superior to the
oversweetened or bland products made from mixes in neighborhood bakeries
and then sold as homemade.
Many of my muffin recipes take no more than ten minutes to assemble!
Put them in the oven as you make your tea or coffee. They will bake in twen-
ty minutes while you take a shower. You can leave for work nurtured.
Muffins are an art form. Exaggerate! Take the masterpiece to its edge.
Drama is inherent in this art as any other. Grains, baking powder, a bit of
baking soda, eggs, and oil provide structure. Xanthan gum holds it up. The
rest is up to your cupboard and intuition.
Scones are muffins that are baked without tins! These are our favorite
muffin. Sorghum scones are a staple at our house. These taste delightfully
sweet not because stevia or honey is added, but because sorghum, grown in
the South to feed livestock, is sweet. Using baking powder and eggs, scones
can be thrown together in a minute. No muffin tins to grease. Try our recipe;
then let us know if you invent other scones.

38 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea


Secrets of Muffin Making
Experienced cooks often, through trial and error, discover "secrets" during
their baking to make the product better or the process easier. One secret of
easy muffin making is to use paper cup-liners in your muffin tins. This elimi-
nates muffin tin clean up and makes muffins portable-you can take them
with you to munch on in the car, on the train, or on a school bus.
Another secret: spray a little oil or rub it onto the bottom of each muffin
cup or the muffin-tin cups to make it easy to remove the muffin. It took me
ten years to discover the great secret of using oil in the paper cups. Muffins
can be baked in a vast variety of muffin pans or in Pyrex cups.
I just discovered silicone muffin tins, which eliminate the need for oiling
and the paper cups. The muffins just slide right out!
Other secrets learned in baking muffins: it is best to use a combination of
baking powder and soda to make muffins; adding applesauce or yogurt or
cottage cheese softens muffins; and, since baking powder products harden
quickly on the counter, storing home-baked muffins wrapped in a cloth or
plastic in the refrigerator keeps them soft.
I use little sugar in my muffins. I hate deadly sweet muffins that are sold
packaged or over fast-food counters. Sweetening is your choice and should be
based on your personal taste; however, these grains are so tasty, you won't
demand extreme sweetness.

TIPS FOR MAKING GREAT MUFFINS

Preheat the oven to the temperature specified in the recipe.


Prepare your muffin tins before you mix the batter: oil the bottoms of the
cups generously, spray the bottoms with a nonstick coating, or line the
muffin tins with store-bought paper cup-liners, oiling the bottoms of these
also.
Premix wet and dry ingredients separately-beat liquid mixtures well; sift
and stir dry ingredients thoroughly-so time is not lost when they are com-
bined. Add the already mixed dry ingredients to the well-combined liquid
ingredients.
Beat the batter just enough to combine all of the ingredients. Overbeating
makes muffins, breads, and cakes heavy or tough.
Transfer batter to the pans or tins pronto, as soon as the batter is mixed.
Baking powder loses effectiveness if it stands too long.
Immediately place batter-filled pans in the preheated oven.
Keep the oven door closed until the cooking time has elapsed.

39
Let quick breads and muffins sit for 5 minutes before releasing from pan.
To help remove, run a blunt knife around the edges.
Let baked goods cool before wrapping and storing.
Store baked goods, wrapped in a cloth or plastic wrap, in the refrigerator
after the first day.
Gluten-free baked goods harden quickly. To revive, put them in a damp
napkin or a wet paper bag and heat in a microwave for 10 to 15 seconds.
Muffins are excellent toasted.
If you double a recipe, don't double the amount of gum
Add more liquid if the batter seems too dry, especially if you substitute
flours.

Basic Rice Muffins


Recipe modified from www.bobsredmill.com.
Simple, quick, a nice recipe to start the day with!

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


2 tablespoons (28 g) butter 11/2 cups (200 g) rice flour
or (28 ml) canola oil 1/2 cup (50 g) sugar
2 eggs 1/2 teaspoon sea salt
1/2 cup (120 ml) milk (GF rice or GF soy) 2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar

PREHEAT oven to 3500 F (180(, or gas mark 4). GREASE muffin tin lightly.
(REAM together sugar and butter. BEAT eggs. MIX together flour, salt, baking
powder, and cream of tartar. ADD flour mixture to egg mixture alternately with
milk. Do not overmix. ADD vanilla. POUR into muffin tins. BAKE in 3500 F
(180(, or gas mark 4) oven for 20 minutes, or until done.
Yield: 12 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 51 calories, 2.9 g fat, 1.3 g protein,
4.8 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

40 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea


Banana-Nut Muffins
Here is a quick recipe that uses as a base one of the many gluten-free baking
mixes now found in many supermarkets.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


1/2 cup (60 g) brown sugar or (85 g) 1 cup (200 g) rice flour baking mix
honey (Arrowhead product, see appendix
1/2 cup (60 ml) olive oil for source)
2-4 well-ripened bananas, mashed 1 cup (120 g) quinoa flour
2 eggs 1/2 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons (28 ml) lemon or orange 1 teaspoon baking powder
..
JUice 1/2 cup (80 g) soya granules
1/2 CUp (60 ml) GF hazelnut milk 1/2 cup (60 g) chopped plain walnuts
or (75 g) GF currants
Ground dried orange peel

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE bottoms of muffin-tin
cups or paper muffin-cup liners, or a 7-inch (17.5-cm) square baking pan.
CREAM sugar and olive oil. BEAT the mashed bananas with the eggs until they
are fluffy. ADD to creamed sugar mixture. STIR in lemon or orange juice and
hazelnut milk. FINALLY add dry ingredients. MIX just until blended. Do not
overbeat; these are delicate. SPOON into prepared muffin tins or into baking
pan. BAKE at 350F (180C, or gas mark 4), about 20 minutes, or until light
brown. SPRINKLE ground dried orange peel on top.

Yield: 10-12 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 muffins, each has 254 calories, 9.8 g


fat, 7.3 g protein, 34.4 g carbohydrate, 3.5 g dietary fiber.

Note: Nondairy beverages must be researched for gluten as they may contain
barley flavoring, which may be listed as natural or artificial flavoring.

Dry-roasted, coated, flavored, or seasoned nuts and seeds may contain wheat
starch or other gluten-based ingredients. See page 28 for more information.

41
Buckwheat-Corn Muffins
Another simple muffin to assemble!

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


2 eggs, beaten 1 cup (120 g) buckwheat flour
11/2 cups (295 ml) milk 1/2 cup (70 g) yellow or white cornmeal
4 tablespoons (55 g) butte~ melted 2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup (50 g) sugar

PREHEAT oven to 375F (190C, or gas mark 5). PREPARE muffin tins, lining
with paper cups (oiled) or oiling nonstick muffin tin. COMBINE dry ingredients.
COMBINE wet ingredients. ADD wet ingredients to dry ingredients, stirring gen-
tly. SPOON batter into muffin tins. BAKE at 375F (190C, or gas mark 5) for
15 to 20 minutes or until toothpick comes out clean. REMOVE muffins from tin;
coolon rack.

Yield: 8-12 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 muffins, each has 136 calories,


5.9 g fat, 3.5 g protein, 16.7 g carbohydrate, 1.4 g dietary fiber.

42 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea


Blueberry Millet Muffins
These are fabulous served warm with a little sweet butter.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


2 large eggs 1 cup (140 g) millet flour
1 teaspoon orange zest, finely grated 1 cup (140 g) sorghum flour
1 1/2 cups (355 ml) orange juice 2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 cup (112 g) unsalted butte~ melted 1 teaspoon cream of tartar
and cooled 1 teaspoon baking soda
1 cup (145 g) blueberries, fresh or 1 teaspoon salt
frozen 1/2 cup (100 g) granulated sugar

2 teaspoons xanthan gum


1 cup (140 g) stone-ground yellow
cornmeal

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE 6 large or 12 regular-
sized muffin tins or line with paper liners. SIFT together in large bowl: flours,
baking powder, cream of tartar, baking soda, and salt. ADD sugar, xanthan gum,
and cornmeal; stir with fork or whisk to blend. WHISK eggs in separate bowl.
BLEND in orange zest, juice, and melted butter. ADD egg mixture all at once to
the dry ingredients, mixing with a rubber spatula or a wooden spoon just until
the dry ingredients are moistened. GENTLY FOLD in blueberries. SPOON batter
into prepared tins, filling each cup to the rim. PLACE tins on a baking sheet to
catch any drips. BAKE 20 to 25 minutes for regular-sized muffins, 30 to 35 min-
utes for large ones, or until tops are golden brown and spring back when lightly
touched, and a skewer inserted in the center comes out clean. PLACE tin(s) on
rack, cool 5 minutes, and then turn muffins out onto rack.

Yield: 12 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 305 calories, 12.2 g fat,


5.5 g protein, 43.3 g carbohydrate, 1.9 g dietary fiber.

43
Chocolate Muffins
Dessert muffins, hurrah! I enjoyed creating these as a real change from the
other varieties of muffins.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1 cup (140 g) brown rice flour 1 cup (235 ml) hot buttermilk
1/2 cup (60 g) almond meal/flour 4 GF bittersweet chocolate squares,
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour melted
1/2 cup (150 g) sugar 1/2 cup (120 ml) hot water

1 teaspoon baking soda 2 teaspoons vanilla flavoring or extract


1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar 2 sticks (225 g) sweet butter (unsalted)
2 teaspoons baking powder 3 eggs, slightly beaten
2 teaspoons xanthan gum

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE muffin tins. MELT
GF bittersweet chocolate squares in top of double boiler; do not bring to a boil.
MIX 1/2 cup (120 ml) hot water into melted chocolate; add vanilla, blend well.
CREAM butter and sugar with electric beater until white. ADD slightly beaten
eggs to creamed butter mixture. HAND MIX, bit by bit, the melted chocolate
mixture into the butter mixture. ADD heated buttermilk to mixture; stir just until
mixed. BLEND all remaining dry ingredients in separate bowl. ADD dry ingredi-
ents to the chocolate/buttermilk mixture; blend well. SPOON batter into muffin
tins. BAKE for 10 to 15 minutes, taking care not to overbake.

Yield: 12 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 343 calories, 21 g fat,


4 .7 g protein, 33.9 g carbohydrate, 2 g dietary fiber.

44 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea


Teff Spicy Pumpkin Muffins
Adapted from www.bobsredmill.com.

WET INGREDIENTS: 2 teaspoons baking soda


1 scant cup (220 g) canned pumpkin 1 teaspoon cream of tartar
puree
1 teaspoon gelatin powder
2 tablespoons (30 ml) lemon juice
1 teaspoon xanthan gum
1/2 cup (60 ml) canola oil
1 1/2 teaspoons cinnamon
1/2 cup (85 g) honey
2 teaspoons gingerroot (powdered)
1/2 cup (120 ml) buttermilk
1/2 teaspoon nutmeg
1/2 teaspoon ground cloves
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (75 g) raisins, golden (optional)
11/2 cups (210 g) sifted teff flour
1/2 cup (30 g) plain pecans, chopped
1/2 cup (30 g) arrowroot starch
(optional)

PREHEAT oven to 375F (190(, or gas mark 5). GREASE a 12-muffin tin or
line with paper liners. SI FT teff flour, arrowroot, baking soda, cream of tartar,
gelatin powder, xanthan gum, cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, and cloves into large
bowl. STIR in raisins and chopped nuts (if using). WHISK together pumpkin,
lemon juice, oil, honey, and buttermilk. MIX pumpkin mixture with flour mixture
with a few swift strokes. Do not overmix. DIVIDE batter among muffin tins.
BAKE at 375F (190(, or gas mark 5) for 18-20 minutes or until center of
muffins feels firm.

Yield: 12 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 118 calories, 4.9 g fat, 1.5 g protein,
17.1 g carbohydrate, 2.1 g dietary fiber.

45
Quinoa Morning Muffins
I brought bags of quinoa and rice flour along with me on a trip to Tortola,
years ago. The enthusiastic young cook at the hotel used the quinoa to make
these great breakfast muffins. They are so simple and taste so good, I believe
that you'll want to make them over and over again. Now quinoa is one of our
favorite flours. It is nutty and a little fruity.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1 cup (120 g) quinoa flour (or select two 3 eggs beaten
types using 1/2 cup (60 g) of each: 1/2 cup (175 ml) milk, hot
quinoa, millet, or amaranth) 1 cup (235 ml) olive oil or 1 cup (225 g)
1 cup (160 g) rice flour butter (2 sticks), melted
2 teaspoons xanthan gum
3 teaspoons baking powder OPTIONAL INGREDIENTS:
1 teaspoon baking soda 1/2 cup (50 g) plain walnuts, chopped
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar 1/2 cup (40 g) yellow raisins
1/2 teaspoon salt 1/2 cup (65 g) gluten-free granola
1/2 cup (70 g) sugar
2 teaspoons cinnamon
1 teaspoon nutmeg

PREHEAT oven to 400F (200(, or gas mark 6). GREASE bottoms of muffin-tin
cups or paper muffin-cup liners. Spray paper muffin cups with olive oil spray
instead of greasing with oil, to prevent oil from pooling in bottom of muffin
holders. MIX dry ingredients together. ADD nuts, raisins, or gluten-free granola
if you chose to. MIX liquids. MAKE a well in the dry ingredients and stir in liq-
uids. SPOON batter into oiled muffins cups in muffin tins, half full. BAKE at
400F (200(, or gas mark 6) for 25 minutes.

Yield: 20 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 246 calories, 16 g fat, 4.5 g protein,
20.7 g carbohydrate, 1.5 g dietary fiber. Without optional ingredients, each
muffin has 202 calories, 13.4 g fat, 3.5 g protein, 16.9 g carbohydrate,
1 g dietary fiber.

46 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea


Quinoa Flakes Muffins
Discovering healthful, full-of-protein quinoa flakes and flour was an early
pleasure of baking gluten-free.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1/2 cup (40 g) quinoa flakes 1/2 cup (120 ml) orange juice
1/2 cup (60 g) quinoa flour 4 tablespoons (55 g) butter, melted
1/2 cup (50 g) flaxseed meal 2 ripe bananas
2 teaspoons baking powder 4 egg yolks
1 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 teaspoon salt

PREHEAT oven to 400F (200(, or gas mark 6). GREASE bottoms of muffin-tin
cups or paper muffin-cup liners. In order to prevent oil from pooling in bottom
of muffin holders, spray paper muffin cups using olive oil spray to prevent
sticking. MIX dry ingredients together. MIX wet ingredients together. MAKE
a well in dry ingredients and stir in wet ingredients. SPOON batter into oiled
muffins cups in muffin tins, half full. BAKE at 400F (200(, or gas mark 6)
for 25 minutes.

Yield: 20 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 93 calories, 4.7 g fat, 2.3 g protein,
10.2 g carbohydrate, 1.6 g dietary fiber.

Note: Save egg whites for meringues or almond cookies (chapter 4).

47
Christmas Muffins with Jam Centers
Great for a teatime treat. These take time to make but they look Christmasy.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


8 ounces (225 g) plain pine nuts or 2 eggs
plain slivered almonds 4 tablespoons (55 g) butte~ melted
1 cup (160 g) rice flour 1 cup (245 g) plain GF yogurt
1/2 cup (70 g) bean flour 1/2 cup (60 ml) milk or juice
1/2 cup (70 g) millet flour 2 tablespoons (40 g) honey
1 teaspoon baking soda 1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1/2 teaspoon salt 1/2 cup (40 g) apricot or strawberry pre-
2 teaspoons baking powder serves
1/2 cup (50 g) sugar
1 teaspoon xanthan gum

0
PREHEAT oven to 400F (200 (, or gas mark 6). GREASE the bottoms of muf-
fin tins or paper cup-liners. TOAST pine nuts or slivered almonds in the heated
oven for 5 minutes. MIX remaining dry ingredients together. MIX wet ingredi-
ents together. ADD the dry ingredients to the wet ingredients. MIX TOGETH-
ER-the batter might be lumpy, but that's okay. SPOON a tablespoon of batter
into muffin cups. ADD jelly or jam and then fill cup with batter. SPRINKLE the
0
toasted nuts you have set aside on top. BAKE at 400F (200 (, or gas mark 6)
for 20 minutes.

Yield: 12 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 310 calories, 15.8 9 fat, 9.6 9 pro-
tein, 32.4 g carbohydrate, 2.1 g dietary fiber.

48 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea


Rice Bran Crunchy Muffins
Rice bran provides the texture we've come to expect from muffins.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


2 teaspoons baking soda 2 teaspoons baking soda
2 tablespoons honey 1/2 cup (115 g) brown sugar (packed)
1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter 1 cup (100 g) rice bran or GF oat bran
2 eggs 2 cups (320 g) white rice flour
1 1/2 cups (295 ml) buttermilk 2 teaspoons xanthan gum
1 teaspoon almond flavoring or extract 2 teaspoons baking powder
1 teaspoon ground cardamom
1/2 cup (50 g) plain sliced almonds,
(60 g) ground pine nuts, or (50 g)
flaxseed mea I

PREHEAT oven to 375F (190C, or gas mark 5). GREASE bottoms of muffin-
tin cups or spray paper muffin-cup liners; set aside. STI R soda into honey until
foamy and light in color; set aside. CREAM brown sugar and butter. BEAT in
eggs, then rice bran. POUR buttermilk and almond flavoring into honey and
soda mixture; add to egg mixture. BLEND rice flour, xanthan gum, and car-
damom; add to egg mixture. BLEND slivered almonds into batter. SPOON into
paper muffin-cup liners or tins. FI LL cups one-half to three-quarters full. BAKE
for 20 minutes at 375F (190C, or gas mark 5). Serve warm.

Yield: 24 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 141 calories, 5.2 g fat, 3 g protein,
20.5 g carbohydrate, 1.8 g dietary fiber.

Variations: Add fresh fruit in season. I love sliced strawberries in these muffins;
substitute 1/2 teaspoon vanilla for almond flavoring or extract.

49
Rice Flour English Muffins
What a great discovery these have been. They are really fun to make when
you are on vacation. They take more time than most of our recipes, but they
really are worth it. Making them becomes a party.
There are secrets to making these genuine English muffins:

1. The ingredients must be warmed.


2. Cornmeal is used as a coating-fine white cornmeal packaged by the Goya
Company works well.
3. The dough must rise to double its size.
4. Cook on a hot griddle lightly oiled with your favorite oil. We use olive oil
for everything, now that we have learned about healthy oils-besides, I
love the taste of extra-virgin olive oil. These muffins are good dipped in
pesto sauce.

DRY INGREDIENTS: 1 tablespoon xanthan gum


1 cup (160 g) white rice flour 3 tablespoons (25 g) cornmeal
1 cup (140 g) brown rice flour
1/2 cup (120 g) tapioca flour WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (120 g) potato starch 1 cup (235 ml) milk
1 package dry yeast 2 tablespoons (30 ml) olive oil
1 teaspoon salt

PART ONE:

PREHEAT the oven on warm setting. BLEND all flours (3 cups [360 gJ) in heat-
proof mixing bowl; then place bowl in the oven to warm. COMBINE milk and
oil; then heat until warm in a small pan in the oven, or microwave in a bowl for
a few seconds-just until warm to the touch. POUR 1/2 cup of this warm wet
mixture into a small bowl. STIR the yeast into it, then leave it alone for 6 to 8
minutes, until it is frothy.

MEANWHILE:
REMOVE the flour from the oven (it should be lukewarm). MIX the salt and
xanthan gum into the flour, then make a well in the center of the flour. ADD all
the liquids to the flour-and-salt mixture. STI R to combine. You want soft, elastic,
not heavy dough. If you think the dough is too wet, add a little more rice flour.
COVER dough with a dishtowel or plastic wrap and leave in a warm place until
double in size. (I use a coat closet that has a heat duct running through it.)

50 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea


PART TWO:

SPRINKLE cornmeal into a shallow bowl. SCOOP up a large portion of the


dough with a large spoon and drop it into the cornmeal to coat both sides.
Push it down to flatten on a cornmeal-covered countertop. Use a moistened
glass rim to cut out circles of dough. DUST a cookie sheet with cornmeal.
PLACE the dough rounds on the cookie sheet. LET them rise on the cookie
sheet (not in the oven) for 45 minutes or until they again double, more or less,
. .
In size.

PART THREE:

HEAT and OIL a skillet.

PLACE MUFFIN on skillet. Cook first on high heat to brown the muffins. Then
turn down the heat to low and cook gently for 6 minutes or more on both sides.
STORE in refrigerator or freezer, wrapped in plastic. SPLIT a cooled muffin with
a knife. Toast before eating. Serve with butter and jam! Enjoy!

Yield: 2 dozen medium-sized English muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 94 calories, 1.7 g fat, 1.4 g protein,
18. 1 g carbohydrate, 1 g dietary fiber.

Variation: Omit cornmeal step and these become batter biscuits, great with
stews.

51
Carrot Muffins
A classic favorite: healthy family muffins. We make these when our grand-
children arrive, and they love them.

WET INGREDIENTS: 1/2 cup (40 g) raisins


1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter, melted 1/2 cup (50 g) soy flour
1/2 cup (120 ml) orange juice 1/2 cup (90 g) amaranth flour
1 cup (235 ml) warm apple juice 2 teaspoons baking powder
(or orange juice)
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1 egg
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 cup (120 g) grated carrots
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
3 tablespoons (60 g) honey
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
1/2 teaspoon xanthan gum
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (25 g) plain walnuts, chopped

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE bottoms of muffin-tin
cups or paper muffin-cup liners. MIX the wet ingredients in a bowl. We consider
the grated carrots wet ingredients, so let them soak in the orange juice mixture.
MIX the dry ingredients in a separate bowl. ADD wet mixture to dry ingredients
and stir lightly just to blend them. SPOON batter into prepared tins or cups.
BAKE at 350F (180C, or gas mark 4) for 35 minutes.

Yield: 15 muffins, more or less

Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 144 calories, 6.1 g fat, 3.9 g protein,
18.1 g carbohydrate, 2.4 g dietary fiber.

Note: Combining a bean flour with a grain flour produces a perfect balance of
amino acids; hence, a perfect protein. Therefore, these Carrot Muffins are rec-
ommended for vegetarians.

52 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea


Raspberry Amaranth Muffins
with Streusel Topping
These are tea-party muffins. They are fun with a cup of tea in the afternoon.

STREUSEL TOPPING 1/2 cup (50 g) soy flour


2 tablespoons (28 g) butter, room tem- 1 cup (160 g) rice flour
perature
1/2 teaspoon salt
2 teaspoons brown sugar
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
2 tablespoons rice flour
2 teaspoons baking powder
2 tablespoons quinoa flakes
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon WET INGREDIENTS:
1/4 cup (30 g) chopped plain walnuts 2 egg whites, well beaten
or pecans 1 cup (235 ml) buttermilk
1/2 cup (55 g) fresh raspberries in season 1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1/2 cup (80 ml) oil
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (85 g) raspberries
1/2 cup (90 g) amaranth flour
1/2 cup (170 g) honey

MAKE Streusel Topping: COMBINE all the Streusel Topping ingredients in a


bowl-use a pastry blender or your fingers to crumble the butter, sugar, flour,
flakes, and cinnamon together. Gently stir in nuts and raspberries. Try to keep
the berries whole so you will really taste them. Set aside.

MAKE Muffins: PREHEAT oven to 400F (200C, gas mark 6). GREASE bot-
toms of muffin tins or paper muffin-tin liners. WHISK dry ingredients together.
MIX wet ingredients together in another bowl. MAKE a well in center of dry
mixture. POUR the wet-ingredient mixture into the well. STI R lightly till dry
ingredients are just moistened. GENTLY FOLD in raspberries. SPOON batter
into prepared muffin tin. Top muffins with Streusel Topping mix. BAKE twenty
minutes.

Yield: 12 medium muffins or 5 to 6 giant ones

CREME FRAicHE
1 cup (235 ml) whipping cream
2 tablespoons (30 ml) buttermilk

Combine cream and buttermilk, cover, and let stand at room temperature until
thickened, 8-plus hours. Then stir, re-cover, and refrigerate. Keeps up to 10 days.

53
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 275 calories, 11.6 g fat, 5.3 g pro-
tein, 37.5 g carbohydrate, 3.4 g dietary fiber.

With creme frakhe, each muffin has 341 calories, 18.2 g fat, 6.1 g protein,
38.3 g carbohydrate, 3.4 g dietary fiber.

Variation: Try other berries, such as blueberries, as delicious alternatives. Top


with whipped cream without sugar, or creme frakhe (see easy recipe above).

Flax Muffins with Vegetables and Fruit


Muffins filled with high-energy ingredients-good eating for health. These
muffins are unique because they are sweetened with vegetables and fruits
instead of sugar. I use a blender for some shredding but a food processor
would do a great job. Applesauce is an emulsifier and moistener in these
muffins.
WET INGREDIENTS: 1/2 cup (70 g) brown rice flour
2 apples, peeled and chopped (or 1 cup 1/2 cup (50 g) soy flour
[245 g] applesauce)
1/2 cup (90 g) quinoa flour
1/2 cup (90 g) shredded carrots
1 cup (100 g) flaxseed meal
1/2 cup (90 g) shredded zucchini
1 teaspoon xanthan gum
1/2 cup (180 ml) fruit juice
1/2 cup (75 g) rice bran cereal
2 beaten eggs
1 teaspoon baking soda
4 tablespoons (55 g) butter, melted
1 teaspoon baking powder
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1/4 cup (60 g) applesauce
1/2 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons cinnamon
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1 tablespoon ground cardamom
1 cup (100 g) plain nuts, chopped;
divided (pecans are our favorite)

PREHEAT oven to 375F (190(, gas mark 5). LINE muffin tins with paper lin-
ers, oiled on the bottoms and on the sides (this batter is sticky). MIX wet ingre-
dients together. MIX dry ingredients together. STI R wet ingredients into dry
ingredients until they are mixed. Do not overbeat. FI LL muffin cups half full.
BAKE for 35 minutes.

54 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea


Yield: 30 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 118 calories, 6.9 g fat, 2.9 g protein,
10.8 g carbohydrate, 3.1 g dietary fiber. With streusel topping, each has 142
calories, 8.4 g fat, 3 g protein, 13.4 g carbohydrate, 3.4 g dietary fiber.

Variation: Add a streusel topping to muffins before baking. Combine 2


tablespoons cinnamon, 1/2 cup (60 g) brown sugar, 2 teaspoons rice flour,
1/2 stick (30 g) butter, 1 teaspoon pure cocoa, 1/2 cup (25 g) plain chopped wal-
nuts or pecans; mix together in a bowl using your fingers until crumbly. Sprinkle
over the top of each muffin before baking.

Banana Muffins
Good wake-up treats or take-to-school snacks. This is my favorite; easy to
make, with delicious results.

TOPPING (OPTIONAL): DRY INGREDIENTS:


2 tablespoons (20 g) flaxseed, ground 1/2 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons (30 g) brown sugar 1/2 teaspoon baking soda
2 tablespoons (15 g) plain slivered 2 1/2 teaspoons baking powder
almonds 1 teaspoon xanthan gum
2 tablespoons (30 g) unsalted 1/2 cup (50 g) sugar
butter, soft 1/2 cup (40 g) potato starch

WET INGREDIENTS: 1/2 cup (65 g) corn starch


3-4 bananas, mashed 1 cup (100 g) soy flour
4 tablespoons (55 g) butter or (60 ml) 1/2 cup (55 g) rice flour
olive oil 1/2 cup (30 g) plain nuts, chopped
2 eggs 1/2 cup (85 g) flaxseed, ground
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1/2 cup (160 ml) GF rice milk
(heat until tepid)

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE bottoms of muffin-tin
cups or paper muffin-cup liners. MIX 2 tablespoons ground flaxseed, brown
sugar, slivered almonds, and softened butter; set aside for topping. MIX well (in
a medium bowl) mashed banana, butter, sugar, and eggs. ADD remaining
ingredients and mix lightly, being mindful that baking powder recipes toughen

55
with overmixing. POUR batter into prepared cups; fill to about two-thirds full.
SPRINKLE topping mixture on each muffin. BAKE 20 to 30 minutes, until
brown.

Yield: 12 to 16 muffins

Nutritional An alysis: Assuming 16 muffins, each has 193 calories, 7.8 g


fat, 4.2 g protein, 26.6 g carbohydrate, 3.6 g dietary fiber. With optional top-
ping, each has 224 calories, 109 fat, 4 g protein, 28.9 g carbohydrate, 4 g
dietary fiber.

Hazelnut Muffins
WET INGREDIENTS: 1/2 cup (70 g) sorghum flour
1 egg 2 1/2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 teaspoon sea salt 1/2 teaspoon baking soda
11/2 cups (355 ml) milk 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
3 medium bananas, mashed 1 teaspoon xanthan gum
1 teaspoon walnut or hazelnut flavoring
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (100 g) sugar 1/2 cup (50 g) plain walnut pieces,
chopped
11/2 cups (180 g) hazelnut meal/flour
1 cup (160 g) rice flour

PREHEAT oven to 350 F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE muffin tin. BLEND
egg, salt, sugar, milk, bananas, and walnut flavoring. Mix by hand. COMBINE
flours, baking powder, baking soda, cream of tartar, and xanthan gum; whisk
together. STIR dry ingredients into wet ingredients, just until blended. FOLD in
chopped walnuts. FI LL prepared muffin tins. BAKE at 350F (180C, or gas
mark 4) for 25 to 30 minutes.

Yield: 12 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 258 calories, 13.4 g fat, 5.7 g
protein, 28.5 g carbohydrate, 2.7 g dietary fiber.

56 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea


Buttermilk Muffins
These muffins are gluten-free (GF) ONLY if processed in an uncontaminated
setting (see page 14).
These muffins are nice served at teatime or with supper.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


2 eggs 1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
1 1/2 cups (355 ml) buttermilk 1/2 cup (50 g) sorghum flour
1 stick (112 g) butter 1/2 cup (70 g) millet flour
2 teaspoons lemon juice 2 teaspoons baking powder
2 drops yellow food coloring 1 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 teaspoon xanthan gum
2 teaspoons brown sugar
1/2 cup (75 g) GF dates, chopped

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180(, or gas mark 4). GREASE bottoms of muffin-tin
cups or paper muffin-cup liners. BEAT the eggs in a bowl. ADD remaining wet
ingredients to the beaten eggs. BLEND dry ingredients. ADD wet mixture to dry
mixture. SPOON batter into prepared tins or cups, filling them half full. BAKE at
350F (180(, or gas mark 4) until brown.

Yield: 12 to 20 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 20 muffins, each has 106 calories,


5.4 g fat, 2.1 g protein, 12.5 g carbohydrate, 1 g dietary fiber. With suggested
variation, each has 119 calories, 5.5 g fat, 2.1 g protein, 15.6 g carbohydrate,
1.1 g dietary fiber.

57
Zucchini Muffins
This is our daughter Susanna's invention. She made these when she came
from Brooklyn and found zucchini in our garden. They are really a variation
of a carrot muffin. Share these light, bright, tasty zucchini muffins with a
neighbor or friend-it's a good way to use fresh zucchini from the garden.

WET INGREDIENTS: 2 teaspoons baking powder


1 egg 1/2 teaspoon baking soda
3 tablespoons (45 ml) canola oil 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
2 tablespoons (28 g) butte~ melted 2 teaspoons xanthan gum
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract 2 teaspoons chopped cilantro
1/2 teaspoon salt
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (50 g) sugar 1/2 cup (60 ml) GF rice milk or GF soy
milk
1/2 cup (60 g) rice flour
1 cup (120 g) seeded and grated or
1/2 cup (105 g) sorghum
chopped zucchini

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE bottoms and sides of
paper muffin cups. Arrange in muffin tins. COMBINE, in a large bowl, egg, oil,
butter, sugar, and vanilla flavoring. MIX well. ADD all remaining ingredients
except zucchini. MIX well to remove all lumps. Batter will be thick. ADD zucchi-
ni and mix well. SPOON batter into prepared muffin cups, filling them half full.
BAKE 45 minutes or until toothpick inserted in muffin tests clean. COOL in pan
for at least 10 minutes before removing.

Yield: 1 dozen muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 82 calories, 3.1 g fat, 1.3 g protein,
12.2 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Variations: Use GF almond or hazelnut milk. Use almond or hazelnut flavoring


if you switch to almond or hazelnut milk.

Note: Freeze muffins next day because vegetables get moldy quickly.

58 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea


Squash Muffins
This recipe makes a large batch; if you are not about to eat all of them, freeze
half for later use, because the fruits and vegetables added to baked goods get
moldy fast.

WET INGREDIENTS: 1/2 teaspoon salt


1 1/2 sticks (1/2 cup, or 170 g) butter, 1 teaspoon ginger
softened 1/2 teaspoon fresh nutmeg, grated
3 large eggs 1/2 cup (115 g) golden raisins
DRY INGREDIENTS: 1/2 cup (95 g) GF hulled sunflower or
1/2 cup (50 g) sugar pumpkin seeds (oven dried),
1 1/2 cups (360 g) winter squash (yellow), ground in a coffee grinder
fresh (cooked until soft) or canned
TOPPING:
1 cup (140 g) brown rice flour
2 tablespoons pure cocoa
1 cup (160 g) white rice flour
2 tablespoons (28 g) butter
1/2 cup (60 g) potato starch
2 tablespoons cinnamon
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
2 tablespoons (30 g) brown sugar
3 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon

PREHEAT oven to 400F (200(, or gas mark 6). GREASE muffin tin cups or
paper liners. BEAT butter and sugar in bowl until light and fluffy. ADD eggs one
at a time, beating well after each addition. ADD squash pulp and mix well. MIX
remaining dry ingredients together. ADD dry ingredients, raisins, and sunflower
seeds to squash mixture. MIX well. SPOON batter into 18 prepared muffin
cups. SPRINKLE with topping mixture. BAKE in lower third of oven at 400F
(200(, or gas mark 6) for 20 minutes or until well done.

Yield: 18 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 268 calories, 11.9 g fat, 4 g protein,
36.2 g carbohydrate, 3.1 g dietary fiber.

59
Parsnip Muffins
Wake up your family to the aroma of these sweet, healthy muffins. A moist,
subtle-flavored favorite of ours!

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1/2 cup (70 g) sorghum flour 2 eggs
1/2 cup (40 g) cream of rice cereal 2 medium sweet potatoes, baked and
1/2 teaspoon xanthan gum mashed

1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder 1/2 cup (60 ml) buttermilk or whole milk

1/2 teaspoon baking soda 2 tablespoons (30 ml) olive oil

1 teaspoon dried orange peel 1/2 cup (75 g) raisins

1/2 cup (115 g) brown sugar 1/2 cup (75 g) GF dates, chopped

1 teaspoon cinnamon 1 cup (120 g) shredded parsnips (grated


or ground in food processor)
1/2 cup (50 g) plain nuts, chopped

PREHEAT oven to 400F (200(, or gas mark 6). Grease bottoms only of muf-
fin tins or paper muffin cups. BLEND together, in a large bowl, the flour, cream
of rice, xanthan gum, baking powder, baking soda, orange peel, sugar, and cin-
namon. BEAT the eggs slightly, in a small bowl. ADD the sweet potatoes, but-
termilk, and oil to the beaten eggs.

POUR egg mixture into the dry ingredients. STIR until just blended-it's OK if
the batter is lumpy. ADD the raisins, dates, shredded parsnips, and nuts. STIR
until blended. POUR the batter into muffin cups and bake for 15 to 18 minutes
or until a toothpick comes out clean. REMOVE from oven and let muffins sit for
a few minutes in the tins to finish cooking before removing.

Yield: 12 muffins, or more

Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 213 calories, 6.8 g fat, 3.3 g protein,
34.5 g carbohydrate, 3.3 g dietary fiber.

Variation: Vary the flavor by substituting soy flour for the cream of rice or ama-
ranth for sorghum flour. Vary texture by using buckwheat or quinoa instead of
sorghum flour.

60 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea


Soy Muffins
These muffins have a slightly nutty, sour taste. We like them with meat dish-
es. Soy products were unheard of during World War II. How fortunate we are
now with all these healthy new flours on hand. Bean and grain flours com-
bine to produce a perfect protein.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1/2 teaspoon salt 1 cup (235 ml) GF soy milk
1/2 teaspoon baking soda 3 tablespoons (60 g) honey
2 teaspoons baking powder 1/2 cup (180 g) unsweetened applesauce
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar 2 teaspoons vanilla flavoring or extract
1 cup (100 g) soy flour
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
1/2 cup (80 g) rice flour
1/2 cup (80 g) soya granules
1teaspoon xanthan gum

PREHEAT oven to 400F (200(, or gas mark 6). Grease bottoms and sides of
muffin tins or paper muffin cups, or grease an 8- or 9-inch (20- or 22.5-cm)
square pan. MIX dry ingredients together. MIX wet ingredients together. ADD
dry mixture to wet mixture. BLEN D together. BAKE in an 8- or 9-inch (20- or
22.5-cm) square pan or muffin cups for 20 minutes or until firm but not hard.

Yield: 12 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 138 calories, 2.1 g fat, 7.1 g protein,
22.4 g carbohydrate, 2.8 g dietary fiber.

61
Pineapple Bran Tea Muffins
These are gluten-free (GF) ONLY if the oats have been processed in an
uncontaminated setting (see page 14).
These are very moist because of the fruit used. They must be refrigerated if
they are to be kept for a few days.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1 cup (100 g) GF oat bran 1/2 cup (60 ml) pineapple juice from
1/2 cup (50 g) GF oat flour drained pineapple
1/2 cup (70 g) millet flour 1 tablespoon orange peel
1/2 teaspoon salt 1/2 cup (95 g) orange sections, chopped
3 teaspoons brown sugar 1/2 cup (125 g) plain GF yogurt
11/2 teaspoons baking powder 1/2 cup (60 ml) olive oil
1/2 teaspoon baking soda 1 teaspoon vanilla extract
1 teaspoon ground cinnamon 2 egg whites, slightly beaten
1 teaspoon grated lemon rind 1 teaspoon lemon juice
1 teaspoon xanthan gum 1 can (8.25 ounces, or 230 g) crushed
pineapple, drained, juice reserved

PREHEAT oven to 400F (200(, or gas mark 6). GREASE bottoms and sides
of muffin-tin cups or paper muffin-cup liners. BLEND dry ingredients. GENTLY
mix wet ingredients together, except for the crushed pineapple. ADD the dry
ingredients to the wet ingredients. STIR the crushed pineapple into the batter,
combining with a few strokes; do not overmix. SPOON batter into prepared
muffin cups, filling three-quarters full. BAKE for 20 minutes. Serve warm.

Yield: 12 to 14 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 14 muffins, each has 127 calories, 4.8 g


fat 3.4 g protein, 17.5 g carbohydrate, 2.4 g dietary fiber.

62 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea


Oatmeal Muffins
These are gluten-free (GF) ONLY if the oats have been processed in an
uncontaminated setting (page 14).
From www.bobsredmill.com.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1 cup (75 g) GF oats, quick cooking 2 large eggs
1/2 cup (75 g) GF oat flour, light 1/2 cup (175 ml) milk
1/2 cup (105 g) garbanzo bean flour 1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter, melted
2 teaspoons GF baking powder 1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring
1/2 teaspoon sea salt
1/2 cup (175 g) brown sugar, packed

PREHEAT oven to 400F (200(, or gas mark 6). GREASE muffin cups lightly or
use baking cup liners. BLEND first five ingredients in large mixing bowl. Whisk
eggs and brown sugar in another bowl until smooth. ADD milk, melted butter,
and vanilla to egg mixture. POUR wet ingredients over dry ingredients and fold
in just until dry ingredients
are moistened. SPOON batter into muffin cups. BAKE at 400F (200(, or gas
mark 6) for 15 to 25 minutes. TURN OUT onto a rack to cool.

Yield: 12 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 212 calories, 6.9 g fat 6.1 g protein,
21.3 g carbohydrate, 3.3 g dietary fiber.

Oat Flour Muffins


These are gluten-free (GF) ONLY if the oats have been processed in an
uncontaminated setting (see page 14).
Moist, sweet breakfast muffins, especially satisfying. Oat flour gives moistness
and sweetness to dough, which makes it the ideal ingredient to satiate the
lucky eater. It also contains a natural antioxidant that is very useful in
muffins, making them stay fresher longer.

63
DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
2 cups (200 g) GF oat flour 1/2 cup (1 15 g) honey or (75 g)
2 teaspoons baking powder brown sugar
1 teaspoon baking soda 2 eggs (or egg substitute), beaten
1 teaspoon xanthan gum 2 tablespoons (30 ml) vegetable oil
1 teaspoon salt (optional) 1/2 cup (160 g) buttermilk or sour milk
1 cup (145 g) raisins, GF dates, 1 tablespoon (15 g) mayonnaise
or plain nuts, chopped
(or a combination)

PREHEAT oven to 425F (220(, or gas mark 7). Grease bottoms only of muf-
fin tins or paper muffin cups. STI R together dry ingredients, pressing out any
lumps. MIX fruits, nuts, and liquids together. ADD wet mixture to dry mix. Stir
lightly. POUR batter into muffin tins or paper cake cups. BAKE in 425F (220(,
or gas mark 7) oven for 15 to 20 minutes.

Yield: 12 to 14 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 14 muffins, each has 148 calories, 4.1 g


fat 3.8 g protein, 24.3 g carbohydrate, 2.2 g dietary fiber.

Gingerbread Muffins
Pungent and savory treats for lunchbox, after school, and teatime.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1/2 cup (90 g) teff flour or buckwheat 2 egg yolks
flour 3 tablespoons (60 g) dark unsulfured
1/2 teaspoon baking powder molasses
1/2 teaspoon salt 1/2 cup (120 ml) orange juice
3 teaspoons cinnamon 1 teaspoon orange peel
3 teaspoons ground ginger 2 tablespoons freshly grated ginger (for
1/2 teaspoon ground cloves spectacular taste)
2 tablespoons (30 g) brown sugar 4 egg whites
2 tablespoons (30 g) granulated sugar

PREPARE: Preheat oven to 400F (200(, or gas mark 6). Grease bottoms of
muffin tins or paper muffin-cup liners. WH ISK together dry ingredients, except
sugars. (REAM together egg yolks and brown sugar until it looks like a yellow

64 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea


ribbon. Add molasses, orange juice, orange peel, and ginger. ADD wet ingredi-
ents (except egg whites) to dry ingredients. BEAT egg whites until soft peaks
form. BEAT granulated sugar into the egg whites, 1 tablespoon at a time. Fold
egg-white mixture into batter. FILL muffin tins three-quarters full. BAKE at
400F (200C, or gas mark 6) for 15 to 18 minutes.

Yield: 10 to 12 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 muffins, each has 84 calories, 1.1 g fat,


2.8 g protein, 15.5 g carbohydrate, 1.3 g dietary fiber.

Hazelnut-Pine Nut Muffins


These nutty little muffins are exquisite.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1/2 cup + 1 tablespoon (110 g) plain 1 egg, lightly beaten
pine nuts, divided (see page 28) 4 tablespoons (55 g) butter, melted
1 cup (120 g) amaranth flour 1/2 cup (120 ml) milk
1/2 teaspoon xanthan gum 2 tablespoons (40 g) honey
1 cup (120 g) hazelnut flour, ground 2 teaspoons hazelnut flavoring or extract
1 teaspoon baking soda 1/2 cup (80 g) apricot preserves
1 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon salt or to taste
1/2 cup (50 g) sugar
1 package gelatin

PREHEAT oven to 400F (200C, or gas mark 6). Oil muffin cups or use paper
liners. TOAST the nuts in the oven in a pan. MIX together dry ingredients,
reserving 1 tablespoon pine nuts. COMBINE wet ingredients. MIX wet ingredi-
ents into the dry ingredients, using a fork.The batter will be lumpy. SPOON 1
tablespoon of the batter into each prepared muffin tin. SPOON 1 tablespoon
(20 g) apricot preserves over the batter in each muffin cup. TOP the apricot
preserves layer with the remaining batter. SCATTER 1 tablespoon nuts over
muffin tops. BAKE 15 to 20 minutes or until golden.

Yield: 12 to 14 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 14 muffins, each has 260 calories, 13.8 g


fat, 6.2 g protein, 27.9 g carbohydrate, 3.6 g dietary fiber.

65
Sorghum Scones
These are Mace's morning magic. He loves to make them. They smell good,
they taste good, and they are healthy. What a combo!
Scones are a variation of muffins-they are made by spooning or dropping
the dough in round mounds on the cookie sheet, which allows them to get
brown almost all over. They look tremendously inviting.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1 1/2 cups (175 g) sorghum flour 4 tablespoons (55 g) butter
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour 2 eggs, lightly beaten
1/2 cup (80 g) rice flour 1/2 cup (160 g) plain GF yogurt or 1/2
1 1/2 teaspoons cream of tartar cup (120 ml) milk
1/2 teaspoon baking soda milk (to brush on scones before baking)
1 teaspoon xanthan or guar gum
3 heaping tablespoons (18 g) cumin
1/2 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons (30 g) sugar
1/2 cup (75 g) currants or raisins

PREHEAT oven to 450F (230C, or gas mark 8). GREASE baking sheet with oil
or cover sheet with oiled tin foil. MIX all dry ingredients. ADD butter to sugar
and cream by pressing mix against the side of the mixing bowl. ADD beaten
eggs and yogurt to butter and sugar. ADD the flour mixture to the egg mixture
and stir lightly, just until all dry and wet ingredients are mixed together. ADD
either currants or raisins and stir to blend in. Either SPOON out into big mounds
on baking sheet or PAT and roll the dough (covered with waxed paper). BRUSH
with milk (this will enhance browning). BAKE for 12 to 15 minutes. Cut circle
into wedges.

Yield: 12 or more muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Each scone has 192 calories, 2.9 g fat, 4 g protein,
30.7 g carbohydrate, 2.1 g dietary fiber.

66 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea


Corn Muffins
DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (120 g) rice flour 2 eggs, beaten
1 cup (120 g) corn flour 1/2 cup (60 ml) vegetable oil
1 teaspoon xanthan gum 1/2 cup (50 g) sugar or (85 g) honey
2 teaspoons baking powder 1/2 cup (60 ml) GF rice milk
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar 1/2 can (15.25 ounces, or 427 g)
1/2 teaspoon salt drained corn, ground

PREHEAT oven to 400F (200(, or gas mark 6). GREASE bottoms only of
muffin tin cups or paper muffin-cup liners. MIX together dry ingredients.
ADD remaining liquids to egg mixture. ADD wet mixture to dry mix. STIR lightly.
POUR into muffin tins or paper cake cups. BAKE in oven for 15 minutes, until
golden brown.

Yield: 12 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 170 calories, 6 g fat, 3 g protein,


26. 1 g carbohydrate, 2.5 g dietary fiber.

Cornbread Muffins
These traditional muffins go well with fall meals, stews, and soups. I double
this recipe for Thanksgiving and bake these old-fashion muffins in a quaint
iron corn pone muffin tin.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


1 cup (235 ml) buttermilk 1 1/2 cups (210 g) yellow cornmeal
2 eggs, beaten 1/2 cup (65 g) cornstarch
1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter, melted 2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 cup (60 ml) maple syrup 1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1/2 cup (50 g) plain nuts, chopped

PREHEAT oven to 425F (220(, gas mark 7). Grease bottoms only of muffin
tin cups or paper muffin cups or 8- or 9-inch (20- or 22.5-cm) square pan.

67
COMBINE wet ingredients. COMBINE dry ingredients. MIX wet and dry ingredi-
ents together. BAKE at 425F (220C, gas mark 7) for 15 minutes.

Yield: 12 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 191 calories, 8.5 g fat 3.6 g protein,
24.9 g carbohydrate, 1.7 g dietary fiber.

Hot Herb and Spice Muffins


A totally different concept, hot-spicy muffins!

WET INGREDIENTS 1 teaspoon finely chopped fresh basil or


3 eggs, separated
.
marjoram
1 1/2 cups (295 ml) buttermilk 1/2 teaspoon oregano, dried or fresh
2 tablespoons (30 ml) olive oil 1/2 teaspoon dill seeds, smashed
1 tablespoon finely chopped onion
DRY INGREDIENTS
1 cup (140 g) brown rice flour 1/2 teaspoon cayenne pepper

1 cup (120 g) teff flour 1/2 teaspoon salt, optional

1 teaspoon baking powder 2 teaspoons finely chopped


fresh parsley
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1 cup grated Cheddar cheese
1/2 teaspoon mustard powder
1/2 teaspoon garlic powder

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). SPRAY muffin-tin liners with
oil. MIX egg yolks with fork. Beat egg whites until loosely stiff. MIX all ingredi-
ents except eggs and cheese in saucepan and simmer for 3 minutes, stirring.
REMOVE from heat and let cool; add a little of this batter to the egg yolks, and
stir in the cheese. ADD yolk-and-cheese mixture to other ingredients. GENTLY
fold egg whites into mixture. Don't overstir. SPOON into well-oiled muffin-tin
liners, filling three-quarters full. BAKE at 350 F (180C, or gas mark 4) for
15 minutes.

Yield: 20 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Each has 94 calories, 4.6 g fat, 3.9 g protein,


9 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

68 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea


Applesauce Bran Muffins
A classic! This is one of our favorites. They are quick to make.

DRY INGREDIENTS WET INGREDIENTS


1 cup (160 g) rice flour 1/2 cup (1 15 g) molasses
1 cup (100 g) rice bran 1/2 cup (185 g) unsweetened applesauce
1/2 cup (60 g) hazelnut flour 2 tablespoons (30 ml) canola oil
1 tablespoon baking powder 2 eggs, beaten
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon 1/2 cup (60 ml) GF rice milk
1/2 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1/2 cup (35 g) plain almonds, chopped
(page 28)
1/2 cup (75 g) raisins

PREHEAT oven to 400F (200(, or gas mark 6). BLEND dry ingredients. MIX
wet ingredients. STI R wet into dry ingredients. Do not overstir. FI LL muffin cups.
BAKE 20 minutes.

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 muffins, each has 233 calories, 9.8 g


fat, 4.7 g protein, 31.3 g carbohydrate, 3.8 g dietary fiber.

Pumpkin Muffins
I cook halved pumpkins until soft in the microwave or on top of the stove
and then scrape out the pulp for these wonderful muffins. This is a recipe
that doubles well. I freeze a container of extra pumpkin pulp.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter, melted 2 teaspoons baking powder
1 teaspoon honey 1/2 teaspoon baking soda
2 eggs 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
2 cups fresh pumpkin, cooked and 1 teaspoon nutmeg
mashed 1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup (125 g) plain GF yogurt 1 cup (120 g) buckwheat flour
1 cup (235 ml) orange juice or to taste 1 cup (140 g) brown rice flour
2 teaspoons xanthan gum
1/2 teaspoon instant coffee

69
2 teaspoons cinnamon 1/2 cup (75 g) raisins or currants
1 teaspoon allspice 1 cup (100 g) plain nuts, chopped, or
1/2 cup (70 g) sugar (30 g) cornflakes (page 28)

PREHEAT oven to 300F (150(, or gas mark 2). Oil or grease muffin-tin cups
or paper liners. BEAT butter and honey in bowl. ADD eggs one at a time, beat-
ing well after each addition. ADD pumpkin and remaining wet ingredients; mix
well. MIX dry ingredients together. ADD dry ingredients to pumpkin mixture;
blend well. ADD raisins and nuts to pumpkin batter. MIX well. SPOON batter
into 18 oiled paper muffin cups or 1/2 dozen large muffin-tin cups. BAKE in
lower third of oven at 300F (150(, or gas mark 2) for 20 minutes or until
done.

Yield: 18 medium-sized or 6 large muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 191 calories, 9.1 g fat, 3.5 g protein,
23.9 g carbohydrate, 2.3 g dietary fiber.

Blueberry Muffins
Adapted from www.bobsredmill.com;CarolFenster.Ph.D.
These are best in July, when nice big blueberries can be picked and held in
this neu tral batter.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1 cup (140 g) garbanzo and/or fava 1 cup (235 ml) milk: GF rice, GF soy,
bean flour GF nut or cow's milk (page 28)
1/2 cup (1 109) rice flour 1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter, softened
1/2 cup (80 g) tapioca flour 3 eggs
2 teaspoons flaxseed meal 1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1 teaspoon unflavored gelatin powder 1 tablespoon lemon peel, grated
2 teaspoons xanthan gum 1 cup (145 g) blueberries, fresh or
2 1/2 teaspoons baking powder frozen
1/2 cup (100 g) sugar or (170 g) honey
1 teaspoon sea salt

70 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea


PREHEAT oven to 400F (200(, or gas mark 6). GREASE 12-cup muffin tin or
line with paper cups. STIR flours, flaxseed meal, gelatin powde~ xanthan gum,
baking powder, suga~ and salt. WHISK together milk, butter, eggs, vanilla, and
lemon peel. POUR liquids into well formed in flour mixture. STIR just until
ingredients are moistened. FOLD I N blueberries ever so gently. BAKE at 400F
(200(, or gas mark 6) for 25 minutes.

Yield: 12 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 194 calories, 5.4 g fat, 3.4 g protein,
32.8 g carbohydrate, 2.9 g dietary fiber.

Teff Muffins
The sheer goodness of teff, its sweet nutty flavor, rich brown color, and
powerful protein content, makes these a once-a-week must.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1/2 cup (90 g) teff flour 2 eggs, slightly beaten
1/2 cup (120 g) rice flour 1/2 cup (80 ml) olive oil
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour 1/2 cup (160 ml) GF soy milk
2 teaspoons baking powder 1/2 cup (75 g) dried currants
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
2 teaspoons cinnamon
1/2 teaspoon sea salt

PREHEAT oven to 400F (200(, or gas mark 6). GREASE muffin-tin paper lin-
ers. MIX dry ingredients together. BLEND wet ingredients together in separate
bowl. ADD wet ingredients to dry. FILL muffin cups three-quarters full. BAKE for
25 minutes.

Yield: 8 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 245 calories, 10.9 g fat, 4 g protein,
32.4 g carbohydrate, 2.5 g dietary fiber.

71
Almond Muffins
Adapted from www.bobsredmill.com. Healthy, sweet little treats!

DRY INGREDIENTS: 1/2 cup (80 g) soya granules


1 cup (120 g) almond meal flour 1/2 cup (50 g) GF flaxseed meal
1 cup (140 g) sorghum flour 1/2 cup (65 g) plain slivered almonds
1/2 cup (50 g) soy flour
1 tablespoon baking powder WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar 1 1/2 cups (295 ml) milk
1/2 teaspoon salt 3 eggs, beaten
1/2 cup (60 g) brown sugar 2 tablespoons (30 ml) canola oil

PREHEAT oven to 425F (220C, or gas mark 7). GREASE and flour 12 muffin
cups. COMBINE all dry ingredients. BEAT together milk, eggs, and oil. MIX with
dry ingredients just enough to moisten. FILL muffin cups two-thirds full. BAKE
at 425F (220C, or gas mark 7) for 17 minutes or until light brown in color.

Yield: 12 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 279 calories, 15.1 g fat,


12.8 g protein, 22.4 g carbohydrate, 5.3 g dietary fiber.

72 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea


Granola and Muesli Recipe
Granola is baked or roasted grains and nuts and/or dried fruits; muesli is
grains soaked overnight with flavoring added. You add fruits, yogurt, and
nuts on the next day. We have found it is so frustrating to read labels of
breakfast cereals that sound so perfect for celiacs but, 10 and behold, there is
gluten-tainted barley malt or oats in the list of ingredients. We finally made
up some gluten-free granolas that are show stoppers. Basically our recipe has
one or two celiac-safe breakfast cereals, puffed millet, puffed rice, rice bran,
and buckwheat groats along with nuts and dried fruits; held together by but-
ter or oil; a little honey, maple syrup, and unsulfured molasses; flavored with
salt, cinnamon, and the secret ingredient, cardamom. You will vary the
amounts I am sure, but here is a base.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


1 cup (225 g) unsalted butter, melted, 11/2 cups (180 g) plain chopped nuts or
or (235 ml) vegetable oil seeds
1/2 cup (85 g) honey 3 cups (45 g) GF puffed millet and rice
1/2 cup (120 ml) pure maple syrup cereals
1/2 cup (85 g) unsulfured molasses (not 1 cup (160 g) soya granules
blackstrap!) 1/2 cup (35 g) unsweetened coconut
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract 1 teaspoon cinnamon
1 cup (150 g) dried fruit, chopped (such 1 teaspoon cardamom
as cranberries, GF dates, peaches, 1/2 teaspoon sea salt
raisins, apples)

PREHEAT oven to 300F (150(, or gas mark 2). OIL large flat pans. MIX wet
ingredients into dry and stir thoroughly. THROW it all onto greased jelly roll or
cookie pans and stir it about. BAKE at 300F (150(, or gas mark 2). Watch
and stir it every 5 minutes. Be vigilant, it browns fast. Add dried fruit at last
minute so they don't loose their color.

Yield: About 6 cups

Nutritional Analysis: Each one-half cup serving has 446 calories, 27 9 fat,
9.5 g protein, 41 g carbohydrate, 4.8 9 dietary fiber.

73
Walnut Teff Muffins
These muffins are not complicated; great with soup for lunch

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1 1/2 cups (180 g) teff flour 1/2 cup (85 g) honey
1/2 cup (50 g) soy flour 2 cups (475 ml) milk
2 teaspoons baking powder 1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter
1/2 teaspoon salt 1/2 teaspoon walnut flavoring or extract
1/2 cup (60 g) plain chopped walnuts

PREHEAT oven to 400F (200(, or gas mark 6). GREASE muffin tin. MIX dry
ingredients together. BLEND wet ingredients together in separate bowl. ADD
wet ingredients to dry. SPOON into muffin tins. BAKE at 400F (200(, or gas
mark 6) for 20 minutes.

Yield: 12 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 157 calories, 8.5 9 fat, 4.8 9 protein,
15.4 9 carbohydrate, 1.9 9 dietary fiber.

Honey Muffins
A sweet muffin.
DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
1 1/2 cups hazelnut flour 1/2 cup (85 g) honey
1/2 cup brown rice flour 2/3 cup (160 ml) hazelnut milk
2 teaspoons baking powder 1 container (1.5 ounces, or 43 g)
babyfood, prunes
3 1/2 tablespoons (50 g) butte~ melted.

PREHEAT oven to 375F (190(, or gas mark 5). GREASE muffin pan. MIX
together hazelnut flour, rice flour, and baking powder. ADD honey, hazelnut
milk, prunes, and butter. STIR until well blended. FILL muffin tins two-thirds full.
BAKE at 375F (190(, or gas mark 5) for 25 minutes-test with toothpick.

Yield: 12 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 168 calories, 11 9 fat, 2.3 9 protein,
14.9 9 carbohydrate, 1.7 9 dietary fiber.

74 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea


CHAPTER TWO

Hearty Treats:
Extraordinary Pancakes
Flat Cakes
Writing about pancakes made us recall many years of Mother's Day breakfast
trays with wonderful pancakes oozing with real maple syrup. This tradition
started Mace's penchant for short-order cooking and the children's confidence
that they too could cook anything.
Pancakes are fun. Easy to make, they are quickly assembled from flour,
eggs, milk, and shortening, and then cooked on a greased flat pan, heated
until water sizzles on it.
Whether we know them as flapjacks, slapjacks, griddle cakes, johnny-
cakes, hot cakes, or flannel cakes, we all love pancakes. No matter what you
call them or where you eat them, the images pancakes evoke are similar
whether served in a tall stack of hearty golden discs dripping with melted
butter and maple syrup at a roadside diner, or in a delicate arrangement of
pale, thin cakes surrounded by fresh berries and sprinkled with powdered
sugar in the formal dining room of an elegant hotel, or on a plate at your
own kitchen table. Anticipation of these tasty treats, from the sizzle of
batter hitting the griddle in your own kitchen while family and friends watch
hungrily, to eating the first warm, sweet morsel, is half the fun.
Pancakes, waffles, and crepes are liquefied cakes. They are fried on a flat
pan or griddle. They require flipping over to cook on both sides. They can
also be cooked, as in the case of waffles, on a pan with top and bottom sur-
faces. While the cooking method for pancakes, waffles, and crepes is similar,
pancakes differ in consistency of batter and final cooked texture. Pancakes
have shortening in the recipes, whereas crepe batters are 200 percent more
liquefied, with no shortening. Pancakes and waffles are made from a thicker,
more floury batter than crepes. The thicker pancake batter retains gas cells
for some time. These gas cells are a result of the baking powder or soda
interacting with the solids in the batter. During the cooking process, the

75
gas cells expand until bubbles are created on the surface. The start of the
bubbles beginning to break on the upper surface during cooking signals
that the pancakes should be flipped over, before the gas escapes.
Not only does our discovery of alternative flours make terrific, tasty grid-
dle cakes, but they are much healthier than commercial boxed wheat pancake
mixes. They are steeped in protein; alternative flours have more protein than
a meat portion of the same size. And slowing down to create pancakes of
choice knits a family, creating memories as well.

Ti ps for Crepes
Crepe is a French word meaning a very thin pancake that is often rolled and
filled with sweet or main-dish ingredients.
Crepes are thin pancakes often made without adding baking powder or
soda (the ingredients that make ordinary pancakes puff up). They usually are
dressed up for main courses or varied with special tastes and toppings for
dessert. They take a little skill to cook just right and to fold.
You can cook crepes by using the inside of your crepe pan or the outside
of the pan. In other words, you can turn a crepe pan upside down. I'll explain
this below.

HOW TO COOK CREPES ON AN UPSIDE-DOWN CREPE PAN


These upside-down griddles heat up over the gas or electric heating element
on your stovetop.
1. Grease the back of your crepe pan.
2. Preheat your upside-down griddle until a drop of water dances on it.
3. Pour batter into a 9-inch (22.5-cm) pie pan.
4. Turn pan so its bottom sits in the batter in the pie pan.
5. Hold crepe pan in batter for only a minute.
6. Gently lift pan up; gently turn it over.
7. Immediately return pan, still upside down, to heat source. Cook just until
batter loses its wet look and slight browning shows on the edge.
S. Release crepe; start to stack by putting wax paper between each layer of
crepes. Reserve until ready to fill and fold.
9. Note, the first crepe cooked this way can fall off or be too lacey. Discard
and continue. As you make each one, loosen the edge with a spatula. You
may have to nudge the center. Stack and continue on to folding step.

76 Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes


HOW TO COOK CREPES WITH PAN RIGHT-SIDE UP

1. Select a pretty serving dish. If you plan to eat them right away, put your
filling to one side.
2. Heat lightly greased crepe pan over medium heat.
3. With one hand, pour in two or three tablespoons of batter.
4. With the other hand, lift the pan above the heat for a few seconds, swirling
the batter so it covers the bottom of the pan.
5. Return pan to stove, keeping medium-high heat, and cook quickly, peek-
ing at the bottom to see if it is brown.
6. Carefully turn with a spatula and cook for a few seconds. Remove.
7. Stack on your plate, inserting waxed paper between each layer of crepes.

HoW" to Serve Crepes


With all of these approaches, be sure to put the prettiest side outside. Start
your folding on a plate so it won't have to be moved after it's folded.

Fold-overs
Use: desserts or main dishes. Spread filling along center. Fold one side over,
then the other. Turn on side or fasten with toothpick.

Roll-up
Use: appetizers when cut or even whole. Spread filling over whole crepe.
Start at one side and roll up like a jelly roll.

Half folds
Use: sandwiches. Simply fold crepe in half.

Burrito roll
Use: fillings that are runny, like sloppy Joes. Spread filling thinly over all,
leaving a I-inch (2.5-cm) border. Fold right side and then left over filling.
Start at the bottom and gently roll up.

Crepe Suzette fold


Use: creamy or butter-filled runny hot liquids. Spoon filling in center. Fold in
half, then in half again, forming a triangle four layers thick.

77
Blintz or pocket fold
Use: lunch or special snacks. Blintzes are often refried, so put the filling on
the browner side of the crepe. Put filling in center. Fold right side and left to
meet. Fold top of crepe down over sides or fold both top and bottom. Turn
over and flatten.

Wedges
Use: appetizers. Spread filling over crepe and cut into open-faced wedges.

Cups
Use: desserts. Squeeze into a greased muffin tin.

Crepes Suzette
Those pancakes laden with sauces, fruits, and sometimes, if there is a grown-
up involved, doused with a little brandy that lights up if lit with a match ...
a crepe Suzette. These glorified pancakes, delicate and thin, combined with a
rich butter and fruit sauce, have the most delicate flavor imaginable.

DRY INGREDIENTS: 11/2 cups (295 ml) GF hazelnut, soy,


1/2 teaspoon xanthan gum or rice milk
1/2 cup (50 g) sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla or almond
1/2 teaspoon salt flavoring or extract
1/2 cup (98 g) cornstarch
SUZETTE BUTTER FOR TOPPING
1/2 cup (60 g) potato starch 1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter

WET INGREDIENTS: 1 cup (100 g) GF confectioners' sugar


2 eggs Grated rind of 1 lemon
1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter Grated rind of 1 orange
1/2 cup (60 ml) orange juice

MIX dry ingredients in bowl. MIX wet ingredients in separate bowl. GRADUAL-
LY ADD wet ingredients to dry. STIR just to blend. Do not mix with a heavy
hand-remember that overmixing can make your baked product tough, not
light and delectable. POUR 1/2 cup (60 ml) batter into preheated, greased, flat
pan. If the pancake seems heavy, add more milk to batter. The pancake should
be paper thin. TURN pancake over when batter starts to bubble so both sides
brown equally. DUST these with confectioners' sugar. COMBINE Suzette butter
ingredients and spread on crepes while they are warm.

78 Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes


Yield: 6 to 8 crepes

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 8 crepes, each has 422 calories, 25.1 g fat,
2.1 g protein, 46.7 g carbohydrate, 1.5 g dietary fiber.

Cinnamon Apple Crepes


A sweet dessert crepe with a deep yellow color-nice with 1 tablespoon of
melted bittersweet chocolate ladled on top of each folded crepe.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


4 egg yolks, beaten 1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
2 whole eggs, beaten 1/2 cup (35 g) cornstarch
1 cup (235 ml) milk 1/2 cup (70 g) sorghum flour
2 tablespoons (28 g) butter, melted 2 tablespoons (30 g) sugar
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon xanthan gum

MIX beaten egg yolks and whole eggs. BLEND milk and butter in a separate
bowl. COMBINE flours, sugar, salt, and gum. ALTERNATELY ADD egg and but-
ter mixtures to flour mixture, making a thin batter. REFRIGERATE for an hour or
overnight before cooking on your griddle.

Apple Crepe Topping: 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon


2 tablespoons cornstarch 5 cooking apples, peeled, cored,
1/2 cup (175 ml) water and thinly sliced
1/2 cup (150 g) sugar 1/2 cup (25 g) plain walnuts, chopped

MIX cornstarch with water in a saucepan; blend until smooth. Bring to a boil.
ADD sugar, cinnamon, and apples to the cornstarch mixture. SIMMER until
sauce thickens and apples are tender. ADD walnuts. ENCLOSE mixture into
the center of each crepe, fold over.

Yield: 6 to 8 crepes

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 8 crepes, each has 351 calories, 10.4 g fat,
5.6 g protein, 58.3 g carbohydrate, 3.8 g dietary fiber. With suggested varia-
tion, each has 445 calories, 15.8 g fat, 6.7 g protein, 68.7 g carbohydrate,
3.8 g dietary fiber.

79
Variations: Red Hot cinnamon apple filling-my grandmother made these for
me: Melt 1/2 cup (80 g) little cinnamon hearts into the apple mixture in a
saucepan.

Cream cheese filling: 1 package (3 ounces, or 85 g) GF cream cheese, 1/2 cup


(60 ml) milk, 1 tablespoon (15 ml) brandy. Mix softened cream cheese with
milk and liquor. Put apple slices on top of cream cheese filling.

Herb Crepes
These crepes are fabulous treats. Have them with pork chops. These have a
subtle, almost bitter taste, made delectable by savory herbs.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1 cup (120 g) amaranth flour 3 eggs
1 cup (100 g) soy flour 1 cup (235 ml) beer
1 teaspoon fresh or dried tarragon 1 cup (235 ml) GF chicken bouillon
1 teaspoon chopped parsley 1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter, melted
1 teaspoon chives 1 tablespoon (15 g) GF sour cream

BLEND dry ingredients. BEAT eggs. COMBINE all wet ingredients. ADD wet
ingredients to dry. SPOON or ladle onto a hot griddle. COOK until brown on
both sides.

Yield: About 12 medium crepes

Nutritional Analysis: Each crepe has 157 calories, 7.9 g fat, 6.5 g protein,
14.7 g carbohydrate, 3.2 g dietary fiber.

80 Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes


Chocolate Dessert Crepe
My son-in-law says this would be terrific with his morning coffee when
I served it for dessert with hot, sweet homemade applesauce over top.
So, you decide!

WET INGREDIENTS: 1 tablespoon ground cardamom


3 tablespoons (45 g) butter 1 cup (140 g) sorghum flour
1 1/2 cups (355 ml) buttermilk 1/2 tablespoon baking soda
3 eggs, beaten 3 tablespoons (40 g) sugar
3 tablespoons (17 g) good quality
DRY INGREDIENTS: pure cocoa
2 ounces (55 g) GF bittersweet 1/2 teaspoon salt
chocolate

MELT butter and chocolate with cardamom in a double boiler. COMBINE


buttermilk and eggs in a separate bowl. COMBINE dry ingredients. POUR
alternately the buttermilk mixture and the melted chocolate mixture into the
dry ingredients. Let batter sit for 1/2 hour. Cook on a greased hot griddle.

Yield: 6 to 8 great big monster crepes

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 8 crepes, each has 213 calories, 9.7 g fat,
6.6 g protein, 24.9 g carbohydrate, 2.9 g dietary fiber.

Pancake Tips
Making pancakes on weekends can easily become a family tradition. Our son-
in-law invariably makes pancakes every weekend.
Pancakes can be ultra-thin, more like crepes than pancakes, or thick and
fluffy, like American breakfast pancakes. It depends on how much liquid is
added. Pancakes usually have baking powder as an ingredient. Berries, spices,
and nuts-even chocolate chips-added to the batter enhance nutrition and
taste. Any way you choose to eat them-alone, with toppings, or wrapped
around sweet or savory fillings-they are sure to be a treat.
Pancakes are great family food, and everyone from the youngest child to
the oldest adult can take part in their preparation. While the varieties of pan-
cakes are seemingly endless, there are some guidelines for making great ones.

81
1. For light pancakes made from scratch, let the batter rest 30 minutes at
room temperature. This gives the baking powder time to aerate the batter
as it begins the leavening process.
2. Don't beat these pancake batters in a blender. For that matter, don't beat
them at all. Overmixing toughens these alternative flours and will pre-
vent the baking powder from aerating the batter, resulting in flat pan-
cakes.
3. Use buttermilk if you want thick, fluffy, slightly tangy pancakes.
4. Cook the pancakes with a very thin film of oil or butter or cooking spray
at high heat. Test the heat by dropping a few drops of water on the grid-
dle. The water will dance about if the surface is hot enough. Pancakes
should sizzle slightly when they hit your griddle or skillet.
5. Turn pancakes when bubbles appear and edges curl and brown a little.
Use a flat-edged spatula.
6. Note that second pancakes are best and thirds are even better. Invariably,
I under- or over-cook the first pancakes off my pan. That's why I make a
little more batter than necessary. The third pancakes have the smoothest
bottoms, for some reason!
7. Serve pancakes right away for best eating. But you can keep them warm
in a 200F (95C) oven, stacked on a plate or baking sheet.
S. Make sure your maple syrup is the real thing. You and your special pan-
cakes deserve the best. For an extra treat, warm the syrup before serving.
9. Try pancakes with fish, chicken, or beef for supper as a healthy substitute
for pasta or potatoes.

82 Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes


Basic Pancake
This is my favorite pancake recipe. It is not as simple as some other recipes
but it always pleases our gang.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1/2 cup (65 g) corn starch 2 eggs, separated
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour 11/2 cups (295 ml) soy milk or buttermilk
1/2 cup (70 g) yellow cornmeal (you can add more if the batter is too
1/2 teaspoon salt thick)

2-3 teaspoons sugar 2 tablespoons (30 g) plain GF yogurt

1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder 3 tablespoons (45 g) unsalted butte~


melted
Pinch of cinnamon and nutmeg

LIGHTLY COAT griddle or flat pan with cooking spray, oil, or butter. MIX dry
ingredients together. Form a well in the middle of the flour mixture in your bowl.
MIX the egg yolks, buttermilk, yogurt, and butter in a separate bowl until
blended. POUR the liquid ingredients into the well in the flour mixture in the
first bowl. STI R until combined. BEAT egg whites in a separate bowl, using a
standing or hand mixe~ until stiff. FOLD beaten egg whites into the batter.
AD (optional) fruit, nuts, or chips now, if you wish. H EAT griddle or pan over
medium heat. TEST to make sure the griddle is hot enough with a few drops of
water; when the water dances, it is ready. POUR 1/4 cup batter onto
the prepared griddle or skillet for each pancake, leaving room for them to
spread. After 2 or 3 minutes, gently LIFT edges with a spatula to check for
color. FLIP them over when bubbles appear on the upper surfaces. COOK the
second side for another 2 to 3 minutes.
Yield: 10 to 12 medium pancakes

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 pancakes, each has 117 calories,


4 g fat, 2.4 g protein, 17.8 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

83
Fluffy Pancakes or Waffles
This recipe has been modified from www.bobsredmill.com.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1/2 cup (40 g) tapioca flour 3 eggs, separated
1/2 cup (95 g) brown rice flour 1 tablespoon (20 g) honey
1/2 cup (45 g) garbanzo bean flour 1/2 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1 teaspoon baking powder 2 tablespoons (30 ml) olive oil
2 tablespoons buttermilk powder 11/2 cups (315 ml) seltzer water
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 teaspoon sea salt

BEAT egg whites until stiff, set aside. BLEND dry ingredients. BLEND wet ingre-
dients and egg yolks. ADD wet ingredients to dry mixture. FOLD in egg whites.
PREHEAT greased griddle or waffle iron. COOK until golden brown. SERVE with
maple syrup, fresh fruit, or jelly.
Yield: 8 to 10 pancakes

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 10 pancakes or waffles, each has 129 calo-


ries, 4.9 g fat, 4 g protein, 17.6 g carbohydrate, 1.2 g dietary fiber.

Apple Pancakes
An acquaintance from Germany gave me this delicious recipe. We shared a
ski house in New Hampshire, and I watched her make beautiful apple pan-
cakes several times before getting the recipe and adapting it. The secret to
success is to cook it in a large buttered frying pan, covered, using low heat.

WET INGREDIENTS: 1/2 cup (70 g) sorghum flour


1 cup (235 ml) milk 1 teaspoon baking powder
2 eggs, whisked 1 teaspoon cinnamon, plus 1 teaspoon
for topping
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1 teaspoon sugar, plus 1 teaspoon for
1 apple
topping
1 cup (160 g) rice flour

84 Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes


PEEL and core apple, and then slice it in thin horizontal slices. MIX milk and
eggs together. BLEND flours, baking powde~ cinnamon, and sugar. ADD flour
mixture to milk mixture, a little at a time, until batter thickens. POUR mixture
into oiled, hot frying pan. LAY a few apple slices on top. COVER and cook for
about five minutes. To serve: MIX 1 teaspoon each cinnamon and sugar
together for topping. SPRINKLE over the cooked pancake.
Yield: 10 to 12 pancakes

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 pancakes, each has 104 calories, 1.9 g


fat, 3.2 g protein, 18.5 g carbohydrate, 1.2 g dietary fiber.

Variation: Substitute 1/2 cup (60 g) almond meal or rice flour for sorghum
flour.
Add 1/2 cup (30 g) finely chopped plain walnuts.

Note: You can flip the pancake, but she never did. It was ready when it curled
on the edges and lost its shine.

Down-Home Buckwheat Pancakes


These are what my son-in-law loves to make on Sunday mornings. These are
hearty, wholesome, and flavorful griddle cakes.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1 cup (120 g) buckwheat flour 2 tablespoons (40 g) unsulfured
1/2 cup (80 g) rice flour molasses
1/2 teaspoon sea salt 1 egg, beaten
1 teaspoon baking powder 11/2 cups (355 g) GF rice milk
1/2 teaspoon xanthan gum 2 tablespoons (28 g) butte~ melted
1 teaspoon vinegar

MIX dry ingredients together. MIX wet ingredients in separate bowl. LIGHTLY
STIR dry ingredients into wet, being careful not to overstir. LET SIT for a few
minutes. LADLE batter onto your hot griddle.
Yield: 10 to 12 pancakes

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 pancakes, each has 109 calories, 2.9 g


fat, 2.3 g protein, 18.2 g carbohydrate, 2.7 g dietary fiber.

85
Amaranth Applesauce Pancakes
This recipe has been modified from www.bobsredmill.com. Here's another
hearty, sweet-tasting pancake that my tasters raved about.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


1 apple, peeled and chopped 1/2 cup (60 g) amaranth flour
1/2 cup (125 g) applesauce 1/2 cup (30 g) tapioca flour
1/2 cup (80 ml) apple juice 1/2 cup (35 g) brown rice flour
2 eggs, lightly beaten 1 teaspoon baking soda
6 tablespoons (90 ml) water 1 teaspoon cream of tartar
1 teaspoon arrowroot starch
1/2 teaspoon allspice

MIX chopped apple, applesauce, apple juice, eggs, and water in a medium
bowl. STIR together flours, baking soda, cream of tartar, arrowroot, and allspice
in small bowl. ADD flour mixture to applesauce mixture, stir until blended.
GREASE griddle; heat over medium heat. POUR scant 1/2 cup batter in griddle
for each pancake. COOK until golden brown on one side. When surface is bub-
bly and edges are slightly dry, flip pancakes over and cook until done. SERVE
with maple syrup if desired.
Yield: Serves 3 to 4

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 4 pancakes, each has 250 calories, 4.5 g


fat, 7.6 g protein, 44.8 g carbohydrate, 5.6 g dietary fiber.

Baked Dilly Pancakes


Dairy- and yeast-free. These are perfect for luncheons, filled with creamed
tuna fish or dried beef.
WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:
1 tablespoon (15 ml) canola oil 6 tablespoons (40 g) soy flour
1/2 cup (85 g) honey 1 tablespoon grated lemon rind
2 eggs 1 tablespoon chopped dill weed
1 cup (235 ml) GF soy milk,
heated a bit

86 Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes


PREHEAT oven to 425F. GREASE 6 ramekins or flat glass bowls. BEAT the oil
and honey until smooth. BEAT the eggs and stir them into the oil mixture. ADD
soy flou~ stirring lightly. ADD soy milk, lemon rind, and dill. COVER and put
aside for a bit. Sometimes I rest the batter in the refrigerator overnight. Then
put an equal amount of batter in each oiled bowl. BAKE for 10 minutes at
425F (220C, or gas mark 7), and then lower to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4)
for 10 or 15 minutes more.
Yield: 6 baked pancakes that resemble cream puff shells.

Nutritional Analysis: Each pancake has 130 calories, 5.9 g fat, 5.1 g pro-
tein, 14.4 g carbohydrate, 1.2 g dietary fiber. With suggested variation, each
has 155 calories, 5.9 g fat,S. 1 g protein, 20.6 g carbohydrate, 1.2 g dietary
fiber.

Variation: Omit the dill and add 3 tablespoons granulated sugar. You can cre-
ate a stacked cake or torte with jam in between the layers, and powdered sugar
or coconut on top. Cut into wedges to serve.

Quinoa Pancakes
I like the simplicity of these hearty pancakes.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


11/2 cups (180 g) quinoa flour 1 tablespoon (20 g) honey
1/2 cup (80 g) rice flour 2 cups (475 ml) GF rice milk
4 teaspoons baking powder 2 tablespoons (30 ml) vegetable oil
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon xanthan gum

MIX dry ingredients. ADD liquids and lightly whisk to mix. SPOON batter onto
hot griddle. Batter may thicken as it stands. ADD 1 or 2 tablespoons (15 or 30
ml) water, as needed, as you cook pancakes. LADLE onto your hot griddle.
Yield: 10 to 12 pancakes

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 pancakes, each has 124 calories, 3.7 g


fat, 2.4 g protein, 20.4 g carbohydrate, 3.2 g dietary fiber.

87
Variation: Substitute yeast for the baking powder and add 1/2 teaspoon baking
soda and 2 eggs and 1 cup (245 g) yogurt for 1 cup (235 ml) water for a richer
dessert crepe, using any of these alternative gluten-free flours.

If you want to make pancakes that are only wheat-free but not gluten-free, you
can substitute barley flour.

Oat Hotcakes with Yeast


These are gluten-free (GF) ONLY if the oats are processed in an uncontami-
nated setting (see page 14).
These delicious moist-and-spicy hotcakes are stunning. Try them with fried
bananas, or better yet, fresh berries! When our grandchildren visit us in
August in New Hampshire, they pick the local huge blueberries. I carefully
fold them into the hotcake batter at the last minute. What a morning treat!

WET INGREDIENTS: 2 teaspoons baking powder


11/2 cups (355 ml)) whole milk 1/2 teaspoon allspice
or GF rice milk 2 tablespoons red curry powder
2 teaspoons honey 1/2 cup (25 g) GF rolled oats
1 tablespoon (15 ml) Thai fish oil 1/2 cup (50 g) GF oat bran
Fruit spread or jam 1/2 cup (30 g) dried currants, raisins, or

DRY INGREDIENTS: fresh berries (whatever is on


1 packet dry yeast the market or pickable)

1/2 cup (80 g) rice flour

COMBINE milk with honey in a microwave-safe bowl. MICROWAVE until luke-


warm (about 50 seconds on 100 percent power). REMOVE from microwave.
SPRINKLE in the yeast; mix well with a fork. Set aside. BLEND rice flour, baking
powder, allspice, and curry; then combine with oats, and oat bran. POUR
milk/yeast mixture into the bowl with the dry ingredients; add fish oil, stirring to
blend. FOLD in the dried fruit or fresh berries. (If using fresh berries, fold very
carefully so they are not mashed, otherwise they will make the hotcake batter
change color.) Let mixture rest, thicken, and increase in volume in a warm
place for 15 to 30 minutes. Do not stir again. SPRAY a nonstick frying pan with
cooking spray or lightly grease with butter. H EAT over moderate heat. Without
stirring, take spoonfuls of mix and drop into the pan. COOK until browned on

88 Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes


one side (about 2 minutes). TURN OVER and cook till brown on second side
(about 2 minutes). SERVE hotcakes immediately with fruit spread or jam.
Yield: 10 hotcakes

Nutritional Analysis: Each hotcake has 109 calories, 3.4 g fat, 3.5 g
protein, 16.1 g carbohydrate, 1.9 g dietary fiber.

Hazeln ut Pancakes
Hazelnut flour is a new, rich-tasting addition to our home gluten-free pantry
shelf.

DRY INGREDIENTS: 1/2 teaspoon nutmeg


1 cup (120 g) hazelnut meallflour 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
1/2 cup (60 g) teff flour 1/2 teaspoon cardamom
1/2 cup (70 g) garbanzo bean flour
WET INGREDIENTS:
1 teaspoon baking soda
2 tablespoons (30 ml) canola oil
2 teaspoons baking powder
2 cups (475 ml) buttermilk
1 teaspoon cream of tartar
1 egg, whisked
1/2 teaspoon sea salt
2 teaspoons hazelnut flavoring or extract

MIX dry ingredients in a bowl. ADD liquids and whisk to mix. PREHEAT pan-
cake griddle until a drop of water will dance on it. (Oil or spray griddle as need-
ed.) SPOON batter onto hot griddle to make pancakes about 4 to 5 inches (10
to 13 cm) across. Batter may thicken as it stands. Before spooning subsequent
rounds of pancakes on the griddle, stir in more buttermilk, as needed. TURN
when edges seem dry. (They won't brown much because they don't contain
sugar.) Keep pancakes warm while you make remaining pancakes (or coolon
rack to use as flatbread).

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 10 pancakes, each has 140 calories, 8.4 g


fat, 5.4 g protein, 10.8 g carbohydrate, 2.8 g dietary fiber.

89
Corn Cakes -with Yeast
A little like polenta. The batter for these cakes needs an hour to rest between
mixing and cooking. These are definitely a late-day supper starch, for a great
change made with little effort. Corn cakes are great with ham and asparagus
for supper.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


11/2 cups (355 ml) 1% milk/ warm 1 package yeast (2 1/4 teaspoons)
2 tablespoons (28 g) butte~ melted 1 cup (140 g) yellow cornmeal
3 eggs/ beaten 1/2 cup (65 g) cornstarch
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1 teaspoon cumin

COMBINE all ingredients. SET ASIDE mixed ingredients to sit for 1 hour. PRE-
ll
HEAT pancake griddle until a drop of water will IIdance on it. (Oil or spray
griddle as needed.) SPOON batter onto hot griddle. COOK until browned on
one side (about 2 minutes). TURN OVER and cook till brown on second side
(about 2 minutes). KEEP WARM or serve immediately with applesauce or slices
of prosciutto on top.

Yield: 10 to 12 ca kes

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 corn cakes/ each has 112 calories/ 3.6
g fat/ 3.8 g protein/ 15.9 g carbohydrate/ 1.1 g dietary fiber.

90 Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes


Tapioca Waffles with Cumin
Light as air, waffles to eat with berries in season. Also, this recipe can be used
to make lovely sweet pancakes.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


2 eggs, separated 1/2 cup (80 g) rice flour
1/2 cup (60 ml) oil 1 cup (120 g) tapioca flour
1 cup (235 ml) buttermilk 1 teaspoon baking soda
11/2 teaspoons baking powder
2 teaspoons brown sugar
1/2 teaspoon cumin

PREHEAT waffle iron or flat pan for stovetop cooking. BEAT egg whites and set
aside. MIX together flours, baking soda, baking powder, brown sugar, and
cumin in a bowl; set aside. Slightly BEAT egg yolks together in a small bowl.
BLEND oil and buttermilk into the slightly beaten egg yolks. MIX egg yolk mix-
ture into the dry ingredients. FOLD IN egg whites. BAKE in a waffle iron or
cook as pancakes.

Yield: 6 to 8 waffles or 10 to 12 pancakes

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 8 waffles, each has 199 calories, 8.4 g fat,
3.1 g protein, 28 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

91
Buttermilk and Bran Pancakes with Fruit
These are gluten-free (GF) ONLY if the oats are processed in an uncontami-
nated setting (see page 14).
These pancakes call for GF oatmeal or oat bran to lower the glycemic index
of the pancake.

DRY INGREDIENTS: 2 teaspoons sugar


1 cup (100 g) unprocessed GF oat bran 1 teaspoon baking soda
or GF oatmeal flakes
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (75 g) GF dried fruit medleYI
1 egg lightly beaten
l
chopped (purchase at most food
stores) 2 tablespoons (28 g) butte~ melted

1/2 cup (70 g) brown rice flour 2 cups (475 ml) buttermilk

1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour sifted


l

COMBINE the oat bran and buttermilk in a bowl. Let stand 10 minutes. STIR
the fruit medleYI flours sugar and baking soda into the oat/buttermilk mixture.
l l

ADD lightly beaten egg and melted butter. MIX thoroughly. H EAT a nonstick
frying pan till water dances on surface. CAREFULLY spray with cooking spray or
grease lightly with butter. POUR about 3 tablespoons of batter into the pan.
COOK over moderate-high heat until bubbly on top. TURN pancake to brown
the other side. REPEAT with remaining batter.

Yield: 10 medium pancakes

Nutritional Analysis: Each pancake has 160 calories l 4.1 g fat 4.6 g
protein 26.2 g carbohydrate 2.5 g dietary fiber.
l l

Variation: May use 1 cup (160 g) buckwheat groats soaked overnight instead
of oat bran or oats. Substitute 1 cup (160 g) rice bran cereal and 1/2 cup (70 g)
fava bean flour instead of oat bran or oats.

92 Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes


Pumpkin-Walnut Flapjacks
These are a winter favorite. Pumpkin puree is an emulsifier-besides provid-
ing a rich taste and many vitamins and minerals, it holds the batter together
and smoothes it like xanthan gum does in other recipes.

WET INGREDIENTS: 1 cup (160 g) rice flour


11/2 cups (355 ml) buttermilk 1/2 cup (60 g) quinoa flour
1/2 cup (170 g) canned pumpkin 11/2 teaspoons GF pumpkin pie spice
4 large eggs, separated, (page 28)
room temperature 1 teaspoon ground cloves
1/2 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract 1 teaspoon baking soda
2 tablespoons (28 g) butter, melted 1 teaspoon baking powder
pure maple syrup 1/2 teaspoon salt
DRY INGREDIENTS: 1/2 cup (50 g) plain walnuts, finely
1/2 cup (50 g) sugar chopped

WHISK buttermilk, pumpkin, egg yolks, sugar, and vanilla in medium bowl to
blend; whisk in melted butter. WHISK flours, pumpkin pie spice, cloves, baking
soda, baking powder, and salt in large bowl to blend. ADD dry ingredients to
buttermilk mixture and whisk to combine. BEAT egg whites using electric mixer
in medium bowl until soft peaks form. FOLD whites into batter. LIGHTLY OIL or
butter large heavy skillet; set over medium heat. POUR 1/2 cup (85 g) batter
onto skillet for each pancakes; working in batches. COOK until bubbles form on
top, about 1 1/2 minutes. TURN flapjacks over and cook until second side
browns, about 1 minute. TRANSFER flapjacks to warm plates. SPRINKLE with
nuts. Serve with maple syrup, applesauce, apple butter, or marmalade.
Yield: 14 to 16 flapjacs

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 16 flapjacks, each has 136 calories,S. 7 g


fat, 4.1 g protein, 17.1 g carbohydrate, 1.1 g dietary fiber.

93
Soy Griddle Cakes
These are really healthy and wholesome but also light and good. They are
true cakes, a little thicker than pancakes. We like them with lunch meat as a
celiac-safe snack.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1/2 cup (75 g) soy flour 3 tablespoons (60 g) honey
1/2 cup (80 g) soya granules 2 eggs
1/2 teaspoon baking soda 1 cup (235 ml) GF soy milk

01 L skillet lightly. MIX all the above ingredients. Allow to stand for 5 minutes.
FORM patties. BROWN on each side in skillet. SERVE with jam.
Yield: 6 medium-sized griddle cakes

Nutritional Analysis: Each griddle cake has 237 calories, 8 g fat, 19.1 g
protein, 22.4 g carbohydrate, 5.6 g dietary fiber.

Variation: Flavor batter with 1/2 cup (65 g) plain slivered almonds put through
a coffee grinder, and almond flavoring.
Add chopped GF dried fruit or fresh berries, apples, or bananas as you cook.

Potato and Rice Pancakes


WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:
1 egg, beaten 3 tablespoons (20 g) potato flour
2/3 cup (160 ml) buttermilk or milk of 2 tablespoons (lOg) rice flour
choice 1 teaspoon baking powder
1 tablespoon (15 ml) oil 1 teaspoon salt
Pepper to taste
Optional: 1/4 cup onions. Chopped

01 L skillet with 2 tablespoons of canola oil (enough so the pancake batter will
not stick to the pan). MIX the wet ingredients together. MIX the dry ingredients
in a separate bowl. ADD the dry ingredients to the wet ingredients. PREHEAT
skillet then pan-fry over medium heat. TURN the pancakes to brown both sides.
Yield: 12 medium-sized pancakes.

Nutritional Analysis: Each pancake has 69 calories, 1.8 g fat, 2.1 g


protein, 10.9 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

94 Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes


Potato Pancakes
Another supper pancake! These are especially delicious because of the curry.

DRY INGREDIENTS: 1 teaspoon baking powder


3 potatoes, raw, grated 1 teaspoon dill weed
1 medium zucchini, grated 1 tablespoon yellow curry
1/2 cup (60 g) carrots, grated
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (65 g) onion, finely chopped
2 eggs, beaten
1/2 cup (35 g) garbanzo flour
2 tablespoons (30 ml) olive
1/2 cup (30 g) potato flour or canola oil
1/2 teaspoon salt 1/2 cup (160 ml) white wine

COMBINE potatoes, zucchini, carrots, and onion. ADD beaten eggs and oil;
stir to combine. MIX the dry ingredients; add to potato mixture. ADD the wine
to desired consistency-may need less. SPOON or ladle onto a hot griddle;
brown on both sides.
Yield: About 12 medium pancakes.

Nutritional Analysis: Each pancake has 96 calories, 3.5 g fat, 3 g protein,


13.2 g carbohydrate, 2.1 g dietary fiber.

95
Potato Cakes
Great for supper, especially with stew!

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


3 tablespoons (45 ml) oil 1/2 cup (80 g) rice flour
2 cups (475 ml) water or GF soy milk 1 cup (100 g) potato flakes
2 eggs 1 tablespoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon chopped parsley
2 teaspoons coriander

MIX wet ingredients together. MIX dry ingredients in a separate bowl. COM-
BINE wet ingredients with the dry ingredients and stir well. POUR small
amounts of the batter onto a hot nonstick or oiled griddle. Serve with gravy and
chopped apples.
Yield: 8 to 10 cakes

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 10 cakes, each has 98 calories, 5.2 g fat,


2.1 g protein, 10.8 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Sour Milk Pancakes


These reflect my love of pungent, slightly tangy foods.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


11/2 cups (355 ml) buttermilk (or sour 1 tablespoon (15 g) brown suga~
milk) packed
1 egg, beaten 1/2 cup (25 g) GF instant potato flakes
1 tablespoon (15 ml) canola oil or (50 g) soy flour
1 cup (120 g) potato starch
1/2 cup (40 g) rice flour

OIL skillet well. ADD buttermilk slowly to beaten egg, then add oil and brown
sugar. BLEND soy flour, potato starch, and rice flour. BEAT flours into butter-
milk mixture. Let dough stand overnight to ferment. PAN FRY over medium
heat, turning to brown both sides.

96 Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes


Yield: 8 to 10 pancakes

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 10 pancakes, each has 135 calories, 0.5 g


fat 4.4 g protein, 24.3 g carbohydrate, 1 g dietary fiber.

Note: To sour milk, add 1 1/2 tablespoons (20 ml) vinegar or 1 1/2 tablespoons
(23 ml) lemon juice per 1 cup (235 ml) milk. Allow it to thicken to consistency
of buttermilk. Soured milk keeps in refrigerator for 3 to 4 days.

Flannel Shirt Cakes


These brown-hued pancakes are modified from a children's cookbook from
the 1920s. These supper pancakes were so named because they are thick and
heavy like the flannel shirts that lumberjacks wore at the turn of the century.
Please note that the combination of bean and rice flours gives you a complete
protein, akin to meat. This makes a hearty breakfast that will stay with you
all day!
DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
1 tablespoon baking powder 3 eggs, separated
1/2 teaspoon salt 21/2 cups (570 ml) milk (or buttermilk,
2 teaspoons sugar GF rice milk, or GF soy milk)
1 cup (140 g) brown rice flour 4 tablespoons (55 g) butter, melted
1/2 cup (70 g) garbanzo and/or fava 1/2 cup (85 g) molasses
bean flour
11/2 teaspoons xanthan gum

MIX the baking powder, salt, sugar, flours, and xanthan gum. BEAT the egg
yolks and add to the milk. POUR the butter, molasses, egg yolks, and milk into
the flour mixture. BEAT egg whites well; fold into batter. STIR and let mixture
ferment for 15 minutes. SPOON out or ladle out onto a hot, greased griddle;
brown on both sides and serve with butter, real maple syrup, honey, applesauce,
fresh berries, etc.
Yield: 4 to 5 large servings

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 8 waffles, each has 248 calories, 10.2 g


fat 5.5 g protein, 33.5 g carbohydrate, 2.2 g dietary fiber.

Note: Great with thick bacon or Swedish meatballs.

97
Street Waffles
These are like the waffles baked in front of you on the street in Europe and
dusted heavily with confectioners' sugar. We like to make these festive waffles
on weekends. Get out your dusty wedding-present waffle iron!

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


11/2 cups (175 g) brown rice flour 2 large eggs/ well beaten
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour or buck- 1 tablespoon (15 g) sugar or honey
wheat flour 11/2 cups (355 ml) GF rice or soy milk or
1/2 cup (25 g) flaxseed meal buttermilk
2 teaspoons baking powder 1/2 cup (60 ml) canola oil
1 teaspoon cream of tartar

HEAT waffle iron. COMBINE rice flour, tapioca flour or buckwheat flour/
flaxseed meal/ baking powder, and cream of tartar in a large bowl. COMBINE
beaten eggs and sugar in a small bowl; stir into flour mixture. ADD milk gradu-
ally/ beating until batter is smooth. STIR in oil. BAKE in hot waffle iron that has
been sprayed with nonstick vegetable spray/ for 3 to 5 minutes. SERVE waffles
with butter and warm real maple syrup/ honey/ fresh fruit/ or jam.

Yield: 6 to 8 waffles

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 8 waffles/ each has 248 calories/ 10.2 g


fat/ 5.5 g protein/ 33.5 g carbohydrate/ 2.2 g dietary fiber.

Quinoa Griddlecakes
These healthy pancakes are Mace's favorite. Try them with bacon.
DRY INGREDIENTS: 1/2 teaspoon nutmeg
1 package (2 1/4 teaspoons) dry yeast
WET INGREDIENTS:
1 cup (120 g) quinoa flour 1/4 cup 1/2 cup (120 ml) warm water
(25 g) soy flour
2 tablespoons (40 g) honey
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
2 eggs
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 cup (245 g) plain GF yogurt
2 tablespoons (28 g) butter, melted
1/2 cup (120 ml) milk/ GF rice milk/
1 tablespoon cinnamon
or GF soy milk

98 Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes


STIR yeast into warm water; stir in honey and set aside to proof for 5 minutes.
BEAT eggs, yogurt, and milk together in mixing bowl. ADD yeast mixture. ADD
flours, soda, salt, melted butter, cinnamon, and nutmeg; mix until blended.
PLACE batter in warm place; let stand for 20 or 30 minutes or until bubbly. (May
even stand overnight.) PREHEAT oiled griddle. POUR batter onto preheated,
oiled griddle and bake until puffy and bubbly on top and edges begin to brown.
TURN and cook until done, checking underside. SERVE immediately with
desired topping. We prefer real maple syrup.
Yield: 10 to 12 griddlecakes

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 griddlecakes, each has 114 calories,


4.4 g fat, 4.6 g protein, 14 g carbohydrate, 1.4 g dietary fiber.

Variation: You may substitute buttermilk for the yogurt, but we like these best
when we use the yogurt.

Especially Tender Teff Pancakes


Used with permission from Cyndy Clark of Grassroots Baking Company.
Teff, the protein powerhouse from Ethiopia, makes hearty, healthy, pancakes.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1/2 cup (70 g) brown rice flour 2 eggs, lightly beaten
1/2 cup (30 g) teff flour 1/2 cup (160 ml) milk or GF milk alterna-
1/2 cup (40 g) sweet rice flour, tapioca tive (preferred) (page 28)
flour, or potato starch 3 tablespoons (45 ml) canola
1/2 teaspoon salt or safflower oil
1 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon baking soda

COMBINE all dry ingredients. WHISK in eggs, milk or milk alternative, and oil.
POUR into hot, oiled pan. TURN when bubbles form on top and bottom is
browned. SERVE with maple syrup, agave syrup, fruit syrup, nut butter, or
topping of your choice.
Yield: 4 to 6 pa nca kes

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 6 pancakes, each has 181 calories, 9.8 g


fat, 4.2 g protein, 19.1 g carbohydrate, 1 g dietary fiber.

99
Coconut Pancakes
These are gluten-free (GF) ONLY if the oats have been processed in an
uncontaminated setting (see page 14).
DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (35 g) unsweetened coconut 2 cups (475 ml) GF rice milk
flakes 2 tablespoons (28 g) butte~ melted
1/2 cup(70 g) sorghum flour 2 eggs
1 cup (100 g) GF oat flour 2 tablespoons (40 g) honey
2 teaspoons GF baking powder
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1/2 teaspoon salt

MIX dry ingredients in bowl. ADD liquids and whisk to mix. LET FERMENT for
15 minutes (while you cook ham or bacon as an accompaniment). PREHEAT
griddle, grease as needed. SPOON batter onto hot griddle. TURN when edges
seem dry. If batter thickens, add 1 to 2 tablespoons (15 to 30 ml) water to the
batter as needed.

Yield: 4 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each pancake has 398 calories, 16.7 g fat, 10.1 g
protein, 51 .8 g carbohydrate, 11.5 g dietary fiber.

Note: These pancakes are great with cut-up fruit served over the top for
dessert.

100 Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes


CHAPTER THREE

Our Daily Breads

For the Love of Bread


This chapter explains how to make wheat- and gluten-free breads along with
the bread-making methods, tools, grains, and binders happily now
available to you in this wonderful time in the world when protein-full
grains-flavorful, healthy alternatives to wheat-grown in Ethiopia or South
America are easily accessible.
No longer is the celiac tied to the white flours in the GF flour combina-
tion (Bette Hagman's classic gluten-free flour mix of white rice flour, potato
starch, and tapioca flour) or the cornstarch and potato starch combination
offered in other gluten-free recipe books. And if you are like us and want to
avoid white flours for health reasons as well as the quest for variety, you will
be thrilled with the tastes of flours like quinoa, teff, sorghum, millet, almond
meal, cornmeal, hazelnut, soy, and buckwheat.
The wide range of flours now available through sources such as Bob's
Red Mill, Ener-G Foods, and Arrowhead Mills is incredible and energizing.
The only trouble is that it would take two lifetimes to experiment with them
completely. We can offer you some successful recipes, but more important,
enthusiastically tell you that you too can create breads using these new,
alternative flours that will beat any store-bought white rice bread. You can
relax and be inventive as long as you realize that certain principles must be
understood:
1. Alternative flours are heavier than wheat, thus you use only 7/8 cup
(125 g) alternative flour to substitute for 1 cup (120 g) wheat flour
when adapting a recipe.
2. You must use a binder as a substitute for the gluten. In 1984, Laurel's
Kitchen Bread Book offered methylcellulose, as suggested by the USDA lab-
oratory in Berkeley. In the late 1980s and the 1990s, Bette Hagman offered
xanthan gum and guar gum. Gelatin, pectin, eggs, mayonnaise, applesauce,

101
carrageenan, and even dried seaweed also act as binders. You can be
flexible with this imperative as well! Guar gum and carrageenan are less
expensive than xanthan gum but more difficult to find. Guar gum can have
a laxative effect, but only if you eat a lot of it.

Yeast Breads and Quick-Rising Breads


In this chapter, we offer two types of breads: yeast breads and quick breads.
Yeast breads are those made with yeast as their rising agent or leavener. These
take longer to make because the yeast needs time to rise within the structure
of the bread's ingredients. Quick breads are those made with instant rising
agents or leaveners, such as baking soda and baking powder. No waiting time
is necessary for these breads to rise.

Gluten-Free Bread Baking


There is a revolution going on today, started thirty years ago by an idealistic
retiree, Bob Moore, whose belief in the efficacy of whole grains was grounded
in the biblical verses he and his wife live by. By chance Moore found a library
book about an old grain mill in New Hampshire. The book was about the
goodness of using two hard stones turning slowly against each other to get
the best from grain. He borrowed money, bought an old barn in Oregon, and
diligently founded Bob's Red Mill, where grains from all over the earth are
shipped into his mills, ground in the ancient way to get the most from them,
packaged, and sold nationwide. In spite of a fire during the 1980s, Bob's Red
Mill continues to experiment with new grains. They will answer telephone
calls and be wonderfully supportive. They will happily send you their cata-
logue. What permeates the company is Moore's enthusiasm. When we met
with him, he showed us his new videotape on milling flours and baking
bread, bought us sandwiches, and encouraged us to create this book.
Bette Hagman, the pioneer in gluten-free cooking, adapted traditional
recipes to make breads that were gluten-free. Her gluten-free mixes of rice
flour, tapioca, and potato starch enhanced the lives of many deprived celiacs
and continue to inspire caretakers of celiacs.
Inspired by these generous people, we were eager to begin making bread
at home. We excitedly bought a bread machine to make our bread making
fast and easy in this day of "hurry up and eat." Following recipes, we made
breads. But there were problems. We found that the bread fell during the
second rising in the bread machine. For a few years we just took the pan
out of the machine before the second beating and put it directly into the

102 Our Daily Breads


oven. The results were uneven, and the center of the loaf was too wet and
sticky. We returned to mixing dough by hand and added two steps, ferment-
ing and proofing.
After many experiments, we have found that the best gluten- and wheat-
free bread we make involves only one slow rising. The slower and cooler the
rising, the better. You have undoubtedly heard people talk of using their
clothes dryer or a microwave oven to speed up the yeast's action in bread
making-we have used both methods. But cool rising makes a better-
flavored loaf. To make really tasty bread, go slow! Let your dough rise even
overnight. The story is this: yeast breaks down the proteins in any flour.
Somehow, it acts as an enzyme and releases all the good amino acids with
their nutrition and rich flavors, if it is permitted to work slowly. A baker I
know sometimes leaves his bread dough in the refrigerator for three days (a
patient man indeed!). So we now make bread in the morning and let it rise in
a loaf pan sitting covered in a sunny place all day.
I want to end this introduction by once again emphasizing how healthy
these breads are. They have much more protein than wheat breads do. Their
protein is a perfect substitute for meat when the bread is made from a combi-
nation of grain flour and bean flour. This combination produces a marriage of
amino acids that is perfectly balanced. (That's the reason a small amount of
soy or fava flour is found in many of the recipes in this book.) Have fun with
these breads. Remember, you can substitute flours according to what you
have available.

Yeast Breads
ESSENTIALS TO KNOW ABOUT YEAST BREADS

Truthfully, making yeast bread hasn't been easy for us. Most loaves made in
the bread-making machine are too solid and often wet. In the end, until we
met Per, our transplanted Danish baker friend whom we met at a backwoods
holistic spa in Oregon, we loved baking gluten-free everything except breads.
Per talked us through the steps of starting yeast in warm sugar-laced water or
milk and hand mixing wet ingredients into dry in carefully planned steps:
proofing and baking dough into loaves of bread.

103
We have been enjoying Per's traditional methods. Proofing dough works
as long as there is protein and yeast to get the bubbling started. The dough
can't be overbeaten or the dough gets limp and soggy, and correct heat during
every step helps. Our breads are more solid than wheat breads, but they smell
and taste far richer.
Our doughs are essentially batter-wetter than typical wheat bread
dough. I no longer knead these gluten- and wheat-free bread doughs. A
rather lumpy mass, only lightly mixed, will rise for you slowly, and you will
have bread to die for.

Steps in Preparing Yeast Breads


1. Preheating. Prepare oven so you can go from proofing to baking without
the dough falling.
2. Proofing. Proofing the dough is important. We prefer to do a slow proof-
ing. If you want to do a more traditional proofing. The ideal temperature
is 90F to 115F (32C to 46C), with a humidity of 80 to 85 percent.
Take the dough out of the bowl, punch it down to redistribute the yeast,
and add flour gradually. The dough stays wettish-don't be upset. It will
be lumpy, too, but that's okay.
Put bread dough into a bread pan with sides ungreased and bottom
greased. I have experimented with "hot" proofing, using an oven
temperature of 200F (95C) and setting a pan below full of water to add
humidity so the top of the dough won't crack as it rises. We used our
electric oven with the temperature set at the lowest level and a damp
cloth placed over the top of the bowl, or a pan of water set next to the
bowl, to keep the dough from drying out. At other times, I simply set the
bread pan in a prewarmed clothes dryer.
3. Baking. Preheat baking oven so bread can be popped into oven right after
proofing. After the dough has risen about 1;2 inch 0.25 cm) or so, we
put it in the oven, about 350F 080C, or gas mark 4) to 400F (200C,
or gas mark 6). The leaner the dough, the hotter the oven! Sometimes I
bake my bread without eggs in a 450F (230C, or gas mark 8) oven to
get a brown crust, then turn the oven down to 325F 070C, or gas mark
3) in order to bake the center of the loaf. It's like making a huge scone-
the crust is very hard and dark. Just be sure to turn the oven down after
ten minutes or so!

104 Our Daily Breads


ESSENTIALS FOR YEAST BREAD MAKING

Tools

Thermometer
Baking thermometers are basic. They cost under $7.00 at the supermarket or
kitchen store.
Measuring cups and measuring spoons
Use glass measuring cups in two or three sizes for liquid ingredients, and
metal cups for flours and other dry ingredients. I like measuring spoons that
hang together from a stiff wire; keep two sets of them.
Mixing bowls
Don't bother with wooden bowls, no matter how quaint. Ceramic bowls are
classic but nests of plastic or metal bowls don't break when dropped by sticky
fingers.
Loaf pans
Spend money on solid, thick bread pans.
Kitchen scale
Professionals always weigh their ingredients, but the reality is that I rarely do.
Observe what happens. Your goal is to create a cakelike batter. Per, our
Oregon baker/advisor recommends that we hold some flour back, then add it
if dough seems too loose or creamy.

Flours
Gluten-free flours and yeast are used in the making of our gluten-free yeast
breads. The flours we incorporate into our bread recipes are gluten-free and
wheat-free: buckwheat, sorghum, almond meal, amaranth, soy, quinoa, teff,
rice, corn, fava bean, millet, tapioca, cornstarch, potato starch, and arrowroot.
Rye and barley flours have some glu ten content. They make delicious
wheat-free bread when combined with small additions of gluten-free flours.
Great for wheat-intolerant children and adults!
We use potato starch, corn starch, tapioca flour, and rice flour as substi-
tutes for the wheat flour in some favorite bread recipes from the 1950s.
Alternative flours have limited shelf lives. They are perishable, so refriger-
ate them.

Yeast
There are millions of species of yeast, but the type we use today comes from
the species with a Latin name, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Before the days of
commercial bread making, developing the yeast for home breads involved

105
weeks of fussing. There were potato yeasts, barms, and brewer's yeast, a bitter
yeast used in beer making.
Today, the yeasts we take for granted come in either moist cakes or foil
packets of active dried yeast. It is made in huge vats in which molasses, min-
eral salts, and ammonia are seeded with carefully picked strains of yeast,
which grow until tons of yeast are produced, harvested, washed and
rewashed, emulsified, then dried and packaged.
How does yeast work?
Yeast loves a lukewarm climate, between 70F and 85F (21C and 29C)
degrees. Yeast is a single-celled fungus; it needs food and water, which bread
dough supplies. No matter what kind of flour you use, we are assured that all
have calories and nitrogen, so the yeast can convert the dough into protein.
We begin to understand why bread rises even without gluten, which
surprised me. Yeast metabolizes bread dough, producing carbon dioxide.
If you slit the top of the bread dough with a knife just before it goes into the
oven, a lot of the carbon dioxide is released. This cut looks nice on the
browned crust and lightens the bread. The by-products of the breakdown
process increase flavor and release stored minerals. In wheat bread, the
expanding cells of yeast support the stretched dough proteins. The holding
up that we like in breads doesn't happen when using gluten-free flours unless
we use a binder such as xanthan gum. Note: to work, yeast has to be really
fresh.
A cooking thermometer is a great asset. Water that you dissolve your yeast
in should be between 110F and 115F (43C and 46C). The yeast won't
grow if the water is too hot. Lots of recipes suggest adding a bit of sugar to the
yeast mixture, but I have found that this makes the process too fast.

Binders
What are these binders we keep mentioning? Binders suspend and hold
together our gluten-free flours, which so desperately lack the binding action
of glutinous flours.
Thus, yeast must be augmented with vegetable binders when baking with
gluten-free flours. The binders we use are xanthan gum and guar gum. (Note:
guar gum is also sold as a laxative; it might cause distress to some people.) I
add gelatin to my breads just to be sure the bread holds together. I am
pleased that my breads hold together well and slice easier and taste better
than commercially produced rice breads do! Yours will do even better. You've
had our efforts to start you on this journey.

106 Our Daily Breads


Oil or Butter
For bread making, I use oil: canola or olive oil, rather than butter, which
might interfere with the action of the xanthan gum. However, I do love butter
in cookies, muffins, and cakes. Oils enhance bread flavor. Oil also conditions
the bread dough. I suppose this means it greases the way for the flour-and-
water mixture to expand. Be sure your oil is fresh. Rancid oil can spoil the
whole loaf.

Salt
Salt is really important. Add salt to your batter after the yeast and liquids are
mixed with the dry ingredients. Salt inhibits the growth of the yeast and adds
flavor. Saltless loaves are often crumbly and have a porous top crust. All of
our recipes call for table salt. If you use kosher salt, use twice as much as our
recipes call for because its bulkier than table salt.

Sweeteners
Sugar in any form makes the loaf more tender. Fruit juice, honey, molasses,
brown or white sugar affects the loaf's flavor.
An old wives' tale is that yeast must have sugar to rise. Not true. Yeast
can convert the flours into sugar perfectly easily. However, sugar does help a
bit. Most of our recipes involve a form of sugar.
Milk powder is a form of sugar. It helps the yeast to work and the crust
to brown. That is why it appears in many recipes.
Respect a celiac's need to be careful not to depend on high sugar content
for good taste. With celiac disease being a disorder of the immune system,
diabetes can be the next step, so hold down sugar content.

Liquids
Don't bother with distilled water. It is too soft. Ordinary water has enough
minerals to feed the yeast. Many other liquids are added to breads: soy milk,
rice milk, whole milk, juices, cooked cereals, eggs, and flavorings. If your
water is very hard, adding vinegar can give you better-rising bread.

107
Pointers for Making Wheat- and
Gluten-Free Breads
The following pointers will help guide you to successful gluten- and wheat-
free bread making.
1. My best tool for mixing gluten- and wheat-free bread doughs are my own
oiled hands. You don't toughen breads this way, and kids love this part!
2. Mixing dry ingredients into wet in three parts by hand, literally, results in
a lightly mixed, lumpy dough that is perfect to put into a greased loaf tin
to rise.
3. Start with three bowls-large, medium, and small. Put your wet ingredi-
ents into the largest bowl, put dry ingredients into the medium bowl, and
beat your eggs in the small bowl. Use a large wire whisk to whisk the wet
and dry ingredients together.
4. Use fresh yeast. Yeast is dated on packages or jars. Don't try to save
money using old yeast. I prefer packages of dry yeast. One .2S-ounce
(7 g) package holds 21;4 teaspoons of yeast.
5. Use regular yeast, not quick rising.
6. The water for softening the yeast must be only lukewarm. Too hot will
kill the yeast; too cold, the yeast will not work. Test with a thermometer
(lOsoF to 115F [4 JOC to 46C]) or put a drop on the inside of your
wrist, as one tests a baby's bottle. The water should contain some sugar. If
using a bread machine, follow the directions accompanying your machine
for water temperature.
7. Xanthan gum is necessary for all the yeast recipes to help make the
breads springy and chewy. It replaces, in part, the gluten that rice and
potato flours lack. This is available in health food stores or from Bob's
Red Mill.
8. Guar gum may be substituted for the xanthan gum if you can find it. Use
less guar gum than xanthan gum. Note: guar gum is less expensive than
xanthan gum.
9. Using small loaf tins results in a better textured loaf of bread.
10. Try cold proofing for flavorful breads. We sometimes let my dough rise
all day-it improves the flavor of the bread, and the finished product
rises nicely.
11. Adding extra protein in the form of eggs, dry milk solids, or GF cottage
cheese helps the yeast work. Remember that milk protein helps yeast too.
Ricotta cheese can be substituted for cottage cheese.

108 Our Daily Breads


12. A teaspoon of vinegar added to any yeast bread recipe helps the yeast
work and develops flavor. Vinegar may be replaced by gluten-free dough
enhancer, cream of tartar, or buttermilk.
13. Milk powder, unless otherwise specified, is nonfat dry milk powder.
14. When you use alternative flours, the dough might be sticky and heavy.
Gluten-free baked products dry out quickly, so when storing, cover and
refrigerate them.
15. Combine flours. Combining grain flours and bean flours-such as rice
with soy, quinoa with garbanzo bean, etc.-results in a perfect protein
made up of all the amino acids. Learn the variety of flavors flours give to
your baked goods by learning the unique taste of each new flour. Soy is
bitter, but we love it combined with the blandness of rice flour. Quinoa
and buckwheat have nutty textures and tastes. Ground-up nuts and flax
go well with the coarse textures of some of the flours, such as quinoa and
amaranth.
16 Adding applesauce, eggs, or molasses works well to bind breads. Xanthan
gum as well guarantees crumbly textures will hold together.
17. When baking vegan, you really need to add guar or xanthan gums to
bind the breads.
18. To keep the dough sustained in the risen state from proofing, get your
baking oven up to the recommended heat and quickly move the dough to
the oven for baking so the dough won't collapse.

109
Chopped Nut Sorghum Bread
I wanted my house to smell like fresh bread, so I invented this bread, which
looks and smells like whole wheat bread.
To make this bread handsomely dark, we use prune puree from the baby
food section of the grocery. Flaxseed meal and ground pecans lend the
brown specks.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


1 cup (235 ml) low-fat milk or GF rice 2 teaspoons sugar
milk 11/2 cups (245 g) sorghum flour
11/2 tablespoons yeast stirred into 1/2 cup 1/2 cup (60 g) potato flour
(120 ml) warm water 1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
1/2 cup (125 g) soft tofu 2 teaspoons sea salt
3 tablespoons (45 ml) olive oil 3 teaspoons xanthan gum
1 teaspoon vinegar 1 envelope (.25 ounces, or 7 g)
1 containers (3 ounces, or 135 g) unflavored gelatin
baby food, prunes 1/2 cup (50 g) flaxseed meal
2 eggs, lightly beaten 1/2 cup (60 g) ground plain walnuts
or pecans

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE 9 x 5 x 3-inch (22.5
x 13 x 7.5-cm) loaf pan. DUST bottom of pan with flour. HEAT milk just to
105F (41 C), using a thermometer. MIX milk, yeast, and sugar together. Set
aside in a large bowl and let the yeast start to bubble. COMBINE flours, salt,
gum, gelatin, flaxseed meal, and ground nuts in a large bowl. ADD to yeast
mixture gradually. CREAM TOGETHER tofu, oil, vinega~ and prune baby food.
Add beaten eggs. ADD tofu mixture to the flour-and-yeast mixture, being
careful not to overmix. GATH ER dough into a ball and put it in the greased
loaf pan. Set aside to rise to top of pan. When the bread has risen to the top
of the pan, move it directly to your preheated oven. BAKE at 350F (180C,
or gas mark 4) for about 1 hour. Enjoy the smell and attractive appearance of
your bread.

Yield: 12 to 20 slices of bread

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 20 slices, each has 156 calories, 6 g fat,


3.9 g protein, 21.7 g carbohydrate, 2.9 g dietary fiber.

110 Our Daily Breads


Teff Pepperoni Bread
Teff packs a wallop nutritionally and it's notable for its own natural sweetness
and individual taste. The slivers of pepperoni add to the remarkably good
flavor of this bread.
DRY INGREDIENTS: 1 cup (120 g) tapioca flour
1 cup (120 g) teff flour 4 teaspoons xanthan gum
2 cups (320 g) rice flour 11/2 teaspoons salt
1/2 cup (120 g) cooked teff grain
WET INGREDIENTS:
1 package (.25 ounces/ or 7 g) dry yeast
2 tablespoons (30 g) olive oil
11/2 cups (295 ml) warm water/ divided
oil for greasing the bowl and loaf pan
2 teaspoons brown sugar
1/2 pound (115 g) pepperoni

GREASE bottom only of a 9 x 5 x 3-inch (22.5 x 13 x 7.5-cm) loaf pan. SOAK


teff flour/ rice flour/ and cooked teff grain overnight. PUT the yeast into a meas-
uring cup with 1/2 cup (60 ml) warm water. Add a pinch of sugar and stir. Let
stand for 5 to 10 minutes until the bubbles form. If the yeast does not bubble
up/ discard and start with a new package. Good yeast is really important with
this loaf. CUT the pepperoni into very small/ thin julienne strips/ about 1/2 inch
(1.25 cm) long. Set them aside.

PUT the previously soaked teff flour/ rice flour/ and cooked teff grain mixture in
a large bowl; add half of the remaining tapioca flour and the xanthan gum/
remaining brown sugar/ salt/ and the pepperoni strips. POU R in the yeast mix-
ture and the olive oil. The teff will start out as one large lump/ but will begin to
separate into tiny grains as you continue to mix. STIR the mixture with a wood-
en spoon. The dough will be slightly wet. ADD the second half of the flour very
gradually/ stirring it in with a spoon as you do so; then taking over with greased
hands. When the dough is still damp but pulls away from the mixing bowl; put it
in the loaf pan for proofing. Since the teff has liquid in it the dough will be
loose and pudding-ish. COAT the top with oil. COVER with a wet clean towel
and let start to rise/ about 45 minutes. BUTTER another 9 x 5 x 3-inch (22.5 x
13 x 7.5-cm) loaf pan and put the dough in it/ pressing the dough down to fill
the pan completely. Cover the pan with the towel again and put in a warm
place. Let rise for about 3 hours/ until doubled in size.

PREHEAT the oven to 450F (230C/ or gas mark 8). SLASH the top of the
dough in two or three diagonals using a sharp razor blade/ then with a mister/
spray the dough with warm water to give the crust more crunch. BAKE at 450F

111
(230C, or gas mark 8) for 10 minutes, then 325F (170C, or gas mark 3) for
30 minutes or until the bottom sounds hollow when tapped. PUT the pan on a
rack to cool, and after about 10 minutes, turn the loaf out and continue to cool
on the rack. Serve warm or reheat in the oven later on.

Yield: 1 large loaf

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 20 slices, each has 163 calories, 39 g fat,


3.5 g protein, 27.7 g carbohydrate, 2.3 g dietary fiber.

Monkey Bread
You might try using a bread-making machine or just mix by hand (our way).
This type of bread was a favorite of Nancy Reagan's and is a favorite of our
grandchildren.

WET INGREDIENTS: 1/2 cup (50 g) sugar


3 large eggs, lightly beaten 11/2 teaspoons salt
1/2 cup (60 ml) oil 1 package dry yeast
1/2 cup (60 ml) plus 1 tablespoon
(15 ml) water Sweet Dust Coating
1 cup (235 ml) buttermilk or sour milk 1/2 cup (80 g) rice flour
1/4 cup (50 g) sugar (superfine, if you
DRY INGREDIENTS:
have it on hand)
2 cups (280 g) brown rice flour
3 tablespoons cinnamon
1/2 cup (60 g) potato starch
1/4 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
3 1/2 teaspoons xanthan gum

PREHEAT oven to 400F (200C, or gas mark 6). GREASE a Bundt pan or an
8-inch (20-cm) cake pan, using a spray of oil or a paper napkin saturated with
oil. COMBINE wet ingredients in a large bowl or baking pan of a bread maker.
BLEN D dry ingredients together, including the yeast, in a separate bowl. ADD
well-blended dry ingredients to combined wet ingredients. SELECT
NormallWhite cycle for bread machine. MIX all ingredients in the bread
machine-use a rubber spatula to scrape the inside edges of the bread
machine to incorporate all the mixture. Alternatively, mix all ingredients by
hand; let rise till doubled in size. REMOVE bread pan after first bake cycle.
COMBINE Sweet Dust Coating ingredients. Roll fistfuls of risen dough lightly in
sweet coating. Put the rolls in the cake pan, stuffing all coated balls side by

112 Our Daily Breads


side. (You can knead the remains of the flour, sugar, and cinnamon with soft-
ened butter and then sprinkle over tops of the monkey rolls.) BAKE at 400F
(200C, or gas mark 6), until a knife stuck in the center comes out clean.

Yield: 10 to 12 lovely light rolls to pull apart

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 rolls, each has 279 calories, 6.8 g fat,
4.8 g protein, 49.6 g carbohydrate, 3.2 g dietary fiber.

Variation: Make a glaze by combining 1/2 cup (50 g) confectioners' sugar with
1/4 cup (60 ml) milk and 1/2 teaspoon vanilla flavoring. Drizzle over rolls before
baking. Try making these into hot cross buns for Easter: drizzle glaze in crosses
over the top of each bun.

Note: You can make sour milk by adding vinegar to milk.

Granola Yeast Bread


This is a favorite of Mace's.

DRY INGREDIENTS: 1/2 cup (85 g) dry milk powder


1 cup (140 g) sorghum flour 3 tablespoons (40 g) sugar, divided
1 cup (160 g) brown rice flour 1 package dry yeast
1/2 cup (60 g) potato starch
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
1/2cup (160 ml) lukewarm water
1 cup (140) GF granola ground fine
4 tablespoons (55 g) butter, melted
(see recipe in chapter 1, page 73)
1 additional cup (235 ml) water
2 1/2 teaspoons xanthan gum
1 teaspoon vinegar
1 1/2 teaspoons salt
3 eggs, room temperature

GREASE two 2 1/2 x 5-inch (6.25 x 13-cm) loaf pans, then sprinkle with rice
flour. Alternatively, you can use a 9 x 5 x 3-inch (22.5 x 13 x 7.5-cm) loaf pan
plus a few muffin tins. COMBINE flours, granola, xanthan gum, salt, dry milk,
and all but 2 teaspoons of the sugar in a large bowl. DISSOLVE the remaining
sugar in 1/2 cup (160 ml) lukewarm water and mix in the yeast. SET aside.
COMBINE the butter with the additional cup of water and vinegar in a small
bowl. BLEND the dry ingredients with a wooden spoon. Slowly add the butter-
water mixture. ADD the eggs. The mixture should feel slightly warm. POUR the
yeast water into the ingredients in the bowl. STIR just until mixed (a cakelike
consistency is the goal with gluten-free sorghum-based bread). PLACE the mix-

113
ing bowl in a warm spot, cover with plastic wrap and a towel. Let the dough rise
for approximately 1 hour, or until doubled. Return the risen dough to the mixer
and beat on high speed for 3 minutes. The dough will seem more like cookie
dough than bread dough, but don't be alarmed. SPOON the dough into pre-
pared pans, filling two-thirds full. Let the dough rise in pans (45 to 60 minutes)
until it is above the tops of the pans. PREHEAT the oven to 375F (190C, or
gas mark 5). BAKE a large loaf for approximately 1 hour, small loaves slightly
less, and muffins for about 25 minutes.

Yield: 2 small or 1 large loaf plus a few muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 20 slices from 2 small loaves, each slice has
176 calories, 6 g fat, 4.4 g protein, 26.1 g carbohydrate, 1.8 g dietary fiber.

Buck-wheat Yeast Bread


This makes a dark, handsome loaf; healthy and hearty with winter stews and
soups.

WET INGREDIENTS: 1 package (.25 ounces, or 7 g)


1/2 cup (60 ml) water, very warm dry yeast
3 eggs, beaten Pinch sugar
11/2 cups (355 ml) milk 11/2 cups (210 g) brown rice flour
2 tablespoons (40 g) unsulfured 1/2 cup (60 g) potato starch
molasses 1 teaspoon sea salt
3 tablespoons (45 g) butte~ melted 1 tablespoon xanthan gum
1 teaspoon cardamom
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (60 g) buckwheat flour
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour

GREASE 9 x 5 x 3-inch (22.5 x 13 x 7.5-cm) loaf pan. ASSEMBLE all ingredi-


ents on table first so the ingredients will be at room temperature, and so you
can move quickly and the dough will remain warm as you move it from bowl to
loaf pan to oven. MIX yeast, sugar, and water in a glass measuring cup. Cover
with a paper towel and let the yeast rise to the top of the cup. STIR yeast mix-
ture into beaten eggs; add milk, molasses, and melted butter. ADD dry ingredi-
ents into wet, a third at a time, stirring with a large wooden spoon or your
hands until the batter becomes rich and cakelike. COVER with a damp cloth
and let rise all day or overnight at room temperature. It will taste better the

114 Our Daily Breads


longer it proofs. PREHEAT oven to 400F (200C, or gas mark 6). SCORE top
of the risen loaf with diagonal cuts. BAKE the loaf at 400F (200C, or gas
mark 6) for about 1/2 to 3/4 hour.

Yield: 1 large loaf of firm, fairly dense bread

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 slices, each has 145 calories, 5.3 g fat
3.5 g protein, 20.8 g carbohydrate, 1.4 g dietary fiber.

Yeast Bread -with Molasses


Try a bread maker for this recipe. If you haven't got one, your oiled hands are
wonderful tools for mixing.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1 cup (140 g) brown rice flour 3 eggs, lightly beaten
1 cup (160 g) white rice flour 11/2 cups (410 ml) water
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour 1 teaspoon vinegar or 1 1/2 teaspoons
1/2 cup (60 g) potato starch flour dough enhancer (lemon)
1/2 cup (80 g) kasha (buckwheat 3 tablespoons (45 ml) olive oil or
groats, which are gluten-free), (45 g) butter
ground slightly in coffee grinder 1 tablespoon (20 g) molasses
2 1/2 teaspoons xanthan gum 3 tablespoons (40 g) sugar
11/2 teaspoons table salt 1 tablespoon dry yeast

BLEND together the flours, kasha, xanthan gum, and salt. COMBINE the eggs,
water, vinegar or dough enhancer, oil, and molasses. STI R together the sugar
and yeast. PLACE the ingredients in the baking pan of the bread maker, in the
order suggested in your manual. BAKE on regular bread setting at 350F
(180C, or gas mark 4) until brown.

Yield: 1 loaf

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 16 slices, each has 181 calories, 4.1 g fat,
3.9 g protein, 32.1 g carbohydrate, 2.2 g dietary fiber.

Note: I've found that using the bread machine's two rising cycles results in
bread that is wet in the center. This harkens back to the don't overstir principle.
There are bread makers now that can be preprogrammed for one rising cycle. If
you intend to make your own gluten-free bread in a bread machine, search for
this feature.

115
Brown and White Rice Bread
Sassy, quick yeast bread.
DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
2 1/2 cups (360 g) white rice flour 3 eggs, lightly beaten
1 cup (140 g) brown rice flour 1 teaspoon cider vinegar
2 1/2 teaspoons xanthan gum 3 tablespoons (45 ml) canola oil
3 tablespoons (40 g) sugar 11/2 cups (355 ml) water
11/2 teaspoons salt
1/2 cup (65 g) dry milk
2 packages (.25 ounces, or 7 g, each)
active dry yeast
1/2 cup (75 g) golden raisins

PREHEAT oven to 325F (170(, or gas mark 3). GREASE bottom of 9 x 5 x 3-


inch (22.5 x 13 x 7.5-cm) loaf pan. MIX the dry and wet ingredients in separate
bowls. ADD wet ingredients to dry and stir just until it reaches the consistency of
cake batter. Put in loaf pan. PROOF for 15 minutes in a warm oven. Let it rise.
BAKE in oven at 325F (170(, or gas mark 3) for 1 hour.

Yield: 1 loaf

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 15 slices, each has 215 calories, 5.5 g fat,
5.1 g protein, 36.5 g carbohydrate, 1.8 g dietary fiber.

Chickpea Yeast Bread


So healthy because it's made from bean and grain flours. Plus, it is light and
good, slightly sweet.

WET INGREDIENTS: 1 cup (120 g) tapioca flour


3 large eggs, lightly beaten 1/2 cup (65 g) cornstarch
1 teaspoon cider vinegar 3 teaspoons xanthan gum
3 tablespoons (45 ml) olive oil 3 tablespoons (45 g) brown sugar
11/2 cups (315 ml) water 2 teaspoons sea salt
1 teaspoon pure maple syrup 1/2 cup (65 g) dry milk
1 package (.25 ounces, or 7 g)
DRY INGREDIENTS:
dry yeast
1 cup (140 g) chickpea flour
1 cup (140 g) brown rice flour

116 Our Daily Breads


GREASE bottom of 9 x 5 x 3-inch (22.5 x 13 x 7.5-cm) loaf pan. MIX the dry
and wet ingredients in separate bowls. ADD wet ingredients to dry and stir just
until cake-batter consistency. PUT in loaf pan. PROOF for 45 minutes or longer
in a barely warm oven; let rise slightly. Remove from oven and let sit on coun-
tertop. PREH EAT oven to 325F (170C, or gas mark 3). BAKE in oven at
325F (170C, or gas mark 3) for 1 hour. If it browns too quickly, cover with a
piece of aluminum foil, shiny-side up.

Yield: 12 to 15 slices

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 15 slices, each has 194 calories, 5.6 g fat,
4.9 g protein, 30.8 g carbohydrate, 2 g dietary fiber.

Country Two-Step Yeast Bread


You will need a bread-making machine. Rising time: 2 hours or overnight.

DRY INGREDIENTS: 2 1/2 teaspoons or 1 package (.25


2 cups (320 g) rice flour ounce, or 7 g) active dry yeast
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (60 g) potato starch flour
2 cups (475 ml) water
1/2 cup (60 g) amaranth flour
1 teaspoon cider vinegar
11/2 teaspoons salt
1/4 cup (60 ml) canola oil
4 1/2 teaspoons xanthan gum
3 eggs, beaten until light
3 tablespoons (40 g) sugar
3 tablespoons GF powdered nondairy
creamer or powdered milk

STEP ONE

STIR together in a bowl: rice flou~ tapioca flour, potato starch flou~ amaranth
flour,
and salt. POUR 2 cups (475 ml) of 150F water into a bread machine pan.
ADD to water in baking pan: 1 teaspoon cider vinegar and 1/2 cup (60 ml)
canola oil. ADD flour mixture; start machine on DOUGH cycle. WHEN knead-
ing cycle is finished, remove pan from machine. COOL dough to room temper-
ature-a minimum of 2 hours to overnight.

STEP TWO

While mixture is cooling (or next day), combine thoroughly: xanthan gum,
sugar, nondairy creamer, and active dry yeast. Set aside. When mixture has

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cooled: RETURN to baking pan. PLACE pan in bread machine-seat it careful-
ly. SET bread machine to WHITE/NORMAL. BEAT in eggs. ADD, carefully, xan-
than mixture while machine continues mixing. Bake. When baking cycle finishes,
test for doneness with a toothpick. If not quite done, leave in machine for an
extra 10 minutes. INVERT and cool.

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 15 slices, each has 211 calories,S. 9 g fat,


4.7 g protein, 34.9 g carbohydrate, 2.8 g dietary fiber.

Indian Ricegrass Yeast Bread


Requires 2 to 21;2 hours total rising time. This is a nice wheat and gluten-free
bread.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


2 teaspoons dry yeast 2 1/2 cups (535 ml) water
1 cup (140 g) GF Montina 1/2 cup (60 ml) canola oil
(Indian ricegrass) flour 11/2 tablespoons (30 g) honey
1 cup (140 g) brown rice flour
TOPPING:
1/2 cup (50 g) soy flour
2 tablespoons (28 g) butte~ melted
1/2 cup (80 g) cornmeal or quinoa flour
2 tablespoons (15 g) pure sesame seeds
11/2 teaspoons sea salt
1/2 cup (75 g) sunflower seeds, ground

DISSOLVE yeast in warm water. Let rise. STIR oil and honey into risen yeast
mixture. MIX flours, salt, and ground sunflower seeds together. ADD three-quar-
ters of the flour mixture to the oil-honey-yeast mixture; then add more gradually
until dough is smooth and elastic. LET RISE in bowl for 1 hour until doubled in
height. PUNCH DOWN. Add a bit more white rice flour, knead and form into
loaves. LET rise again in a warm place, 45 minutes, with a damp cloth over it.
PREHEAT oven to 400F (200C, or gas mark 6). TOP loaves with melted butter
and sesame seeds. BAKE at 400F (200C, or gas mark 6) for 50 minutes.

Yield: 1 loaf

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 15 slices, each has 191 calories, 8.6 g fat,
5 g protein, 23.2 g carbohydrate, 3.9 g dietary fiber.

118 Our Daily Breads


Farmhouse Sour Milk Yeast Bread
WET INGREDIENTS: 1 cup (140 g) millet flour
3 large eggs, lightly beaten 1/2 cup (60 g) potato starch
1/2 cup (60 ml) oil 1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
1/2 cup (60 ml) plus 1 tablespoon (15 3 1/2 teaspoons xanthan gum
ml) water 1/2 cup (50 g) sugar
1 cup (235 ml) buttermilk 11/2 teaspoons salt
2 teaspoons powdered eggs
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1 package (.25 ounces, or 7 g) dry
1 cup (140 g) garbanzo and/or fava
yeast
bean flour

GREASE 9 x 5 x 3-inch (22.5 x 13 x 7.5-cm) loaf pan. MIX the wet ingredients
together. MIX the dry ingredients together in a separate bowl. ADD blended dry
ingredient to blended wet ingredients, bit by bit, by hand . STI R just until com-
bined. Put in loaf pan. PROOF at room temperature all day or in a warm oven
for 45 minutes until it rises. PREHEAT oven to 325F (170(, or gas mark 3).
BAKE at 325F (170(, or gas mark 3), for 1 hour.

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 slices, each has 231 calories, 7.7 g fat,
6 .8 g protein, 33.4 g carbohydrate, 3.2 g dietary fiber.

Cranberry Yeast Bread


DRY INGREDIENTS: 1 cup (110 g) dried or fresh cranberries
3 tablespoons (40 g) sugar or currants
1 cup (140 g) white rice flour WET INGREDIENTS:
2 cups (320 g) millet, sorghum, 3 large eggs, lightly beaten
or amaranth flour 1 teaspoon cider vinegar
1/4 cup (25 g) soy flour 3 tablespoons (45 ml) oil
1 tablespoon xanthan gum 11/2 cups (355 ml) water
11/2 teaspoons salt 4 tablespoons honey
1/2 cup (65 g) dry milk
1 package (.25 ounces, or 7 g) dry
yeast

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180(, or gas mark 4). GREASE 9 x 5 x 3-inch (22 .5
x 13 x 7.5-cm) loaf pan. MIX dry ingredients together. MIX wet ingredients
together. ADD the mixed dry ingredients to the mixed wet ingredients bit by bit.

119
STIR by hand. PLACE in prepared loaf pan. Let rise all day or overnight. CUT
diagonal slashes into the top of the loaf. BAKE at 350F (180C, or gas mark 4)
for 3/4 hour. TURN on side to rest after baking.

Yield: 1 loaf

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 16 slices, each has 197 calories,S. 9 g fat


5.8 g protein, 30.1 g carbohydrate, 3.2 g dietary fiber.

Pumpkin Yeast Bread


WET INGREDIENTS: 2 cups (240 g) quinoa flour
cup (60 ml) warm water
1/2 1 cup (100 g) soy flour
2 cups (450 g) fresh pumpkin, cooked 1/2 cup (90 g) tapioca flour
and mashed 1/2 cup (35 g) garbanzo and/or fava
2 cups (475 ml) apple juice, heated to bean flour
hot in microwave 3 teaspoons xanthan gum
1/2 cup (120 ml) canola oil 2 tablespoons (30 g) brown sugar
1 teaspoon cumin
DRY INGREDIENTS: 2 teaspoons salt
1/2teaspoon sugar 1/2 cup (75 g) golden raisins
2 packages (.25 ounces, or 7 g, each)
dry powdered yeast

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE 9 x 5 x 3-inch


(22.5 x 13 x 7.5-cm) loaf pan. ADD warm water and sugar to yeast in a glass
measuring cup, cover, and let it proof. COMBINE dry ingredients. COMBINE
pumpkin, apple juice, oil, and raisins. STIR dry ingredients into pumpkin mix-
ture until the dough looks like cake batter. PLACE dough in prepared loaf pan.
PROOF with a cloth over dough at room temperature until dough comes to the
top of the pan. BAKE in a 350F (180C, or gas mark 4) for 45 minutes.

Yield: 1 loaf

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 16 slices, each has 228 calories, 9.2 g fat,
4.9 g protein, 31.7 g carbohydrate, 2.5 g dietary fiber.

120 Our Daily Breads


Mock Black Russian Yeast Bread
This bread looks and tastes similar to rye bread, but it is wheat- and
gluten-free. We like it a lot; try toasting it!

WET INGREDIENTS: 1/2 cup (35 g) rice bran


3 eggs 1 tablespoon xanthan gum
1 teaspoon cider vinegar 3 teaspoons dark brown sugar
3 tablespoons (45 ml) olive oil 11/2 teaspoons salt
2 tablespoons (40 g) molasses 1/2 cup (65 g) dry milk
11/2 cups (315 ml) water 1 tablespoon instant coffee
4 1/2 teaspoons pure cocoa
DRY INGREDIENTS:
2 tablespoons (15 g) caraway seeds
2 cups (280 g) brown rice flour
1 package (.25 ounces, or 7 g)
1/2 cup (60 g) potato starch
dry yeast
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour

GREASE 9 x 5 x 3-inch (22.5 x 13 x 7.5-cm) loaf pan. MIX wet ingredients


together. WHISK dry ingredients together. ADD the mixed dry ingredients to the
mixed wet ingredients gradually, by hand. STIR well. Put into prepared loaf pan.
PROOF all day or overnight at room temperature. BAKE at 325F (170(, or
gas mark 3) for 3/4 hour. Test with a toothpick in the center.

Yield: 1 loaf

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 16 slices, each has 196 calories, 5.8 g fat,
4.5 g protein, 31.3 g carbohydrate, 2.6 g dietary fiber.

Note: This will be somewhat wet when it is first baked, but it will keep well in
the refrigerator.

121
Olive and Rosemary Foccacia
with Yeast
This recipe requires a one-hour rising time.

DRY INGREDIENTS: 2 teaspoons xanthan gum


11/2 cups (210 g) brown rice flour 1-11/2 teaspoons sea salt
1 package (.25 ounces, or 7 g) dry
WET INGREDIENTS:
yeast
11/2 cups (295 ml) warm water
2 teaspoons sugar
4 large egg whites, at room temperature
4 teaspoons dried rosemary (or 11/2
1 tablespoon (15 ml) olive oil
tablespoons fresh, chopped)
20 oil-cured pitted black olives, roughly
1 large garlic clove, peeled and cut
chopped
into 3 pieces
1 egg yolk mixed with 1 teaspoon water
1/2 cup (60 g) cornmeal
1/2 cup (65 g) cornstarch

LINE two 8-inch (20-cm) oval or round baking pans with parchment paper
(mark shape of pans on parchment paper with pencil, cut).

PART ONE:

STI R together 1/2 cup (70 g) rice flou~ yeast, sugar, and 1/2 cup (120 ml) warm
water in a 2-cup (475-ml) glass measure. LET mixture rest in a warm place
until doubled in volume, about 10 minutes.

PART TWO:

BEAT egg whites lightly. ADD olive oil, chopped olives, and 2 teaspoons of the
rosemary; set aside. COMBI NE garlic and egg yolk; set aside. (The garlic will
perfume the egg mixure but won't burn in the oven as chopped garlic would.)

PART THREE:

COMBI N E remaining 1 cup (140 g) rice flour, corn flour, cornstarch, xanthan
gum, and salt in a bowl. ADD remaining 1/2 cup (175 ml) warm water to egg
white-olive mixture. STIR into flour. STIR in yeast mixture and beat until
smooth. SPREAD soft dough, using a rubber spatula, onto parchment
paper-lined pans, heaping dough up slightly in the middle. COVER loaves with
lightly greased plastic wrap. LET RISE until doubled in bulk, about 1 hour in
slightly warm oven.

122 Our Daily Breads


PART FOUR:

PREHEAT oven to 425F (220C, or gas mark 7). SPRINKLE tops with remain-
ing 2 teaspoons rosemary. SLASH tops of loaves into a large diamond grid
pattern. BAKE for 20 minutes, until well browned.

Yield: 2 loaves

Nutritional Analysis Assuming 8 pieces per loaf, each piece has 90 calories,
1.7 g fat, 2.7 g protein, 15.9 g carbohydrate, 1.3 g dietary fiber.

Millet Bread
WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:
1 cup (245 g) plain GF yogurt or butter- 1 package (.25 ounces, or 7 g) dry
milk yeast
1/2 cup (112 g) butter 2 cups (280 g) millet flour
1/2 cup (60 ml) warm water 1/2 cup (50 g) soy flour
1 tablespoon (20 g) honey 2 1/2 teaspoons xanthan gum
2 eggs, beaten 1/2 teaspoon salt
3/4 cup (150 g) millet seeds, crushed or
ground, divided

GREASE 9 x 5 x 3-inch (22.5 x 13 x 7.5-cm) loaf pan with canola oil. COM-
BINE yogurt and butter in a saucepan over low heat, stirring, just until butter is
melted. DISSOLVE the yeast into the warm water; stir in honey and beaten
eggs. MIX yogurt and butter into the yeast mixture. ADD flours, xanthan gum,
salt, and 1/2 cup (100 g) millet seeds into the wet ingredients slowly, bit by bit,
by hand. SPOON dough into an oiled 9 x 5 x 3-inch (22.5 x 13 x 7.5-cm) bread
pan. Cover and let rise all day at room temperature. CUT 2 diagonal slashes
into top of loaf; sprinkle with remaining 1/4 cup (50 g) millet seeds. BAKE in
preheated 375 F (190C, or gas mark 5) oven for 30 minutes.

Yield: 1 loaf

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 slices, each has 212 calories, 6.1 g fat,
8 g protein, 31.2 g carbohydrate, 3.9 g dietary fiber.

123
Quick-Rising or "Dump It" Breads
ESSENTIALS TO KNOW ABOUT QUICK BREADS

These breads are easy to assemble and quick to bake, held together by the
gums we keep talking about or sometimes just by eggs. They are leavened by
baking powder or baking soda plus something acidic to make the proteins in
the flour bubble and become light.
I think it is mighty important to realize that these are deemed quick
breads for a reason. Don't obsess! My mother called these dump-it breads
when she literally threw together whatever she had on hand; for example,
applesauce, juice, cinnamon, flour, baking powder, butter, and sugar. We
have to be serious about just a few elements:
1. Use only wheat-free or gluten-free flours, but have fun assembling them
in creative combinations as you familiarize yourself with how each flour
will best serve you. Will you choose a light flour like potato starch or
tapioca, a nutty one like quinoa or buckwheat, a slightly bitter flour like
soy, a heavier flour like bean, or a sweet flour like sorghum? See, it really
is great fun. Relax and do let children select and stir, prepare loaf pans,
turn on the oven, and, most of all, help clean up.
2. Be sure to use a binder: eggs, xanthan gum, gelatin, mayonnaise, apple-
sauce, et cetera. Be aware that arrowroot and tapioca flour also help bind.
3. Assemble dry ingredients in one bowl and wet in another. Combine with
a minimum of mixing.
4. Remember one characteristic of these nonwheat flours is that they tough-
en with too much stirring. They also get a bit soggy. Assemble all your
ingredients ahead of time. The person who stirs and stirs while finding
other stuff to add to these breads loses out in the end. Stir just until
everything incorporates; work as speedily as you can.
S. Get the quick bread into the preheated oven quickly. The haste is intend-
ed to ensure that the gas produced by the baking powder or baking soda
doesn't leak out before the oven heat hardens the bread. The gas trapped
within the solidified crust is what causes the bread to rise.
6. When done, your quick bread will have a homey aroma, and it will
shrink away from the edges of the pan. To check, do the classic tooth-
pick-in-the-center test.

124 Our Daily Breads


ESSENTIAL INGREDIENTS FOR QUICK-RISING BREADS:

Eggs
Eggs can provide enough leavening if you don't have one of the gum binders
on hand when you feel like throwing together a quick bread. Go easy on the
added heavy stuff like nuts, fruits, and vegetables; they won't be tucked in
quite as snug as you might like. But eggs do act like a gluten binder and also
enhance flavorings. That is why there are often more flavorings, such as
vanilla, almond, and coffee, in a recipe with lots of eggs.

Baking Powder and Baking Soda


Baking powder is almost always made with cornstarch (which is gluten-free),
but it could be made with wheat starch (which is neither gluten- nor wheat-
free). Check the contents to be sure. Some baking powders contain alu-
minum, some do not. You can make your own baking powder if you want to
avoid the high sodium content and aluminum found in store-bought baking
powders. It is cereal-free, gluten-free, sodium-free, and aluminum-free.
2 cups (240 g) arrowroot
2 cups (240 g) cream of tartar
1 cup (120 g) sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)
For good rising power, we suggest 1 teaspoon of baking powder per cup of
flour. Recommended is the double-acting baking powder, which not only
bubbles when liquid is added to dry ingredients, but also acts a second time
as the quick bread starts to bake. There is 1/4 teaspoon of baking soda in each
teaspoon of baking powder. Sift the baking soda or baking powder into your
flours. In our quick breads, the dough is instantly aerated by the addition of
baking powder and baking soda.
Enjoy yourself concocting these quick, comforting, and yummy breads.
I hope you like these recipes and make variations and substitutions that you
let me hear about.

125
Rice and Corn QUick Bread
DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
1 cup (165 g) boiled brown rice 2 cups (475 ml) sour milk
1/4 cup (35 g) corn meal 2 eggs, beaten
1/2 teaspoon baking soda 2 tablespoons (28 g) butte~ melted
1/2 tablespoon salt

PREHEAT oven to 325F (170(, or gas mark 3). GREASE an 8 x 4 x 3-inch


(20 x lOx 7.5-cm) loaf pan. MIX dry ingredients together. MIX wet ingredients
together. ADD the mixed wet ingredients to the mixed dry ingredients. STIR
well. POUR into prepared loaf pan. BAKE at 325F (170(, or gas mark 3) for
1 hour.

Yield: 14 medium slices

Nutritional Analysis: Each slice has 63 calories, 2.7 g fat, 2.6 g protein,
7 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Variation: Substitute 2 cups (490 g) plain yogurt or buttermilk for 2 cups (475
ml) sour milk.

Butter Pecan QUick Bread


This is a favorite tea bread.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1/2 cup (90 g) ground pecans 3 eggs
11/2 cups (240 g) rice flour 1 teaspoon cider vinegar
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour 2 tablespoons (28 g) butte~ melted,
1/2 cup (60 g) potato starch or (28 ml) oil
1/2 cup (55 g) plain pecans, chopped 1 cup (235 ml) plus 1 teaspoon of water
1 teaspoon xanthan gum
2 tablespoons (25 g) granulated sugar
or brown sugar

PREHEAT oven to 325F (170(, or gas mark 3). GREASE an 8 x 4 x 3-inch


(20 x lOx 7.5-cm) loaf pan. MIX dry ingredients together. MIX wet ingredients
together. ADD the mixed wet ingredients to the mixed dry ingredients. STIR
well. Pour into prepared loaf pan. BAKE at 325F (170(, or gas mark 3), for 1
hour.

126 Our Daily Breads


Yield: 20 thin slices or 10 thick ones

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 10 thick slices, each has 304 calories, 14.2 g
fat 4.5 g protein, 39.7 g carbohydrate, 2 g dietary fiber.

Cranberry Quick Bread


WET INGREDIENTS: 1/2 cup (75 g) ground flaxseed
1/2cup (120 ml) buttermilk 1 teaspoon baking powder
2 eggs 1 teaspoon baking soda
3 tablespoons (45 ml) canola oil 1 teaspoon xanthan gum
1/2 teaspoon salt
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1 envelope (.25 ounces, or 7 g)
1/2 cup (115 g) packed brown sugar
dried gelatin
1/2 cup (120 g) unbleached rice flour
1 cup (150 g) dried cranberries
1/2 cup (50 g) soy or (60 g)
amaranth flour

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE an 8 x 4 x 3-inch


(20 x lOx 7.5-cm) loaf pan. COMBINE, in a large bowl, the sugar, buttermilk,
eggs, and oil. WHISK until smooth. COMBINE, in a medium bowl, the
unbleached rice flour, soy or amaranth flou~ ground flaxseed, baking powde~
baking soda, xanthan gum, salt and dried gelatin. Blend well. ADD dry ingredi-
ents to the liquid ingredients. Stir just until blended; do not overmix. ADD the
cranberries and stir to mix. POUR into the prepared pan. BAKE at 350F
(180C, or gas mark 4) for 40 to 50 minutes (a knife inserted in
the center should come out clean). REMOVE the pan to a wire rack and let the
bread cool slightly. TURN the bread out of the pan while it is still slightly warm.

Yield: 10 big slices or 20 small

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 10 large slices, each has 250 calories,


10.1 g fat, 6.1 g protein, 33.9 g carbohydrate, 5.8 g dietary fiber.

127
Zucchini QUick Bread
Our Susanna's invention: an end-of-summer quick bread.

WET INGREDIENTS: 1 cup (150 g) yellow raisins


2 eggs 1/2 cup (50 g) plain nuts, chopped
1/2 cup (170 g) honey 1 cup (160 g) rice flour
1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter, melted, or (80 1/2 cup (70 g) millet flour
ml) oil 2 teaspoons baking powder
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract 11/2 teaspoons xanthan gum
2 teaspoons cinnamon
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 teaspoon salt
11/2 cups (180 g) zucchini, peeled and
1 envelope (.25 ounces, or 7 g) gelatin
shredded

0
PREHEAT oven to 350F (180 (, or gas mark 4). GREASE two 8 x 4 x 3-inch
(20 x lOx 7.5-cm) loaf pans. BEAT eggs. ADD honey, butter, vanilla, grated
zucchini, raisins, and nuts to beaten eggs. SI FT together: flours, baking powder,
xanthan gum, cinnamon, salt, and gelatin. FOLD dry ingredients into liquids-
this will keep it light (stirring it all gently works too). POUR into prepared loaf
pans. BAKE for about 25 minutes at 350F (180 0 ( , or gas mark 4). (OOL and
let settle for 10 minutes.

Yield: 30 to 40 slices

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 40 slices each has 78 calories, 2.8 g fat,


1 g protein, 12.2 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

128 Our Daily Breads


Cornbread
DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (60 g) corn flour 1/2 cup (60 ml) canola oil
1/2 cup (80 g) rice flour 2 eggs
1/2 cup (105 g) yellow corn meal 1/2 cup (120 ml) buttermilk
1 tablespoon xanthan gum
1/2 cup (50 g) sugar
2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 teaspoon salt

PREHEAT oven to 400F (200(, or gas mark 6). GREASE and flour bottom of
a 9 x 5 x 3-inch (22.5 x 13 x 7.5-cm) loaf pan, or grease muffin tins lined with
paper cups. MIX dry ingredients together. MIX wet ingredients together. ADD
the mixed wet ingredients to the mixed dry ingredients. STIR well. POUR into
prepared muffin tins. BAKE at 400F (200(, or gas mark 6) for 15 minutes, or
until golden brown.

Yield: 10 corn pones or muffins or 12 to 14 medium slices of corn bread

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 14 medium slices, each has 129 calories,


4.9 g fat, 2.4 g protein, 18.8 g carbohydrate, 1.3 g dietary fiber.

Thanksgiving Quick Loaf


All pumpkins are not created equal. Use sweet pumpkins in this recipe.
We make this pumpkin bread from our Halloween pumpkin each year.

DRY INGREDIENTS: 1/2 teaspoon ground cloves


1/2 cup (100 g) granulated sugar 1 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 cup (115 g) brown sugar, packed
WET INGREDIENTS:
1 tablespoon xanthan gum
1/2 cup (160 ml) apple cider
3 1/2 cups (560 g) rice flour
1/2 cup (140 g) shortening
2 teaspoons baking soda
2 eggs, beaten
11/2 teaspoons salt
2 cups (450 g) fresh pumpkin, cooked
2 teaspoons cinnamon
and mashed
1 teaspoon nutmeg
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1/2 teaspoon mace

129
PREHEAT oven 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE two 9 x 5 x 3-inch
(22.5 x 13 x 7.5-cm) loaf pans or one 13 1/2 x 5 x 4-inch (34 x 13 x 10-cm)
pan. CREAM the sugars with shortening and xanthan gum. ADD vanilla, apple
cider, eggs, and pumpkin. MIX (in a separate bowl) all the dry ingredients. ADD
to the pumpkin mixture. MIX well. ADD optional ingredients now if you wish.
BAKE for 45 minutes. Test for doneness with a toothpick.

Yield: 30 thick slices

Nutritional Analysis: Each slice has 143 calories, 5.2 g fat, 1.5 g protein,
22.7 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Note: To prepare the pumpkin, cut a small pumpkin into chunks, remove seeds,
and microwave the pieces on high for 20 minutes, or half-cover with water and
boil in a pot with a cover for 20 minutes. Peel off skin. Mash pumpkin pulp (or
puree in a blender).

Jam QUick Bread


DRY INGREDIENTS: 1/2 cup (160 g) jam, marmalade, or con-
2 cups (320 g) rice flour, preferably serves (apricot, strawberry, pineapple,
brown rice etc.)
1 teaspoon nutmeg 1/2 cup (60 ml) apple juice
11/2 teaspoons baking soda
ADDITIONS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
1 cup (160 g) GF dried fruit (raisins,
11/2 cups (305 g) plain GF yogurt
a pricots, etc.)
1 egg
1/2 cup (65 g) fresh currants, cranber-
ries, blueberries, or other fresh berries

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE an 8 x 4 x 3-inch


(20 x lOx 7.5-cm) loaf pan. MIX dry ingredients together. MIX wet ingredients
together. COMBINE wet and dry ingredients. ADJUST: Add a few drops of juice
or water if mixture is dry. FOLD in dried and then fresh fruit. BAKE at 350F
(180C, or gas mark 4) for 40 minutes or so.

130 Our Daily Breads


Yield: 1 loaf

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 10 slices, each has 186 calories, 1.5 g fat,
4.3 g protein, 38.7 g carbohydrate, 1 g dietary fiber. With suggested additions,
each has 244 calories, 1.6 g fat, 4.7 g protein, 52.6 g carbohydrate, 2.3 g
dietary fiber.

Note: Refrigerate this loaf if not eaten immediately. Fruit tends to become
moldy if it sits around for more than a few days.

Hominy QUick Bread


DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (80 g) rice grits 2 cups (475 ml) boiling water
11/2 teaspoons salt 1 tablespoon (14 g) butter
1 cup (140 g) white cornmeal 2 eggs
1 teaspoon xanthan gum 2 cups (475 ml) GF rice milk

OIL an 8-inch (20-cm) square pan.PREHEAT oven and the greased pan at
400F (200(, or gas mark 6). BLEND all ingredients. POUR mixture into
hot pan. TURN DOWN oven to 350F (180(, or gas mark 4). BAKE for
50 minutes.

Yield: 10 to 12 squares

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 squares, each has 118 calories,


2.4 g fat, 3 g protein, 20.9 g carbohydrate, 3.4 g dietary fiber.

131
Veggie QUick Bread
This is bread for life! It is so full of vitamins, minerals, and protein, and it
tastes great.
VEGETABLE INGREDIENTS: 1 1/2 cups (160 g) cornstarch
1/2 sweet pepper, diced 1/2 cup (30 g) potato starch flour
1/2 cup (55 g) chopped onion 1/2 teaspoon xanthan gum
1/2 cup (85 g) stewed tomatoes (fresh or
WET INGREDIENTS:
canned)
1/2 cup (60 ml) oil
DRY INGREDIENTS: 1/2 cup (170 g) honey
2 teaspoons baking powder 2 eggs
1 teaspoon baking soda 1/2 cup (120 ml) milk
1/2 teaspoon salt

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180(, or gas mark 4). GREASE 9-inch (22.5-cm)
square pan. (HOP vegetables together in food processor, not too fine. MIX dry
ingredients together. MIX wet ingredients together. ADD the mixed dry ingredi-
ents to the mixed wet ingredients. STIR well. BLEND in the veggies. POUR bat-
ter into prepared 9-inch (22.5-cm) square pan. BAKE at 350F (180(, or gas
mark 4) for 50 minutes or until a knife inserted in the center comes out clean.

Yield: 9 to 12 squares

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 squares, each has 128 calories, 5.8 g fat,
1.9 g protein, 17.2 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Sesame-Seed, Bro-wn-Rice Tea Bread


DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
1 cup (120 g) sesame seeds 2 large eggs
11/2 cups (210 g) brown rice flour 1/2 cup (120 ml) light olive or vegetable
1/2 cup (60 g) quinoa flour oil
1/2 cup (60 g) amaranth flour 1/2 cup (60 g) plain GF yogurt
1/2 cup (1 15 g) packed light brown 1/2 cup (60 ml) water
sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon xanthan gum

13 2 Our Daily Breads


PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE an 8 x 4 x 3-inch
(20 x lOx 7.5-cm) loaf pan or an 8-inch (20-cm) square pan. PUT sesame
seeds into a large bowl. ADD flours, sugar, baking powder, baking soda, salt,
and xanthan gum. STI R to mix. ADD the eggs, oil, yogurt, water, and vanilla.
BLEN D, stirring gently-not too long or it will toughen.

POUR the batter into the prepared pan. BAKE at 350F (180C, or gas mark 4)
for 60 to 65 minutes, until a wooden pick inserted in the center of the bread
comes out clean. LOOSEN the edges of the bread with a knife; turn it out of
the pan; turn over. SERVE warm or COOL completely and wrap airtight. STORE
up to 4 days at room temperature, or freeze.

Yield: 12 to 15 slices or 10 to 12 squares

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 15 slices, each has 267 calories, 14 g fat,


5.3 g protein, 30 g carbohydrate, 3.6 g dietary fiber.

Millet Corn Quick Loaf


This recipe was adapted from one by the bakers at Kripalu Yoga Center,
Lenox, Massachusetts.
WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:
1 tablespoon (15 ml) olive oil 1 small onion, finely chopped
6 cups (1.4 L) filtered water 6 cups (1.2 kg) millet grains, rinsed
3 tablespoons (45 g) GF sesame tahini 2 teaspoons sea salt
2 tablespoons (28 ml) plum vinegar or 2 cans (15 ounces, or 420 g, each)
umeboshi vinegar corn, drained
1 carrot, chopped
2-3 small green onions, chopped

PART ONE:

HEAT onion and oil in a large, heavy pot over medium heat, until onion is
translucent. ADD water, millet, corn, and carrot. BRING to a boil. REDUCE and
simmer 20 to 25 minutes, until millet has absorbed all of the water. ADD green
onions. COOL vegetable-and-millet mixture slightly. CHOP in a food processor.

PART TWO:
PREHEAT oven to 300F (150C, or gas mark 2). LIGHTLY oil a 9 x 5 x 3-inch

133
(22.5 x 13 x 7.5-cm) loaf pan. MIX tahini, vinegar, and salt together. BLEND
vinegar mixture into millet mixture. TRANSFER to prepared pan. BAKE for 15
minutes. LET COOL before serving.

Yield: 4 to 6 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 6 servings from each loa( each slice has
464 calories, 7.4 g fat, 13.3 g protein, 86.1 g carbohydrate, 10.2 g dietary
fiber.

Amaranth Tortillas
DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
11/2 cups (150 g) amaranth flour 1/2 cup (120 ml) water
1 teaspoon GF taco seasoning, optional

MIX together the flour and GF taco seasoning in a small bowl. STIR in water.
EVALUATE: The consistency should be soft, not wet, molding easily. The dough
will easily form a ball as you stir it. If necessary, add a bit more flour or water to
achieve the proper consistency. PINCH-OFF balls of dough the size of golf balls.
ROLL dough balls in additional flour to coat well. KN EAD each ball a bit as you
pat or roll it into a flat circle that's about 1/8 inch (3 mm) thick and 5 to 6 inch-
es (13 to 15 em) across. Repeat with all the dough balls. H EAT a heavy frying
pan or griddle. Use no oil. PLACE each tortilla in the hot pan. COOK for a few
minutes on each side until tortillas become lightly brown and start to appear
dry. COOL on wire racks.

Yield: 8 to 10 tortillas

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 10 tortillas, each has 95 calories, 1.6 g fat


3.6 g protein, 16.5 g carbohydrate, 3.8 g dietary fiber. With optional seasoning,
each has 96 calories, 1.6 g fat 3.6 g protein, 16.7 g carbohydrate, 3.8 g
dietary fiber.

Note: Store in the refrigerator up to 2 weeks, or freeze. Reheat in a toaster or


warm oven.

134 Our Daily Breads


Popovers
One of our favorite local restaurants greets you with menus and hot
popovers. They are unbelievable, so a real challenge was to develop a truly
light gluten-free dough that would pop up with the addition of eggs and stay
there, instead of plopping back down. Try these for some weekend brunch.
They really pop!

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


4 eggs 1/2 cup (120 g) rice flour
2 cups (475 ml) milk 1/2 cup (90 g) tapioca flour
2 tablespoons (28 g) butter, melted 1/2 cup (65 g) cornstarch
1 teaspoon sea salt
1 teaspoon xanthan gum

PREHEAT oven to 450F (230C, or gas mark 8). PUT muffin tins in oven to get
hot as you mix the batter. (It helps a lot to put this batter into very hot contain-
ers and then get them quickly into the hot oven. That is the secret step.) BEAT
eggs until they look like yellow ribbons; add milk and butter and stir well.
BLEND flours, cornstarch, salt, and gum. GRADUALLY ADD flour mixture to
egg mixture. Whisk together just to mix! It should have the consistency of heavy
cream. TAKE muffin tins out of the oven and quickly oil bottoms. FILL the
muffin cups three-quarters full. QUICKLY POP the filled muffin tins into the hot
oven, where they should bake for 20 minutes at 450F (230C, or gas mark 8).
Turn down oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4) and bake popovers 20
minutes longer.

Yield: 10 to 12 popovers

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 popovers, each has 155 calories, 5.1 g


fat, 4 g protein, 23.6 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber. With honey variation,
each has 167 calories, 5.1 g fat, 4 g protein, 26.5 g carbohydrate, trace dietary
fiber.

Variation: Sweeten these popovers with 2 tablespoons (40 g) honey and use
only 1/2 teaspoon salt. Cool after baking; then fill with whipped cream for a spe-
cial dessert, a sort of cream puff.

135
Buttermilk QUick Cornbread
This is a specialty of our most experimental baker daughter, Nina. It's great
with butter!

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


3 cups (420 g) cornmeal 3 cups (710 ml) buttermilk or (735 g)
3 teaspoons baking soda plain GF yogurt
3 teaspoons sugar 3 eggs

PREHEAT oven to 375F (190C, or gas mark 5). GREASE 8-inch (20-cm)
square pan. MIX cornmeal, baking soda, and sugar. BLEND buttermilk and
eggs. COMBINE wet and dry ingredients; pour into greased pan. BAKE at
375F (190C, or gas mark 5) for 45 minutes.

Yield: 8 to 10 squares

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 10 squares, each has 205 calories, 2.8 g fat,
7.8 g protein, 37.1 g carbohydrate, 3.1 g dietary fiber.

Southern Spoon Bread


This is amazing to bring to the table. I remember, years ago, sitting down
to breakfast in a charmingly half-restored Victorian hotel in Cape May,
New Jersey. I can't remember much about the beach, but I do remember
spoon breads spilling over, oozing corn and butter smells, when brought to
each place. It is amazing how food memories stay forever.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1 cup (140 g) white cornmeal 2 tablespoons (28 g) butter
11/2 teaspoons salt 3 cups (710 ml) milk, divided
3 teaspoons baking powder 3 eggs, well beaten

PREHEAT oven to 450F (230C, or gas mark 8). GREASE six ramekins or a
1 1/2-quart (1.5-L) casserole dish. COMBINE cornmeal, butter, and 2 cups (475
ml) milk in saucepan, cooking slowly over low heat. BRING mixture to a boil,
stirring constantly. BLEN D eggs, salt, and remaining cup of milk. ADD to corn-
meal mixture, folding it in. STIR in baking powder. POUR into greased
ramekins or casserole dish. BAKE at 450F (230C, or gas mark 8) for 25 to
35 minutes.

136 Our Daily Breads


Yield: 6 servi ngs

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 231 calories, 10.8 g fat, 9.1 g pro-
tein, 24.5 g carbohydrate, 1.7 g dietary fiber.

Millet Spoon Bread


My editor noted on a draft, "This sounds delicious!" It is!

WET INGREDIENTS: 1/2 teaspoon seasoned salt


2 tablespoons (28 g) butte~ melted 1/2 teaspoon mustard powder
11/2 cups (355 ml) milk or GF soy milk 1/2 teaspoon oregano
11/2 cups (180 g) grated cheddar cheese 1/2 teaspoon cayenne pepper
1/2 teaspoon celery salt
DRY INGREDIENTS: 3 eggs, separated
1 cup (140 g) millet flour
1 cup (160 g) white rice flour

PREHEAT oven to 375F (190(, or gas mark 5). GREASE six ramekins or a
1 1/2-quart (1.5 L) casserole with butter. MIX all ingredients except the eggs and
cheese in a medium saucepan. SIMMER for 3 to 5 minutes, stirring constantly.
REMOVE from heat. BEAT egg yolks. ADD egg yolks and cheese to saucepan
and beat well until blended. BEAT egg whites until stiff in separate bowl. FOLD
beaten egg whites into cheese mixture gently. POUR into greased ramekins or
casserole dish. BAKE in preheated oven, 30 minutes. SERVE immediately.

Yield: 6 to 8 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 8 servings, each has 308 calories, 14.5 g fat,
12.6 g protein, 31 .6 g carbohydrate, 1.6 g dietary fiber.

137
Baking Pow-der Drop Biscuits
Adapted from www.bobsredmill.com.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


1/2 cup (205 ml) tepid water 1/2 cup (70 g) bean flour
3 tablespoons (45 ml) olive oil 1 cup (80 g) sweet rice flour
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
1/2 teaspoon sea salt
1 1/2 tablespoons baking powder
2 teaspoons xanthan gum

PREHEAT oven to 425F (220C, or gas mark 7). SET aside a baking sheet.
WHISK flours, salt, baking powder, and xanthan gum together in mixing bowl.
COMBINE water and oil. ADD water and oil to flour mixture all at once. BEAT
10 strokes. Drop in mounds onto baking sheet. BAKE at 425F (220C, or gas
mark 7) for 12 minutes, until firm to the touch and lightly browned on the bot-
tom.

Yield: 12 biscuits

Nutritional Analysis: Each has 120 calories, 4.3 g fat, 2 g protein,


18.4 g carbohydrate, 1.2 g dietary fiber.

138 Our Daily Breads


Indian Ricegrass Biscuits
Adapted from www.bobsredmill.com;CarolFenster.Ph.D.
Try this for a different taste and texture; sweet and nutty.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1/2 cup (60 g) Indian ricegrass meal 1/2 cup (112 g) butter
1/2 cup (30 g) potato starch 1/2 cup (120 ml) buttermilk
1/2 cup (30 g) tapioca flour
2 teaspoons sugar
1 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon xanthan gum

1/2 teaspoon sea salt

PREHEAT oven to 450F (230C, or gas mark 8). SPRAY baking sheet with
cooking oil. SIFT dry ingredients together in medium bowl. CUT butter into flour
mixture until it resembles small peas. STIR in enough buttermilk to form soft
dough that holds it shape when pressed together. PLACE mixture on baking
sheet. LAY a sheet of waxed paper over biscuit mixture and press into square or
circle about 1 inch (2.5 cm) thick. REMOVE sheet of waxed paper. CUT biscuits
using biscuit cutter or open end of glass. RESHAPE remnant piece and recut.
BAKE at 450F (230C, or gas mark 8) for 10 to 12 minutes or until lightly
browned.

Yield: About 9 biscuits.

Nutritional Analysis: Each biscuit has 120 calories, 5.5 g fat 2 g protein,
15.8 g carbohydrate, 2.1 g dietary fiber.

139
Soda Biscuits
Modified from www.bobsredmill.com.

DRY INGREDIENTS: 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar


3/4 cup (120 g) rice flour 1/2 cup (75 g) golden raisins
1/2 cup (70 g) millet flour
1/4 cup (25 g) soy flour WET INGREDIENTS:
2 teaspoons baking soda 1/2 cup (112 g) butter, melted, or (60 ml)
2 teaspoons baking powder olive oil

1/2 teaspoon sea salt 11/2 cups (315 ml) buttermilk


2 tablespoons brown sugar 1 egg

PREHEAT oven to 400F (200(, or gas mark 6). GREASE muffin pan with non-
stick spray or line with paper cups. MIX dry ingredients in medium bowl. WHISK
together the butter or oil, buttermilk, and egg in another bowl. STIR in raisins.
POUR wet ingredients into dry; stir until just mixed. SPOON batter into pre-
pared muffin tins. BAKE at 400F (200(, or gas mark 6) for 18 to 20 minutes.

Yield: 12 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Each biscuit has 149 calories, 5.1 g fat, 3.5 g protein,
22. 1 g carbohydrate, 1 g dietary fiber.

Variation: Sprinkle tops with 2 teaspoons poppy, sesame, or millet seeds before
placing in oven. (We prefer to grind the millet in a coffee grinder first, otherwise
they fall off.)

140 The Wheat &: Gluten-Free Cook Book


CHAPTER FOUR

Svveet Treats:
Exquisite Cookies
The most difficult reality to live with on a gluten-free diet used to be the lack
of nibbles, particularly tasty and filling cookies. Gluten-free flours have
changed this reality forever. When we started exploring the tastes of various
gluten- and wheat-free flours such as almond meal, quinoa, and millet, we
realized that we could actually bake yummy cookies that would not be full of
sugar but would taste different from standard American cookies, a lot richer,
more full bodied and gut warming-cookies that satisfy cravings without giv-
ing you a sugar rush. The alternative flours used in the recipes are high in
nutrients, and they make delicate or hearty and definitely interesting morsels.
Wheat-free and gluten-free diets can now include cookies that are so good
and nutritious that nonceliacs will covet them.
Cookie textures are of two varieties: cakelike or crumbly. The sequence of
steps followed and ingredients used in the dough preparation determine the
cookie's texture. For a cakelike texture, prepare dough by first beating togeth-
er the shortening, sugar, eggs, and liquid to produce a wet mixture, then gen-
tly folding in the dry ingredients-flour, spices, and a leavening agent such as
baking powder, baking soda, or cream of tartar. For a crumbly texture, denser
and stiffer than cakelike cookies, slowly mix together all of the ingredients at
one time. During cooking, the starch gelatinizes slowly to form the crumbly
morsels.

Cookie-Making Hints
Baking cookies is an art in itself. Shiny, bright cookie sheets are best for deli-
cate browning. I found that my experiments with baking cookies were helped
by investing in two items: insulated cookie sheets and parchment papers.
Gluten- and wheat-free cookies are apt to spread as they cook, thus burning
easily. Baking with these items helps prevent this.

141
Cookies made from alternative flours should be taken out of the oven
while still spongy and soft but nicely browned. Gluten- and wheat-free cook-
ies harden and toughen much faster than wheat-flour cookies do. Be sure to
have two small wire cooling racks in your kitchen near the cookie sheets, and
a metal spatula on hand. After baking, remove cookies from the cookie sheet
using a spatula and put them on the wire cooling racks. They will transform
from falling-apart, crumbly things to tender cookies with a browned edge and
a slightly soft center.
When a recipe calls for ground nuts, it works best to use your coffee or
spice grinder to do the grinding. Using your food processor will make a paste
rather than the dry, floury consistency they are aiming for.

A Word about Materials


COOKIE SHEETS
Most of my cookies are drop cookies, just spoonfuls of dough dropped onto
cookie sheets and popped into the oven. Get the thickest cookie sheets you
can find. If you can locate parchment paper, line your cookie sheets with it. I
often use freezer paper, greased, as a substitute. The simplicity of your
cleanup and ease in releasing your cookies from the pan will make this
worthwhile.

COOKIE CUTTERS
Metal or plastic cookie cutters are the easiest to use. They often have handles
across the back of them. Roll out your dough, cut it into attractive shapes
using the cutters of your choice, and arrange on a cookie sheet for baking.
I even enjoy shaping my biscuits with my big and small star cutters.

COOKIE PRESSES
Cookie presses are great fun for children. They are hollow metal or plastic
cylinders made with a plunger at one end and outfitted with a variety of
disks that fit over the other end. The tube is filled with cookie dough and
the plunger is depressed to push out the dough, forming various shapes as it
passes through the disk at the end.

COOKIE MOLDS
Fifty years ago, when I first visited Europe, I brought home a wooden cookie
mold that still hangs on our kitchen wall. It has been used many times, so
there is a rich, polished look to it. Raw dough is pressed into the molds,
chilled briefly to firm up the butter, and then turned out and baked. Also

142 Sweet Treats: Exquisite Cookies


available is a variation on the flat mold, in the form of a cylinder much like
a carved rolling pin, which stamps a design on the dough as it rolls over it.

CERAMIC SHORTBREAD MOLDS


These are wonderful unglazed ceramic or stoneware forms stamped with the
traditional thistle design or other decorative symbols. Dough can be baked
directly in the forms.

Bob's Red Mill Master Cookie Mix


With the permission of this wonderful company that produces so many of the
flours we use, we share this basic recipe that can be changed a million ways.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


3 tablespoons (45 ml) vegetable oil 1 cup (120 g) presifted amaranth flour
1/2cup (85 g) honey 1/2 cup (40 g) arrowroot flour
3 tablespoons (45 ml) water 1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract 1/2 teaspoon sea salt

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). LINE cookie sheet with parch-
ment or lightly grease. COMBINE oil, honey, and water in a saucepan and heat
gently to melt honey. REMOVE from heat to cool. SIFT flours before measuring.
COMBINE dry ingredients and sift again. STIR vanilla into liquids. ADD dry
ingredients to liquids. ADD any additional ingredients you choose. (See
Variations.) DROP batter by rounded teaspoon onto prepared cookie sheet.
BAKE 12 to 15 minutes, or until cookies are brown. Remove to wire rack to
cool.

Yield: About 2 dozen cookies

Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 65 calories, 2.2 g fat, 1.2 g protein,
109 carbohydrate, 1.4 g dietary fiber.

143
Nitty Gritty Cookies
These cookies are crunchy and fun. Not stylish, but full of wholesome coun-
try flavors.
WET INGREDIENTS: 1 cup (120 g) sesame seeds
1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter, softened 1 cup (225 g) sunflower seeds, roasted
1/2 cup (170 g) honey 1 cup (100 g) quinoa flakes
1 cup (125 g) plain walnuts, finely
1/2 cup (60 ml) apple juice
chopped
DRY INGREDIENTS: 1 cup (120 g) hazelnut flour
2 cups (230 g) GF bread crumbs 1 cup (140 g) cornmeal
11/2 teaspoons salt 1 cup (150 g) yellow raisins

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). PREPARE cookie sheet with
either oil or parchment paper. CREAM butter and honey together, then mix in
other ingredients except for the juice. ADD juice a little at a time until mixture
holds together. If mixture is too sticky, add a little rice flour. SHAPE into balls
and place on an oiled or parchment-covered cookie sheet. BAKE for 25 min-
utes.

Yield: 2 dozen cookies

Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 293 calories, 15.6 9 fat, 6.3 9 protein,
31.7 9 carbohydrate, 3.3 9 dietary fiber.

144 Sweet Treats: Exquisite Cookies


Indonesian Spice and Rice Flour Crackers
(Rempejeh)
These cracker-type cookies are great as an appetizer-they are slightly spicy,
crisp. We found the recipe in a 1930s cookbook and made them for one of
our Indonesian food feasts. At our last feast, these thin cookies were a hit
because they have a kick. They are very different from any cookie or cracker
we have had.

DRY INGREDIENTS: 1/2 teaspoon salt


1 cup (160 g) rice flour 1/2 cup (75 g) plain dry-roasted
1 teaspoon garlic powder peanuts, chopped
1 teaspoon ground coriander
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 teaspoon ground cumin
1-11/2 cups (235-355 ml) coconut milk
1/2 teaspoon ground turmeric
Vegetable oil for frying
1/2 teaspoon ground ginger

MIX together all the dry ingredients except the peanuts. SLOWLY ADD the
coconut milk until the batter is a rather thin consistency. HEAT oil (at least 1/2
inch [1 cm] deep) in a wok or thick frying pan. Make sure the fat is very hot.
DROP in 1 teaspoon batter, fry until golden, then taste and add salt if needed.
MIX the peanuts into the batter and drop the batter by tablespoons into the hot
oil, 2 or 3 at a time. As the cookies fry, lift and tilt the pan so oil glazes the top,
too. FRY until golden and crisp, then remove with a slotted metal spatula and
drain on paper towels or a paper bag.

Yield: 3 dozen cookies

Nutritional Analysis: Each cracker has 54 calories, 3.5 g fat, 1 g protein,


4.6 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Note: When I first fried these, they were a soggy mess. Then I tried hotter oil.
They browned quickly around the edges, and with the help of tilting hot fat over
them, they became crispy all over. One quick turn over and they are finished.

145
Hazelnut Cookies
Did you realize that hazelnut and quinoa flour are just loaded with protein?
Not only do these taste good, but they are truly healthful as well.

WET INGREDIENTS: 1/2 cup (35 g) bean flour


1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter, softened 1 cup (120 g) quinoa flour
6 tablespoons (90 ml) maple syrup 1/2 cup (75 g) currants
2 teaspoons hazelnut flavoring or extract Cinnamon and sugar for dusting
cookies after baking
DRY INGREDIENTS:
3 tablespoons (45 g) brown sugar
1 cup (120 g) hazelnut flour

PREHEAT oven to 325F (170C, or gas mark 3). GREASE cookie sheet, set
aside. BLEND the butter, maple syrup, hazelnut flavoring, and brown sugar with
a hand mixer until creamy. ADD the hazelnut flour, bean flour, and quinoa flour.
Mix until the dough sticks together. ADD currants. FORM the dough into 1 1/2
inch (4 cm) balls. PLACE them on the prepared cookie sheet and bake for 30
to 35 minutes. REMOVE from oven and let them cool or roll them in cinnamon
sugar while still warm.

Yield: 2 dozen cookies

Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 113 calories, 7.2 g fat, 1.7 g protein,
10.3 g carbohydrate, 1.1 g dietary fiber.

Almond Crispies
DRY INGREDIENTS: 1/2 teaspoon sea salt
1/2 cup (80 g) rice flour 1/2 cup (65 g) plain almonds, chopped
1/2 cup (30 g) tapioca flour 1/2 cup (20 g) sweetened coconut
1/2 cup (90 g) almond meal
1/2 cup (35 g) superfine sugar
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (60 ml) orange juice
1 teaspoon baking powder
1 teaspoon cinnamon 4 tablespoons (55 g) butter, softened
1 tablespoon (15 ml) warm water

PREHEAT oven to 375F (190C, or gas mark 5). Lightly spray or grease cookie
sheet; set aside. COMBINE the dry ingredients in a bowl. COMBINE the wet
ingredients in another bowl. BLEND the wet and dry ingredients together, fold-

146 Sweet Treats: Exquisite Cookies


ing in the chopped almonds. DROP spoonfuls of dough onto greased cookie
sheet. BAKE 8 to 10 minutes until lightly golden. Let cookies set on baking
sheet 10 minutes; remove to cooling rack.

Yield: 2 dozen cookies

Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 90 calories, 5.6 g fat, 1.6 g protein,
8.1 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber. With streusel topping, each has 97 calo-
ries, 5.6 g fat, 1.6 g protein, 9.8 g carbohydrate, 1 g dietary fiber.

Variation: Combine 1/2 cup (35 g) cornstarch or rice flour with 2 teaspoons cin-
namon and 2 teaspoons sugar to make a streusel topping. Drop cookies onto
cookie sheet, flatten, and sprinkle with streusel topping. Press chopped almonds
or raisins lightly into the flattened cookies with the back of a wooden spoon.

Old-Fashioned Almond Macaroons


WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:
4 egg whites, unbeaten 1/2 pound ( 225 g) GF confectioners'
1 teaspoon almond flavoring or extract sugar
1/2 pound (225 g) plain almonds, ground
(use coffee grinder)
1 teaspoon lemon zest

PREHEAT oven to 300F (150C, or gas mark 2). BUTTER cookie sheet. MIX
eggs and sugar in top of a double boiler; cook over low heat for about 10 min-
utes, gently stirring all the while. Remove from the stove. ADD almonds, flavor-
ing, and zest. Drop on buttered cookie sheet 1 inch (2.5 cm) apart. BAKE at
300F (150C, or gas mark 2) for 30 minutes.

Yield: 2 dozen cookies

Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 100 calories,S g fat, 2.6 g protein,
11 .2 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

147
Old-Fashioned Walnut Macaroons
WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:
4 egg yolks, unbeaten 1/2 pound (225 g) GF confectioners'
sugar
1/2 pound (225 g) plain walnuts,
chopped (use blender to chop fine)

PREHEAT oven to 300F (150C, or gas mark 2). BUTTER cookie sheet. MIX
egg yolks with sugar. ADD chopped nuts to make a dough. CHILL dough
between sheets of wax paper for 1/2 hour. ROLL out dough to desired thickness
between two sheets of waxed paper. CUT out cookies with a cookie cutter or
the rim of a juice glass. PLACE on buttered cookie sheet. BAKE at 300F
(150C, or gas mark 2) for 30 minutes or until crisp.

Yield: 2 dozen cookies

Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 112 calories, 6.7 g fat 1.8 g protein,
1 1.2 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Almond Sugar Cookies


WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:
2 egg whites 1/2 cup (100 g) granulated sugar
2 tablespoons lemon juice 1/2 teaspoon lemon zest
1/2 teaspoon lemon extract 1 teaspoon cinnamon (optional)
1/2 teaspoon almond extract 11/2 cups (180 g) almond meal
Plain whole almonds

PREHEAT oven to 250F (120C, or gas mark 1/2). BEAT egg whites until stif(
adding sugar gradually. BLEND lemon juice, lemon zest, lemon extract, almond
extract, and cinnamon (if used) into egg white mixture. SPRINKLE almond meal
on egg white mixture; fold in gently to blend. PLACE on greased cookie sheet 1
inch (2.5 cm) apart; place 1 whole almond on top of each cookie. BAKE at
250F (120C, or gas mark 1/2) for 30 minutes.

Yield: 2 dozen cookies

Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 96 calories, 4.5 g fat, 2.5 g protein,
1 1.4 g carbohydrate, 4.6 g dietary fiber.

148 Sweet Treats: Exquisite Cookies


Chocolate Chip Cookies I
The original chocolate chip cookies were developed in the 1930s by a
woman called Ruth Wakefield at the Toll House Inn, a stop on the road
between Boston and New Bedford, Massachusetts. They are the most
popular American cookies world wide. This is an adaptation of the original
Toll House recipe.

WET INGREDIENTS: 1 package (12 ounces, or 340 g) GF


1 cup (2 sticks, or 225 g) unsalted semisweet chocolate chips
butter, softened 1/2 cup (60 g) plain chopped nuts
2 eggs, lightly beaten 1 cup (160 g) rice flour
2 tablespoons (30 ml) vanilla extract 1 cup (120) tapioca flour
1 teaspoon baking soda
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 cup (1 15 g) dark brown sugar
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1/2 cup (50 g) granulated sugar
1 teaspoon xanthan gum
1/2 teaspoon salt

PREHEAT oven to 375F (190C, or gas mark 5). LINE baking sheets with
ungreased parchment or freezer paper. CREAM butter and sugars together, add
eggs, and stir; then add vanilla, chocolate chips, and nuts. MIX flours, baking
soda, baking powder, cream of tarta~ xanthan gum, and salt together. QUICK-
LY ADD dry ingredients to the wet. Stir just until mixed. These cookies spread,
so use small spoonfuls. BAKE 10 to 12 minutes, until browned. Slide hot cook-
ies onto waxed paper to cool.

Yield: 2 dozen cookies

Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 240 calories, 13.6 g fat, 1.8 g protein,
27.7 g carbohydrate, 1.5 g dietary fiber.

149
Chocolate Chip Cookies II
Such favorites-worth two approaches. I will look forward to hearing from
you regarding your favorite

WET INGREDIENTS: 1/2 cup (140 g) sorghum flour


1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter 1/2 cup (60 g) quinoa flour
2 eggs 1/2 cup (60 g) amaranth flour
2 tablespoons (30 ml) maple syrup 2 tablespoons fava bean flour
(or garbanzo flour)
DRY INGREDIENTS:
2 tablespoons tapioca flour
1/2 cup (100 g) white sugar
1 teaspoon xanthan gum
1/2 cup (115 g) brown sugar
1 teaspoon baking soda
1 package (12 ounces, or 340 g)
1 teaspoon baking powder
GF semisweet chocolate chips
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 cup (120 g) coarsely chopped plain
walnuts

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180(, or gas mark 4). GREASE cookie sheet. BLEND
butter and sugars. ADD eggs and maple syrup. STIR in chocolate chips and
walnuts. BLEND together the flours, xanthan gum, baking soda, baking powder,
and salt. MIX dry ingredients into butter mixture. DROP dough onto cookie
sheets. BAKE for 10 minutes, until browned. REMOVE from oven and let cool
for 5 minutes before removing from cookie sheet. (OOL completely on baking
rack.

Yield: About 30

Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 194 calories, 10.4 g fat, 2.7 g protein,
22.2 g carbohydrate, 1.9 g dietary fiber.

150 Sweet Treats: Exquisite Cookies


Cottage Cheese Crescents
These roll-ups are tangy because of the cottage cheese, flaky, and rich. The
secret with these is to cut the butter into the flour so the end product is nice
and light.
DOUGH: FILLING:
1 cup (2 sticks/ or 225 g) unsalted 1/2 cup (100 g) sugar
butter 1 teaspoon cinnamon
2 cups (280 g) all-purpose GF flour 4 tablespoons (80 g) jam
1/2 teaspoon salt 1 cup (120 g) plain chopped walnuts
1 cup (225 g) GF cottage cheese 1/2 cup (60 g) currants/ blueberries/
..
or raisins

CUT the sticks of butter into tiny pieces. PUT butter in bowl of food processor.
ADD the flour mixed with the salt. PROCESS the flour and butter in a food
processor just to combine. Process with pulses until the butter starts to disappear
into the flour. SCATTER the cottage cheese over the mixture and pulse once
again until the mixture comes together into a cohesive ball. DIVI DE the dough
into quarters. PLACE each ball in a resealable plastic bag. FLATTEN dough and
refrigerate for at least 4 hours. REMOVE one package at a time from refrigera-
tor. Let it set for 10 minutes. REMOVE from bag onto lightly floured surface/
cover with waxed paper to prevent sticking. ROLL OUT with rolling pin. CUT the
circle into wedges using a sharp knife. SPREAD 1 tablespoon jam over each
wedge; sprinkle with cinnamon/ nuts/ and raisins or currants. ROLL each wedge
up/ starting with the wide end. PLACE rolls point down on foil-covered baking
sheet. BAKE 15 or so minutes. Watch for oozing jam/ which can burn. MOVE the
crescents to another spot on the foil and continue baking.

Yield: 2 dozen crescents

Nutritional Analysis: Each crescent has 177 calories/ 11.5 g fat/ 3 g protein/
15.3 g carbohydrate/ 1.4 g dietary fiber.

Variation: You can make pastry straws by rolling the dough out and sprinkling
with cinnamon and powdered sugar. Instead of wedges/ cut 1-inch- (2.5-cm-)
wide strips. Twist one end toward you and one end away from you. Bake for 15
minutes on foil-covered baking sheet. Sprinkle with cinnamon.

Note: If you dodt have all-purpose GF flour on hand/ combine: 1/2 cup (80 g)
rice flour, 1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour, 1/2 cup (70 g) sorghum flour/ 1/4 cup (80
g) potato starch/ 1/4 cup (70 g) garbanzo or fava bean flour. Or/ use whatever
you have on hand to make a total of 2 cups (280 g).

151
Molasses Snaps
This recipe is one of my earliest successes. I found I had to watch these as
they baked because they easily burn if overcooked. These cookies should be
baked on parchment paper. They should be taken out of the oven while
spongy and soft but brown. Move them to a plate by letting them cool
and then turning them over and peeling the brown paper off them as you
arrange them.
WET INGREDIENTS: 1 cup (120 g) quinoa or amaranth flour
1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter, softened 1 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 cup (170 g) unsulfured molasses 1 teaspoon baking powder
2 eggs 1/2 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon vanilla extract 1 teaspoon cinnamon
1 teaspoon cloves
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1 teaspoon ginger
1 cup (200 g) sugar
1 teaspoon nutmeg
1 cup (120 g) buckwheat flour

PREHEAT oven to 375F (190(, or gas mark 5). LINE cookie sheet with brown
paper or parchment paper. BEAT together butter, sugar, molasses, and eggs.
ADD vanilla, mix well. SIFT together flours, soda, baking powder, salt, and
spices. ADD to batter, then beat until well mixed. DROP by small amounts onto
paper. FLATTEN dough. Use the back of a WET wooden spoon dipped into
sugar. BAKE until brown.

Yield: 2 dozen cookies

Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 144 calories, 5 g fat, 2.4 g protein,
22.4 g carbohydrate, 1.9 g dietary fiber.

152 Sweet Treats: Exquisite Cookies


Butterscotch Cookies
WET INGREDIENTS: 1/2 cup (50 g) soy flour
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 cup (120 ml) buttermilk 1/4 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 cup (170 g) or less honey 2 teaspoons cinnamon
2 eggs 1 teaspoon cardamom
2 tablespoons (28 g) butte~ melted 1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon ground ginger
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1 cup (6 ounces, or 170 g)
1 cup (140 g) sorghum flour
G F butterscotch bits
1/2 cup (60 g) potato starch

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180(, or gas mark 4). LINE cookie sheets with
parchment paper. MIX wet ingredients together in a large bowl. MIX dry ingre-
dients together in a separate bowl. FOLD dry ingredients, except butterscotch
bits, into wet ingredients; mix well. FOLD in butterscotch bits. BAKE until brown
(15 minutes or longer, as needed).

Yield: 2 dozen cookies

Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 113 calories, 1.9 g fat, 2.7 g protein,
21.3 g carbohydrate, 1 g dietary fiber.

Sugar Cookies
I found this recipe on the U.S. Sugar Company's bag of lOx powdered sugar. I
discovered that these cookies rise and are light, much like those created with
gluten flours.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


1 cup (2 sticks, or 225 g) butter, 2 cups (320 g) rice flour
shortening, or margarine, melted 1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
1 egg 1 teaspoon cream of tartar
4 teaspoons molasses 1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract 1/2 teaspoon salt
2 teaspoons nutmeg
2 cups (200 g) GF confectioners' sugar

153
PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). LINE square insulated pans
with parchment paper. MIX wet ingredients together in a large bowl. MIX dry
ingredients together in a separate bowl. BLEND dry ingredients into wet ingredi-
ents a little at a time until well mixed. DROP dough by spoonfuls onto baking
pans. BAKE at 350F (180C, or gas mark 4) for 10 minutes. They should be
slightly brown around the edges. LET COOKIES COOL on the parchment paper,
then remove them to a flat plate.
If they stick, just peel the paper off, taking care not to break them. You can
sprinkle with cinnamon and sugar or spread a melted chocolate bar over the
top while still warm.

Yield: 3 dozen cookies

Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 116 calories, 5.3 g fat trace protein,
16.2 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Forgotten Cookies
These cookies are "forgotten" in your oven overnight (or for 12 hours). In
other words, they bake very slowly.

WET INGREDIENTS: 1 cup (100 g) plain pecans, toasted


3 egg whites and chopped or ground
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract 1/2 cup (140 g) granulated
or superfine sugar
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1 cup (6 ounces, or 170 g)
Pinch salt
GF chocolate chips

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4}-very important. COVER


cookie sheets with brown paper (paper bag), aluminum foil, or parchment
paper. BEAT the egg whites until quite firm (stiff peaks will form when beater is
lifted). ADD a little salt to the egg whites after mixing so they will hold their
puffy shape. GRADUALLY FOLD all the other ingredients into the egg white
foam using a wooden spoon or plastic spatula. Add new ingredients in from the
side, sort of slipping them in and under and through the egg whites. Gently
blend until everything is mixed together. TURN oven off. DROP cookies onto
prepared cookie sheets. LEAVE cookies in the hot oven overnight (12 hours).
REMOVE cookies from oven. FLI P pan over gently, holding another cookie sheet
beneath it to receive the cookies, paper and all. Peel off the backing sheet from
the cookies. Cookies will harden. STORE cookies in a closed container.

154 Sweet Treats: Exquisite Cookies


Yield: 2 dozen cookies

Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 108 calories, 5.8 g fat, 1.3 g protein,
12.6 g carbohydrate, 1 g dietary fiber.

Note: If cookies seem soggy when you check them in the morning, the oven
wasn't hot enough. You will need to turn your on to 350F (180(, or gas mark
4) for about 10 minutes before taking the cookies out. This will brown the cook-
ies a little and firm them.

Oatmeal Cookies
These are gluten-free ONLY if oats are processed in an uncontaminated
setting (see page 14).
Every American baking book has to have oatmeal cookies. I like to double
this recipe when grandchildren are coming to visit.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


11/2 cups (115 g) uncooked GF oatmeal 2 tablespoons (28 g) unsweetened but-
1/2 teaspoon salt te~ melted
1/2 teaspoon baking powder 2 tablespoons (25 g) sugar
11/2 teaspoons GF oat flour 1/2 cup (125 g) corn syrup
1 egg, well beaten
2 teaspoons vanilla flavoring or extract

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180(, or gas mark 4). LINE cookie sheets with
parchment or waxed paper. MIX dry ingredients in a bowl. (OMBINE the melt-
ed butter, sugar, and corn syrup in a bowl. FOLD in the beaten egg, vanilla,
and dry ingredients. DROP from a spoon onto prepared pans. Leave plenty of
room between cookies because these cookies spread as they cook. BAKE in a
moderate oven (350F, 180(, or gas mark 4) for 20 minutes.

Yield: 3 dozen cookies

Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 34 calories, trace fat, trace protein,
5.8 carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Variation:

Add 1/2 cup (75 g) raisins or 1/2 package (6 ounces, or 170 g) GF chocolate
chips before baking.

155
Pumpkin Spice Cookies
This is a great fall treat.

DRY INGREDIENTS: 1-2 cups (145-290 g) golden raisins or


1 cup (140 g) millet flour currants
1/2 cup (70 g) bean flour 1 cup (100 g) plain walnuts
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour (or pecans), finely chopped
1/2 cup (60 g) buckwheat
WET INGREDIENTS:
(or amaranth) flour
2 tablespoons (30 ml) lemon juice, fresh
2 teaspoons baking powder
or bottled
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1 cup (235 ml) grape juice
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1/2 cup (175 ml) canola oil
2 teaspoons ground cinnamon
1/2 cup (165 g) brown rice syrup
1/2 teaspoon sea salt
1/2 cup (175 g) brown sugar or natural
1/2 teaspoon ground nutmeg
raw sugar
1/2 teaspoon fresh ginger
2 eggs, beaten
2 teaspoons allspice
1 tablespoon (15 ml) vanilla flavoring
2 teaspoons cloves
or extract
2 teaspoons xanthan gum
11/2 cups (340 g) pumpkin, cooked
1 envelope (.25 ounce, or 7 g) gelatin
and pureed (or canned)
1 teaspoon soy lecithin

PREHEAT oven to 400F (200C, or gas mark 6). DO NOT grease cookie
sheets; cover with parchment paper. COMBINE all the dry ingredients in a large
mixing bowl and blend well. COMBINE all the wet ingredients in a separate
large mixing bowl; blend well. STI R the dry ingredients into the wet ingredients
and mix well. ADD more juice if batter is too dry. SPOON the cookie batter
onto the cookie sheets. BAKE at 400F (200C, or gas mark 6) for 12 to 14
minutes.

Yield: 3 dozen cookies

Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 170 calories, 7.4 g fat 2.7 g protein,
23.2 g carbohydrate, 1.6 g dietary fiber.

156 Sweet Treats: Exquisite Cookies


Brownies
Our children love these rich, cakelike brownies. They are much lighter than
the brownies made with wheat flour.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1/4cup (25 g) pure cocoa powder 1/2 cup (112 g) butter
1 cup (200 g) sugar 1/2 cup (120 ml) milk (or less)
1/2 teaspoon salt 4 eggs
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour 1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1/2cup (30 g) potato starch
1 teaspoon xanthan gum
1 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 cup (50 g) plain walnuts, chopped

PREHEAT oven to 350 0 F (180(, or gas mark 4). BUTTER bottom of 9-inch
(22.5-cm) square pan or line with waxed paper and grease, leaving sides
ungreased, which allows batter to climb, MIX butter and cocoa in a bowl over
hot water (double-boiler style). BLEND dry ingredients; ADD to chocolate mix-
ture. BLEND wet ingredients; ADD to chocolate batter. ADD chopped walnuts.
POUR into prepared pan. BAKE in 350 0 F (180(, or gas mark 4) oven for 25
minutes; test with toothpick for desired doneness. (OOL before cutting.

Yield: 10 to 12 brownies

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 brownies, each has 245 calories,


13 g fat, 3.6 g protein, 28.4 g carbohydrate, 1. 1 g dietary fiber.

Note: If you line pan with waxed paper, invert on cake rack when moderately
cooled. When cooled, peel off waxed paper, transfer to serving dish, and cut to
desired-size pieces.

157
Hazeln ut Brow-nies
I make these brownies when I need healthy cheering, especially on a gray
day. They are richer and heavier than the previous recipe. They might sink a
bit after they come out of the oven.

WET INGREDIENTS: 11/2 cups (180 g) hazelnut meal


1 cup (2 sticks, or 225 g) unsalted 1 tablespoon xanthan gum
butter 1 teaspoon baking powder
3 eggs 1 teaspoon cream of tartar
2 teaspoons vanilla flavoring or extract Pinch salt
1/2 cup (90 g) plain hazelnuts
DRY INGREDIENTS:
(or walnuts), chopped
1/3 cup (70 g) granulated sugar
1/3 cup (75 g) brown sugar
8 ounces (225 g) GF bittersweet
chocolate, melted and cooled

PREHEAT oven 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE 9-inch (22.5-cm)
square cake pan and line with parchment paper; grease paper. CREAM togeth-
er butter and sugars. ADD eggs, vanilla, and chocolate to butter mixture.
BLEND flour, xanthan gum, baking powder, cream of tartar, and salt. GRADU-
ALLY add flour mixture to butter mixture. ADD nuts. POUR into prepared pan.
BAKE for 20 minutes or until toothpick tester comes out clean. COOL before
cutting.

Yield: 16 to 20 brownies

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 20 brownies, each has 272 calories, 21.5 g


fat, 3.4 g protein, 16 g carbohydrate, 2.3 g dietary fiber.

158 Sweet Treats: Exquisite Cookies


Carob Brow-nies
Be sure to use roasted pure carob powder and lots of vanilla in this recipe.
Carob is a chocolate substitute.

WET INGREDIENTS: 1/2 cup (120 g) rice flour


1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder
1 cup (340 g) honey 1 teaspoon xanthan gum
2 eggs 1/2 teaspoon salt
3 teaspoons vanilla flavoring or extract 1/2 cup (60 g) plain walnuts, chopped

DRY INGREDIENTS:
5 tablespoons (30 g) roasted
GF carob powder

0
PREHEAT oven to 350F (180 (, or gas mark 4). GREASE an 8-inch (20-cm)
square tin. H EAT the butter in a saucepan just till melted. Remove from heat.
MIX together the carob powder and the melted butter in the saucepan. BEAT
honey and eggs together. ADD vanilla and the carob/butter mixture (from the
saucepan) to honey-egg mixture. ADD the rice flou~ baking powder, xanthan
gum, salt, and chopped walnuts. POUR mixture into greased 8-inch (20-cm)
tin. BAKE for 25 minutes.

Yield: 16 to 20 squares

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 20 brownies, each has 151 calories, 5.4 g


fat, 2.2 g protein, 23.5 g carbohydrate, 1.2 g dietary fiber.

159
Baked Fudge
Adapted from Barbara Haber's book, From Hardtack to Home Fries.
WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:
4 eggs 2 cups (400 g) sugar
1 cup (2 sticks/ or 225 g) butter/ melted 4 heaping tablespoons (30 g) pure
2 teaspoons vanilla flavoring or extract cocoa powder
Plain whipping cream/ 3 tablespoons (30 g) rice flour
whipped for serving 1 cup (100 g) plain pecans/ chopped
into large pieces

PREHEAT oven to 325F (170(/ or gas mark 3). BEAT eggs well in bowl. ADD
the sugar and butter and beat well again. SI FT cocoa and flour together in sep-
arate bowl. ADD broken pecan pieces. FOLD cocoa mixture into butter mixture.
ADD vanilla. POUR into 9 x 12 x 3-inch (22.5 x 30 cm x 7.5-cm) Pyrex dish or
baking tin. SET baking dish in a pan of hot water (enough to come 1/2-1 inch
[1.25-2.5 cm] up on the sides of pan). BAKE for 45 minutes to 1 hour. Fudge
will have consistency of firm custard/ crusty on top. SERVE with whipped cream.

Yield: 9 to 12 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 servings/ each has 383 calories/ 24 g fat


3.5 g protein/ 38.4 g carbohydrate/ 1.4 g dietary fiber.

Chocolate Coconut Macaroons


Try this recipe with children. It's so easy to make and delicious.
WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (205 g) sweetened l-ounce (28-g) square GF baking
condensed milk chocolate
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract 1 1/2 cups (110 g) shredded sweetened
coconut

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180(/ or gas mark 4). SPRAY cookie sheets with
nonstick cooking spray. MELT chocolate in top of double boiler. ADD condensed
milk/ coconut/ and vanilla. DROP on greased cookie sheet. BAKE at 350F
(180(/ or gas mark 4) for 15 to 20 minutes.

Yield: 1 to 2 dozen/ depending on size

160 Sweet Treats: Exquisite Cookies


Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 2 dozen macaroons, each has 54 calories,
3.1 g fat, 1 g protein, 5.7 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Coconut Macaroons
Macaroons are classics for wheat- and gluten-free baking. There are many
recipes for them, but this is our favorite.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


1/2 cup sweetened (205 g) 3 cups (210 g) shredded coconut
condensed milk 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract 1/4 teaspoon salt
2 egg whites

PREHEAT oven to 250F (120C, or gas mark 1/2). LINE cookie sheets with
brown paper bags cut in half. MIX together coconut, condensed milk, and
vanilla. PLACE egg whites in a bowl, add cream of tartar and salt, and beat on
medium speed until foamy and stiff, about 1 minute. Fold egg whites into
coconut mixture. DROP teaspoons of batter on paper bag-lined cookie sheets.
SHOVE quickly into oven, where they will harden slowly as they bake. BAKE in
250F (120C, or gas mark 1/2) oven overnight.

Yield: 2 dozen cookies

Nutritional Analysis: Each has 54 calories, 3.1 g fat, 1 g protein, 5.7 g


carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Variations: Substitute almond flavoring or extract for vanilla.

Note: To ensure that your egg whites will stiffen up well, before beating, wet a
paper towel with plain vinegar and wipe your bowl and the beaters of your elec-
tric mixer to remove any trace of fat.

161
Chewy Almond Macaroons
The secret of these tasty macaroons is the use of almond paste (not to be
confused with marzipan). The oils released from the almond paste make the
macaroons moist.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


8 ounces (225 g) good-quality almond 1/2 teaspoon almond extract
paste, at room temperature
1/2 cup (50 g) sifted GF confectioners'
sugar
2 large egg whites, at room temperature

PREHEAT oven to 325F (170(, or gas mark 3). LINE 2 heavy baking sheets
with parchment paper. MASH almond paste using a potato masher or your fin-
gers until almond paste is malleable (this may take a while). MIX the almond
paste and confectioners' sugar by hand until smooth. LIGHTLY BEAT egg
whites ADD egg whites to the almond mixture, add the almond flavoring, and
continue to beat until the batter seems light. BAKE about 15 minutes or until
tips and bottoms are golden. Let coolon racks.

Yield: 2 dozen cookies

Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 56 calories, 2.6 g fat, 1.2 g protein,
7 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber. With suggested variation, each has 91
calories, 5.1 g fat, 1.4 g protein, 9.5 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Variation: Melt 4 ounces (115 g) GF semisweet or GF bittersweet chocolate


with 2 tablespoons (28 g) butter in the microwave on medium for 11/2 minutes,
stirring every 30 seconds. Stir to melt completely. (You can also stir in
2 teaspoons of coffee-flavored or other liqueur, if desired.)

Dip tips of macaroons in chocolate, up to the flat bottom.

162 Sweet Treats: Exquisite Cookies


Quinoa Applesauce Cookies
There is something about applesauce combined with one of these nutritious
textured flours that makes us feel homey and cozy.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1/2 cup (50 g) plain pecans, ground 1/2 cup (112 g) unsalted butter
1 cup (150 g) currants or dried apples 1/2 cup (120 ml) maple syrup
1 1/2 cups (180 g) quinoa flour, divided 1 large egg, beaten
1/2 teaspoon baking soda 2 cups (490 g) applesauce
1/2 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon ground cloves
1 teaspoon xanthan gum

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). LINE cookie sheets with
parchment paper. COMBINE ground nuts with dried fruit. SPRINKLE 1/4 cup (30
g) quinoa flour over fruit and nuts; toss until they are coated.Set aside. BLEN D
remaining dry ingredients. MIX butter, maple syrup, beaten egg, and apple-
sauce in a separate bowl. COMBINE wet ingredients with dry. Stir well. FOLD in
nut mixture lightly. SPOON the batter onto cookie sheets. BAKE for 20 minutes.

Yield: 2 dozen cookies

Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 118 calories, 6.3 g fat, 1.6 g protein,
13.7 g carbohydrate, 1.3 g dietary fiber.

Variation: Substitute plain macadamia nuts for pecans.

163
Banana Almond Tarts
These tarts are out of this world. This batter will need to set overnight to
minimize spreading.

BATTER: TOPPING:
1 cup (2 sticks, or 225 g) butter 1/2cup (50 g) sugar
1/2 cup (90 g) almond flour 4 bananas, sliced (or any available fruit)
1 cup (200 g) sugar 1 tablespoon (14 g) butte~ melted
1 tablespoon vanilla flavoring or extract 1 bar (4 ounces, or 115 g) GF dark
8 egg whites chocolate, shaved or chopped
into small pieces

MAKE BATTER (DAY ONE):

MELT the butter in a pan and cook until it is brown but not burning. MIX the
almond flour, sugar, and vanilla. BEAT the egg whites. ADD the beaten egg
whites to the almond flour mixture. LEAVE this mixture in the refrigerator
overnight.

MAKE TOPPING (DAY TWO):

PREHEAT oven to 450F (230C, or gas mark 8). LINE cookie sheets with
parchment paper. CARAMELIZE the sugar: dissolve 1/2 cup (50 g) sugar in a
pan over low heat with a little water. COOK bananas (or other fruit) in melted,
caramelized sugar for a few seconds. ADD melted butter. Let cool. SPOON
small spoonfuls of batter onto parchment-lined cookie sheets. SPOON cooked
banana mixture over batter. Sprinkle chocolate on top. BAKE in a 450F
(230C, or gas mark 8) oven for 15 minutes.

Yield: 2 to 3 dozen cookies

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 3 dozen tarts, each has 134 calories,


4.1 g fat, 1.8 g protein, 14.3 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Note: Almond flour has a high protein content. It is available at most health
food markets. But if you cannot find it make your own. Grind plain nuts (plain
almonds, pistachios, or hazelnuts) in a coffee grinder or spice mill to make the
flour.

164 Sweet Treats: Exquisite Cookies


Corn Biscotti
The Italian word biscotti means "twice cooked." True biscotti has no butter,
so you can also make these butter-free for vegans. This is a fabulous biscotti.
The almonds and cinnamon make it more interesting than any store-bought
biscotti I have tried. It is so easy to make, but watch the biscotti as it bakes,
so it doesn't get burnt or dried out.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1 cup (100 g) plain almonds, ground 1 egg
(use coffee grinder) 1/2 cup (140 g) sugar
1 cup (125 g) plain slivered 1/2 cup (85 g) honey
or chopped almonds (or other nuts) 2 tablespoons (28 g) butte~ melted
1 cup (140 g) yellow cornmeal 1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1 cup (130 g) cornstarch
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon

PREHEAT oven to 325F (170C, or gas mark 3). Place oven rack in middle of
oven. GREASE a cookie sheet with short sides. LINE the bottom and sides with
parchment paper or foil. SPRAY with oil or butter parchment or foil liner. PUT
ground almonds in a mixing bowl. ADD remaining almonds (chopped or sliv-
ered). ADD the cornmeal, cornstarch, baking soda, and cinnamon. STIR well.
BEAT the egg in a separate bowl. ADD the sugar, honey, butter, and vanilla to
the beaten egg. ADD the dry ingredients mixture to egg mixture. STIR and
scrape with a wooden spoon until stiff dough is formed. SPRAY your hands with
oil, then press the dough into a uniform layer in the pan. (Use your palms to
squeeze dough and to repair gaps.) BAKE between 20 and 30 minutes, until
dough rises but is not brown. CUT into three vertical strips; then cut strips into
l/2-inch (1 .25-cm) strips horizontally. BAKE strips for a few more minutes-
WATCH biscotti carefully or it can get too dark. REMOVE from oven when
slightly brown.

Yield: 3 dozen cookies

Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 108 calories,S g fat, 2.1 g protein,
13.3 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Variation: Dip hot biscotti into melted GF milk chocolate for an outrageous
finish to these cookie treats.

165
Sesame Seed Butter Cookies
These are classy little cookies. Sesame seeds make the difference.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter 1/2 teaspoon baking powder
2 cups (450 g) light brown sugar 1 teaspoon xanthan gum
1 egg, beaten 1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup (105 g) sorghum flour, sifted 1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1/2 cup (30 g) potato starch 1/2 cup (90 g) sesame seeds, toasted
1 tablespoon tapioca flour 1/2 cup (30 g) plain sesame seeds
for topping

PREHEAT oven to 325F (170C, or gas mark 3). GREASE a cookie sheet; cover
with parchment paper. CREAM butter and sugar well in a large bowl. ADD the
beaten egg. SIFT together the presifted flours, baking powder, xanthan gum,
and salt. ADD dry ingredients to butter-sugar-egg mixture. BLEND the vanilla
and toasted sesame seeds into batter until well mixed. DROP by teaspoon, or
less, on parchment-covered cookie sheet. SPRINKLE tops of unbaked cookies
with plain sesame seeds. BAKE for 8 to 10 minutes or until light brown. Wafers
cook quickly, so check often. ALLOW to cool 1 minute before removing from
pan.

Yield: About 100

Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 45 calories, 2.2 g fat, trace protein,
5.9 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

166 Sweet Treats: Exquisite Cookies


Thimble Cookies
What fun to make cookie thimbles! They can be filled with jelly or chocolate.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


3/4 cup (1 1/2 sticks, or 170 g) butter, 1/2 cup (115 g) brown sugar
softened 1 cup (160 g) rice flour
2 eggs, slightly beaten 1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
2 teaspoons vanilla flavoring or extract 1/2 cup (60 g) almond flour
Jelly/jam of your choice
(apple, raspberry, strawberry)

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). LINE cookie sheet with parch-
ment paper. CREAM butter in a ceramic or plastic bowl. ADD brown sugar to
creamed butter. CREAM this mixture into a soft mass using a wooden spoon
against the side of the bowl. ADD slightly beaten eggs and vanilla. CUT in
flours using two knives or pastry cutter. MAKE a lovely ball of the dough. ROLL
dough out on a flat surface. CUT circles in dough with the top of a glass (flour
the edge of the rim). FORM depressions in each circle with a floured thimble.
Fold dough around thimble and squeeze together. Pull thimble out. Put formed
dough cups on parchment-covered cookie sheet. BAKE for 15 to 20 minutes.
FI LL depressions with jelly after the cookies cool.

Yield: 3 dozen cookies

Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 111 calories, 5.7 g fat, 1.3 g protein,
13.4 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Variation: Replace the almond flour with whatever you have on hand-
sorghum flou~ hazelnut flour, or potato starch.

167
Chocolate Almond Crescents
Festive Christmas cookies. These are fun to decorate with sparkles
or chocolate.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


1 cup (230 g) almond paste or maca- 3/4 cup (150 g) granulated or superfine
roon paste, at room temperature sugar, divided
4 tablespoons (55 g) cold butter, divided 1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour

1 large egg yolk or potato sta rch


2 large egg whites 2 cups (250 g) plain slivered almonds
4 ounces (1 15 g) GF semisweet
chocolate

PREHEAT oven 325F (170C, or gas mark 3). GREASE cookie pan(s) well;
cover with parchment paper. BEAT almond paste and 1/2 cup (100 g) sugar
together until mixture forms fine crumbs. PLACE 3 tablespoons butter (42 g) in
a mixing bowl. Melt the remaining 1 tablespoon (14 g) and pour it into the
bowl with the cool butter. Cream the butters together. ADD 1/4 cup (50 g) sugar
to the butter gradually, while beating, until butter and sugar are well blended.
ADD egg yolk and the egg whites to butter mixture. Mix on medium speed until
smooth, about 1 minute. ADD flour or starch gradually, while beating, and then
the almond paste mixture. PLACE the almonds in a small, flat low-sided pan.
FORM 2-inch (5-cm) rounds of dough with your hands until all the dough is
used up. ROLL the dough rounds in the slivered almonds to coat. SHAPE each
almond-coated round into the shape of a crescent. CHILL the crescents for 1/2
hour before baking (helps them hold their shape). LAY each crescent on the
prepared cookie sheet. BAKE for 20 to 25 minutes.
WHEN COOKIES ARE COOL:

MELT chocolate over very low heat. DIP tip of each cookie in chocolate.
LAY on waxed paper-lined cookie sheet. CHILL before serving.

Yield: 2 dozen crescents

Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 128 calories, 6.2 g fat, 1.5 g protein,
16.6 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Note: The special cool-butter creaming technique in this recipe is a bit compli-
cated but worth the effort. It helps preserve the integrity of the butter.

168 Sweet Treats: Exquisite Cookies


Chocolate Muddy Buddies
Easy, fun-to-make treats for hot summer days. There is no baking involved
with these cookies.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


1/2 cup (130 g) peanut butter 1 cup (6 ounces, or 170 g) GF semi-
1/2 cup (55 g) butter sweet chocolate chips
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract 9 cups (125 g) GF puffed rice cereal
1 cup (100 g) GF confectioners' sugar

MELT chocolate chips, peanut butte~ and butter on stove over low heat; stir
until smooth. ADD vanilla to chocolate mixture. POUR melted chocolate mix-
ture over cereal and stir to coat well. PUT the powdered sugar into a brown
paper bag. POUR chocolate-coated cereal into the bag containing the pow-
dered sugar. Shake the bag to coat the cereal. SPREAD mixture out on waxed
paper to cool.

Yield: 4 dozen cookies

Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 70 calories, 3.6 g fat, 1.1 g protein,
8.4 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Maple-Almond Butter Cookies


A New England treat! Use real maple syrup for these cookies.
WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter 1/2 cup (90 g) hazelnut flour
1/2 cup (130 g) almond butter 1/2 cup (70 g) garbanzo and/or fava
1/2 cup (175 ml) maple syrup bean flour
2 1/2 teaspoons rum 1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1 egg 1/2 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon almond flavoring or extract 1/2teaspoon cream of tartar
1 teaspoon xanthan gum

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180(, or gas mark 4). LINE cookie sheets with
parchment paper. MIX butter, almond butter, maple syrup, and rum. ADD egg
and almond extract to butter mixture. MIX flours, baking soda, salt, cream of
tartar, and xanthan gum in another bowl. ADD butter mixture and blend well.

169
ROLL dough into l-inch (2.5-cm) balls. PLACE balls about 2 inches (5 cm)
apart on parchment-covered cookie sheets. PRESS ball with fork to make criss-
cross pattern. BAKE at 350F (180C, or gas mark 4) for 15 minutes, until
slightly browned. REMOVE cookies from pan and COOL.

Yield: 3 dozen cookies

Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 65 calories, 4.8 g fat, trace protein,
5.1 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Almond Butter Balls


Children enjoy making these little balls. Almond butter is a new discovery
for us. It is high in protein, with huge amounts of vitamins, particularly the
energy-producing B-complexes. If you cannot find almond butter, substitute a
natural peanut butter instead.

WET INGREDIENTS: or garbanzo and/or fava bean flour


1 cup (260 g) almond butter 1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
1/2-3/4 cup (170-255 g) honey 1/4 cup (35 g) cornmeal
1/2 cup (60 ml) almond oil 1 cup (120 g) arrowroot flour
(or other nut-derived oil) 1 teaspoon xanthan gum
1 egg 1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1 teaspoon hazelnut flavoring or extract 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1/2 cup (50 g) nuts, roughly chopped,
DRY INGREDIENTS:
or coconut
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup (40 g) rice flour, hazelnut flour,

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE cookie sheet and
cover with parchment paper. COMBINE almond butter, honey, and oil; BLEND
until smooth, about 2 minutes on low speed. ADD egg, flavoring, and salt.
BLEN D rice flour, tapioca flour, cornmeal, arrowroot flour, xanthan gum, baking
soda, and cream of tartar in a separate bowl; whisk until combined. ADD flour
mixture to the almond butter mixture. FORM dough into large balls; PLACE on
cookie sheet, leaving ample space between them. FLATTEN balls with fork to
l/2-inch (1 .25-cm) thickness. SPRI N KLE cookies with nuts or coconut. Press nuts
in with back of a spoon. BAKE at 350F (180C, or gas mark 4) for about 10
minutes.

Yield: 2 dozen cookies

170 Sweet Treats: Exquisite Cookies


Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 181 calories, 10.4 g fat, 2.4 g protein,
19.9 g carbohydrate, 1 g dietary fiber.

Note: Be sure to stir your almond or peanut butter well before measuring, as
the oil has a tendency to separate out.

Oatmeal Bumps
These cookies are gluten-free ONLY if oats were processed in an uncontami-
nated setting (see page 14).
Another quick-to-make recipe that children love to help with!

WET INGREDIENTS: 1/2 cup (40 g) soya granules


1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter, softened 1/2 cup (35 g) garbanzo and/or fava
2 tablespoons (28 ml) heavy cream bean flour
1 teaspoon xanthan gum
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (25 g) plain walnuts,
1/2 cup (100 g) superfine
chopped fine
or granulated sugar
1/2 cup (1 15 g) sunflower seeds
1/2 cup (70 g) sorghum flour
1/2 cup (90 g) cooked GF oatmeal

PREHEAT oven to 375F (190C, or gas mark 5). GREASE cookie sheets and
cover with parchment paper. CREAM butter in a large bowl. Add sugar in a
steady stream, beating until the mixture is light and fluffy. Gradually add cream
to butter-and-sugar mixture while beating. COMBINE sorghum, oatmeal, soya
granules, bean flour, and xanthan gum in bowl; whisk until blended. ADD flour
mixture to the butter-and-sugar mixture. ADD nuts and sunflower seeds. FORM
small balls of dough. (Children really enjoy this. Grease their hands and let
them roll the balls of dough.) PLACE on cookie sheet-do not flatten. BAKE at
375F (190C, or gas mark 5) for 8 to 10 minutes.

Yield: 1 dozen or more, depending on size

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming a dozen cookies, each has 203 calories,


12.4 g fat, 4.7 g protein, 18.3 g carbohydrate, 2.6 g dietary fiber.

Variation: Substitute quinoa flakes for oatmeal.

Note: Use coffee grinder to finely chop the nuts.

171
French Lace Cookies
This is our daughter Susanna's favorite cookie. She has made these lace cook-
ies since she was a little girl. I substituted our gluten-free light flours for the
cake flour originally called for. You might experiment with other flours
(hazelnut or almond meal) to yield a more textured cookie.

WET INGREDIENTS: 1/2 cup (60 g) arrowroot


1/2 cup (1 12 g) unsalted butter 1/2 teaspoon xanthan gum
1/2 cup (165 g) corn syrup 1 teaspoon grated fresh ginger or
2 teaspoons ground ginger (optional)
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1 cup (100 g) plain nuts, finely chopped
1/2 cup (150 g) brown sugar
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour

PREHEAT oven to 375F (190C, or gas mark 5). LINE thick aluminum cookie
sheet with parchment paper because you want these cookies to spread very
thin. GREASE parchment paper. COMBINE brown sugar, butter, and corn syrup
in a pan; bring to a boil on top of stove. BLEND tapioca flour, arrowroot, and
xanthan gum in a bowl. ADD the tapioca mixture to the sugar-and-butter mix-
ture; blend well. ADD ginger and nuts. DROP dough by the 1/2 teaspoonful 2
inches (5 cm) apart on cookie sheet to allow space for the cookies to spread.
BAKE for 5 to 6 minutes. COOL: Let cookies harden on parchment paper-
covered cookie sheets. Turn cookie-laden parchment paper over onto cookie
plate. Peel paper from cookies and arrange on plate.

Yield: 1 dozen or more, depending on cookie size

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming a dozen cookies, each has 257 calories,


14.4 g fat, 1.1 g protein, 30.8 g carbohydrate, 1 g dietary fiber.

172 Sweet Treats: Exquisite Cookies


Marshmallow Fluff Squares
Nina, our wonderful eldest daughter, enjoyed creating these easy-to-make
treats for Christmas and birthdays for her father in the days before we discov-
ered alternative flours.

1 package (6 ounces, or 170 g) GF 3 cups (40 g) GF puffed rice cereal


butterscotch or GF chocolate chips
1/2 cup (1 .5 ounces, or 45 g) GF
marshmallow fluff

GREASE a 9 x 13-inch (22.5 x 32.5-cm) baking pan and line with waxed paper.
MELT chips and marshmallow fluff over hot water in double boiler. REMOVE
from heat, ADD cereal, and COMBINE. PLACE cereal mixture in prepared bak-
ing pan. Use greased hands to pat mixture into pan. REFRIGERATE until firm
(at least 2 hours); then cut into squares.

Yield: 2 dozen squares

Nutritional Analysis: Each square has 34 calories, trace fat, trace protein,
7.7 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Granola Bars
These are gluten-free (GF) ONLY if oats are processed in an uncontaminated
setting (see page 14).

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


1/2 cup (112 g) butter 2 cups (150 g) GF oats
1/2 cup (170 g) honey 1/2 cup (50 g) flaxseed meal
2 eggs, slightly beaten 1 cup (70 g) shredded unsweetened
3 tablespoons (42 ml) GF vanilla-fla- coconut
vored soy milk 1/2 cup (75 g) raisins
1/2 cup (120 ml) grapefruit juice 1/2 cup (75 g) GF dates, chopped
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract 1/2 cup (50 g) plain walnuts
(chop if desired)

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE 9 x 13-inch (22.5 x
32.5-cm) pan. CREAM butter and honey together. BEAT eggs and soy milk
together. COMBINE all ingredients; STIR. PAT into greased pan. BAKE at 350F
(180C, or gas mark 4) for 15 to 20 minutes. COOL and cut into bars.

173
Yield: 3 dozen or more bars, depending on size

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 3 dozen bars, each has 121 calories,


5.8 g fat, 2.7 g protein, 14.7 g carbohydrate, 2 g dietary fiber.

Quinoa Peanut Butter Cookies


Adapted from www.bobsredmill.com; contributed by Michelle Poirot.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


2 cups (290 g) plain roasted, 2 large eggs
unsalted peanuts 1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1 tablespoon (14 g) unsalted butter,
softened
1 cup (200 g) sugar
1 cup (120 g) quinoa flour
1/2 teaspoon sea salt

PREHEAT oven at 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). COVER 2 baking sheets with
parchment paper; set aside. PROCESS the peanuts in a food processor until
they turn into peanut butter. ADD the butte~ sugar, eggs, and vanilla to the
peanuts and process to blend. COMBINE the quinoa flour and salt in a mixing
bowl. ADD the peanut butter mixture to the flour mixture, stir, then knead lightly
with hands. SHAPE into twenty-four 1/2-inch (1 .25-cm) balls and lay on pre-
pared baking sheets. FLATTEN each ball into a 2 1/2-inch (6.25-cm) cookie with
a moistened fork. BAKE 15 minutes.

Yield: 24 cookies

Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 141 calories, 7.3 g fat, 4.1 g protein,
14.8 g carbohydrate, 1.3 g dietary fiber.

Variation: Substitute 2 cups (520 g) GF chunky peanut butter for unsalted


peanuts. Check to be sure there is no gluten in the peanut butter.

174 Sweet Treats: Exquisite Cookies


Sorghum Spice Cookies
Adapted from www.bobsredmill.com;contributedbyCarolFenster.Ph.D.
We changed this recipe to include more alternative flours: sorghum because it
is sweet and a bit nutty, hazelnut because it has texture that matches the
spice we added. Play with this recipe to suit your preferences.

WET INGREDIENTS: 1/2cup (30 g) hazelnut flour


1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter, softened 1 teaspoon xanthan gum
1/2cup (85 g) unsulfured molasses 1/2 teaspoon sea salt
1 teaspoon hazelnut flavoring or extract 1 teaspoon baking soda
1 teaspoon lemon juice 1 1/2 teaspoons ground gingerroot
2 tablespoons (30 ml) water (if needed) 1 1/2 teaspoons ground cinnamon
1/2 teaspoon ground nutmeg
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 teaspoon ground cloves
1/2 cup (115 g) brown sugar, packed
3-4 tablespoons (40-50 g) sugar
1/2 cup (105 g) sorghum flour
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour

PREHEAT oven to 325F (170C, or gas mark 3). GREASE a large cookie sheet
and line with parchment paper. BLEND butter, molasses, brown sugar, and hazel-
nut flavoring in food processor until smooth, ADD flours, xanthan gum, salt,
baking soda, and spices and blend until thoroughly mixed and dough forms ball.
ADD lemon juice and water, 1 tablespoon (15 ml) at a time. (Less is better than
more.) Dough will be stiff. SHAPE into flat disk, cover tightly, and refrigerate for 2
hours. DUST hands with rice flour and shape dough into sixteen l-inch (2.5-cm)
balls; roll dough balls in sugar. Alternatively, rollout dough to a thickness of 1/2
inch (1.25 cm). CUT with cookie cutters. Refrigerate cutouts for 1 hour prior to
baking, to help cookies retain their shape. PLACE 2 inches (5 cm) apart on
cookie sheet. BAKE 10 to 12 minutes or until cookies start to crack. REMOVE
from oven; cool 2 minutes before transferring to rack to cool. STORE in airtight
container.

Yield: 16 cookies

Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 143 calories, 5.1 g fat, 1.1 g protein,
23.2 g carbohydrate, 1.1 g dietary fiber.

175
Cream Cheese Balls
What we like about this snack is that it is not too gooey or sweet. These are a
wonderful and sophisticated finish to a good meal.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1/2cup (135 g) GF chopped dates 1 pound (455 g) GF cream cheese, at
1 teaspoon brown rice flour room temperature
1/2 cup (60 g) grated carrot
2 tablespoons lemon rind, grated
2 tablespoons (20 g) GF chopped dried
mango slices
1/2 teaspoon allspice
1/2 cup (110 g) plain almonds, finely
chopped

SPRINKLE dates with brown rice flour; toss to coat. BLEND dates, carrot, lemon
zest, mango, and allspice with the softened cream cheese. SHAPE mixture into
1-inch (2.5-cm) balls. ROLL the balls in chopped almonds.

Yield: 2 dozen

Each cheese ball has 115 calories, 9 9 fat, 2.5 9 protein, 6.1 9 carbohydrate,
trace dietary fiber.

Note: Check the label on the dates-is wheat flour used to keep them from
clumping? Be sure your dates are gluten-free!

176 Sweet Treats: Exquisite Cookies


Monster Cookies
This recipe appears courtesy of Elaine Gottshall, from her book Breaking the
Vicious Cycle.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


1/2 cup (170 g) honey 5 cups (600 g) almond meal
2 eggs, beaten 1 cup (145 g) dark raisins
1/2 cup (1 12 g) melted butter 1 cup walnut pieces
1 cup unsweetened coconut
1 teaspoon baking soda
1/8 teaspoon salt

PREHEAT oven to 325F (170C, or gas mark 3). GREASE cookie sheet; line
with parchment paper. COMBINE wet ingredients. BLEND dry ingredients. MIX
wet ingredients into dry ingredients. DROP BATTER by tablespoons onto parch-
ment paper. Press flat with greased fork. BAKE for 15 to 20 minutes.

Yield: 2 dozen cookies

Nutritional Analysis: Each cookie has 365 calories, 27.2 g fat, 11.2 g
protein, 18.9 g carbohydrate, 6.4 g dietary fiber.

Variation: Substitute hazelnut meal for almond meal.

177
WaIn ut Squares
Our friend Rosaleen first made these cookies for Mace. She used finely
ground rice crackers as a sort of flour since she had no gluten-free flour.
Later, we refined her recipe, using potato starch.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1 cup (100 g) plain walnuts 4 eggs
2 tablespoons potato starch 1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
2 1/2 teaspoons GF baking powder
1/2 cup (150 g) sugar

PREHEAT oven to 325F (170C, or gas mark 3). GREASE one 8-inch (20 cm)
square baking pan. PLACE walnuts, potato starch, and baking powder in
blender and blend until finely ground. ADD eggs, sugar, and vanilla and contin-
ue blending until mixture is smooth. POUR into greased pan. BAKE at 325F
(170C, or gas mark 3) for 20 to 25 minutes. REMOVE from pans and bake for
another 20 minutes at 225F (11 OC). WHEN COOL, cut into squares and add
frosting (recipe below).

A QUICK FROSTING

7-8 ounces (200-225 g) GF semisweet 1/2 teaspoon GF vanilla flavoring or


chocolate extract
1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter

MELT chocolate in microwave or double boiler. ADD butter and vanilla. BEAT
until thick. ADD chopped nuts. SPREAD on cake.

Yield: 24 ba rs

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 squares per pan, each has 176 calories,
1 1.9 g fat, 2.3 g protein, 15 g carbohydrate, 1 g dietary fiber.

178 Sweet Treats: Exquisite Cookies


CHAPTER F I V E

Special Pleasures:
Yummy Cakes
Cakes are not easy or speedy to make, but they are worth it. We feel that
making desserts and baking cakes for family and guests require an extra-
generous spirit. We all agree that desserts are impractical and not always
nutritious. But let me tell you, nothing evokes a thank-you like cakes.
Folks become like little kids when given a piece of cake. Rainy days
become bright. For a moment, life is suspended as the fork goes into a
chocolate roll or Devil's food cake, bringing a delicious morsel to the tongue.
Good cakes do not demand wheat flour. You can also substitute gluten-
free flour in any traditional wheat flour recipe, with only minor recipe adjust-
ments. If you choose to substitute gluten-free flour in an existing recipe, you
will need to add an extra egg as well as half as much baking soda or baking
powder called for in a wheat flour-based recipe. You will also need to add a
binder such as xanthan gum or gelatin to replace the gluten binder that is
found in wheat flour. Remember to use lJ2 cup alternative flour in place of
every cup of wheat flour.
The gluten-free baker has many alternative flours to select from. We have
been happy using tapioca flour, potato starch flour (not to be confused with
heavier potato flour), rice flour, bean flour, cornstarch, hazelnut flour,
sorghum flour, and teff flour. All these flours are light and fine.
Heaviness and grittiness of texture can be a problem in baking gluten-free
cakes, but grittiness can be eliminated by combining a variety of different-
textured gluten-free flours. Rice flour is the most common substitute for
wheat flour in cake recipes. If it is used alone in a recipe, however, rice flour
will make for a gritty cake texture. You can eliminate the grittiness by com-
bining the rice flour with other flours. European cake bakers have tradition-
ally used potato starch flour to make cakes because it is so light.
Gluten-free cakes generally fall into three categories: sponge cakes, butter
cakes, and chiffon cakes. Sponge cakes are characterized by a higher propor-
tion of eggs to flour. They are held up, or leavened, by beating air into the

179
eggs. The eggs trap air as they are beaten, creating millions of bubbles that
expand and lift the cake until the heat of the oven sets it. Thus, sponges are
baked at a relatively high temperature. Sometimes, chemical leavening agents
like baking powder and baking soda are added.
Butter cakes are made with shortening or butter, which traps air as it is
creamed together with sugar. Butter cakes typically use baking powder or
baking soda for leavening, along with a binder such as xanthan gum or
gelatin. Chiffon cakes are characterized by a light, delicate texture, and usual-
ly include beaten egg whites. Guar gum and xanthan gum binders (see page
17) take the place of gluten in creating the cake's structural foundation.
Substitute binders are available. If you don't have xanthan gum, you may
substitute 2 teaspoons of unflavored gelatin for every 1 teaspoon of xanthan
gum the recipe calls for. Alternatively, you could add about 2 tablespoons
(28 g) mayonnaise or fold in 1 stiffly beaten egg white.
You can enhance and customize the flavor of a cake by adding orange
juice; cinnamon; raisins; or vanilla, almond, or hazelnut extract. Try using
maple sugar or syrup as a sweetener. Maple sugar, in granulated or powder
form, is made from dried pure maple syrup, a one-step process that preserves
its valuable minerals. (White sugar, on the other hand, goes through fifty-two
processes before it is packaged.)
Families that bake cakes make memories!

Ti ps for Cake-Baking Success


Get air into your batter by whipping, beating, whisking, and folding in
your eggs.
Ingredients should be at room temperature.
Whisk egg yolks with the sugar called for in recipes until they look like a
heavy yellow ribbon. This will help trap more air.

180 Special Pleasures: Yummy Cakes


Apple Kuchen
Our friend Brigitta translated her traditional German party cake for Mace's
last birthday. It is moist, delicate, and mildly sweet.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1 cup (140 g) brown rice flour 1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter, softened
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour 3 egg whites, beaten
1/2 cup (80 g) sweet rice flour 2 large apples, cored
1 teaspoon baking powder 2 cups (460 g) GF sour cream
1/2 teaspoon baking soda 3 egg yolks
1/2teaspoon cream of tartar 3 teaspoons cinnamon
2 teaspoons xanthan gum 1/2 cup (100 g) sugar
1/2 cup (30 g) brown sugar

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE a 9-inch (22.5-cm)
round cake pan or springform pan and sprinkle lightly with rice flour. WHISK
together brown rice flour, tapioca flour, sweet rice flour, baking powder, baking
soda, cream of tartar, and xanthan gum. CREAM butter and brown sugar
together. ADD dry ingredients to the butter mixture gradually, alternating with
the beaten egg whites. Do not overmix. PUT batter in greased pan. SLICE
apples and arrange on top of batter in pan. MIX together sour cream, egg
yolks, cinnamon, and sugar. Spread on top of apples. BAKE at 350F (180C,
or gas mark 4) for 40 minutes. SERVE from pan. Slice wedges and use a spatu-
la to place on party plates. SPRINKLE eack piece with confectionary sugar.

Yield: 12 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 325 calories, 17.6 g fat, 4.4 g
protein, 37.5 g carbohydrate, 2 g dietary fiber.

181
Applesauce Cake
From www.bobsredmill.com. Try substituting flours in this recipe-perhaps
using sorghum with a bit of soy.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1 cup (120 g) buckwheat flour 1 cup (235 ml) canola oil
1 cup (140 g) brown rice flour 1 cup (340 g) honey
1 1/2 teaspoons xanthan gum 2 large eggs
1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder 2 cups (490 g) applesauce
1 teaspoon baking soda 1 cup (100 g) plain pecans, chopped
2 teaspoons cinnamon
1 teaspoon sea salt

PREHEAT oven to 350 F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE a 9-inch (22.5-cm)
round cake pan lightly. WHISK dry ingredients together. ADD oil, honey, and
eggs; stir mixture lightly, just until everything is blended in. MIX in applesauce
and nuts. POUR mixture into baking pan. BAKE at 350F (180C, or gas mark
4) for 35 minutes; test with toothpick for doneness.

Yield: 12 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 460 calories, 26.5 g fat, 4.2 g pro-
tein, 51 .3 g carbohydrate, 3.4 g dietary fiber.

Christmas Angel Cake


DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
1 1/2 cups (215 g) almonds 7 egg whites
1 1/2 cups (150 g) GF confectioners' 1 teaspoon almond flavoring or extract
sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar

PREPARE: Have all ingredients (especially the egg whites) at room temperature,
about 70F (21C). (Eggs must be warm to hold their volume when beaten.)
PREHEAT oven to 375F (190C, or gas mark 5). PREPARE a 9-inch (22.5-cm)
tube pan, being sure every vestige of grease has been scrubbed from it. (You
might wipe pan with a paper towel dampened with vinegar, then rinse with
water and dry well.) BLANCH the almonds. To blanch almonds, pour boiling
water over shelled almonds. Let stand for 5 minutes. Drain, and pour cold water

182 Special Pleasures: Yummy Cakes


over almonds. Slip off almond skins. If blanching almonds in advance, cover
and store in your refrigerator. CHOP warm, moist blanched almonds-use a
coffee grinder, vegetable chopper, or sharp knife. SIFT confectioners' sugar.
BEAT egg whites until stiff. FOLD the sugar, cream of tartar, almond and vanilla
flavoring, and almonds into the beaten egg whites. POUR batter into tube pan.
BAKE at 350F (180C, or gas mark 4) about 45 minutes or until toothpick
comes out clean. REMOVE pan from oven. Reverse the pan and let cake cool
for about 1 1/2 hours. WH EN COOL, gently run a knife around the edge of the
pan, releasing cake. Place a plate on top of cake pan. Invert; cake will fall onto
waiting plate.

Yield: 14 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 158 calories, 8.2 g fat, 5.2 g protein,
15.8 g carbohydrate, 1 g dietary fiber.

Upside-Down Cake
Kids love the notion that a cake is best eaten upside down!

WET INGREDIENTS: 2 tablespoons (28 g) butter


4 tablespoons (56 g) butter 2 teaspoons vanilla flavoring or extract
1 can (8 ounces, or 225 g) crushed
DRY INGREDIENTS:
pineapple or fresh fruit of choice
3 tablespoons (45 g) light brown sugar
2 tablespoons (40 g) light corn syrup
1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder
2 egg whites
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
1 egg
1/2 cup (65 g) cornstarch
1/2 cup (120 ml) plus 1 tablespoon
1/2 cup (150 g) superfine sugar
(15 ml) whole milk

SPRAY a 9-inch (22.5-cm) round or square baking pan with nonstick spray and
lightly dust with cornstarch. PLACE 2 tablespoons (28 g) butter in the pan; then
place pan in a cold oven. PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4).
HEAT pan in oven for 5 minutes, then remove from oven. DRAIN juice from
pineapple or other fruit of choice and set aside. BLEND brown sugar and corn
syrup. Spread evenly over bottom of warm pan. SPREAD pineapple (or other
fruit) on top of the brown sugar mixture. SIFT together baking powder, flour,
and cornstarch into a small bowl. BEAT the 2 egg whites and the 1 whole egg
together at high speed for 4 minutes or until mixture is light and fluffy. ADD
sugar gradually to the beaten eggs. BEA~ at low speed, flour mixture and

183
sugar-egg mixture until just combined. HEAT milk and remaining 2 tablespoons
(28 g) butter in small saucepan on low heat (or in microwave, until melted). Do
not boil. ADD warm milk with melted butter to batter. ADD vanilla. BEAT until
combined. POUR batter over drained pineapple (or fruit of choice) in pan.
BAKE at 350F (180C, or gas mark 4) for 30 minutes or until a toothpick
inserted in center comes out clean. COOL on wire rack 5 minutes, then invert
cake onto serving platter.

Yield: 12 slices

Nutritional Analysis: Each slice has 185 calories, 5 g fat, 2 g protein,


32.9 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Trampoline Cake
We make this sponge cake for parties and are pleased with how it rises and
how the children enjoy it.
WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:
7 medium eggs, separated, at room 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
temperature (70F [21C]) 1 1/2 cups (300 g) sugar
1/2 cup (120 ml) orange juice 1/2 cup (60 g) rice flour
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract 1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
1 teaspoon baking powder
1 teaspoon xanthan gum
1 1/2 teaspoons salt

DO NOT PREHEAT OVEN. GREASE a 9-inch (22.5-cm) tube pan or an 11 x 7-


inch (27.5 x 17.5-cm) cake pan; sprinkle with rice flour. BEAT egg whites until
foamy but not overly stiff. ADD cream of tarter to beaten whites. BEAT egg
yolks in separate bowl. Whisk yolks and sugar together until they form a "rib-
bon" as the mixture flows off the whisk. WHISK orange juice and vanilla gradu-
ally into beaten yolks. ADD flours, baking powder, xanthan gum, and salt to
yolk mixture. Blend. FOLD beaten egg whites into yolks. BAKE: Turn on oven.
Set temperature to 325F (170C, or gas mark 3). BAKE for 30 minutes. RESET
oven temperature to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). Bake for 30 minutes longer.

Yield: 12 to 18 slices

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 18 slices, each has 126 calories, 1.7 g fat,
2.4 g protein, 25.2 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

184 Special Pleasures: Yummy Cakes


Basic White Cake
This is a great cake for birthday parties.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


6 eggs, separated 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
2 teaspoons lemon juice 1/2 cup (140 g) sugar
Jelly, marmalade, or marshmallow 1/2 cup (120 g) potato starch
,
creme 1/2 cup (40 g) rice flour
Berries of your choice 1/2 teaspoon xanthan gum
1/2 teaspoon baking powder
Your favorite frosting or GF
confectioners' sugar as topping
(optional)

PREHEAT oven to 300F (150(, or gas mark 2). GREASE two 8-inch (20-cm)
cake pans or springform pans, then shake rice flour into the pans just to coat
them. BEAT egg whites until stiff; add cream of tartar. ADD sugar, slowly, to
beaten egg whites till blended. BEAT egg yolks for 5 minutes in a separate
bowl. ADD beaten egg yolks to egg white mixture. Beat together for 2 minutes.
SIFT potato starch, flour, xanthan gum, and baking powder together. ADD egg
mixture to sifted ingredients. ADD lemon juice to batter. Blend well. POUR bat-
ter into prepared cake pans. BAKE for 20 minutes or until toothpick inserted
into center of cake comes out clean. TURN pans over on a dish to cool; cover
pan bottoms with a cold, wet towel (makes cake removal easier). Shake pans
when cool, then gently run a knife around edge of pan to loosen cake from
sides. SPREAD jelly, marmalade, or marshmallow creme between the layers.
SPREAD with your favorite frosting or sprinkle with GF confectioners' sugar.
SERVE with strawberries, raspberries, or stewed rhubarb.

Yield: 12 to 18 slices

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 18 slices, each has 141 calories, 1.7 g fat,
2.3 g protein, 29.1 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

185
Zucchini Cake
This is an adaptation of a zucchini muffin recipe suggested for our grandson.
We played around with the recipe, doubling it and adding bananas and
reducing the amount of honey. It is a tummy-filling, wholesome, homey cake,
and amazingly good.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


6 cups (720 g) almond meal flour 5 cups (600 g) grated peeled zucchini
4 teaspoons cinnamon (about 6 medium zucchini)
1 teaspoon baking soda 1/2 cup (150 g) ripe bananas
2 teaspoons baking powder 6 eggs, well beaten
1/2 cup (50 g) plain nuts, chopped 1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter, melted
3 teaspoons xanthan gum 1/2 cup (255 g) honey
1/2 teaspoon sea salt 2 teaspoons vanilla flavoring or extract

PREHEAT oven to 325F (170C, or gas mark 3). GREASE two 9-inch (22.5-cm)
round cake pans and coat with flour. (This can also be made in one 9-inch
(22.5-cm) tube pan or a 9 x 5 x 3-inch (22.5 x 13 x 7.5-cm) loaf pan. Or, line
two 12-cup muffin tins with paper liners and spray with oil spray. BLEN D dry
ingredients together so baking soda, baking powder, and xanthan gum are
evenly distributed. MIX all the wet ingredients together and then blend the wet
into the dry-it makes a spongy mass, but don't worry. SPOON batter into pre-
pared cake pans. BAKE 45 to 60 minutes. Coolon rack.

Yield: 18 to 20 slices or 24 muffins

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 20 slices, each has 588 calories, 43.4 g fat,
18.2 g protein, 31.1 g carbohydrate, 9.2 g dietary fiber.

186 Special Pleasures: Yummy Cakes


Butter Cake
Adapted from www.bobsredmill.com;CarolFenster.Ph.D.This is a basic
butter cake.

WET INGREDIENTS: 1 cup (140 g) sorghum flour


3 egg whites 2 tablespoons (15 g) tapioca flour
6 tablespoons (85 g) butter, softened 6 tablespoons (60 g) potato starch
1/2 cup (175 ml) buttermilk 1 teaspoon xanthan gum
1/2 cup (60 ml) canola oil 1 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/3 teaspoon salt
1 cup (200 g) sugar
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1 tablespoon freshly grated lemon peel

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE two 5 x 3-inch (13 x
7.5-cm) or one 11 x 7-inch (27.5 x 17.5-cm) baking pans. BEAT egg whites
until foamy, using a clean bowl and beaters. CREAM butter until it is fluffy.
Gradually add sugar in a steady stream as you use mixer on low. FOLD egg
whites into butter mixture. ADD lemon peel; stir lightly. COMBINE flours, potato
starch, xanthan gum, baking powder, baking soda, and salt in a medium-sized
bowl. COMBINE buttermilk, canola oil, and vanilla in small bowl. BEAT dry
ingredients into egg mixture, alternating with buttermilk mixture, beginning and
ending with dry ingredients. Mix just until combined. POUR batter into pan(s).
BAKE for 35 to 45 minutes, until top is golden brown and a toothpick comes
out clean. COOL cake in pan for 5 minutes, then remove from pan and cool
on rack.

Yield: 12 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 239 calories, 10.8 g fat, 2.9 g
protein, 32.6 g carbohydrate, 1.3 g dietary fiber.

187
Tapioca White Cake
This is a chiffon-type cake, an American form of sponge cake, invented in
1920 in California.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS


4 eggs, separated and beaten 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1 cup (225 g) butter 1/2 cup (140 g) sugar

2 teaspoons almond flavoring or extract 2 teaspoons vanilla flavoring or extract


1 cup (120 g) tapioca flour
1/2 cup (90 g) almond flour
1/2 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1 teaspoon xanthan gum

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE 9-inch (22.5-cm)
tube pan and dust with tapioca flour. BEAT egg whites in a clean bowl until stiff,
and gradually add cream of tartar. CREAM butter and sugar in a separate bowl.
ADD vanilla and beaten egg yolks to the butter mixture; add almond flavoring.
COMBINE flours, baking powder, baking soda, and xanthan gum. ADD flour
mixture to butter mixture and stir well. FOLD in egg whites. BAKE in a greased
tube pan for 35 to 40 minutes or till done. INVERT pan on top of rack. Place a
wet towel on pan bottom to help loosen the cake. Tap pan to loosen. Carefully
nudge it out. COOL cake upside down on a rack. Invert onto plate when cool.

Yield: 12 slices

Nutritional Analysis: Each slice has 301 calories, 20.7 g fat, 3.9 g protein,
24.9 g carbohydrate, 1.1 g dietary fiber.

188 Special Pleasures: Yummy Cakes


Lemon Daffodil Cake
So named because of its pretty color.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


6 tablespoons (85 g) unsalted butter, at 2 teaspoons freshly grated lemon peel
room temperature 1 cup (140 g) sorghum flour
1/2 cup (140 g) sugar 1/2 cup (50 g) soy flour

3 eggs, beaten until light and foamy 2 tablespoons (15 g) tapioca flour
2 egg yolks, beaten 6 tablespoons (45 g) potato starch
1 1/2 cups (355 ml) buttermilk 1/2 cup (35 g) cornstarch

2 teaspoons lemon juice 1 1/2 teaspoons xanthan gum


1 teaspoon vanilla 1/2 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 teaspoon sea salt
2 teaspoons lemon zest

PREHEAT oven to 325F (170C, or gas mark 3). COAT 8 x 4 x 3-inch (20 x 10
x 7.5-cm) loaf pan or 8-inch (20-cm) tube pan with cooking spray; dust pan
with rice or sorghum flour and shake to coat bottom and sides. CREAM butter
and sugar together in large mixing bowl, using an electric mixer at medium
speed. Beat until light and fluffy. MIX in beaten eggs at low speed. ADD 2 tea-
spoons grated lemon zest. SIFT flours, starches, xanthan gum, baking powder,
baking soda, and salt in a medium-sized bowl. COMBINE buttermilk, lemon
juice, and vanilla in another medium-sized bowl. BEAT dry ingredients into but-
ter mixture alternating with the buttermilk, beginning and ending with dry ingre-
dients. Mix just until combined. SPOON batter into prepared pan and smooth
top. SPRINKLE with 2 teaspoons freshly grated or bottled dried lemon zest.
BAKE at 325F (170C, or gas mark 3) for 50 minutes or until top is golden
brown and cake tester inserted into center comes out clean. COOL cake in pan
for 5 minutes, then remove from pan and coolon rack.

Yield: 10 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 268 calories, 11 g fat, 6.8 g protein,
35.4 g carbohydrate, 2 g dietary fiber.

189
Orange Birthday Cake
This is a charming, old-fashioned, orange-flavored cake.

DRY INGREDIENTS: 3 tablespoons (45 ml) strong coffee


1 cup (120 g) teff flour 1 cup (200 g) sugar
1/2 cup (70 g) sorghum flour 2 tablespoons orange zest
1/2 cup (70 g) brown rice flour
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (30 g) tapioca flour
1 tablespoon (15 ml) orange juice
1/2 cup (35 g) cornstarch
1 teaspoon vanilla
1 teaspoon xanthan gum
1/2 cup (80 ml) milk
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
8 tablespoons (112 g) unsalted butter,
1 teaspoon baking powder
softened
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
4 eggs, beaten lightly
1/2 teaspoon sea salt

PREHEAT oven to 325F (170C, or gas mark 3). GREASE 9-inch (22.5-cm)
tube or springform pan; sprinkle with tapioca flour. SIFT flours, cornstarch, xan-
than gum, baking soda, baking powder, cream of tartar, and salt in bowl. Stir
until blended. COMBINE coffee, orange juice, vanilla, and milk in a small bowl.
CREAM butter and sugar in a large bowl until light and fluffy. Add eggs gradu-
ally until blended. Stir in orange zest. ADD flour mixture to butter mixture, alter-
nating with milk mixture, in three additions, scraping the bowl all the while.
POUR batter into pan. BAKE at 350F (180C, or gas mark 4) for 40 minutes.
Cake is done when toothpick inserted in center comes out clean. COOL on rack
for 10 minutes. TURN out onto serving plate. COOL completely.

Yield: 12 or more slices

Nutritional Analysis: Each slice has 245 calories, 9.8 g fat, 3.8 g protein,
35.5 g carbohydrate, 1.9 g dietary fiber.

190 Special Pleasures: Yummy Cakes


Nut and Buckwheat Spice Cake
A healthy, hearty cake. Good for potluck suppers!

DRY INGREDIENTS: 1 teaspoon sea salt


1 cup (120 g) buckwheat flour 1 cup (100 g) plain chopped nuts
1/2 cup (70 g) bean flour (pecans or walnuts)
1/2 cup (60 g) hazelnut flour
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 teaspoon xanthan gum
2 eggs
1 teaspoon baking powder
1 cup (235 ml) safflower oil or 1 cup
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
(225 g) unsalted butter, melted
3 tablespoons ground cinnamon
1 cup (340 g) honey
2 tablespoons cumin
2 cups (490 g) applesauce

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). LIGHTLY GREASE two 8-inch
(20-cm) round cake pans or one 11 x 7-inch (27.5 x 17.5-cm) cake pan. MIX
dry ingredients, except nuts, together. BEAT eggs until fluffy. COMBINE the oil
or butter and honey; add to the beaten eggs. ADD dry ingredients to wet ingre-
dients (except applesauce); beat just until smooth. MIX in applesauce and nuts.
POUR cake mixture into baking pan or pans. BAKE for approximately: 25 min-
utes (2 round pans for layer cake) or 35 minutes (single rectangular cake pan).
TEST with toothpick for doneness.

Yield: 10 to 12 large slices

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 slices, each slice has 527 calories, 30.3 g
fat, 6.5 g protein, 56.4 g carbohydrate, 4.2 g dietary fiber.

Note: Frost with Easy Cream Cheese Icing (recipe follows).

EASY CREAM CHEESE ICING


4 ounces (1 15 g) cream cheese, softened
1/2 cup (170 g) honey

COMBINE cream cheese and honey in bowl; stir with a fork until blended and
smooth. SPREAD on cake.

191
Quinoa Cake
This is a rich, sweet cake, great with vanilla ice cream. Adapted from
www.bobsredmill.com; contributed by Phyllis Potts.

WET INGREDIENTS: 1/2 teaspoon sea salt


1 1/2 cups (295 ml) boiling GF rice milk 1 teaspoon baking powder
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract 1/2 teaspoon baking soda
2 eggs 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1 teaspoon cinnamon
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1 teaspoon freshly ground nutmeg
cup (25 g) quinoa flakes
1/4
1/4 cup (35 g) garbanzo and/or fava FROSTING:
bean flour 1/2 cup (55 g) butte~ melted
1/2 cup (70 g) sorghum flour 1/2 cup (115 g) brown suga~ packed
8 tablespoons (1 12 g) butter, at room 3 tablespoons (45 ml) water
temperature 1/3 cup (35 g) plain pecans, finely
1 cup (200 g) white sugar chopped
1 cup (225 g) brown sugar, packed 1/2 cup (55 g) sweetened shredded
1 1/2 cups (180 g) quinoa flour coconut
2 teaspoons xanthan gum

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE 8-inch (20-cm)
square pan and dust with a little sorghum flour. POUR boiling rice milk over
quinoa flakes, cover, and let stand for 20 minutes. BEAT butte~ gradually
adding sugars, until fluffy. Blend in vanilla and eggs. Add quinoa flakes and mix
well. MIX flour, xanthan gum, salt, baking powder, baking soda, cream of tarta~
cinnamon, and nutmeg together in another bowl. ADD flour mixture to butter
mixture. POUR batter into pan. BAKE in 350F (180C, or gas mark 4) oven for
50 to 55 minutes. COMBINE all frosting ingredients. Spread over still-warm
cake. Broil until coconut browns and bubbles.

Yield: 8 to 12 squares

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 squares, each serving has 455 calories,


18.4 g fat, 5.4 g protein, 67 g carbohydrate, 4.4 g dietary fiber. With maple
syrup icing (page 220), each square has 388 calories, 10.7 g fat, 5.6 g protein,
67.6 g carbohydrate, 3.6 g dietary fiber.

192 Special Pleasures: Yummy Cakes


Hazeln ut Applesauce Cake
DRY INGREDIENTS: 1/2 teaspoon salt
1 1/2 cups (150 g) hazelnut flour 1 teaspoon ground cloves
1 cup (150 g) currants or other GF dried 1 teaspoon xanthan gum
fruit
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (50 g) plain pecans, chopped
1/2 cup (112 g) unsalted butter, melted
1/2 cup (35 g) bean flour
1/2 cup (120 ml) maple syrup
1/2 cup (30 g) tapioca flour
1 large egg, beaten
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
2 cups (490 g) applesauce
1/2 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE an 8-inch (20-cm)
square cake pan and dust lightly with rice or quinoa flour. SPRINKLE some of
the hazelnut flour over the fruit and nuts (in separate bowl); toss until coated.
Set aside. BLEND remaining hazelnut flour with dry ingredients (except fruit and
nuts). COMBINE wet ingredients; mix well. MIX wet ingredients into dry ingredi-
ents, blending well. FOLD (lightly) nuts and fruit into the batter. SPOON or pour
batter into prepared cake pan. BAKE for 40 minutes or until toothpick comes
out clean.

Yield: 8 to 12 squares

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 squares, each serving has 319 calories,


19.1 g fat, 3.8 g protein, 33.1 g carbohydrate, 3.4 g dietary fiber.

193
Teff Gingerbread
Brown in color, teff makes a truly different gingerbread-really nutritious and
filling. Teff and buckwheat are full of protein.

DRY INGREDIENTS: 1/2 teaspoon sea salt


1 1/2 cups (150 g) teff flour 1 teaspoon grated nutmeg
1/2 cup (60 g) quinoa flour 1/2 teaspoon allspice
1/2 cup (30 g) buckwheat flour 1/2 teaspoon ground cloves
1 teaspoon baking powder
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1 egg
2 teaspoons xanthan gum
4 tablespoons (55 g) butter, melted
1/2 cup (115 g) light brown sugar,
1 cup (235 ml) buttermilk
packed, or granulated maple sugar
1/4 cup (85 g) unsulfured molasses
2 teaspoons cinnamon
(optional)
2 teaspoons ground ginger or 3 tea-
spoons grated fresh ginger

PREHEAT oven 425F (220(, or gas mark 7). GREASE a 9-inch (22.5-cm)
square cake pan; dust with rice flour. BLEND dry ingredients in bowl. BLEND
wet ingredients in another bowl. WH ISK wet ingredients into dry. BAKE at
425F (220(, or gas mark 7) for 30 minutes or until toothpick inserted in
center comes out dry.

Yield: 12 to 16 squares

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 16 squares, each has 106 calories, 3.8 9 fat,
2.2 9 protein, 15.7 9 carbohydrate, 1.6 9 dietary fiber. With optional molasses,
each has 120 calories, 3.8 9 fat, 2.2 9 protein, 19.2 9 carbohydrate, 1.6 9
dietary fiber.

194 Special Pleasures: Yummy Cakes


Orange Puffs
Something like a pudding cake, but fancier!

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


3 eggs, separated 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
4 tablespoons (55 g) butter 1/2 cup (50 g) sugar, divided
1 container (4 ounces, or 115 g) egg 3 tablespoons (30 g) sweet rice flour
substitute to provide extra lift 1/2 teaspoon salt
(optional) 1 cup (235 ml) milk
1/2 cup (175 ml) thawed frozen orange 1/2 cup (40 g) grated orange zest
juice concentrate, undiluted
1 teaspoon vanilla
1 cup (235 ml) milk

PREHEAT the oven to 325F (170C, or gas mark 3). BOIL a kettle of water.
BUTTER eight 1/2-CUp (l15-g) custard or souffle cups; set aside. BEAT egg
whites and cream of tartar in a medium-sized deep bowl until foamy and dou-
bled in volume. ADD 2 tablespoons (15 g) of the sugar gradually, beating until
stiff peaks form and the meringue is shiny. Set aside. CREAM the butter with the
remaining sugar in a large bowl (or in a food processor) until light and fluffy.
Add the egg yolks and egg substitute, if using. ADD the orange juice concen-
trate and vanilla and process until combined. SI FT the flour and salt together,
add to butter mixture alternately with milk, process until mixed. The batter will
be thin. GENTLY FOLD the batter into the meringue and spoon into the pre-
pared cups. PLACE the filled cups in a large, shallow pan. Pour boiling water to
a depth of 1 inch (2.5 em) around cups in pan (for a bain-marie). Carefully
place the pan in preheated oven. BAKE for 30 to 35 minutes or until the tops
spring back when lightly pressed with the fingertips. REMOVE the cups and
place on a wire rack to cool slightly. Then run a knife around the edge of the
cups to loosen the puffs. They will shrink a bit as they cool. INVERT each puff
onto individual serving plates, spooning out any sauce that remains on the bot-
tom of the cups and putting it on the surface of the puffs. SCATTER a few
shreds of orange zest over the tops and serve slightly warm.

Yield: 8 servi ngs

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 223 calories, 9.4 g fat, 6 g protein,
29.1 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

195
Banana Cake
DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
11/2 cups (180 g) almond meal flour 3 ripe bananas/ mashed
11/2 cups (150 g) amaranth or sorghum 2 tablespoons (28 ml) lemon juice
flour 1/2 cup (112 g) butter/ melted
1/2 cup (30 g) arrowroot 1/2 cup (225 g) honey
1/2 teaspoon sea salt 3 eggs
1 teaspoon baking powder 2 teaspoons vanilla flavoring or extract
1 teaspoon baking soda
1 teaspoon xanthan gum

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180(/ or gas mark 4). GREASE 9-inch (22.5-cm)
square pan; dust with rice flour. BLEND all dry ingredients in large mixing bowl.
BLEND wet ingredients in a separate bowl using electric mixer. POUR liquid
ingredients over dry and stir gently. POUR into baking dish. BAKE at 350F
(180(/ or gas mark 4) for 40 minutes; test with toothpick for doneness.

Yield: 12 to 16 squares

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 16 squares/ each serving has 312 calories/


15.4 g fat/ 8.4 g protein/ 35 g carbohydrate/ 8.4 g dietary fiber.

Carrot Cake
This is my favorite cake. It is a healthy and filling sweet pick-me-up!
DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
1 1/2 cups (180 g) teff flour 1/2 CUp (112 g) butter/ softened
1/2 cup (30 g) tapioca flour 1 cup (225 g) brown sugar/ packed/
1/2 cup (90 g) almond meal flour or 1 cup (340 g) honey
1/2 cup (35 g) fava bean flour 4 eggs/ at room temperature/ beaten
2 teaspoons xanthan gum 1 cup (245 g) plain yogurt
1 teaspoon baking soda 1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
2 teaspoons cinnamon 1 cup (200 g) crushed pineapple
1 teaspoon sea salt
2 teaspoons ground ginger
3 cups (360 g) shredded carrots
1 cup (100 g) plain pecans/ chopped

196 Special Pleasures: Yummy Cakes


ICING:
3 ounces (85 g) GF cream cheese, 2 tablespoons (30 ml) milk
softened 1 teaspoon almond flavoring or extract
2 cups (200 g) GF confectioners' sugar

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE a 9-inch (22.5-cm)
springform or tube pan; dust with rice flour. COMBINE flours, xanthan gum,
baking powder, baking soda, cinnamon, salt, and ginger together in bowl.
CREAM together butter and sugar in a large bowl. WHISK in eggs. ADD yogurt
and vanilla, blend. ADD flour mixture to the egg mixture; stir just until blended.
STIR in carrots, pecans, and pineapple. POUR batter into prepared pan. BAKE
45 to 50 minutes, until toothpick inserted in center comes out clean.

Yield: 10 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 565 calories, 27.9 g fat, 9.6 g pro-
tein, 68.9 g carbohydrate, 5.4 g dietary fiber.

Passover Nut Cake


You can use plain almonds, hazelnuts, or walnuts in this recipe.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


8 ounces (225 g) plain almonds or 8 large eggs, separated
2 cups (240 g) almond meal flour 1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1 cup (200 g) sugar
1 teaspoon baking powder
1 teaspoon grated lemon rind

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE pans, then line
greased pans with greased waxed paper. BLANCH plain almonds: Pour boiling
water over almonds, let them sit for 5 minutes, drain them, and then pour cold
water over them. Then remove the skins. GRIND blanched nuts in a coffee
grinder. BEAT egg yolks with sugar until thick and light. MIX ground nuts or
almond meal flour with baking powder and grated lemon rind. ADD nut mixture
to yolk mixture. ADD vanilla. BEAT (in a separate bowl) egg whites until they
hold stiff peaks. FOLD egg whites into yolk-and-nut mixture carefully. POUR
into prepared cake pans. BAKE at 350F (180C, or gas mark 4) for 25 to 30
minutes (cakes will shrink from sides of pan when done). REMOVE from oven
and cool in pans for 15 minutes. TURN out onto wire cake racks and peel off

197
waxed paper. WH EN COOL, fill layers with your choice of frosting, whipped
cream, or fruit fillings, and dust top of cake with GF confectioners' sugar.

Yield: 16 to 18 slices

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 18 slices, each has lS6 calories, 8.6 g fat,
S.3 g protein, 14.4 g carbohydrate, 1.4 g dietary fiber.

Variation: Substitute 2 cups (240 g) hazelnut flour for ground almonds and
hazelnut flavoring for vanilla.

Cranberry Loaf Cake


A great treat for autumn-not too sweet for us celiacs who are so aware of
the threat of diabetes yet need treats! Try it for breakfast.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


cup (80 g) rice flour
1/2 2 eggs, beaten till frothy
1 cup (120 g) almond meal flour 1 tablespoon (lS ml) oil
1/2 cup (60 g) hazelnut flour 1 cup (24S g) plain yogurt
2 teaspoons nutmeg 1/2 cup (170 g) GF rice syrup
1 teaspoon cumin 1/2 cup (60 ml) orange juice
1 1/2 teaspoons baking soda 1/2 cup (160 g) jam, marmalade, or
1 cup (lS0 g) GF dried cranberries conserves (apricot, strawberry,
pineapple, etc.)

PREHEAT oven to 3S0F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE one 8 x 4 x 3-inch
(20 x lOx 7.S-cm) loaf pan. MIX dry ingredients (except fruit) together. MIX
wet ingredients (except jam, marmalade, or conserves) together. COMBINE wet
and dry ingredients. (Add a few more drops of juice or water if mixture is dry.)
FOLD dried fruit and preserves into batter. BAKE in prepared loaf pan for 40
minutes or until top is golden.

Yield: 1 loaf

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 slices, each has 336 calories, 14.6 g fat,
7.9 g protein, 43 g carbohydrate, 3.9 g dietary fiber.

198 Special Pleasures: Yummy Cakes


Birthday Cake Sponge Cake
Dust this cake with confectioners' sugar. Sometimes we slice fresh strawber-
ries over it. Use the Glossy Chocolate Icing (page 200) for a festive occasion.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


6 eggs, separated, room temperature 1/2 cup (50 g) sugar
(70F [21 O(]) 1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
1/2 container (2 ounces, or 55 g) egg 1/2 cup (70 g) sorghum flour
substitute (such as Better'n Eggs) 1/2 teaspoon salt
for better lift (optional) 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1 1/2 teaspoons vanilla flavoring or
extract
2 tablespoons (30 ml) lemon juice

PREHEAT oven to 325F (170(, or gas mark 3). GREASE a 9-inch (22.5-cm)
round cake pan; sprinkle with potato starch. BEAT egg yolks in a medium bowl
until light and creamy-they should form a yellow ribbon when your beater is
lifted and the eggs drop into the bowl. Add egg substitute, if using. BLEND
vanilla and sugar into beaten yolks a little at a time. SIFT flours three times or
more. BLEND sifted flours, salt, and lemon juice into the yolk mixture. WHIP
egg whites in a very clean, dry bowl until foamy but not dry; add cream of tar-
tar. FOLD whipped egg whites into the batter gently. Don't stir! POUR batter
into prepared pan. BAKE at 325F (170(, or gas mark 3) for 40 minutes.
(OOL completely on rack before dusting with powdered sugar or spreading
with frosting. Instead of cutting this cake, try "tweaking" the slices apart with
the backs of two forks.

Yield: 8 large slices

Nutritional Analysis: Each slice has 177 calories, 4.2 g fat, 6.5 g protein,
28.1 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber. With chocolate frosting, each has 373
calories, 9.4 g fat, 9.4 g protein, 62.7 g carbohydrate, 1.6 g dietary fiber.

Note: Separate egg whites into a very clean (grease-free) bowl. To eliminate
any presence of grease, which will prevent the egg whites from whipping prop-
erly, wipe mixing bowl and whisk with a paper towel dampened in plain vinegar.

199
GLOSSY CHOCOLATE ICING (for Birthday Cake)
This icing can be made long before it is to be spread.
3 ounces (85 g) pure GF semisweet or 1/2 cup (60 ml) water
milk chocolate 1 cup (200 g) sugar
1 egg, well beaten 1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1/2 cup (175 ml) evaporated milk

MELT chocolate in top of double boiler over slow booiling water. COMBINE
well-beaten egg, evaporated milk, water, and sugar. Add to chocolate in double
boiler. COOK icing over hot water for 20 minutes. BEAT for 1 minute. Add
vanilla. Cover cake with icing when cake has cooled.

Yield: 1 1/2 cups (480 g) yummy chocolate icing

Chocolate Roll
From Rudd Kierstead, our son-in-law.
This wonderful recipe is a two-day, two-person creation. To take the trouble
to make this is truly giving a great gift-of self, time, and a lovely cake!
Rudd, my son-in-law whose family shared this recipe, served all of us this
wonderful cake roll one Christmas.
We have found that the cream filling will separate if made more than a day
before serving. To prevent this and to save time the day of the party, we sug-
gest making the cake part the day ahead of the party. Complete and arrange
the roll with the filling the afternoon before serving it. A couple of hours
ahead is okay, if you refrigerate it.

ROLL INGREDIENTS: FILLING INGREDIENTS:


6 eggs, separated 1 1/2 cups (295 ml) heavy cream
1/2 cup (150 g) sugar 2 tablespoons GF confectioners' sugar
6 ounces (170 g) GF semisweet 1/2 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
chocolate
3 tablespoons (45 ml) strong black
coffee, cold
Pinch salt
1 cup (90 g) GF cocoa powder
for dusting

200 Special Pleasures: Yummy Cakes


PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE bottom and sides of
15 x 11-inch (37.5 x 27.5-cm) jelly-roll pan with butter. LINE the pan with
waxed paper, pushing the waxed paper into the corners and against sides of
pan. GREASE the waxed paper with butter.

DAY ONE: MAKING THE ROLL

BEAT room-temperature whites until stiff but not dry (dry is when whites are not
in smooth waves but start to break apart when pulled). BEAT yolks until creamy
in separate bowl. ADD sugar to yolks gradually, a heaping tablespoon at a time.
Set aside. MELT chocolate with coffee in a double boiler or in the microwave.
Avoid letting it bubble. Let chocolate/coffee mixture cool a bit; then STI R
chocolate/coffee into yolk/sugar mixture. FOLD one-half of the beaten egg
whites into chocolate/yolk mixture: Start with 1 large scoop of beaten whites
pulled gently over top of chocolate/yolk mixture. Using spoon, slice into the side
of chocolate and fold egg whites under. Continue folding in a scoop at a time.
The idea is to keep the mixture full of the air captured in your egg whites.
Streaks of chocolate or egg white are okay, but be sure to get the chocolate
mixture on the bottom folded in with the whites. It doesn't have to be
thoroughly mixed-do not stir. SPREAD batter in pan-all the way to the edges
and corners. Use a wet spatula to gently move batter into place. Resist fussing
so you don't release the captured air in the egg whites. BAKE for 15 minutes.
Place pan on a cooling rack. COVER with a clean, lightly dampened dishtowel.
COOL for at least an hour or overnight.

DAY TWO: ASSEMBLING THE CHOCOLATE ROLL

This is the adventurous part. Enlist an assistant. CHILL a bowl in the refrigerator
or set it on top of ice. LAY DOWN two pieces of waxed paper in the pan to
cover an area slightly larger than the size of the pan. SIFT cocoa powder all
over waxed paper in pan.

POUR the heavy cream into the chilled bowl; whip until soft peaks form.

BEAT sugar and vanilla into whipped cream; mix well. SPREAD whipped cream
mixture lavishly over the whole cake. ROLL the filled cake: Using the waxed
paper in the pan to help you, lift and turn the top and bottom edges toward
each other until the seams overlap. Continue to use the paper to help roll the
cake. In the end, the cake roll should be resting on its seam. Trim off the ends
with a very sharp knife. PRESENT the roll: Slip a board or long plate under the
roll. Sprinkle cocoa through a sieve allover it and the plate to give the roll a
uniform look. DECORATE with holly or marzipan or whipped cream.

201
TO CUT: Use a sharp knife or a serrated bread knife with a sawing motion so
each slice is beautiful. ENJOY the happy sighs when you serve this masterpiece.

Yield: 14 to 18 slices

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 18 slices, each has 187 calories, 10.6 g fat,
3.7 g protein, 19.2 g carbohydrate, 2.2 g dietary fiber.

Pumpkin Cake Roll


Colorful for Thanksgiving or Halloween tables, this roll can be made ahead
and frozen, then pulled out and decorated with candy corn or chestnut sauce
before serving to your friends and family, who will be filled with awe.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1/2 cup (30 g) tapioca flour 3 eggs
1/2 cup (35 g) cornstarch 1/2 cup (150 g) pumpkin puree, fresh or
1/2 cup (40 g) rice flour canned
1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder 1 teaspoon lemon juice
1 envelope (.25 ounce, or 7 g) unfla-
FILLING INGREDIENTS:
vored gelatin
cup (75 g) GF confectioners' sugar
1/2
1 teaspoon xanthan gum
8 ounces (225 g) GF cream cheese,
1 teaspoon pumpkin pie spice
softened
2 teaspoons cinnamon
4 tablespoons (55 g) butter, softened
1 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1 cup (200 g) sugar
GF confectioners' sugar for dusting

PREHEAT oven to 375F (190C, or gas mark 5). LINE 15 x 11-inch (37.5 x
27.5-cm) jelly-roll pan with waxed paper. GREASE waxed paper well.

MAKE THE BATTER:

SIFT together flour mix, baking powder, pumpkin pie spice, cinnamon, and salt;
set aside. BEAT eggs in a separate large bowl for 5 minutes until very thick. Try
for the yellow ribbon effect to aerate the batter. GRADUALLY beat in sugar.
BEAT in pumpkin and lemon juice. GRADUALLY add sifted flour mixture to egg
mixture, beating until smooth. POUR batter into prepared pan and BAKE at
375F (190C, or gas mark 5) for 15 to 20 minutes.

CREATE THE ROLL:

LAY a sheet of waxed paper on a slightly dampened dishtowel. Sprinkle waxed


paper with confectioners' sugar. REMOVE cake roll from the oven and invert it

202 Special Pleasures: Yummy Cakes


onto the prepared waxed paper. SPRINKLE top of cake with confectioners'
sugar. LAY a fresh piece of waxed paper on top of cake. While cake is still hot,
ROLL with the dishtowel and waxed paper. CH ILL cake 30 minutes.

MAKE THE FILLING:

BEAT all filling ingredients together until smooth. UNROLL cake; remove waxed
paper from top. SPREAD with filling. REROLL (without waxed paper or towel)
and PLACE roll on serving dish. SIFT confectioners' sugar over top of roll.
REFRIGERATE until serving time. SERVE: Use a sharp knife in a sawing motion
to cut cake. This will give you nice, neat slices.

Yield: 14 to 18 slices

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 18 slices, each has 172 calories, 7.8 g fat,
2.3 g protein, 23.1 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Old-Fashioned Jelly Roll


This makes an excellent all-around dessert. Personalize it using your favorite
jelly or preserves for the filling.

WET INGREDIENTS: 1/2 cup (60 g) almond meal flour


5 eggs, separated 1/2 cup (60 g) rice flour
1/2 container (2 ounces, or 55 g) 1/2 cup (65 g) cornstarch
egg substitute for extra lift (optional) 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 cup (120 ml) warm water 1/2 teaspoon salt
1 1/2 teaspoons vanilla flavoring 1 1/2 teaspoons xanthan gum
or extract 5 tablespoons (30 g) GF confectioners'
sugar, divided
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1 1/2 cups (480 g) strawberry jelly
1/8 teaspoon cream of tartar
or preserves
1 1/2 cups (350 g) sugar

PREHEAT oven to 375F (190C, or gas mark 5). GREASE a lOx 8-inch (25 x
20-cm) pan. WHIP egg whites until foamy; add cream of tartar. Whip until stiff
but not dry; set aside. BEAT egg yolks and egg substitute with water; add sugar
gradually. Add vanilla. SIFT together in separate bowl: flours, cornstarch, bak-
ing powder, salt, and xanthan gum. ADD flour mixture to yolk mixture. FOLD in
egg whites. SPREAD batter evenly into prepared pan. BAKE at 375F {190C

203
or gas mark 5) for about 20 minutes or until toothpick inserted in center comes
out clean. REMOVE FROM PAN: Loosen cake around edges with a knife. Place
a piece of waxed paper on top of a dishtowel. Sprinkle waxed paper with 2
tablespoons confectioners' sugar. Immediately invert hot cake onto waxed paper
and peel off baking paper. Trim off any crisp edges. FORM THE ROLL: Sprinkle
top of cake with 2 tablespoons confectioners' sugar. Cover with another piece of
waxed paper. Holding dishtowel, starting at narrow end, roll up cake. Cool,
seam-side down, for 1 hour on wire rack. UNROLL cooled cake-remove towel
and waxed paper. SPREAD preserves or jelly evenly over cake; leave 1/2-inch
(1.25-cm) margins all around. SERVE: Reroll cake. Place rolled cake seam-side
down on platter. 51 FT remaining 1 tablespoon GF confectioners' sugar over top.

Yield: 8 to 10 slices

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 10 slices, each has 361 calories, 8.4 g fat,
6.8 g protein, 64.6 g carbohydrate, 2 g dietary fiber.

Lemon Roll
DRY INGREDIENTS: 2 teaspoons lemon juice, fresh
1/2 cup (150 g) granulated sugar, divided or bottled
1/2 cup (55 g) white rice flour 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1/2 cup (45 g) sorghum flour
LEMON FILLING INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (45 g) cornstarch
1/2 cup (50 g) sugar
5 tablespoons (30 g) GF confectioners'
2 tablespoons cornstarch
sugar, divided
1 1/2 cups (295 ml) evaporated skim milk
WET INGREDIENTS: 3 tablespoons (45 ml) lemon juice
6 large egg whites 1 tablespoon grated lemon zest

PREHEAT oven to 300F (150C, or gas mark 2). SPRAY a lOx 7-inch (25 x
17.5-cm) jelly-roll pan with nonstick oil spray. LINE pan with waxed paper, then
spray again.
.

MAKE TH E CAKE:

SIFT together 6 tablespoons (75 g) granulated sugar, flours, and cornstarch.


BEAT egg whites till foamy; add lemon juice and cream of tartar. BEAT in
remaining sugar, 1 tablespoon (15 g) at a time. CONTI NU E to beat till soft
peaks form. (Overbeating will make the cake tough, so be careful). SIFT one-
quarter of the flour mixture over the egg whites. FOLD in gently; repeat until all

204 Special Pleasures: Yummy Cakes


the flour mixture is blended in. SPREAD batter evenly in prepared pan. BAKE at
300F (150C, or gas mark 2) for 20 minutes or until the top springs back when
lightly touched. REMOVE CAKE FROM PAN: Loosen cake around edges with a
knife. Place a piece of waxed paper on top of a dishtowel. Sprinkle waxed paper
with 2 tablespoons confectioners' sugar. Immediately invert hot cake onto
waxed paper and peel off baking paper. Trim off any crisp edges. ROLL UP
CAKE: Sprinkle top of cake with 2 tablespoons GF confectioners' suga~ then
cover with another piece of waxed paper. Holding dishtowel, starting at narrow
end, roll up cake. Cool, seam-side down, for 1 hour on wire rack.

MAKE THE FILLING:

COMBINE sugar and cornstarch in a small saucepan. BLEND in milk, lemon


juice, and lemon rind. COOK over medium heat, stirring constantly, for 3 min-
utes or till thickened and clear. REMOVE from heat. STIR in rind. Cover. COOL
to room temperature, whisking occasionally. STIR to blend before spreading on
cake.

CREATE THE LEMON ROLL:

UNROLL cooled cake; remove towel and waxed paper. Stir filling to blend.
SPREAD FI LLI NG evenly over cake, leaving 1/2-inch (1.25-cm) margins all
around. REROLL CAKE. Place rolled cake seam-side down on platter. SIFT
remaining 1 tablespoon confectioners' sugar over top. CUT cake into slices-
use a sharp knife, and cut with a gentle seesaw motion. Wow!

Yield: 8 to 10 slices

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 10 servings, each has 189 calories, trace fat,
5.7 g protein, 40.9 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Note: Save egg yolks for another use, such as making puddings, custards, and
cookies.

205
Key Lime Cheescake
The filling for this zesty cheesecake needs time to cool during preparation.

CRUST INGREDIENTS: FILLING INGREDIENTS:


1 1/2 cups (150 g) plain walnuts, ground 2 cups (475 ml) water
in coffee grinder or food processor 6 ounces (170 g) lemon gelatin
3 tablespoons (42 g) butte~ melted (two 3-ounce [85-g] packages)
1 teaspoon nutmeg 1 cup (235 ml) ice water
8 ounces (225 g) GF cream cheese
1 cup (230 g) GF sour cream
1/2 cup (100 g) sugar
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
2 teaspoons lime juice

MAKE CRUST:

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). COMBINE the walnuts, butter,
and nutmeg with your fingers or in a blender. PAT into a 9-inch (22.5-cm) glass
or ceramic pie pan. BAKE for 7 to 10 minutes. COOL before filling. HEAT 2
cups (475 ml) water to boiling. Pour boiling water into a large mixing bowl. Stir
in the gelatin till dissolved, then add 1 cup (235 ml) ice water. REFRIGERATE
until almost set, about 1 hour. BEAT together the cream cheese, sour cream,
sugar, vanilla, and lime juice. When gelatin is almost set, BLEND the cream
cheese mixture into it, beating for 5 minutes. POUR gelatin mixture into the
prepared crust. REFRIGERATE until set, about 4 hours.

Yield: 8 to 10 slices

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 10 slices, each has 394 calories, 27.4 g fat,
6.4 g protein, 30.5 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

206 Special Pleasures: Yummy Cakes


Ricotta Custard Cheesecake
CRUST INGREDIENTS: FILLING INGREDIENTS:
1/2cup (60 g) cookie crumbs (made 3 eggs, separated, at room temperature
from GF cookies) (70F [21 DC])
2 tablespoons (28 g) butte~ melted 1/2cup (85 g) honey
2 cups (500 g) GF low-fat ricotta cheese
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
A dash of nutmeg

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4).

MAKE THE CRUST:

COMBINE crumbs and butter. PAT mixture into a 9-inch (22.5-cm) springform
pan. BAKE for 7 to 10 minutes. COOL before filling.

MAKE THE FILLING:

PREHEAT oven to 325F (170C, or gas mark 3). BEAT egg whites and then
yolks in separate bowls. BLEND honey and ricotta cheese and vanilla into egg
yolks. FOLD honey/cheese mix into the beaten egg whites. SPRINKLE with nut-
meg and gently fold in. POUR into cooled baked crust. BAKE at 325F (170C,
or gas mark 3) for 40 minutes to 1 hour or until set, which is when a knife
inserted in center comes out clean. The custard should be puffy. TOP with fresh
berries or slightly sweetened stewed rhubarb.

Yield: 12 to 18 slices

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 18 slices, each has 87 calories, 4.5 g fat,


4.3 g protein, 7.2 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

207
Nutty Fruitcake
This is a "no cook" recipe! Half is prepared the first day to refrigerate
overnight.

DRY INGREDIENTS: 10 large strawberries, thinly sliced


1 can (4.5 ounces, or 130 g) or 1 cup 1 peach, peeled and sliced
(100 g) plain whole almonds
WET INGREDIENTS:
1 cup (160 g) green grapes, seedless,
14 ounces (400 g) GF cream cheese,
sliced
softened
1/2 cup (50 g) plain pecans, chopped
6 tablespoons (90 ml) GF almond-fla-
1/2 cup (45 g) pignolia nuts (pine nuts)
vored rice or soy milk, divided
1 cup (50 g) soft GF bread crumbs or
1/2 cup (50 g) GF confectioners' sugar
cookie crumbs
1 tablespoon grated lemon peel

DAY ONE:

LINE bottom and sides of 8 x 4 x 3-inch (20 x lOx 7.5-cm) loaf pan with
waxed paper so waxed paper extends 3 inches (7.5 cm) above edges of pan.
BLANCH almonds: Pour boiling water over almonds in bowl. Let stand 5 min-
utes, then drain and pour cold water over them. Drain again, and slip off
almond skins. FINELY GRIND blanched almonds in blender and set aside.
BLEND cream cheese and 5 tablespoons (75 ml) of the rice or soy milk with
electric mixer at high speed until smooth and fluffy. BEAT IN 1/2 cup ground
almonds and confectioners' sugar until blended. STIR in grapes, pecans, and
pignolia nuts. MIX together, with a fork in a small bowl, bread crumbs or cookie
crumbs, remaining ground almonds, and lemon peel. ADD 1 tablespoon (15
ml) milk. TOSS with two forks until mixture begins to stick together. PRESS half
of the crumb mixture into bottom of prepared pan. SPREAD one-third of the
cheese mixture over the crumbs. ARRANGE three-quarters of the fruit on top of
the cheese. PRESS (gently) fruit halfway into mixture. Fruit should not touch
pan edges. SPREAD one-half of the remaining cheese mixture over fruit. PRESS
the remaining fruit into this cheese layer. TOP with remaining cheese mixture
and smooth top. SPRINKLE remaining crumbs evenly over top. FOLD waxed
paper extensions over cake. PRESS down firmly. REFRIGERATE overnight.

DAY TWO:

SERVE: Unmold onto serving plate. Turn over onto waiting plate. Carefully
remove waxed paper. Slice with a sharp knife that has been rinsed in very hot
tap water.

208 Special Pleasures: Yummy Cakes


Yield: 8 to 10 slices

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 10 slices, each has 382 calories, 27.8 g fat,
9 g protein, 24 g carbohydrate, 2.6 g dietary fiber.

Variation: Substitute 1 cup (120 g) almond meal flour for ground almonds.

Cinnamon Cake
My mother made "cinnamon cakes" for every family gathering. This is a
variation of those.

STREUSEL TOPPING MIXTURE: DRY INGREDIENTS:


1/2 cup (115 g) brown sugar 1/2cup (30 g) tapioca flour
2 tablespoons teff or quinoa flour 1/2 cup (60 g) potato starch
2 teaspoons cinnamon 1/2 cup (120 g) rice flour
2 tablespoons (28 g) butter, melted 2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 cup (50 g) plain nuts, chopped 1 1/2 teaspoons baking soda
1 teaspoon xanthan gum
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 teaspoon salt
3 eggs, separated
1/2 cup (100 g) sugar GLAZE:
1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter cup (70 g) GF confectioners' sugar
1/2
1/2 cup (60 ml) milk 3-4 teaspoons water (depending on
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract consistency you want)

PREHEAT OVEN to 375F (190C, or gas mark 5). GREASE and flour a 9 x 13-
inch (22.5 x 32.5-cm) pan. MIX all streusel ingredients together; set aside.
BEAT egg whites until stiff; set aside. BEAT egg yolks separately until they look
like a yellow ribbon when beaters are lifted from the bowl. CREAM sugar and
butter; gradually add egg yolks, mixing to combine. STIR IN milk and vanilla.
WH ISK TOGETH ER tapioca flour, potato starch, rice flour, baking powder, bak-
ing soda, xanthan gum, and salt. ADD dry mixture to wet mixture. Stir just to
blend. FOLD egg whites into mixture gently, just until batter is smooth. SPREAD
half of batter in pan. SPRINKLE half of streusel mixture on top of batter. ADD
remaining batter (don't worry if it mixes with streusel mixture-will be OK when
baked). SPRIN KLE: remaining streusel on top. BAKE at 375F (190C, or gas
mark 5) for 25 to 35 minutes or until toothpick inserted in center comes out
clean. Cool in pan on wire rack.

209
For GLAZE:

COMBINE GF confectioners' sugar and water. MIX until smooth. DRIZZLE cake
with glaze when cooled. CUT into squares.

Yield: 6 to 8 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 8 servings, each has 429 calories, 16.1 g fat,
4.4 g protein, 66.5 g carbohydrate, 1.7 g dietary fiber.

Variation: Instead of layering streusel over batter, try my mother's method: Use
a blunt knife to fold streusel into cake batter, pushing the streusel into large
curves throughout.

Caramelized Cake with Three Apples


This is more like a custard than a cake. What a great dessert!

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1 1/2 cups (350 g) superfine suga~ 1/2cup (80 ml) water
divided 10 tablespoons (140 g) butter, cut into
4 small sweet apples (like Golden chunks, at room temperature
Delicious) 4 large eggs, at room temperature,
4 small crisp apples (like Braeburn) beaten until frothy
4 small tart apples (like Pink Lady or
Granny Smith)

PREHEAT oven to 300F (150C, or gas mark 2). GREASE and flour a 9-inch
(22.5-cm) springform pan or 8 ovenproof custard cups.

PREPARE CARAMEL:

PLACE 1 cup (200 g) sugar and 1/3 cup (80 ml) water in small saucepan.
SIMMER over medium heat without stirring until a deep amber caramel.
IMMEDIATELY POUR into prepared pan or custard cups and swirl to coat the
bottom and slightly up the sides. Set aside to cool.

PREPARE APPLES:

PEEL, core, and slice the apples into a large pot; add 2 tablespoons (30 ml)
water. COOK over medium heat covered, 10 minutes, stirring occasionally so
that the apples do not stick. ADD the remaining 1/2 cup (150 g) sugar and con-
tinue cooking, uncovered, until the apples are quite dry, 15 to 20 minutes.
REMOVE from the heat and cool slightly. STIR butter into the apples. Stir in the

210 Special Pleasures: Yummy Cakes


eggs, a bit at a time. Blend well. POUR apple mixture over the caramel in the
cake pan or custard cups. Set the cake pan or custard cups in a larger roasting
pan and pour boiling water into the roasting pan halfway up the sides of the
cake pan or cups (for a bain-marie). BAKE until the blade of a knife inserted
into the cake comes out clean and the top of the cake has formed a crust,
about 2 to 21/2 hours (baking time will be shorter for custard cups). REMOVE
cake pan or cups from roasting pan, let cool to room temperature, and then
refrigerate for at least 4 hours. TO SERVE: run knife around edge of the pan
and invert the cake onto a serving platter, or serve individual portions in custard
cups. Serve with GF vanilla ice cream or creme anglaise.

Yield: 8 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 441 calories, 17.4 g fat, 3.5 g pro-
tein, 67.8 g carbohydrate, 3.2 g dietary fiber.

Flourless Chocolate Walnut Cake


Yes, a flourless chocolate cake! A bit of heaven right here, and so easy to
make.

WET INGREDIENTS: 8 ounces (225 g) GF semisweet


10 eggs, separated, at room tempera- chocolate, coarsely chopped
ture (70F [21 DC]) 1 cup (100 g) plain walnuts, ground
12 tablespoons (170 g) unsalted butter in coffee grinder
1/2 cup (240 g) apricot jam 1/2 cup (70 g) plain walnuts, roughly
chopped (for topping)
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (135 g) granulated sugar

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE and flour a 9-inch
(22.5-cm) springform pan. BEAT egg yolks until they form a yellow ribbon when
beater is lifted. Stir in granulated sugar slowly, mixing until sugar is dissolved
and well blended with yolks. MELT butter and coarsely chopped chocolate in a
double boiler over hot water. Stir the mixture over low heat until melted and
smooth. Set aside some melted chocolate mixture for the topping. SLOWLY
POUR chocolate mixture into the egg yolk mixture while blending. COOL mix-
ture slightly. FOLD (gently) the ground walnuts into the cooled chocolate mix-
ture. WHIP the egg whites until stiff, but not dry, in a separate bowl. FOLD the
whipped egg whites gently into the chocolate mixture. POUR folded mixture

211
into the prepared pan. BAKE for 50 to 60 minutes, or until center feels springy
to the touch. COOL the pan upside down on a cake rack for 30 minutes. (Cover
bottom of pan with a wet towel to speed cooling and make removal easier.)
RUN A KNIFE around the sides of the pan to loosen, then remove sides of pan.
COOL cake completely. SLICE the cooled cake into two layers. SPREAD jam
over the bottom layer. Cover with top layer. TOP with the reserved melted
chocolate mixture. PAT the coarsely chopped walnuts around the sides.
REFRIGERATE.

Yleld: 14 to 20 slices (This is rich, so the servings should be small.)

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 20 slices, each has 284 calories, 18.6 g fat,
5.2 g protein, 24 g carbohydrate, 1.4 g dietary fiber.

Note: If the egg whites become dry and too stiff because you've overbeaten
them, just add another egg white and beat at medium speed until blended.

Chocolate Dump-It Cake


I love dump-it cakes. What fun to just toss all the ingredients in a bowl. Try
making one on a rainy afternoon, my favorite kind of day for baking.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1/2 cup (45 g) pure GF cocoa powder 2 eggs, beaten until frothy
1/2 cup (120 ml) boiling water 1/2 cup (60 ml) canola oil
1 cup (130 g) cornstarch 2 teaspoons vanilla flavoring or extract
1 1/2 cups (150 g) potato starch 2 1/2 teaspoons guar gum or xanthan
1 tablespoon plus 1 1/2 teaspoons gum
baking powder 1 1/4 cups (295 ml) milk, divided
1 teaspoon salt
1 cup (200 g) sugar

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE a 9 x 13-inch (22.5 x
32.5-cm) pan. COMBINE cocoa powder and boiling water in a large bowl; mix
well. DUMP in all other ingredients, except for 1 cup (235 ml) milk. MIX well to
remove all lumps from batter. ADD remaining 1 cup (235 ml) milk slowly. MIX
just until combined. Add a little more milk if batter seems heavy. POUR batter
into prepared pan. BAKE for 22 to 25 minutes, until a toothpick inserted in the
middle of the cake tests clean.

212 Special Pleasures: Yummy Cakes


Yield: 14 to 18 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 18 servings, each has 174 calories,


4.5 g fat, 1.7 g protein, 31.6 g carbohydrate, 1.2 g dietary fiber.

Note: Boiling water is used to release the flavor of the cocoa.

Bittersweet Chocolate Mousse Cake


DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
1 tablespoon pure GF cocoa powder 12 tablespoons (170 g) unsalted butter,
12 ounces (340 g) GF bittersweet cut into chunks
chocolate, chopped 1 tablespoon (15 ml) vanilla flavoring
1 ounce (28 g) GF unsweetened choco- or extract
late, chopped 8 large eggs, separated and beaten
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup (150 g) light brown sugar,
crumbled with clean fingers to
remove lumps, packed

ADJUST oven rack to lower-middle position. PREHEAT oven to 325F (170C,


or gas mark 3). BUTTER sides of 9-inch (22.5-cm) springform pan. Dust with
cocoa powder; tap out excess. LINE bottom of pan with parchment or waxed
paper round. WRAP bottom and sides of pan with large sheet of foil. MELT but-
ter and chocolates in double boiler over barely simmering water, stirring occa-
sionally until chocolate mixture is smooth. (RESERVE hot water, covered, in
saucepan.) COOL mixture slightly. WHISK in vanilla and egg yolks. SET choco-
late mixture aside. BEAT egg whites and salt with electric mixer on medium
speed until frothy (about 30 seconds). ADD half of the brown sugar; beat at
high speed until combined (about 30 seconds). ADD remaining brown sugar
and continue to beat at high speed until soft peaks form when whisk is lifted
(about 2 minutes longer). STI R one-third of the beaten egg whites into choco-
late mixture with a whisk to lighten it, then fold in remaining egg whites in two
additions, again using the whisk. GENTLY SCRAPE batter into prepared spring-
form pan. SET springform pan in large roasting pan . Pour hot water from
saucepan to depth of 1 inch (2.5 cm). CAREFULLY SLIDE roasting pan into
oven. BAKE until cake has risen, is firm around edges, center has just set, and
instant-read thermometer inserted into center registers about 170F (77C), 45
to 55 minutes. REMOVE springform pan from water bath; discard foil. COOL

213
on wire rack 10 minutes. RUN thin-bladed paring knife around inside of cake
pan to loosen cake. COOL cake in springform pan on wire rack until barely
warm (about 3 hours). WRAP in plastic wrap and refrigerate until thoroughly
chilled, at least 8 hours (can be refrigerated up to two days). UNMOLD cake by
removing sides of pan. Slide thin metal spatula between cake and pan bottom
to loosen, then invert cake onto large plate, peel off parchment, and reinvert
onto serving platter. TO SERVE: Slice cake using a sharp, thin-bladed knife, dip-
ping knife in pitcher of hot water and wiping blade before each cut.

Yleld: 12 to 16 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 16 servings, each has 274 calories, 19 g


fat, 4.5 g protein, 21 .2 g carbohydrate, 2 g dietary fiber.

Chocolate Tea Cakes with Orange Sauce


DRY INGREDIENTS: ORANGE SAUCE:
8 ounces (225 g) GF bittersweet choco- 2 cups (475 ml) orange juice (fresh
late, chopped squeezed preferred)
1/2 cup (25 g) GF cocoa powder, sifted 1/2 cup (50 g) sugar

4 large egg whites, at room temperature 1 teaspoon cornstarch


1/2 cup (50 g) sugar 3 tablespoons (45 ml) water
Candied orange zest or slivered orange
WET INGREDIENTS:
peel or tangerine slices for garnish,
8 tablespoons (112 g) unsalted butter, optional
cut into chunks
1/2 cup (120 ml) heavy cream

CAKE:

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE six 4-ounce (115-g)
ramekins lightly with melted butter; dust with sugar. Place on large baking
sheet. MELT chocolate and butter in double boiler over hot water (not simmer-
ing). Remove from heat. WHISK cream into chocolate mixture. SIFT cocoa
powder over chocolate mixture. Whisk until mixture is smooth. WHIP egg whites
in a large grease-free bowl, on medium speed with electric mixe~ until soft
peaks form. Gradually add sugar and whip on high speed until egg whites form
stiff peaks. ADD one-fourth of chocolate mixture to whipped egg whites and
fold until completely blended. Add the rest of the chocolate mixture in three
additions, blending well. DIVI DE batter among ramekins. BAKE at 350F

214 Special Pleasures: Yummy Cakes


(180C, or gas mark 4) for 15 minutes, until springy to touch. LET cool for 5
minutes. INVERT cakes onto cake rack and cool completely.

ORANGE SAUCE:

COMBINE orange juice and sugar in heavy, wide noncorrosive saucepan. BOIL
for 30 minutes, until reduced to 1 cup (235 ml) of liquid. DISSOLVE cornstarch
in water. ADD cornstarch mixture to boiling sauce and continue to boil 5 min-
utes longer. Allow sauce to cool. TO SERVE: Place each cake on an individual
serving dish. Pour orange sauce over the cake. Garnish with candied orange
zest or slices of fresh tangerine.

Yield: 6 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 602 calories, 26.1 g fat, 6.8 g pro-
tein, 48.5 g carbohydrate, 4.2 g dietary fiber.

Sour Cream Fudge Cupcakes


Adapted from www.bobsredmill.com.

WET INGREDIENTS: 1 cup (200 g) sugar


4 tablespoons (55 g) unsalted butter 1 1/2 cups (150 g) quinoa flour
1/2 cup (120 ml) water 1/2 teaspoon baking powder
2 eggs, separated and beaten 1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract 1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup (60 g) GF sour cream 1/2teaspoon cream of tartar
1 teaspoon xanthan gum
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (25 g) pure GF cocoa powder

GREASE your heaviest muffin tin and line with paper cups. Spray paper muffin
cups with oil for easy release. PLACE butter and water in saucepan; heat until
butter is melted. REMOVE from heat. WHISK in cocoa powder. SIFT together
the sugar, quinoa flour, baking powder, baking soda, salt, cream of tartar, and
xanthan gum in a bowl. ADD the cooled cocoa mixture, egg yolks, vanilla, and
sour cream, and blend well. BEAT the egg whites until stiff but not dry. FOLD
egg whites into batter. SPOON batter into prepared muffin tin. BAKE at 375F
(190C, or gas mark 5) for 20 minutes or until a cake tester inserted in center
comes out clean.

215
Yield: 12 cupcakes

Nutritional Analysis: Each cupcake has 174 calories, 5.9 g fat, 2.3 g
protein, 27.7 g carbohydrate, 1.7 g dietary fiber.

Sensational Flourless Chocolate Cake


In the early days of Mace's restricted diet, this recipe was a miracle to us-a
yummy cake without flour.
DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
6 ounces (170 g) sweet butter 6 eggs, separated
6 ounces (170 g) GF semisweet ICING INGREDIENTS:
chocolate 1/2 cup (120 ml) heavy cream
1/2 cup (150 g) sugar 8 ounces (225 g) GF semisweet
1/2 teaspoon salt chocolate, chopped
1 1/2 cups (180 g) plain almonds, ground 21/2 teaspoons instant coffee
(or almond meal flour from 1 teaspoon coffee flavoring or extract
Bob's Red Mill)

PREHEAT oven to 375F (190C, or gas mark 5). GREASE a 9- or 10-inch


(22.5- or 25-cm) springform pan and line bottom with parchment paper,
greased and lightly floured.
CAKE:
MELT butter and chocolate in double boiler. WHIP egg yolks until they look like
a yellow ribbon; add sugar and salt. WHIP egg whites until stiff; fold in ground
almonds or almond meal. ADD chocolate mixture to yolks, blending well. FOLD
egg white mixture into chocolate mixture, using the back of a wooden spoon.
Do not stir.
ICING:

SCALD cream. ADD chocolate and coffee, stirring until melted; cool. ADD cof-
fee flavoring; stir. SPREAD over cake when cake is cool.

Yield: 14 to 20 slices
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 20 slices, each has 215 calories,
15.4 g fat, 4.3 g protein, 15 g carbohydrate, 1.2 g dietary fiber.

216 Special Pleasures: Yummy Cakes


Chocolate Pound Cake
Adapted from www.bobsredmill.comContributedbyCarolFenster.Ph.D.

DRY INGREDIENTS: 1 teaspoon grated orange peel or lemon


1/2 cup (70 g) brown rice flour peel (optional)
1/2 cup (30 g) tapioca flour
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (30 g) potato starch
1 jar (1.5 ounces, or 43 g) prune baby
1/2 cup (45 g) pure unsweetened cocoa
food
powder
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
2 teaspoons xanthan gum
1/2 cup (80 ml) milk (dairy, GF rice,
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
or GF soy)
1/2 teaspoon baking powder
2 tablespoons (28 g) unsalted butter,
1/2teaspoon sea salt
room temperature
2 tablespoons (30 ml) strong coffee
2 eggs, beaten until frothy
1 cup (200 g) sugar

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). SPRAY 6- or 8-cup (1.4- or
1.9 L) tube or Bundt cake pan with cooking spray. Dust with rice flour. SIFT
flours, potato starch, cocoa powder, xanthan gum, baking soda, baking powder,
and salt into a bowl. COMBINE coffee, prunes, vanilla, and milk in another
bowl. BEAT butter, eggs, sugar, and orange peel in large bowl with electric
mixer at high speed for 4 minutes. ADD flour mixture to butter mixture alter-
nately with milk/prune mixture, mixing by hand or at low speed between addi-
tions, scraping sides of bowl continuously. PLACE batter in prepared pan. BAKE
at 350F (180C, or gas mark 4) for 40 minutes or until toothpick inserted into
center comes out clean. REMOVE from oven and coolon rack for 10 minutes.
TURN pan onto serving plate. COOL completely.

Yield: 12 servings
Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 160 calories, 3.3 g fat,
2.1 g protein, 30.5 g carbohydrate, 1.6 g dietary fiber.

217
Carob Fudge Cake
Carob is a healthy substitute for chocolate. It is not a stimulant like choco-
late, and it contains many vitamins and minerals.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1 cup (140 g) brown rice flou~ sifted 1/2 cup (160 ml) warm water
1/2 cup (60 g) amaranth flou~ sifted 1/2 cup (80 ml) oil
1/2 cup (100 g) pure carob powder 1/2 cup (115 g) honey
1 teaspoon baking soda 1 tablespoon (15 ml) vinegar or
1/2 teaspoon sea salt lemon juice
1/2 cup (25 g) plain nuts, chopped 1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
(optional)

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE 8-inch (20-cm)
square baking pan; set aside. COMBINE dry ingredients, except nuts, in a bowl.
MIX well, then SIFT into another bowl. COMBINE wet ingredients in a small
bowl. MIX together with fork or whisk. POUR mixed wet ingredients over dry
ingredients (all at once), then MIX QUICKLY POUR immediately into prepared
baking pan. SCATTER nuts on top of batter. BAKE 25 to 30 minutes. When
done, cracks will (typically) appear in top. The inside remains moist and fudgy.

Yield: 8 to 12 squares

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 squares, each has 231 calories, 8.6 g


fat, 3.4 g protein, 34.9 g carbohydrate, 4.1 g dietary fiber.

218 Special Pleasures: Yummy Cakes


Chocolate Oblivion Torte
Adapted from The Cake Bible by Rose Levy Beranbaum, William Morrow and
Company, Inc., New York, copyright 1988.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1 pound (455 g) GF bittersweet 1 cup (225 g) butter
chocolate 6 large eggs
1 teaspoon rum, or to taste (optional)

PREHEAT oven to 425F (220C, or gas mark 7). BUTTER 8-inch (20-cm)
round pan, preferably springform; line with parchment paper. If using spring-
form pan, wrap the outside with aluminum foil. MELT chocolate and butter in a
double boiler. Remove from heat when melted. WHISK the eggs constantly in a
large bowl set over simmering water until they become warm to the touch.
Remove from heat. BEAT eggs with an electric mixer until the volume triples
and you have soft peaks. QUICKLY FOLD the chocolate mixture into the eggs
using a rubber spatula. POUR mixture into prepared springform pan. PLACE
pan into a roasting pan; pour boiling water into roasting pan until it comes
halfway up the sides of the springform pan (bain-marie). CAREFULLY slide pan
into oven. BAKE for 5 minutes. PLACE a buttered sheet of foil over the cake
batter, and leave it there for 10 minutes in the oven. REMOVE from oven and
cool for 45 minutes. COVER with plastic wrap and refrigerate until firm, about 3
hours.

Yield: 6 to 10 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 10 servings, each has 613 calories, 32.5 g


fat, 6.4 g protein, 24.2 g carbohydrate, 3.4 g dietary fiber.

Note: Try this cake with Maple Sugar Icing or Maple Syrup Icing. Maple sugar
powder and granulated maple sugar are both available from Vermont Country
Naturals Corp., PO Box 238, Charlotte, VT 05445, (800) 528-7021.

219
MAPLE SUGAR ICI NG:

2 cups (290 g) maple sugar powder 1/2 cup (50 g) plain walnuts, chopped
1 cup (235 ml) heavy cream

COMBINE and cook maple sugar and cream over low heat, stirring frequently.
REMOVE from stovetop when small quantity forms a soft ball in cold water.
Cool slightly. BEAT until creamy. Fold in nuts. Spread on cake.

MAPLE SYRUP ICING:


1 cup (235 ml) maple syrup
2 egg whites

COMBINE maple syrup and egg whites; beat using electric mixer. Spread on
cake.

220 Special Pleasures: Yummy Cakes


CHAPTER SIX

Fun and Easy to Eat:


Desserts to Die For

Desserts
Desserts, be they elaborate and complicated confections or simple, homespun
treats, top a meal, ending it with grace and sending us away feeling blessed
and refreshed by the gathering and company and good tastes. We have always
enjoyed making desserts, maybe because they bring people so much pleasure.
When our children were young, having a dessert ready when they walked in
the door from school was a way to welcome them home. Back again and
again to the same desserts, that is their virtue in your life.
For a soothing and satisfying ending to a meal, there is nothing better
than a sweet pudding or a warm fruit crisp. Baked puddings need a heavy
pottery dish. To make a baked pudding with a creamy texture, you will need
to set the baking dish in a water bath, or a bain-marie. Simply place the
pudding dish into a roasting pan, and pour hot water into the roasting pan
until it comes halfway up the side of the dish. The hot water is steamy but
not boiling, which reduces the amount of time it takes to cook the pudding.
(The pudding itself should not boil or it will form air pockets and a watery
texture.) The pudding is done when a knife inserted in the center comes
out clean.
I love desserts because they take us back to our happy times. I hope you
enjoy making these desserts, and that doing so will add to the quality of your
life and the richness of your own traditions.

221
Broken Glass Pudding
For this pudding dessert, you will make a brittle caramel topping that you
break into pieces (like glass!) and a caramel bottom, hence the double listing
of sugar and water. Try this with your children.

CARAMEL INGREDIENTS: PUDDING INGREDIENTS:


1/2 cup (70 g) plusv cup (70 g) sugar 2 whole eggs
1/2 cup (120 ml) sugar plus 1/2 cup (120 2 egg yolks
ml) water 2 cups (475 ml) milk
1/2 cup (120 ml) plain heavy cream
2 tablespoons (25 g) granulated sugar
Few drops vanilla flavoring or extract

PREHEAT OVEN: 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). HEAT an 8-inch (20-cm) mold
or souffle dish in the oven. DISSOLVE 1/2 cup (70 g) sugar in 1/2 cup (120 ml)
water in small, heavy saucepan. BOIL without stirring until the mixture has a
golden brown color. COAT the souffle dish with the caramel. Allow to cool.
BEAT the whole eggs and yolks together. HEAT milk and cream with 2 table-
spoons (25 g) of sugar to just below the simmering point, then add the eggs
and vanilla. POUR milk mixture into mold or dish. PLACE dish in a larger pan
and surround with boiling water. BAKE for 45 minutes, until just set.

BROKEN GLASS TOPPING:

DISSOLVE 1/2 cup (70 g) sugar in 1/2 cup (120 ml) water in small, thick
saucepan. Boil without stirring until mixture has a golden brown color. POUR
caramel into two well-warmed and buttered 8-inch (20-cm) cake pans. It will
cool quickly. When it is hard, crack with a knife handle. SPOON some of the
"broken glass" onto the pudding when it is cold. COVER with unsweetened
whipped cream, and sprinkle with the remaining "glass" to serve.

Yield: 4 to 6 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 6 servings, each has 266 calories, 13.1 g


fat, 6 g protein, 31 g carbohydrate, 0 g dietary fiber.

222 Fun and Easy to Eat: Desserts to Die For


Homey Bread Pudding
with Jam Topping
Bread puddings are feel-good foods, comforting and very easy to make.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


2 cups (130 g) crumbled stale GF bread 5 eggs
4 tablespoons (55 g) butter, melted 21/2 cups (595 ml) cream
1 teaspoon ground ginger
TOPPING:
7 tablespoons (90 g) sugar
1/2 cup (160 g) preserves (best with
strawberry, apricot, or marmalade)

PREHEAT oven to 300F (150C, or gas mark 2). GREASE a 2-quart (1.9-L)
glass baking dish. MIX crumbled GF bread with the butter and ginger.
ARRANGE bread mixture in the baking dish. LIGHTLY BEAT together sugar and
eggs. HEAT cream in microwave until hot. SLOWLY BLEND hot cream into the
sugar-and-egg mixture. POUR egg-cream mixture over crumbled bread pieces
in baking dish. PUT large baking pan into the oven. Fill this dish about 1/3 full
with room-temperature water. CAREFULLY put the pudding dish into the center
of the large pan in the oven. ADD enough water to the larger pan to almost
reach the top of the pudding dish (the water should be about the same level as
the pudding inside the pudding dish). BAKE until pudding is firm, about 1 1/2
hours. TURN OFF oven. REMOVE both dishes from the oven (one at a time).
BRUSH top with preserves. SERVE hot.

Yield: 4 to 6 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 6 servings, each has 532 calories, 25.4 g


fat, 12.9 g protein, 62.9 g carbohydrate, 1.2 g dietary fiber.

Chocolate Mousse
This is not as hard as you think. It is really just chocolate pudding taken up a
notch.
DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
6 ounces (170 g) GF semisweet 8 tablespoons (1 12 g) butter
chocolate 3 eggs, separated, at room temperature
2 tablespoons (25 g) sugar 1/2 cup (175 ml) plain heavy cream
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract

223
STEP ONE:

PLACE the chocolate and the butter in top of double boiler over boiling water.
When melted, transfer to a bowl to gradually cool.

STEP TWO:

BEAT 3 egg yolks until they form a yellow ribbon when beater is lifted. ADD
beaten egg yolks to the cooled chocolate. BEAT egg whites until soft peaks
form; gradually add 2 tablespoons (25 g) sugar. FOLD egg whites into the
chocolate using a flat wooden spoon.

STEP THREE:

BEAT heavy cream until stiff. ADD 1 teaspoon vanilla to cream. GRADUALLY
FOLD whipped cream into the chocolate mixture. SPOON into dessert dishes.
CHI LL before servi ng.

Yield: 4 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 587 calories, 46.2 g fat 7.2 g pro-
tein, 35.5 g carbohydrate, 2.8 g dietary fiber.

Creme Caramel
We always have this for dessert when we go out because we are certain that it
will be gluten-free.

CARAMEL INGREDIENTS: CUSTARD INGREDIENTS:


1 cup (200 g) sugar 21/2 cups (595 ml) milk
1/2 cup (60 ml) water 21/2 cups (595 ml) heavy cream
1 teaspoon lemon juice 1 teaspoon vanilla extract
3 eggs
6 egg yolks
1 cup (200 g) sugar

PREHEAT oven to 325F (170C, or gas mark 3). GREASE eight to ten 6-ounce
(170-g) Pyrex custard dishes with butter or spray with oil; set aside.

SUGAR CARAMELIZING:

HEAT 1 cup (200 g) sugar, wate~ and lemon juice in a saucepan, stirring con-
stantly as sugar darkens and becomes a caramel sauce. POUR caramel sauce
into bottom of greased custard dishes.

224 Fun and Easy to Eat: Desserts to Die For


CUSTARD STEP:

SIMMER the milk and cream with the vanilla for 5 minutes. BEAT the eggs and
egg yolks together, adding 1 cup (200 g) sugar. BEAT until all is light and fluffy.
ADD the warm milk-and-cream mixture gradually to the eggs, beating continu-
ously. POUR into prepared custard dishes.

BAKING STEP:

PREPARE A BAIN-MARIE: Place filled custard dishes in a large roasting pan. Fill
pan halfway with hot water. BAKE for about 45 minutes. REMOVE dishes from
the water bath; COOL. LOOSEN around edges with small knife. INVERT each
custard onto its own plate.

Yield: 8 to 10 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 10 servings, each has 454 calories, 27.6 g


fat, 6.7 g protein, 44.8 g carbohydrate, 0 g dietary fiber.

Baked Rice Pudding


My favorite dessert, gluten- and wheat-free!

WET INGREDIENTS: 1/3 cup (70 g) sugar


4 cups (9464 ml) milk 3 tablespoons (40 g) rice
1/2 tablespoon nutmeg
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 teaspoon salt

PREHEAT oven to 300F (150C, or gas mark 2). BUTTER a 2-quart (1.9-L)
baking dish. PUT all ingredients in dish and stir. BAKE for 3 1/2 hours, stirring
three times during first hour of baking so rice doesn't settle.

Yield: 6 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 185 calories, 6.8 g fat 6 g protein,
25.1 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Variation: Stir 1/2 cup (75 g) GF raisins into pudding as it cools .

225
Lemon Pudding
Another classic.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


2 tablespoons (28 g) butter 1/2 cup (175 g) sugar
3 eggs, separated 1 1/2 tablespoons cornstarch
1 cup (235 ml) milk Grated rind of 1 lemon
1/2 cup (80 ml) lemon juice
Heavy cream (optional)

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). PREPARE a bain-marie (i.e.,
pan of hot water large enough to hold a 1 1/2-quart [l.4-L] baking dish, and
high enough to allow water to come halfway up the sides of the baking dish).
BEAT butter until creamy. ADD sugar gradually, beating until completely blend-
ed. BEAT egg yolks, one by one, into sugar mixture. ADD milk, cornstarch,
lemon juice, and rind; beat to mix well (mixture will look curdled). BEAT egg
whites to soft-peak stage; fold into batter. POUR into 1 1/2-quart (1 .4-L) baking
dish. PLACE baking dish in bain-marie in 350F (180C, or gas mark 4) oven.
BAKE 50 to 60 minutes. LET cool.

SERVE tepid, with a pitcher of chilled heavy cream (if desired).

Yield: 4 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 336 calories, 11.5 g fat,


6.8 g protein, 51.5 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Spanish Cream
DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
2 envelopes (.25 ounce, or 7 g, each) 1/2 cup (60 ml) cold water
gelatin 3 eggs, separated
1/2 cup (70 g) sugar 2 cups (475 ml) milk
1/2 teaspoon salt 2 teaspoons vanilla flavoring and extract
1 cup GF macaroons, coarsely crushed

SPRINKLE gelatin over cold water and let it soften for 5 minutes. SLIGHTLY
BEAT egg yolks. HEAT milk to almost boiling; stir a little of the hot milk into egg
yolks. STIR the remainder of the egg yolks and the sugar into the hot milk. ADD

226 Fun and Easy to Eat: Desserts to Die For


gelatin mixture and salt. COOK over medium heat, stirring constantly, just until
custard begins to thicken. DO NOT BOI L or overcook (yolks will curdle).
REMOVE from heat. ADD macaroons and vanilla. BEAT egg whites until they
are stiff but not dry, then fold egg whites into the custard. POUR into a 1 1/2-
quart (lA-L) mold or individual dessert dishes. CHILL until firm.

Yleld: 6 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 299 calories, 109 fat, 7.3 g protein,
44.8 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Popcorn Squares
This is a family favorite.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


4 tablespoons (55 g) butter 1 bag (10 ounces, or 280 g) GF marsh-
mallows
1/4 cup (60 g) brown sugar
3 quarts (100 g) popped popcorn

GREASE 9 x 5-inch (22.5 x 13-cm) baking pan. MELT the butter in a large skil-
let. ADD the marshmallows and brown sugar. STI R over low heat until melted.
PLACE the popcorn in a bowl. POUR the marshmallow mixture over popcorn
and stir. (Use a flat wooden spoon or buttered hands.) PLACE warm popcorn
mixture into greased pan and pat down to fill pan. COVER with waxed paper
and put a weight such as a book or two on it until it cools and hardens. CUT
into squares.

Yleld: 8 to 10 squares

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 10 squares, each has 226 calories,


8A g fat, 1.8 g protein, 36 g carbohydrate, 1 A g dietary fiber.

227
Apple Crisp
A taste treat for all ages. Top off this dessert with ice cream or whipped
cream.

THE FRUIT: 3/4 cup (150 g) sugar 1 teaspoon baking


2 tablespoons (20 g) rice flour powder
2 tablespoons (16 g) arrowroot 1/2 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons (25 g) sugar 1/2 teaspoon xanthan gum
2 teaspoons cinnamon 5 tablespoons (70 g) butter, melted,
4 large cooking apples, peeled and thin- divided
ly sliced 1 egg, slightly beaten
1 teaspoon almond flavoring or extract
THE TOPPING:
1/2 cup (25 g) plain pecans, chopped
1 cup (120 g) almond meal flour

PREHEAT oven to 375F (190C, or gas mark 5). GREASE a 2-quart (l.9-L)
baking dish.

PREPARE FRUIT:

COMBINE rice flour, arrowroot, sugar, and cinnamon in a bowl. LAYER apple
slices in a 2-quart (l.9-L) baking dish, sprinkling the flour mixture over each
layer of apples.

MAKE TOPPING:

CRUMBLE the almond meal, 1/2 cup (150 g) sugar, baking powder, salt, xan-
than gum, and 1 tablespoon (15 g) of the melted butter together with fingers.
MIX in egg, almond flavoring, and pecans.

FINAL STEPS:

CRUMBLE topping over fruit. DRIZZLE remaining melted butter over topping.
BAKE at 375F (190C, or gas mark 5) for 40 to 45 minutes or until topping is
browned.

Yleld: 4 to 6 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 6 servings, each has 554 calories,


32.8 g fat, 109 protein, 54.9 g carbohydrate, 6.9 g dietary fiber.

Variation: Substitute 2 cups (290 g) fresh blueberries and 3 cups (600 g)


peeled, sliced nectarines for apples.

228 Fun and Easy to Eat: Desserts to Die For


QUick Applesauce with Nuts
We discovered this applesauce by accident when I overdid our microwaved
baked apples. My children say it beats any applesauce they've ever had.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


4 crisp apples Water to cover bottom of microwave-
1/2 cup (50 g) plain walnuts, finely safe dish
chopped
2 tablespoons (30 ml) real maple syrup
2 teaspoons cinnamon

ARRANGE the apples (whole, with skins on) in a microwave-safe dish-I use a
Pyrex bowl that holds four to six apples. SPRINKLE walnuts generously between
the apples in the dish. COVER the bottom of the container with water. DRIZZLE
maple syrup over all. SPRINKLE with cinnamon. SEAL with plastic wrap.
MICROWAVE for 10 minutes. COOL slightly; lift off apple skins and gently stir
the apples. Don't break the apples much-just distribute the juices. Best served
warm.

Yield: 4 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 214 calories, 9.7 g fat 2.4 g pro-
tein, 29.3 g carbohydrate, 4 g dietary fiber.

Grilled Bananas Flambe


Having friends over for a barbecue? These flaming bananas are fun to make
while everyone is standing around the grill.
DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
4 medium bananas, firm 1/2 cup (60 ml) lime juice
1 tablespoon (15 g) butter 1/2 cup (60 ml) light rum
1/2 cup (115 g) light brown sugar
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon

COVER grill with foil. GRILL unpeeled bananas on foil about 8 minutes or until
just barely tender and darkened. REMOVE from grill. MELT BUTTER in oven-
proof skillet. ADD brown sugar and cinnamon. HEAT till bubbly. STIR in lime
juice. SLIT bananas lengthwise (do not remove peel). ARRANGE bananas in the

229
skillet, skin-side down, and place skillet on grill. COOK, uncovered, while spoon-
ing sauce over bananas frequently for 6 to 8 minutes or until sauce is thick-
ened. REMOVE skillet from grill. Remove banana skins from the bananas. This
is the fun part .... CALL everyone to stand around the grill. While everyone is
standing around: H EAT rum in a small saucepan over low heat just till hot.
CAREFULLY light the rum with a match. POUR the flaming rum over skinned
bananas in skillet. TURN flaming bananas over one last time. WAIT until flame
subsides then serve bananas with the sauce spooned over top.

Yleld: 8 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 143 calories, 1.6 g fat, trace protein,
31 g carbohydrate, 1.7 g dietary fiber.

Lemon Souffle
This is basically a lemon pudding variation.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


5 eggs, separated 1/2 cup (50 g) granulated sugar
5 tablespoons (50 g) frozen GF lemon- Pinch of salt
ade concentrate, thawed Confectioners' sugar for dusting

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). BUTTER an 8-cup (l.9-L)
souffle dish. PREPARE a bain-marie (i.e., a roasting pan filled with hot water in
which you will place the souffle dish). BEAT the egg yolks and sugar until they
resemble a pale yellow ribbon when beaters are lifted. FOLD in lemonade con-
centrate. Set aside. BEAT egg whites with the salt until soft peaks form. FOLD
one-third of the egg whites into yolk mixture, using a wooden spoon held level.
With the back of the spoon held horizontally, fold egg whites over and under the
egg yolks (do not mix or stir). This keeps air within the souffle, enabling it to rise.
FOLD in the rest of the egg whites, being careful not to deflate the mixture.
POUR into prepared dish. BAKE on the center rack for 20 to 25 minutes, until
top is a rich golden brown. DUST with confectioners' sugar. SERVE immediately.

Yleld: 4 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 185 calories, 6.2 g fat,


7.8 g protein, 24.4 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

230 Fun and Easy to Eat: Desserts to Die For


Blueberry Lemon Cream Tarts
A quick alternative to cheesecake.

TART SHELLS: 1/2cup (60 g) GF sour cream


2 cups (40 g) puffed millet, crushed 1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
4 ounces (1 15 g) GF cream cheese,
4 tablespoons (55 g) unsalted butter, softened
softened
TOPPING:
1 1/2 tablespoons (20 g) granulated
1 1/2 cups (195 g) blueberries
sugar
1 teaspoon lemon juice
1 teaspoon coriander
teaspoon lemon zest
1/2
TART FILLING: Confectioners' sugar for dusting
2 tablespoons (30 g) light brown sugar,
packed

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4), with baking sheet on middle
rack. HAND MIX millet with softened butter, granulated sugar, and coriander
until well
combined. PRESS mixture with your fingers and back of a spoon evenly and
firmly onto bottom and up sides of four 3.75-inch (9-cm) tart pans, or 1/2 inch
(2 cm) up sides of four 8-ounce (225-g) ramekins. PUT tart pans or ramekins
on preheated baking sheet and bake crust until slightly darker, about 10 min-
utes. COOL 10 minutes on a wire rack (ramekins will need to cool an additional
5 minutes in the refrigerator). GENTLY PUSH bottom of each tart pan to loosen
crust, then invert crust onto your hand and place on serving plate. If using
ramekins, leave crusts in ramekins. WHISK TOGETHER brown sugar, sour
cream, and vanilla in a small bowl until sugar is dissolved. BEAT cream cheese
in medium bowl with electric mixer until smooth, then add sour cream mixture,
beating until combined. DIVIDE cream cheese filling among tart shells. BLEND
blueberries, lemon juice, and zest, spreading evenly over cream filling. DUST
with confectioners' sugar.

Yield: 4 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 342 calories, 24.7 g fat,


3.6 g protein, 26.2 g carbohydrate, 1.6 g dietary fiber.

231
Chocolate Truffles with Grapefruit
DAY ONE INGREDIENTS: 15 ounces (420 g) GF bittersweet
2 teaspoons slivers of grapefruit peel chocolate, chopped
1/2 cup (70 g) sugar 1/2 cup (60 ml) grapefruit juice
1/2 cup (45 g) pure unsweetened cocoa 1/2 cup (85 g) honey
6 tablespoons (85 g) unsalted butte~ at
DAY TWO INGREDIENTS:
room temperature
1 cup (235 ml) heavy cream
1/2 teaspoon slivers of grapefruit peel

DAY ONE:

MIX and SPREAD grapefruit peel, sugar, and cocoa on baking sheet with sides.
Let dry uncovered for 1 day.

DAY TWO:

PLACE heavy cream in pot with 1/2 teaspoon grapefruit peel; bring to a boil over
medium heat. Cover and set aside for 10 minutes. REHEAT cream to a boil and
pour over chopped chocolate. Let stand for 1/2 minute, then stir until smooth.
COMBINE grapefruit juice and honey over low heat until warm. Stir into choco-
late mixture. Add butter 2 tablespoons (28 g) at a time, stirring until smooth.
Chill 1 to 4 hours. LINE two jelly roll pans with foil or parchment paper. Drop
cold chocolate mixture by teaspoonfuls and roll in hands. Briefly freeze if too
soft. Roll truffles in dry cocoa mix.

Yleld: 6 to 8 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 8 servings, each has 550 calories,


37.1 g fat, 4.4 g protein, 49.5 g carbohydrate, 5.8 g dietary fiber.

Variation: Substitute lime or orange peel and juice for grapefruit peel
and juice.

Note: These truffles can be made 2 weeks in advance. Store them in the
refrigerator.

232 Fun and Easy to Eat: Desserts to Die For


Pears in Custard Sauce
We first enjoyed this in a favorite French restaurant across from our gallery.
It is not easy to make, but is definitely a gourmet treat after a great dinner.

CUSTARD INGREDIENTS: PEAR INGREDIENTS:


2 eggs, slightly beaten 3 large pears, cored but not peeled
1 1/2 cups (355 ml) milk 1 1/2 cups (355 ml) water
1/2 cup (100 g) sugar, divided 2 tablespoons (30 ml) lemon juice
Dash of salt 4-inch (1 O-cm) stick cinnamon
1/2 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract

MAKE CUSTARD SAUCE:


STIR together in a saucepan slightly beaten eggs, milk, 1/2 cup (50 g) sugar,
and salt. HEAT 10 minutes, stirring frequently, until the mixture coats a metal
spoon; do not boil. REMOVE pan from heat and set in larger bowl of ice water
to cool. REMOVE pan from bowl of ice water when mixture cools. STIR IN
vanilla. Stir 2 minutes. COVER with plastic wrap and refrigerate.

PREPARE PEARS:
CUT pears in half. STI R together water, remaining 1/2 cup (50 g) sugar, and
lemon juice in a large skillet. ADD cinnamon stick. Bring mixture to a boil. ADD
pear halves. COVER and simmer gently for 30 minutes. (Pears should be tender
but not mushy.) DRAI N pears, place on dish, cover, and chill.

TO SERVE:
SPOON 1/2 cup custard into a serving bowl and top with 1/2 pear. REFRIGERATE
until firm, then serve.

Yleld: 6 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 159 calories, 3.8 g fat, 4.4 g pro-
tein, 26.7 g carbohydrate, 2.3 g dietary fiber.

233
Pumpkin Cheesecake
This cake freezes nicely and can be made up to forty-eight hours in advance.
Whipped cream with rum and nutmeg makes a nice topping.
CRUST INGREDIENTS: 1 cup (200 g) sugar
1 1/2 cups (175 g) GF bread or cookie 4 eggs
crumbs or (20 g) GF puffed rice 1 cup (230 g) GF sour cream
1/2 cup (75 g) plain pecans/ chopped 1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
6 tablespoons (85 g) butter, melted 1/2 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons (30 g) brown sugar 1 teaspoon cinnamon
1/2 teaspoon cloves
FILLING INGREDIENTS:
1/2 teaspoon each ginger and nutmeg
2 packages (8 ounces/ or 225 g/
1 1/2 cups (340 g) canned pumpkin
each) GF cream cheese/ at room
puree
temperature

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C/ or gas mark 4).

MAKE CRUST:

BLEN D crust ingredients until fine crumbs form. PRESS onto the bottom of a 9-
inch (22.5-cm) springform pan. BAKE for 15 to 20 minutes. COOL completely.

MAKE FILLING:

PREH EAT oven to 275F (140C/ or gas mark 1). BEAT cream cheese with an
electric mixer. ADD sugar and beat until well blended. ADD eggs one at a
time and beat until mixture is smooth. MIX in remaining filling ingredients.
POUR filling into the cooled prepared crust in pan. BAKE for 2 hours and 15
minutes. REMOVE from oven (center may seem undercooked but will firm up
as it chills). RUN knife around the cake edges to a depth of 1/2 inch (1.25-cm)
to loosen cheesecake. This also prevents cracking. REMOVE bottom from pan.
COOL on rack to room temperature. COVER with plastic wrap and refrigerate
at least overnight.

Yleld: 6 to 8 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 8 servings/ each has 669 calories/ 45.7 g


fat 12.3 g protein/ 52.2 g carbohydrate/ 2.9 g dietary fiber.

Variation:
For plain cheesecake/ omit pumpkin and spices. Substitute honey or maple
syrup for sugar.
Substitute plain walnuts for pecans.

234 Fun and Easy to Eat: Desserts to Die For


Brandied Fruit Pot
This is a great treat, and you can keep adding more fruit to it as you use it.
WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:
2 cups (370 g) peeled and sectioned 21/2 cups (565 g) granulated sugar,
oranges light brown sugar, (850 g) honey, or
2 cups (300 g) chopped fresh pineapple (595 ml) maple syrup (for a total of
2 cups (300 g) pared and chopped fresh 2 1/2 cups sugar of whatever kind)
pears 6 inches (15 cm) cinnamon stick,
2 cups (300 g) peeled and chopped broken up
fresh peaches
1/2 cup (120 ml) brandy to help ferment
the fruit (optional)

STEP 1:
COMBINE, in a large bowl, fruits and choice of sugar. LET STAND 3 hours, stir-
ring several times.

STEP 2:
TIE cinnamon in a cheesecloth bag and add to fruit along with brandy (if you
choose). COVER loosely. LET STAND 1 WEEK at room temperature (if using
brandy), stirring once a day. If not using brandy, refrigerate.

Yield: about 12 cups (3.5 kg)

Nutritional Analysis: Each half-cup serving has 114 calories, trace fat,
trace protein, 27.9 g carbohydrate, 1.1 g dietary fiber.

Note: To keep starter going, add 1 cup (200 g) sugar and 2 cups (300 g)
chopped fruit to replace every 2 cups (520 g) of fruit and syrup removed. If only
fruit is used and you begin to have too much syrup, add fruit only and not
sugar. If brandy mixture will not be used for several weeks, refrigerate it; then
remove from refrigerator and let stand at room temperature to reactivate fer-
mentation.

235
Fruit Alaska
This is similar to Baked Alaska.

CRUST: 2 tablespoons (25 g) sugar


1 cup (120 g) almond meal flour 20 ounces (560 g) strawberries, fresh
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour or frozen (thawed)
1/2 cup (70 g) sweet rice flour 1/2 cup (85 g) honey
1/2 cup (100 g) sugar
MERINGUE TOPPING:
1/2 teaspoon salt
4 egg whites
1/2 cup (170 g) butter, cut into small
.
pieces
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon almond flavoring or extract
1/2 teaspoon almond flavoring or extract
FRUIT TOPPING: 1 tablespoon sugar
3 tablespoons (24 g) cornstarch

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE a 9 x 13-inch (22.5 x
32.5-cm) pan lightly.

MAKE CRUST:
SIFT together flours, sugar, and 1/2 teaspoon salt. CUT in butter thoroughly,
using two knives or pastry blender. ADD almond extract. ASSEMBLE into crust, han-
dling as little as possible. PRESS in bottom of lightly greased 9 x 13 inch
(22.5 x 32.5-cm) pan. BAKE at 350F (180C, or gas mark 4) for 10 minutes or
until lightly browned. Remove from oven and let cool.

MAKE FRUIT TOPPING:

COMBINE cornstarch and 2 tablespoons (25 g) sugar in saucepan. ADD berries,


with their juice, and honey. GENTLY COOK for a few minutes, stirring constantly,
until mixture comes to a boil, thickens, and is clear. COOL slightly. Pour over crust.

MERINGUE TOPPING:

PREHEAT oven to 325F (170C, or gas mark 3). WHIP egg whites, cream of tartar,
1/2 teaspoon salt, and almond extract till high and fairly rigid. ADD 1 tablespoon
sugar very slowly, beating well until stiff peaks form. SPREAD over filling. BAKE 20
minutes or until lightly browned. Before cutting, dip your knife in hot water.

Yield: 15 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 292 calories, 16.9 g fat, 5 g protein,
29.9 g carbohydrate, 2.7 g dietary fiber.

236 Fun and Easy to Eat: Desserts to Die For


Apple Cobbler
DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
1 1/2 cups (75 g) fresh GF bread crumbs 4 tablespoons (55 g) butte~ melted
1/2 cup (75 g) light brown sugar 3 medium apples, peeled and cored
1 teaspoon cinnamon 1 1/2 teaspoons lemon juice
1/2 teaspoon nutmeg 3 tablespoons (45 ml) water
2 teaspoons grated lemon peel

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE 1-quart (l-L) casse-
role. TOSS breadcrumbs with melted butter. SLICE prepared apples thinly.
COMBINE suga~ cinnamon, nutmeg, and lemon peel.

TO SET UP LAYERS:

ARRANGE one-third of crumbs in bottom of casserole. TOP with one-half of the


sliced apples, THEN add one-half of the sugar mixture. REPEAT layers, making
sure one-third of the crumb mixture is left over for final step.

TO MAKE FINAL TOP LAYER:

STIR lemon juice and water together and sprinkle over top of sugar mixture.
SPRINKLE reserved (remaining one-third) crumbs over the top. BAKE at 350F
(180C, or gas mark 4) for 1 hour or until apples are tender.

Yield: 4 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 398 calories, 14.1 g fat, 5.4 g pro-
tein, 62.4 g carbohydrate, 3.4 g dietary fiber.

Hot Spiced Fruit


This fruit dessert is good served over ice cream or your favorite cake, such as
Basic White Cake (page 185).

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


1 pound (455 g) canned pineapple 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
tidbits 1/2 teaspoon nutmeg

2 tablespoons (40 g) light corn syrup 2 tablespoons (30 g) light brown sugar
2 pounds (1 kg) canned sliced peaches
2 pounds (1 kg) canned apricots
2 tablespoons (30 ml) pure maple syrup

237
PARTIALLY DRAIN canned fruits. Save the juice for sipping or flavoring other
foods. COMBINE all ingredients in saucepan. SIMMER 10 minutes, stirring
occasionally. TO SERVE: Spoon over Basic White Cake (page 185) or GF
.Ice cream.

Yield: 8 to 10 cups (2.3 to 2.9 kg)

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 10 cups, each one-cup serving has


151 calories, trace fat, 1.1 g protein, 36.2 g carbohydrate, 3.1 g dietary fiber.

Cranberry Delight
My friend makes this at Thanksgiving.

1 can (16 ounces, or 455 g) whole berry 2 cups (220 g) sliced tart apples
cranberry sauce 1 cup (120 g) whipped cream
1 can (20 ounces, 567 g) diced
pineapple

MIX fruits together. Fold in whipped cream. Refrigerate.

Yield: 14 to 16 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 16 servings, each has 43 calories, trace


fat, trace protein, 8.4 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Rummed Watermelon
Definitely not for children, but a nice ending to a 4th of July party for adults.

1 (1 O-pound, or 4.5-kg) ripe watermelon 1/2 cup (175 ml) pure light rum
(without added flavorings)

CUT a 3-inch (7.5-cm) square hole, 3 inches (7.5 cm) deep, in center of
watermelon. TRIM pink flesh from plug, leaving 1/2 inch (1.25 cm) of rind.
POUR rum into watermelon. REPLACE the rind plug into the opening.
REFRIGERATE about 8 hours, so rum has a chance to permeate melon.

Yield: 12 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 133 calories, 1.6 g fat,


2.3 g protein, 27.1 g carbohydrate, 1.9 g dietary fiber.

238 Fun and Easy to Eat: Desserts to Die For


"Red Hot" Stew-ed Apples
This versatile recipe can be served plain, over ice cream, or beside a roast.
Half a century ago, my grandmother beguiled me by dropping a few Red Hots
cinnamon candies into her stewed apples. This made the apples red and
spicy-I loved them.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


6 apples, pared and sliced 2 cinnamon sticks
3 tablespoons (45 g) butter 1/2 cup (100 g) granulated sugar
1/2 cup (120 ml) white wine 1 tablespoon grated lemon rind
1/2 cup (120 ml) water 1/2 cup (1 15 g) light brown sugar
1 tablespoon (15 ml) lemon juice
,
SAUTE apples in butter 5 minutes. Set aside. SIMMER remaining ingredients in
saucepan for 5 minutes. POUR slightly cooled ingredients in saucepan over
apples. COOK mixture, uncovered, until apples are tender but not mushy.
POUR into glass or Pyrex baking dish. KEEP warm in oven until ready to serve.
TOP with creme frakhe (mixture of whipped cream and buttermilk left
overnight in the refrigerator).

Yield: 6 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 273 calories, 6.2 g fat, trace protein,
54. 1 g carbohydrate, 2.8 g dietary fiber.

Banana Whip
Delicious! This is a quick no-bake stovetop recipe. Allow time to chill before
servIng.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


3 bananas 1/2 cup (100 g) white sugar
1/2 cup (60 ml) lemon juice 1/2 cup (60 g) light brown sugar
1 cup (235 ml) heavy cream, whipped

PEEL bananas. FORCE bananas through a sieve and into a saucepan. ADD
sugars and lemon juice to bananas in saucepan. COOK mixture just to the boil-
ing point. CHILL. FOLD in whipped cream and spoon into dessert dishes.

239
Yield: 4 to 6 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 6 servings, each has 249 calories, 7.6 g fat,
1.3 g protein, 43.9 g carbohydrate, 1.7 g dietary fiber.

Variation: Sprinkle plain chopped peanuts or any plain chopped nuts over
each serving.

Straw-berry Rhubarb Fool


You are not fooling when you make this easy and yummy dessert.

WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:


4 cups (480 g) rhubarb cut into 1-inch 11/2 cups (340 g) brown sugar
(2.5-cm) pieces 2 tablespoons (25 g) granulated sugar
1 pint (290 g) strawberries, sliced 2 teaspoons cornstarch
1 tablespoon (15 ml) water
1 1/2 cups (370 g) plain low-fat GF
yogurt

STEW rhubarb, covered, over very low heat or in a double boiler until juice
forms-do not add water. STIR in brown sugar. PUT sliced strawberries in
another pan; stir in granulated sugar. COOK strawberries over low heat until
berries are juicy (3 to 4 minutes). MIX cornstarch and water until smooth; stir in
some of the hot berry juice and then add cornstarch mixture to the berries.
Continue cooking over medium heat until berry juice has thickened and is
glossy. CHILL both rhubarb and strawberries. COMBINE before serving: pour
berries into rhubarb and stir gently. GENTLY FOLD yogurt into berry mixture.
CHILL again. SERVE in shallow bowl or individual dishes.

Yield: 6 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 309 calories, 1.3 g fat,


4.3 g protein, 70.1 g carbohydrate, 2.6 g dietary fiber.

240 Fun and Easy to Eat: Desserts to Die For


Dried Pineapple Flowers
Edible flowers can be made of oven-dried pineapple. Use as a lovely garnish.
The thinner you cut the slices, the faster they will dry and the brighter yel-
low they will be.
2 large or 4 small pineapples

PREHEAT oven to 225F (110C, or gas mark 1/4). LINE two baking sheets with
parchment paper (or French nonstick baking mats). PEEL pineapples. Discard
"eyes" using melon bailer. SLICE pineapples very thinly; place on baking sheets.
COOK 30 minutes, until tops looks dry. FLIP SLICES. COOK until completely
dried, 25 to 30 minutes more. They will resemble flowers when dried. COOL on
wire rack. REFRIGERATE in airtight container. Keeps up to 3 days.

Yield: 15 to 18 "flowers"

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 18 "flowers," each has 27 calories, trace


fat, trace protein, 6.9 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Emerald Smoothie
This is a blender concoction; light, fresh, and summery.

lhavocado, chopped 2 scoops GF vanilla ice cream


1 teaspoon honey 2 tablespoons (30 ml) lime juice
1 1/2 cups (295 ml) milk Lime zest to garnish

BLEN D all ingredients in blender and serve sprinkled with lime zest.

Yield: 2 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 176 calories, 8.6 g fat,


6.1 g protein, 18.4 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

241
Sake Millet Pudding with
Stra~berry Gel
Millet flour is a light, fine flour. You will enjoy it in desserts as well as
muffins.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1 cup (140 g) millet flour 1 1/2 cups (355 ml) water
or ground millet 1 cup (235 ml) sake
2 rounded tablespoons (15 g) tapioca 1/2 cup (60 ml) maple syrup
flour 1 tablespoon (15 ml) vanilla extract
1/2 cup (50 g) sugar 2 cups (475 ml) strawberry juice
1 pint (290 g) fresh strawberries,
washed and sliced

GREASE an 8-inch (20-cm) square cake pan. PLACE millet flour or ground mil-
let in heavy saucepan with wate~ sake, maple syrup, and vanilla. Bring mixture
to a boil. Reduce heat, cove~ and cook, stirring often for about 25 minutes.
POUR millet-sake mixture into cake pan. Refrigerate to chill until firm, at least 1
to 2 hours. WHEN pudding is firm, combine the strawberry juice, tapioca, and
sugar in a saucepan. BRING to boil. Reduce heat and simmer, stirring occasion-
ally, until tapioca is completely dissolved, about 10 minutes. COOL for 10 min-
utes. ARRANGE sliced strawberries on pudding and pour the strawberry juice
mixture over them. REFRIGERATE until firm, about 1 to 2 hours. CUT in
squares and serve.

Yield: 4 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 361 calories, 1.3 g fat, 4.5 g pro-
tein, 82.7 g carbohydrate, 3.8 g dietary fiber.

Everlasting Party Pudding


Based on a variation of a quaint old English and Scottish syllabub pudding,
this version of Everlasting Pudding is definitely for grown-ups! To achieve
the right texture, use a wire whisk rather than an electric beater.
WET INGREDIENTS: 1/2 cup (120 ml) white wine
Juice and zest of 1 lemon 2 tablespoons (30 ml) brandy

242 Fun and Easy to Eat: Desserts to Die For


DRY INGREDIENTS: 1 cup (235 ml) heavy cream
1/2 CUp (50 g) sugar 1/2 teaspoon nutmeg

COMBINE lemon juice and lemon zest in a bowl. ADD wine and brandy. LEAVE
overnight. Next day, STRAI N all of this into a deep bowl and add suga~ stirring
until dissolved. POUR in cream slowly, stirring; then grate or shake in nutmeg.
WHISK cream mixture just until blended and thickened. (Try holding the wire
whisk and twirling it between the palm of your hands. A learning experience for
children and adults!)

Don't overbeat! FILL party glasses. Garnish each glass with fresh mint.

Yield: 8 to 10 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 10 servings, each has 106 calories, 8.5 g


fat, trace protein, 6.8 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Baked Alaska
TH E ICE CREAM: THE MERINGUE:
1 quart (600 g) strawberry sorbet, soft- 6 egg whites
ened 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1 quart (570 g) GF strawberry ice cream, 1/2 cup (100 g) sugar
softened 1/2 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract

THE CAKE:
One 9-inch (22.S-cm) cake of your
choice-try one of the sponge cake
recipes in this book

LINE a 4-quart (3.8-L), 10-inch (2S-cm) bowl with plastic wrap, leaving several
inches overhanging all around. SPREAD sorbet on bottom in even layer.
SPREAD ice cream over sorbet. PLACE cake on top of ice cream, pressing
slightly to compact. Cover with plastic wrap overhang; freeze at least 4 hours or
overnight. BEAT egg whites with electric mixer until soft peaks form. Beat in
cream of tartar. Gradually beat in sugar, 1 tablespoon at a time, until thick and
glossy. Beat in vanilla. UNFOLD plastic wrap from over cake at top of bowl.
Invert onto 9-inch (22.S-cm) tart pan bottom. Lift bowl and remove plastic
wrap. SPREAD meringue over dessert, swirling to form peaks, being sure to
cover it completely. FREEZE for at least 30 minutes. (Can be made a day ahead

243
and kept frozen.) PREHEAT oven to 500F (250C, or gas mark 10). PLACE tart
pan bottom on large, heavy baking sheet. BAKE just until meringue is light
gold, about 5 minutes. TRANSFER to platter. SERVE immediately.

Yield: 10 to 12 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 servings, each has 512 calories, 13 g


fat 10.2 g protein, 88.5 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Baked Pears
4 pears, cored but not peeled TOPPING:
2 tablespoons (40 g) honey 1 tablespoon (15 g) butter, melted
3 tablespoons (45 ml) lemon juice 1/2 teaspoon cardamom

2 tablespoons (28 g) butter, melted 1 tablespoon (15 g) brown sugar


Dash each of ground cloves, cardamom, 2 tablespoons (30 ml) orange juice or
and cinnamon Cointreau (orange liqueur)

CUT pears in half vertically. SET pears in broiler-safe baking dish, cut-side up.
COMBINE honey, lemon juice, 2 tablespoons (28 g) melted butter, and spices
and pour over fruit so that some stays in cavity. BAKE, covered, 15 minutes.
COMBINE topping ingredients and drizzle over pears. PLACE pears under broil-
er briefly to brown.

Yield: 8 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 96 calories, 4.5 g fat, trace protein,
13.5 g carbohydrate, 2.3 g dietary fiber.

244 Fun and Easy to Eat: Desserts to Die For


CHAPTER SEVEN

Juicy Endin~s or
Hearty Meals: Lush Pies
Pastries and Pies
In medieval Europe and the British Isles, pastries filled with meat and vegeta-
bles were common fare-perfect for carrying in one's pocket for traveling or
working. Fruit or jam fillings wrapped in sweetened pastry dough were car-
ried for dessert.
Bread dough and pie dough are baking fundamentals. They are,
however, substantially different. Pie dough differs a great deal from bread
dough in both the proportions of its ingredients and in texture. Pie dough
is unleavened-there is no yeast or baking powder added-so it does not
rise. Pie dough contains half the water and many times the shortening of
bread dough.
This chapter introduces you to our basic gluten-free pie dough. This
gluten-free dough can be used for any pie with a fruit or custard filling. It
is best to bake the crust before you add the filling. After adding the filling,
bake it a bit longer so the pie filling will set.
When making fruit-pie fillings, it is important to remember that whenev-
er filling recipes call for a flour thickener, you can replace the wheat flour
with gluten-free thickeners. Several substitute thickeners, such as cornstarch,
tapioca, and arrowroot, are readily available for baking gluten-free fruit pies.
In fact, many chefs prefer to use cornstarch or arrowroot for fillings (even if
the pie dough is made from wheat-based flour) because they prefer the way
these thickeners perform in fruit-pie fillings.
For variety, we have included other basic pie-dough recipes, nondough
pie shells, and even no-crust pies. Meringue pie shells are sweeter and
lighter than pie-dough crusts. Some of the pie crusts in this chapter are made
from gluten-free cookie crumbs, GF prepared cereals, or finely ground nuts
instead of flours. Ground almonds mixed with butter and sugar is a personal
favorite.

245
The main thing to remember with pie dough, especially when made with
gluten-free or wheat-free flour, is to make a flat dough in a fairly compact
mass. It is a bit more difficult to create a pie crust with alternative flours. The
crusts are pretty fragile.

Three Keys to Making Great Gluten-Free


Pastry
1. Handle the dough as little as possible so it won't toughen.
2. Layer your pastry dough between sheets of waxed paper when you are
rolling it out to form the pie crusts. This keeps the dough from sticking
to the rolling pin, and it won't fall apart as you move it to the pie plate
for baking.
3. Work the shortening into the flour well so it spreads and lightens the
dough. Shortening fats must be dispersed very finely throughout the
dough in order to separate starch particles from each other and give you a
light, flaky pie crust. The trick is to do this without overhandling the
dough.

Sorghum Pie Dough


DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
1 cup (140 g) sorghum flour 1/2cup (1 12 g) butter, chilled
1 cup (120 g) tapioca flour 5 tablespoons (75 ml) ice water (or
2 teaspoons xanthan gum more as needed to hold dough
1 teaspoon salt together-less is better than more)
Rice flour for sprinkling

PREHEAT oven to 400F (200C, or gas mark 6). GREASE a 9-inch (22.5-cm)
pie pan. BLEND flours, gum, and salt together. CUT half of the butter into the
flour mixture with a pastry blende~ or work it in lightly with a fork or fingers,
until mixture has a grainy consistency. CUT the remaining half of the butter into
the dough until it is pea size. SPRINKLE the dough with 4 tablespoons (60 ml)
water. Blend the water lightly into the dough with a fork. GATHER the dough
into a ball. PUT waxed paper on your table or counter. SPRINKLE the paper
with rice flour. DIVI DE the dough in half for top and bottom crust. PLACE one
half of dough on floured waxed paper; cover with another sheet of waxed paper.
ROLL the dough gently, using a rolling pin. REMOVE the top sheet of waxed

246 Juicy Endings or Hearty Meals: Lush Pies


paper. Using the bottom sheet of waxed paper, CAREFULLY LIFT the pie
dough, which is very fragile, to your pie pan. INVERT the dough on the sheet
into your pie pan and spread it out with your fingers. Carefully peel off the
waxed paper. FILL bottom crust with your favorite ingredients and carefully
cover with top crust. BAKE at 400F (200C, or gas mark 6) until browned.

Yleld: two 9-inch (22.5-cm) pie crusts

Nutritional Analysis: Each pie crust has 1089 calories, 63.3 g fat, 8.9 g
protein, 120.9 g carbohydrate, 9.3 g dietary fiber.

Rice Flour Basic Pie Crust


Modified from Rebecca Reilly's Great Gluten-Free Goodies.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1 1/2 cups (240 g) rice flour 1/2 cup shortening, chilled
3 tablespoons (25 g) potato starch flour 1 egg
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar 1/2 cup (80 ml) plus 1 tablespoon (15
1/2 teaspoon salt ml) milk (or GF milk substitute)

PREHEAT oven to 400F (200C, or gas mark 6). GREASE two 8-inch (20-cm)
pie pans. BLEND dry ingredients. CUT shortening into dry ingredients using a
fork or pastry blender. ADD egg and milk or milk substitute to flour mix. MIX till
dough starts to form a ball. DIVIDE dough in half for top and bottom crust.
ROLL each half out between two sheets of plastic wrap. (Keep plastic wrap from
moving on the table by wiping the table's surface with a damp cloth.) LIFT the
pie crusts into pie pans. TO BAKE AS A SH ELL: BAKE at 400F (200C, or gas
mark 6) until crust is a light brown. OR FILL bottom crust with pie filling of your
choice cover with top crust. PIERCE top crust to let steam escape and BAKE
until crust is a light brown, following temperature guideline of the pie filling.

Yleld: This recipe makes enough for a two-crust 8-inch (20-cm) pie plus one
turnover.

Nutritional Analysis: Each pie crust has 1006 calories, 56.8 g fat, 11.6 g
protein, 112.4 g carbohydrate, 2.8 g dietary fiber.

Variation: Try varying flours and ingredients as you become familiar with them;
e.g., add brown or white sugar to dry ingredients for a richer, sweeter crust.
Note: This pie crust can be used in most pie recipes.

247
Crispy Pie Shell
Our first gluten-free pie crust!

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1 cup (lOg) plain puffed rice 3 tablespoons (45 g) butter, melted
1 tablespoon (15 g) brown sugar
1 cup (120 g) tapioca flour

PREHEAT oven to 375F (190C, or gas mark 5). GREASE an 8-inch (20-cm)
pie pan. MIX all ingredients thoroughly. PRESS onto the sides and bottom of
pie pan. BAKE at 375F (190C, or gas mark 5) for 8 minutes. COOL.

Yield: one 8-inch (20-cm) pie shell

Nutritional Analysis: Pie shell has 968 calories, 34.6 g fat, 1.8 g protein,
162.3 g carbohydrate, 1.6 g dietary fiber.

Variation: Substitute GF cookie crumbs instead of puffed rice.

Cookie Crumb Shell


Another early invention for apple and lemon meringue pies.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1 1/2 cups (175 g) GF cookie crumbs 1/2 cup (120 ml) apple juice
21/2 tablespoons (35 g) butter or mar-
garine
1/2 cup (15 g) plain GF cornflakes,
crushed

GREASE an 8-inch (20-cm) pie pan. MIX all ingredients together by hand-
crush the crumbs with the back of a big spoon against the side of a bowl.
PRESS against the sides and bottom of pie pan. BAKE at 400F (200C, or gas
mark 6) for 15 to 20 minutes so it gets firm. COOL before filling.

Yield: one 8-inch (20-cm) pie shell

Nutritional Analysis: Pie shell has 997 calories, 37.7 g fat, 21 .6 g protein,
142.8 g carbohydrate, 4.2 g dietary fiber.

Note: This may be used baked or unbaked.

248 Juicy Endings or Hearty Meals: Lush Pies


Tender Pie Crust
DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
1 1/2 cups (240 g) rice flour cup (112 g) butter
1/2
1/2 cup (60 g) potato starch flour 1 egg lightly beaten
1/2 cup (30 g) tapioca flour 2 tablespoons (30 ml) vinegar
1 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons (30 ml) cold water
1 tablespoon (15 g) sugar
1 teaspoon xanthan gum

PREHEAT oven to 450F (230C, or gas mark 8). GREASE two 8-inch (20-cm)
pie pans. SI FT all dry ingredients into a mixing bowl. CUT in the shortening
with two knives or a pastry blender until the lumps are pea-size. BLEN D togeth-
er all remaining wet ingredients. MIX blended wet ingredients into the flour mix-
ture. GATHER dough into two balls between separate sheets of waxed paper or
plastic wrap. (Waxed paper keeps the gooey crust from clinging to the rolling
pin.) FLATTEN each ball and then roll out into a crust large enough to fit an 8-
inch (20-cm) pie pan. REMOVE top sheet of plastic and VERY CAREFULLY
invert the crust into your pie pan-do not remove plastic yet. PUSH crust gently
into place before removing the top sheet of plastic. PIERCE crust before baking.
BAKE at 450F (230C, or gas mark 8) for only 10 minutes.

Yield: two 8-inch (20-cm) pie crusts

Nutritional Analysis: Each pie crust has 1346 calories, 73.2 g fat, 10.9 g
protein, 160.8 g carbohydrate, 4.3 g dietary fiber.

Notes:
For a filled pie, follow directions for that pie; prebake crust.
This pastry will be wetter than a wheat-flour crust.

Nut Pie Crust


This is a family favorite!
DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (50 g) plain pecans, ground 1/2cup (112 g) butter, chilled, cut into
1 1/2 cups (240 g) rice flour small pieces
2 tablespoons (25 g) sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla extract
Pinch salt 2 large eggs

249
ADD ground nuts to flour. CUT in butter. ADD the remaining ingredients.
WORK mix with fingers until the mixture resembles coarse meal. WRAP the
dough and refrigerate for 1 hour. PRESS into 8-inch (20-cm) pie pan or rollout
between two sheets of waxed paper and lay in pie pan. FILL with a GF fruit-pie
filling and bake or BAKE crust first and then add pie filling after pie crust has
cooled.

Yield: one 8-inch (20-cm) pie crust

Nutritional Analysis: Pie crust has 1174 calories, 72.8 g fat, 16.1 g
protein, 113.8 g carbohydrate,S. 1 g dietary fiber.

Coconut Crust
Adapted from James McNair's Pie Cookbook.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


4 cups (280 g) shredded coconut 6 tablespoons (85 g) unsalted butte~
softened

PREHEAT oven to 325F (170C, or gas mark 3). COMBINE coconut and soft-
ened butter in large bowl; stir to thoroughly combine. SPREAD in well-buttered
9-inch (22.S-cm) pie pan and press with your fingertips to pack the mixture
evenly on the bottom and up sides of the pan. PIERCE crust before baking.
BAKE until golden brown, about 15 minutes. Add aluminum foil strips around
the rim if it begins to get too brown. TRANSFER to a wire rack and cool com-
pletely before filling.

Yield: one 9-inch (22.S-cm) pie crust

Nutritional Analysis: Pie crust has 2355 calories, 177.9 g fat,


11.2 g protein, 177.3 g carbohydrate, 16.7 g dietary fiber.

250 Juicy Endings or Hearty Meals: Lush Pies


Meringue Shell
WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS:
2 egg whites 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1/2 teaspoon vanilla extract 1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup (100 g) sugar

PREHEAT oven to 275F (140C, or gas mark 1). GREASE a deep 9-inch (22.5-
cm) pie pan. BEAT the egg whites together in a large bowl, using an electric
mixer, until soft peaks form. Add cream of tartar, salt, and vanilla very gradually.
Stir in the sugar, about 1 tablespoon at a time. Continue beating just until
glossy peaks form. SPREAD the meringue mixture on the sides and bottom of
greased pie pan. BAKE for 1 hour. COOL (away from drafts) before filling.

Yleld: one 9-inch (22.5-cm) pie shell

Nutritional Analysis: Pie shell has 436 calories, 0 g fat, 8 g protein,


101 .1 g carbohydrate, 0 g dietary fiber.

Teff Crust for QUiches


Modified from The Splendid Grain by Rebecca Wood.
Teff's dark color gives a dramatic contrast to creamy-colored quiches.
This crust slices easily and holds together surprisingly well.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:


1/2 cup (90 g) teff flour 4 tablespoons (55 g) unsalted butter
1/2 cup (35 g) fava bean flour 1 teaspoon Tabasco sauce or to taste
1/2 cup (70 g) brown rice flour 1/2 cup (60 ml) water
1/2 teaspoon sea salt

PREHEAT oven 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE 9-inch (22.5-cm) glass
pie plate. MIX all dry ingredients. Put in food processor or bowl. CUT butter
into little chunks. ADD chunks of butter and pulse or mush with fingers until
mixture is crumbly. ADD Tabasco to water in a small container. ADD Tabasco
and water slowly to flour mixture, pulling it all together into a ball. With your
hands, form dough into a flat disk; let it rest for 10 minutes. ROLL dough out
between two sheets of waxed paper, turning it, until it is roughly an 11-inch
(27.5) circle. LINE your pie plate with it. PIERCE crust with a fork before baking.

251
BAKE in a 350F (180(, or gas mark 4) oven for 20 minutes. FILL with your
favorite quiche or shepherd's pie filling.

Yield: one 9-inch (22.5-cm) pie crust

Nutritional Analysis: Pie crust has 944 calories, 53.4 g fat,


18.1 g protein, 97.9 g carbohydrate, 11.6 g dietary fiber.

Fluffy Lime Pie


Since I have seen key limes from Florida only once in any grocery store, this
is a simple version of a classic, in which we use the ordinary limes available
in any supermarket.

DRY INGREDIENTS: WHIPPED CREAM TOPPING:


GF pie crust of your choice 1 cup (235 ml) heavy cream
3 tablespoons (20 g) GF confectioners'
WET INGREDIENTS:
sugar
4 eggs, separated, room temperature
1 teaspoon lime zest
1 can (14 ounces, or 396 g) sweetened
condensed milk
1/2 cup (120 ml) fresh-squeezed lime
..
JUice
1 tablespoon lime zest

BAKE the pie crust of your choice in an 8-inch (20-cm) pie pan; let cool. PRE-
HEAT oven 350F (180(, or gas mark 4). BEAT egg whites until stiff; set aside.
LIGHTLY BEAT egg yolks in a separate bowl. ADD condensed milk and lime
juice, blending well. STIR in 1 tablespoon lime zest. FOLD in beaten egg whites.
POUR batter into baked pie crust. BAKE for 15 minutes. (OOL completely;
refrigerate. BEFORE SERVING, prepare whipped cream topping. BEAT cream,
adding confectioners' sugar as cream begins to thicken. BLEN D in lime zest.
SPREAD whipped cream topping over chilled pie. Will keep refrigerated for
one day.

Yield: one 8-inch (20-cm) pie

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 8 slices, each has 447 calories, 227 g fat,
7.7 g protein, 47.4 g carbohydrate, 1.2 g dietary fiber.

252 Juicy Endings or Hearty Meals: Lush Pies


Apple Pie
This recipe was handed down through generations of French Canadians, and
though modified through the years, it retains its spicy, sweet/tart taste.

DRY INGREDIENTS: 1/2 teaspoon freshly grated nutmeg


GF double pie crust of your choice (or more to taste) plus a dash for
6-8 large cooking apples sprinkling
1 cup (200 g) granulated sugar plus 1/2 teaspoon lemon zest (or if apples are
1 tablespoon (15 g) for sprinkling not tart, 1 teaspoon lemon zest)
1/2 cup (115 g) brown sugar
WET INGREDIENTS:
1 teaspoon cinnamon (or more to taste)
2 tablespoons (28 g) butter
plus a dash for sprinkling

PREPARE dough for double-crust pie, wrap in plastic wrap, and chill. PREHEAT
oven to 425F (220C, or gas mark 7). PLACE aluminum foil on bottom shelf of
oven, with edges turned up to catch any drippings (the mounded apples will
render juice). PEEL, core, and slice apples into bowl, sprinkling with white sugar
as you go. Apples will render juice, which can be drained off for other use.
BLEND brown sugar, cinnamon, nutmeg, and lemon zest together and add to
apples. PLACE generous piece of plastic wrap on cool surface such as marble
pastry board. Place dough on wrap and cover with another generous sheet of
plastic wrap. ROLL out bottom pie crust. Roll crust onto rolling pin, pulling away
the plastic wrap, then center on 9-inch (22.5-cm) pie pan. DUMP apples into
pie pan. Sprinkle a bit more cinnamon, nutmeg, and sugar on top of apples.
Break up butter into small pieces and distribute over apples. ROLL out top pie
crust as above, making sure that it is large enough to cover your mound of
apples. PLACE pie crust on top of apples, crimp edges in design of your choice,
cut 5 small steam vents on top of crust with a small, sharp knife. BAKE at
425F (220C, or gas mark 7) on the middle shelf for 10 minutes; then turn
down the oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4) for approximately 1 hour.
Check occasionally to monitor browning. COOL and serve with vanilla ice
cream, whipped cream, or cheddar cheese.

Yield: one 9-inch (22.5-cm) pie

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 8 slices, each has 394 calories, 11.2 g fat,
trace protein, 72.8 g carbohydrate, 4 g dietary fiber.

Notes: If pie is prepared ahead of time, you may wish to reheat it before
serving. The crust will collapse, but it will still taste great.

253
To achieve a truly golden crust, gently pat some cream allover the top crust.
For a shiny crust, brush on some egg white. You may need to cover the edge of
the crust with aluminum foil to reduce browning.

For the best apple pie eve~ use Northern Spy apples. Other good choices are
Cortland and Yellow Delicious. As you are slicing the apples, taste a piece to
determine the sweetness. Adjust amount of sugar and lemon zest according to
the tartness of the apples. If you don't drain the apple juice from the bowl of apple
slices, you will have a very juicy pie. You can add 1 teaspoon of tapioca or corn-
starch to absorb some of that juice if you like.

Blueberry Lattice Pie


If you are lucky enough to find fresh wild blueberries, those are the best.

DRY INGREDIENTS: 2 tablespoons (15 g) tapioca flour


GF double pie crust of your choice 1 teaspoon cinnamon
2 pints (800 g) blueberries, 1 teaspoon lemon zest
fresh or frozen
WET INGREDIENTS:
1 cup (200 g) sugar
2 tablespoons (30 ml) lemon juice

CHILL a double recipe of your favorite pie crust. ROLL OUT dough for bottom
crust. Continue to chill dough for top crust. PREHEAT oven to 400F (200C, or
gas mark 6). COMBINE all remaining ingredients. POUR into pie shell. ROLL
out top crust. CUT dough into 1-inch (2.5-cm) strips and create a lattice top for
pie by placing strips in alternate directions, about 1 inch (2.5 cm) apart, weav-
ing each strip to create an over-and-under effect. BAKE at 400F (200C, or
gas mark 6) for 40 minutes. If edge of crust is browning too quickly, cover with
foil. Pie is done when crust is brown and blueberries are thickened and bub-
bling. COOL. REHEAT before serving. SERVE with vanilla ice cream

Yleld: one 9-inch (22.5-cm) pie

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 8 slices, each has 288 calories, 8.2 g fat,
trace protein, 53.1 g carbohydrate, 3.3 g dietary fiber.

Variation: GF cherry pie filling makes a nice lattice pie too. Flavor filling with
1/2 teaspoon almond flavoring or extract, 1 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/2 teaspoon
nutmeg, and 1/2 teaspoon lemon zest.

254 Juicy Endings or Hearty Meals: Lush Pies


Peach Tart
A longtime favorite.

DRY INGREDIENTS: 1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring and extract


1 GF pie crust (9 inches, or 22.5 cm) 1 package (16 ounces, or 455 g) frozen
of your choice peach slices, thawed and drained
1/2 cup (50 g) sugar 1/2 cup (75 g) or more fresh or frozen
blueberries
1/2 cup (160 g) low-calorie apricot
WET INGREDIENTS:
spread
1 package (8 ounces, or 225 g) fat-free
GF cream cheese, softened

PRICK bottom of pie crust with a fork and bake in a 9-inch (22.5-cm) pie pan
according to directions for that crust. Coolon a rack. COMBINE softened
cream cheese, vanilla, and sugar; beat until smooth. SPREAD cream cheese
mixture gently onto the crust. ARRANGE peach slices over the cream cheese
layer. SPRINKLE with blueberries. MAKE GLAZE: HEAT apricot spread till melt-
ed. BRUSH TART with apricot glaze. CHILL TART for 2 hours.

Yield: one 9-inch (22.5-cm) tart

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 8 slices, each has 298 calories, 8.4 9 fat,
4.7 9 protein, 50.8 9 carbohydrate, 2.7 9 dietary fiber.

Variation: Fresh, native peaches are best; use them if you can. Be sure to peel
peaches.

Pecan Pie
DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
1 GF pie crust (9 inches, or 22.5 cm) 3 eggs
of your choice, baked 1/2 cup (230 g) honey
2 cups (200 g) plain pecans, chopped 2 tablespoons (28 g) butte~ melted
1/2 cup (30 g) rice bran or quinoa flakes 1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1/2 cup (50 g) shredded sweetened
GLAZE:
coconut
1/2cup (170 g) honey
2 teaspoons butter, melted
1/2 cup (25 g) plain pecan halves

255
PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). COMBINE eggs, honey, and
butter in a medium bowl. BEAT until fluffy. BLEND in plain pecans, rice bran
flakes, coconut and vanilla. POUR into prepared crust. BAKE 30 minutes at
350F (180C, or gas mark 4). MIX together glaze ingredients. POU R over hot
pie when it comes out of the oven.

Yleld: one 9-inch (22.5-cm) pie

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 8 slices, each has 706 calories, 41.7 g fat,
7 .3 g protein, 75.3 g carbohydrate, 4.9 g dietary fiber.

Canadian Maple Sugar Pie


DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
1 GF pastry crust (9 inches, or 22.5 cm) 1 1/2 cups (355 ml) plain whipping
of your choice cream (or half-and-half)
1/2 cup (30 g) tapioca flour 3 tablespoons (45 g) unsalted butter
1 cup (225 g) maple sugar
1/2 teaspoon salt

BAKE pastry shell of your choice in a 9-inch (22.5-cm) pie pan according to
recipe directions; let cool. PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4).
BLEND flour with maple sugar and salt. ADD cream to flour mixture. STIR ever
so slightly. POUR into pie shell. BAKE until filling is set and begins to turn gold-
en brown. COOL on wire rack. SERVE at room temperature.

Yleld: 12 to 15 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 15 servings, each has 189 calories, 9.3 g


fat trace protein, 25.6 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

Variation: Substitute 3/4 cup (170 g) brown sugar and 1/4 cup (60 ml) maple
syrup for the maple sugar if you can't find the real thing. Maple sugar is much
preferred, but it is expensive and can be hard to find.

256 Juicy Endings or Hearty Meals: Lush Pies


Chocolate Torte Royale
MERINGUE INGREDIENTS: FILLING INGREDIENTS:
2 egg whites 1 package (6 ounces, or 170 g)
1/2 teaspoon vinegar GF semisweet chocolate chips
1/2 teaspoon salt 2 egg yolks, beaten
1/2 cup (100 g) sugar 1/2 cup (60 ml) water
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon 1 cup (235 ml) heavy cream
2 tablespoons (25 g) sugar
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
Whipped cream and plain chopped
pecans for garnish

PREHEAT oven to 275F (140C, or gas mark 1). COVER a cookie sheet with
parchment paper. Draw an 8-inch (20-cm) circle in center of the parchment
paper. BEAT egg whites, vinegar, and salt in a small bowl until soft peaks form.
COMBINE sugar and cinnamon in a small cup or bowl. GRADUALLY BEAT
sugar and cinnamon into beaten egg white mixture. SPREAD egg white mixture
onto parchment circle to a 1/2-inch (1 .25-cm) thickness on the bottom, building
to a 13/4-inch (4.5-cm) thickness to form sides. BAKE at 275F (140C, or gas
mark 1) for 1 hour. TURN OFF OVEN, but leave meringue in closed oven for
2 hours. PEEL paper off meringue; set aside. MELT chocolate over hot water in
a double boiler; cool slightly. SPREAD 2 tablespoons (28 g) melted chocolate
over meringue bottom. ADD egg yolks and water to remaining melted choco-
late; blend well. CHILL untill thickened. COMBINE heavy cream, sugar, and
cinnamon; WHIP until stiff. SPREAD half of cream mixture over the chocolate in
bottom of meringue shell. FOLD remainder of cream into remainder of chilled
chocolate/egg mixture. SPREAD over top of whipped cream in the shell. CHILL
several hours or overnight.

TO SERVE: Garnish with whipped cream and pecans.

Yield: one 8-inch (20-cm) torte

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 8 slices, each has 291 calories, 17.4 g fat,
3.2 g protein, 30.7 g carbohydrate, 1.4 g dietary fiber.

257
Coconut and White Chocolate Torte
CRUST INGREDIENTS: FILLING INGREDIENTS:
1 1/2 cups (145 g) plain sliced almonds, 1/2 cup (60 ml) coconut milk
toasted 3 ounces (85 g) GF white chocolate,
1/2 cup (60 g) brown sugar chopped
4 tablespoons (55 g) butter 1/2 cup (60 g) GF sour cream
4 tablespoons (55 g) butte~ softened
1 1/2 cups (90 g) shredded coconut

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4).

MAKE CRUST:

MIX almonds, brown sugar, and butter in a food processor until they form a
paste. PRESS almond paste into 8-inch (20-cm) pie pan, starting with the
sides. BAKE in oven for 10 minutes, then cool. CHILL.

MAKE FILLING:

SIMMER coconut milk in a medium saucepan. ADD white chocolate and stir
until melted. WHISK in sour cream. WHISK in butter. STIR coconut into mix-
ture and remove from heat. CHILL for 1 hour. POUR filling into baked,
chilled pie shell. CHILL again until serving.

Yield: one 8-inch torte

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 8 slices, each has 461 calories, 35.9 9


fat, 6.9 9 protein, 27.6 9 carbohydrate, 3 9 dietary fiber.

White Chocolate Fruit Torte


Cook this torte on a pizza pan. Use a variety of fruits to add color and
taste to this torte. I suggest a combination of sliced strawberries, blueber-
ries, sliced peaches (fresh or canned), and sliced kiwi.
CRUST: 1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter, softened 1/2 cup (80 g) rice flour
1/2 cup (50 g) GF confectioners' sugar 1/2 cup (65 g) cornstarch

258 Juicy Endings or Hearty Meals: Lush Pies


VANILLA FILLING: FRUIT TOPPING:
1/2 CUp (60 ml) plain heavy cream 6 tablespoons (75 g) sugar
4 ounces (115 g) GF white chocolate, 1 1/2 tablespoons cornstarch
chopped 1/2 cup (160 ml) pineapple juice
2 teaspoons vanilla extract 1/2 teaspoon lemon juice
1/2 cup (50 g) sugar 4 cups (700 g) sliced assorted fresh
8 ounces (225 g) GF cream cheese, fruits
softened

PREHEAT oven to 300F (150C, or gas mark 2). LIGHTLY GREASE a 12-inch
(30-cm) round pizza pan.

MAKE CRUST:
BEAT together butter and sugar until fluffy. SIFT together flours and cornstarch,
then add to butter mixture and blend well. PRESS onto bottom and slightly up
sides of greased pizza pan. PIERCE crust with fork. BAKE 20 minutes or until
lightly browned. COOL completely.

MAKE VANILLA FILLING:


COMBINE cream and chopped white chocolate; microwave for 1 to 2 minutes,
full power; stir to blend. Cool slightly. BEAT cream mixture, adding vanilla and
sugar as cream begins to thicken. Beat until stiff. ADD cream cheese and beat
with mixer.

MAKE FRUIT TOPPING:


COMBINE sugar and cornstarch in small saucepan. STIR in juices. COOK over
medium heat, stirring constantly, until thickened. REMOVE from heat and
COOL. ASSEMBLE: SPREAD vanilla filling over crust; PLACE fruits on top in an
attractive pattern. SPREAD Fruit Topping over fruit. REFRIGERATE until ready to
serve.

Yield: 12 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 492 calories, 15.2 g fat, 2.9 g pro-
tein, 85.9 g carbohydrate, 6.6 g dietary fiber.

259
Cherry Torte
This is even more sinful finished with a dollop of whipped cream laced with
grenadine or maraschino cherry juice.

DOUGH INGREDIENTS: 2 eggs, beaten


cup (1 12 g) butter, softened
1/2 1/2 teaspoon salt
5 tablespoons (30 g) GF 1 teaspoon vanilla extract
confectioners' sugar 1/4 cup (30 g) tapioca flour
1/2 cup (30 g) tapioca flour 1/2 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 cup (80 g) rice flour 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1/2 cup (35 g) cornstarch 1/2 cup (75 g) plain nuts, coarsely
chopped
TOPPING INGREDIENTS:
1 can (16 ounces, or 455 g) pitted
1 1/2 cups (300 g) sugar
sour cherries, drained

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). GREASE 9-inch (22.5-cm)
square pan lightly.

MAKE THE CRUST:


BEAT butter and sugar together until fluffy. SIFT together flours and cornstarch.

BLEN D flour mixture into butter mixture. PAT the dough into the prepared pan;
PI ERCE with a fork. BAKE at 350F (180C, or gas mark 4) for 15 minutes.
REMOVE crust from oven.

MAKE THE TOPPING:

WHIP together sugar, eggs, salt, and vanilla. SIFT flour and baking powder
together, and add cream of tartar; then STIR into egg mixture. STIR in nuts and
cherries. SPREAD topping over baked crust. BAKE an additional 30 minutes.
Cool. SERVE topped with whipped cream and/or GF ice cream.

Yield: 6 to 8 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 8 servings, each has 487 calories, 20.6 g


fat, 3.7 g protein, 71.6 g carbohydrate, 2.1 g dietary fiber.

260 Juicy Endings or Hearty Meals: Lush Pies


Spinach Crust Meat Pie
CRUST INGREDIENTS: FILLING INGREDIENTS:
1 pound (455 g) spinach, frozen or fresh 2 carrots
1 tablespoon (15 g) butter or (15 ml) oil 2 onions
1/2 cup (75 g) rice bran 2 green peppers
Salt and garlic powder to taste 1 pound (455 g) cooked ground beef or
chopped corned beef
2 cups (450 g) cooked mashed potatoes
1/4 cup (30 g) grated cheddar cheese

PREPARE CRUST:

Preheat oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). If using fresh spinach,
BLANCHE (slightly cook) and chop. If using frozen spinach, heat (according to
package directions) until warm; drain. MIX the slightly cooked spinach with
other crust ingredients. KNEAD until a ball is formed. PRESS into a 9-inch
(22.5-cm) pie dish. BAKE 15 minutes until firm.

PREPARE FILLING (suggested):

FINELY CHOP and then cook 2 carrots on top of stove for 10 minutes. CHOP
onions, soften in microwave by cooking on high for 5 minutes. CHOP green pep-
pers. COOK ground beef until no pink remains; drain. MIX softened onions with
cooked mashed potatoes. STI R in green peppers and carrots. SPOON filling into
crust. TOP with hamburger or corned beef-or you can reverse order, putting
meat in first. SPRINKLE grated cheese on top. BAKE in oven for 20 minutes.

Yleld: 6 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 380 calories, 20.4 g fat, 21.6 g pro-
tein, 27.6 g carbohydrate, 7 .5 g dietary fiber.

Mini Quiche Dough


by Dave Kasabian, Dave the Chef LLC
DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
1 cup (160 g) rice flour 6 tablespoons (85 g) cold unsalted
3 tablespoons (25 g) potato starch butter
1/2 teaspoon kosher salt 1/2 cup (60 ml) ice water
1 teaspoon xanthan gum

261
PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). COMBINE the dry ingredients
in a food processor fitted with a metal blade, and mix for 5 seconds. CUT the
cold butter into l/2-inch (1 .25-cm) chunks and put them into the food processor
bowl all at once. Blend just until dough appears like gravel. SLOWLY POUR in
the ice water. Stop processing just when the dough begins to gather. TURN the
dough out onto the counter. Press gently into a ball, cover in plastic wrap, and
chill 30 minutes in the refrigerator. BREAK off pieces of dough and roll them
into balls about 1/2 inch (2 cm) in diameter. Press pieces of dough into mini-
muffin pan cups, molding to fill the cups. Be sure they aren't too thin! CUT
twenty-four 2-inch (5-cm) squares of aluminum foil. Lightly press them into
each quiche cup, conforming to the shape of the dough. BAKE for 10 minutes
at 350F (180C, or gas mark 4) or until they just turn very light brown. Remove
from oven and cool completely. Carefully remove the foil pieces. TURN OVEN
DOWN to 300F (150C, or gas mark 2). FILL the half-baked shells with your
favorite quiche filling, and bake for about 10 minutes, or until the egg is barely
liquid in the middle. If the egg turns color, it has cooked too long.

Yleld: 24 mini quiches

Nutritional Analysis: Each mini-quiche has 55 calories, 3 g fat, trace pro-


tein, 6.6 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.

MINI QUICHE FILLING


Contributed by Anna &: David Kasabian, the authors of The Fifth Taste,
Cooking with Umami (Rizzoli, 2005).

3 eggs 1/2 cup Swiss cheese, diced


2 cups (475 ml) cream, or 1 cup cream 1/4 teaspoon salt
(135 ml) and 1 cup (135 ml) milk 1/8 teaspoon white pepper
3 asparagus spears sauteed in butter
2 shallots sliced thin
2 teaspoons fresh chives, finely chopped
2 medium-sized crimini mushrooms,
sliced thin

WHISK an egg white and paint the cooked mini-quiche shells to seal them. SET
them aside until you are ready to pour in the filling. SAUTE the asparagus, shal-
lots and mushrooms and set aside. SCALD the cream or milk mixture and cool

262 Juicy Endings or Hearty Meals: Lush Pies


for a minute and a half. While that is cooling, whisk together the eggs, salt, and
pepper. SPREAD cheese, chives, and sauteed vegetables on bottom of mini-
quiches, pour in filling and bake for 35 to 40 minutes. TEST for doneness by
moving back and forth. If it jiggles slightly, like set Jello, it's done.

Corn Quiche
Here is a recipe for Corn Quiche that looks attractive in the Teff Crust
(page 251).

WET INGREDIENTS: 2 ripe tomatoes


4 large eggs 1/2 cup (110 g) grated Swiss cheese
1 cup (235 ml) milk 1 onion or 2 scallions, chopped
Several drops of Tabasco (to taste) 1/2 cup (75 g) chopped green pepper

DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2teaspoon sea salt
2 cups (310 g) corn kernels, fresh or
canned (drained)
1 GF pie crust (9 inches, or 22.5 cm)
of your choice, baked

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). COMBINE eggs and milk in a
blender. ADD Tabasco and salt; blend. Sprinkle corn over prepared pie crust.
Pour in egg mixture. Slice tomatoes and then cut slices in half. Sprinkle cheese,
onion or scallions, and green pepper over corn and egg mixture in pie crust.
Arrange tomato slices over the top. Bake 35 minutes.

Yield: 6 to 8 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 8 servings, each has 270 calories, 14.2 g


fat, 8 g protein, 27.6 g carbohydrate, 2.6 g dietary fiber.

263
Green Cheese Pie
This dish is tummy warming and filling. Serve with a tossed salad on
the side.

DRY INGREDIENTS: 1 ounce (28 g) mushrooms, finely


1/2 cup (100 g) Basmati rice, cooked chopped
1 cup (60 g) chopped fresh parsley 1/2 teaspoon ground nutmeg
1 cup (120 g) grated GF low-fat 2 teaspoons ground cumin
cheddar cheese, divided
WET INGREDIENTS:
1 large onion, finely chopped
3 whole eggs
1/2 cup (130 g) creamed corn
2 cups (475 ml) skim milk
1/2 cup (80 g) corn kernels, fresh or
1/2 teaspoon ground nutmeg
canned (drained)
1 egg white, slightly beaten
1 large zucchini (6 ounces, or 170 g),
grated

PREHEAT oven to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4). COMBINE in a bowl: rice,
parsley, half of the grated cheese, onion, creamed corn, corn kernels, zucchini,
and mushrooms. SPRAY sides and bottom of a 9-inch (22.5-cm) pie dish with
cooking spray. SPOON vegetable!cheese mixture into the pie dish. WHISK 3
eggs, milk, nutmeg, and cumin together in a bowl. FOLD egg white into the
milk-egg-spice mixture. POUR over the vegetables in the pie plate. SPRINKLE
the remaining grated cheese on top. BAKE for about 1 hour or until set in the
center. To test for doneness, insert a clean knife into the center of the pie. When
done, the knife should come out clean.

Yield: 6 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Each serving has 234 calories, 10.5 g fat, 14.4 g pro-
tein, 20.6 g carbohydrate, 1.8 g dietary fiber.

264 Juicy Endings or Hearty Meals: Lush Pies


Winter Pie
FILLING INGREDIENTS: CRUST INGREDIENTS:
4 cups (9464 ml) spring or filtered water 1/2 cup (90 g) quinoa flour
1 cup (90 g) diced green cabbage 1/2 cup (30 g) tapioca flour
1 small carrot/ diced 1/2 cup (35 g) yellow cornmeal
1 small parsnip/ diced 1/2teaspoon sea salt
1 turnip/ diced 1 teaspoon xanthan gum
1 onion/ diced Pi nch of dried rosemary
1 tablespoon (15 ml) GF soy sauce 2 tablespoons (30 ml) corn oil
1 teaspoon corn oil 2 eggs/ slightly beaten
1/2 cup (40 g) quinoa flour 1/2 cup (60 ml) cold water

MAKE VEGETABLE FILLING:

BRING water to a boil in a large pot; ADD vegetables. COOK until tender-crisp.
REMOVE vegetables to a large bowl and set aside. Reserve cooking water in
pot. ADD soy sauce and corn oil to reserved cooking water in pot. COOK over
low heat for 5 minutes. STIRRING constantly/ slowly add 1/2 cup (40 g) quinoa
flour. COOK/ continuing to stir constantly/ until thickened/ about 3 minutes.
POUR mixture over vegetables and stir well; set aside. PREHEAT oven to 350F
(180C/ or gas mark 4). Lightly oil a deep 9-inch (22.5-cm) pie pan.

MAKE THE CRUST:

COMBINE flours/ cornmeal/ salt/ xanthan gum/ and rosemary in a bowl. STIR
in oil/ eggs/ and water with a fork and mix well. KNEAD briefly and form two
small balls of dough. PRESS one ball of dough into bottom of oiled pie dish or
ROLL out dough between waxed-paper sheets into a thin round . Place dough
round into pan. SPOON vegetable mixture into bottom crust in pan. To prepare
top crust/ ROLL out second ball of dough between waxed paper as previously
described. CUT dough into thin strips and arrange over top of vegetables in a
lattice pattern/ tucking edges of strips into the filling. BAKE until filling is bub-
bling and top of pie is golden brown and firm. Serve hot.

Yield: 5 or 6 servi ngs

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 6 servings/ each has 229 calories/


9 g fat/ 7 g protein/ 30 g carbohydrate/ 5 g dietary fiber.

Note: Soy sauce must be gluten-free; most soy sauce is brewed with wheat/ so
check the label!

265
TW"o Potato Pie
DRY INGREDIENTS WET INGREDIENTS
2 cloves garlic, peeled and mashed 3 eggs, lightly beaten
1 pound (455 g) potatoes, peeled 2 tablespoons (28 g) unsalted butter, at
1 pound (455 g) sweet potatoes or room temperature
yams, peeled 2 cups (475 ml) heavy cream
Salt and freshly ground pepper to taste
1 teaspoon ground nutmeg

PREHEAT oven to 450F (230C, or gas mark 8). BLEND the garlic and butter
together and use to grease a 9-inch (22.5-cm) pie pan. SLICE the potatoes and
sweet potatoes paper thin, either by hand or with a food processor. PLACE a
layer of potatoes in the bottom of the pie pan. SPRINKLE with salt and pepper
to taste. ADD a layer of sweet potatoes or yams next. SPRINKLE again with salt
and pepper. Continue layering potatoes. FINAL layer-alternate potato with
sweet potato to vary color. WHISK the eggs with the cream and nutmeg in a
medium bowl. SEASON to taste with salt and pepper.

POUR the mixture over the potatoes slowly so that the mixture can run between
the potato layers. BAKE on center rack of oven for 30 minutes. REDUCE heat
to 350F (180C, or gas mark 4) and bake for 1 hour longer. SERVE in wedges.

Yield: 4 to 6 servings

Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 6 servings, each has 492 calories,


34.7 g fat, 7.4 g protein, 37.6 g carbohydrate, 4.4 g dietary fiber.

266 Juicy Endings or Hearty Meals: Lush Pies


Appendix

References
Anderson]., Deskins B. The Nutrition Bible. New York: William Morrow and Co.,
Inc., 1995.

Celiac Sprue Association, Inc. Grains and Flours. Available online at:
http://www.csaceliacs.org/gluten_grains.php (Accessed February 26, 2005).

Ensminger A.H., Ensminger M.E., Konlande ].E., Robson ].R.K. Foods & Nutrition
Encyclopedia, 2nd ed. Volume 1, A-H. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1994.

Fenster C. Gluten-Free 101: Easy Basic Dishes Without Wheat. Centennial, CO : Savory
Palate, Inc.

Hagman B. The Gluten-Free Gourmet Cooks Fast and Healthy: Wheat-Free with Less
Fuss and Fat. New York: Henry Holt and Co ., 1996 .

Hagman B. More from the Gluten-Free Gourmet: Delicious Dining without Wheat. New
York: Henry Holt and Co., Inc., 1993.

Kasarda D.D. Grains in Relation to Celiac (Coeliac) Disease-an Annotated Copy. U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Available online at:
http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/topics/ (Accessed June 2, 2000).

The Manual of Clinical Dietetics, 6th ed. Chicago: American Dietetic Association,
2000, pp . 181-191.

Whelan A. (1998). "Basics on Buckwheat." Gluten-Free Living,


(September-October) :3-4.

Whelan A. (2000). "A Basic Guide to the Gluten-Free Diet." Gluten-Free Living,
5:12-14.

267
Gluten-Free and Wheat-Free Sources
Listed below are some of the major manufacturers and importers of wheat-free and
gluten-free products and a sampling from their catalogs. This list is not comprehen-
sive. Caution: some of the companies also produce items that are not wheat- or
gluten-free. Ask about the possibility of cross-contamination with wheat or other
gluten-containing ingredients.

Arrowhead Mills, Inc. Cybros, Inc.


PO. Box 2059, Hereford, TX 79045 PO. Box 851, Waukesha, WI 53187-0851
Phone: 806-364-0730 Phone: 800-876-2253
www.arrowheadmills.com Fax: 262-547-8946
Gluten-free flours www.cybrosinc.com
A variety of breads, rolls, and cookies
Authentic Foods freshly made and shipped via UPS.
1850 West 169th St., Suite B, Gardena,
CA 90247 DE-RO-MA
Phone: 800-806-4737 910 Jarry Blvd., Laval, Quebec, Canada
Fax: 310-366-6938 H7W2W6
www.authenticfoods.com Phone: 800-363-DIET
Light bean flour, Garfava flour, cake and Arrowroot, chickpea, corn, potato, rice
pancake mixes, vanilla powder bran, tapioca, romano bean flours; breads;
mixes; biscotti; pretzels; crackers; pasta;
Bob's Red Mill Natural Foods cookies; pies; and cereals.
5209 S.E. International Way, Milwaukie,
OR 97222 Dietary Specialties
Phone: 503-654-3215 PO. Box 227, Rochester, NY 14601-0227
Fax: 503-653-1339 Phone: 800-544-0099
www.bobsredmill.com Fax: 716-263-2787
A variety of gluten-free and wheat-free www.dietspec.com
flours, including legumes, whole grain nat- A wide variety of flours and baking sup-
ural foods, wheat-less cereal. plies, pasta, cookies, bread, cake and
brownie mixes, crackers, and condiments.
Celiac.com Many items are also lactose-free.
Scott Adams, founder
http://celiac.com
Great resource for a listing of what is and
what is not gluten-free. Just use the Celiac
search engine to find your answers.

268 Appendix
Ener-G Foods, Inc. Jowar Foods
PO. Box 2423, Seattle, WA 98124-0723 113 Hickory St., Hereford, TX 79045
Phone: 800-331-5222 Phone: 806-363-9070
www.ener-g.com Sorghum flour, breakfast cereal, et cetera.
Popcorn, bean, tapioca, sweet rice, garban-
zo, fava flours; four-flour mix (sorghum, Kinnickinnick Foods
gar-fava, cornstarch, tapioca). A wide vari- 10306 112th St., Edmonton,
ety of wheat-free, gluten-free, and dairy- Alberta T5K 1N1
free products, including breakfast goods, Phone: 877-503-4466
cakes, donuts, cookies, mixes, milk substi- www.kinnikinnick.com
tutes, pastas, and cereals. Breads, bagels, donuts, buns, cookies, cere-
al, et cetera.
Frontier Natural Products Co-Op
PO. Box 299, 3021 78th St., Norway, McCann's Irish Oatmeal
IA 52318 c/o Paul Germann Associates, Inc.
Alcohol-free flavorings: vanilla, almond, 39 Winding Trail, Mahwah, NJ 07430
hazelnut, and others. Phone: 201-934-6953
Fax: 201-934-0486
The Gluten-Free Pantry, Inc. www.mccanns.ie/
PO. Box 881, Glastonbury, CT 06033 E-mail: pga@webspan.net
Phone: 860-633-3826 The National Foundation for Celiac
Fax: 860-633-6853 Awareness (http://celiacawareness.org)
www.glutenfree.com recommends McCann~ Irish Oats.
Many products, including bagel, pancake,
cake, cookie, and brownie mixes, as well as Pamela's Products, Inc.
baking supplies. White rice, sweet rice, 200 Clara Avenue, Ukiah, CA 95482
potato starch, and garbanzo flour, as well Phone: 707 -462-6605Fax: 707-462-6642
as Beans-R-Us flour blend (navy, soy, black www.pamelasproducts.com
bean). Pancake and baking mix, biscotti, cookies.

Grain Process Enterprises, Ltd. Penzey Spices


115 Commander Blvd., Scarborough, Brookfield, WI 53045
Ontario, Canada MIS 3M7 Phone: 800-741-7787
Phone: 416-291-3226 www.penzeys.com
Fax: 416-291-2159 Extensive collection of spices.
Tapioca and potato starch, corn, rice, navy,
and romano bean flours .

269
El Peto Products Miss Roben's
2-41 Shoemaker St., Kitchener, Ontario, P.O. Box 1149, Frederick, MD 21702
Canada N2E 3G9 Phone: 800-891-0083
Phone: 800-387-4064 www.missroben.com
Fax: 519-748-5279 Bette Hagman's original gluten-free flour;
www.elpeto.com potato starch; arrowroot; sorghum, ama-
Arrowroot, bean, corn, quinoa, millet, and ranth, and quinoa flours; and
sweet rice flours; flaxseed; soup mixes; Featherweight flour blend (white rice, tapi-
pastas. Breads, hamburger and hot dog oca, cornstarch, and potato flour) . Candies,
buns, pizza crusts, muffins, and pies are snacks, crackers, cookies, chili, bread and
baked fresh the night before and shipped cake mixes, pastas, sauces, and milk and
(vacuum-packed to the United States). sugar substitutes.

The Really Great Food Co. Sterk's Bakery


P.O. Box 2239, St. James, NY 11780 3866 23rd St., Gordon, Ontario,
Phone: 800-593-5377 Canada LOR ISO
Fax: 631-361-6920 Phone: 800-608-4501
www.reallygreatfood.com All-purpose flour (corn, rice, potato, guar
White rice, sweet rice, organic brown rice, gum); freshly made bagels, buns, cakes,
tapioca, potato starch and organic corn- muffins, and breads (shipped by UPS to the
meal flours; bread, cake, brownie, muffin, United States).
and pancake mixes; cookies, biscotti,
pizza crust, pie crust mix, soup, pasta, Tad Enterprises
and vitamins. 9356 Pleasant, Tinley Park, IL 60477
Phone: 800-438-6153
Red Star Yeast Products Fax: 708-429-3954
433 E. Michigan, Milwaukee, WI 53202 Corn, oat, potato, brown rice, white rice,
sweet rice, soy, tapioca, and potato starch
flours.

270 Appendix
Be a Detective Find Hidden Gluten, Read
Your Labels Before You Buy
There are so many hidden ways for gluten to be ingested. Ask questions and
request information from manufacturers. Candy companies will send you a
list of their gluten-free products for the asking. You will learn to buy fresh
turkeys as opposed to some of the frozen ones, which may contain modified
food starch or unidentified seasonings. Write to companies to discover which
commercial salad dressings are safe. Did you know beer contains such forbid-
den things as malt, barley, and hops, so it too is taboo? Malt flavoring, which
contains gluten, is found in many commercial puddings and in cereal.
Horseradish, most soy sauces, and some jelly candies are also no-no's. Do you
know which ones? Be aware that producers get their supplies from different
vendors; batches of the same product may contain gluten or be gluten-free
(according to which vendor is supplying ingredients on a daily basis or by
lot). Some producers, therefore, cannot guarantee that their products are
gluten-free. This is especially true with frozen nondairy whipped toppings.
Read the clues. Become an avid, educated label reader. It is essential that
labels be read on a regular basis. Don't become discouraged-there are many
brands and substitutions that are gluten-free. But, as discussed, what is
gluten-free today may not be gluten-free tomorrow, so no specific brand
names are listed here. Companies are usually willing to send you lists of their
gluten-free products if you call or write them. These lists should be updated
frequently to make sure the products listed remain gluten-free and to get new
product information as it develops. However, as pointed out above, the ingre-
dients in any processed product can change. For this reason, we exclude
packaged mixes and their use as substitutions in our recipes.
Through constant vigilance and sleuthing to educate yourself, you will
keep your system up and running.

271
Index
A apples
additives, 11, 12, 17, 106, 108 Amaranth Applesauce Pancakes, 86
alcohol extracts, 12 Apple Cobbler, 237
alcoholic beverages, 12, 28 Apple Crisp, 228
allspice, 32 Apple Kuchen, 181
almond meal flour, 24 Apple Pancakes, 84-85
almonds Apple Pie, 253-254
Almond Butter Balls, 170-171 Applesauce Bran Muffins, 69
Almond Crispies, 146-147 Applesauce Cake, 182
Almond Muffins, 72 Caramelized Cake with Three Apples,
Almond Sugar Cookies, 148 210-211
Banana Almond Tarts, 164 Cinnamon Apple Crepes, 79-80
Chewy Almond Macaroons, 162 Hazelnut Applesauce Cake, 193
Chocolate Almond Crescents , 168 Quick Applesauce with Nuts, 229
Christmas Angel Cake, 182-183 Quinoa Applesauce Cookies, 163
Maple-Almond Butter Cookies, 169-170 "Red Hot" Stewed Apples, 239
Monster Cookies, 177 apricots
Nutty Fruitcake, 208-209 Hot Spiced Fruit, 237-238
Old-Fashioned Almond Macaroons , 147 arrowroot, 26
Passover Nut Cake, 197-198 avocados
alternative flours/grains, 9-12, 15 Emerald Smoothie, 241
for bread making, 105, 108-109
characteristics of, 18
B
types of, 19-27 Baked Alaska, 243-244
amaranth baking
Amaranth Applesauce Pancakes, 86 reasons for, 9
Amaranth Tortillas, 134 tips, 18, 108-109
flour, 19 baking powder, 28, 36-37, 125
anise, 32 Baking Powder Drop Biscuits, 138
baking soda, 28,36-37, 125

273
bananas Chickpea Yeast Bread, 116-117
Banana Almond Tarts, 164 Chopped Nut Sorghum Bread, 110
Banana Cake, 196 Country Two-Step Yeast Bread, 117-118
Banana Muffins, 55-56 Cranberry Yeast Bread, 119-120
Banana-Nut Muffins, 41-42 Farmhouse Sour Milk Yeast Bread, 119
Banana Whip, 239-240 gluten-free, 102-103
Grilled Bananas Flambe, 229-230 Granola Yeast Bread, 113-114
barley, 27 Indian Ricegrass Yeast Bread, 118
barley flour, 27 Millet Bread, 123
bean flours, 22-23 Mock Black Russian Yeast Bread, 121
beef Monkey Bread, 112-113
bouillon, 28 Olive and Rosemary Foccacia with Yeast,
Spinach Crust Meat Pie, 261 122-123
binders, 12, 17, 106, 108 Pumpkin Yeast Bread, 120
Birthday Cake Sponge Cake, 199-200 Teff Pepperoni Bread, 111-112
Biscotti, Corn, 165 tips for making, 108-109
biscuits yeast, 102-107
Baking Powder Drop Biscuits, 138 Yeast Bread with Molasses, 115
Indian Ricegrass Biscuits, 139 Broken Glass Pudding, 222
Soda Biscuits, 140 Brown and White Rice Bread, 116
bitter chocolate, 30 brownies
bittersweet chocolate, 31 Brownies, 157
Bittersweet Chocolate Mousse Cake, Carob Brownies, 159
213-214 Hazelnut Brownies, 158
blueberries brown rice flour, 26
Blueberry Lattice Pie, 254 buckwheat
Blueberry Lemon Cream Tarts, 231 Buckwheat-Corn Muffins, 42-43
Blueberry Millet Muffins, 43-44 Buckwheat Yeast Bread, 114-115
Blueberry Muffins, 70-71 Down-Home Buckwheat Pancakes, 85
Bob's Red Mill, 10 flour, 19
Bob's Red Mill Master Cookie Mix, 143 groats, 19-20
Bran, 16 Nut and Buckwheat Spice Cake, 191
Applesauce Bran Muffins, 69 butter, 30, 107
Buttermilk and Bran Pancakes with Fruit, Butter Cake, 187
92 buttermilk
Pineapple Bran Tea Muffins, 62 Buttermilk and Bran Pancakes with Fruit,
Rice Bran Crunchy Muffins, 49 92
Brandied Fruit Pot, 235 Buttermilk Muffins, 57
breads, 101-102 Buttermilk Quick Cornbread, 136
See also Quick-rising breads Butter Pecan Quick Bread, 126-127
Brown and White Rice Bread, 116 Butterscotch Cookies, 153
Buckwheat Yeast Bread, 114-115

274 Index
C Pumpkin Cake Roll, 202-203
cakes, 179-180 Quinoa Cake, 192
See also cheesecakes Tapioca White Cake, 188
apple Teff Gingerbread, 194
Apple Kuchen, 181 Trampoline Cake, 184
Applesauce Cake, 182 Upside-Down Cake, 183-184
Hazelnut Applesauce Cake, 193 Zucchini Cake, 186
Banana Cake, 196 Canadian Maple Sugar Pie, 256
Basic White Cake, 185 caramel
Birthday Cake Sponge Cake, 199-200 Broken Glass Pudding, 222
Butter Cake, 187 Caramelized Cake with Three Apples,
Caramelized Cake with Three Apples, 210-211
210-211 Creme Caramel, 224-225
Carob Fudge Cake, 218 caraway seed, 32
Carrot Cake, 196-197 cardamom, 32
chocolate carob,31
Bittersweet Chocolate Mousse Cake, Carob Brownies, 159
213-214 Carob Fudge Cake, 218
Chocolate Dump-It Cake, 212-213 carrots
Chocolate Oblivion Torte, 219-220 Carrot Cake, 196-197
Chocolate Pound Cake, 217 Carrot Muffins, 52
Chocolate Roll, 200-202 celiac disease, 13
Chocolate Tea Cakes with Orange Sauce, cheesecakes
214-215 Key Lime Cheesecake, 206
Flourless Chocolate Walnut Cake, Pumpkin Cheesecake, 234
211-212 Ricotta Custard Cheesecake, 207
Sensational Flourless Chocolate Cake, 216 Cherry Torte, 260
Sour Cream Fudge Cupcakes, 215-216 chicken bouillon, 28
Christmas Angel Cake, 182-183 chickpea flour, 23
Cinnamon Cake, 209-210 Chickpea Yeast Bread, 116-117
Cranberry Loaf Cake, 198 chocolate, 28, 30-31
Hazelnut Applesauce Cake, 193 Baked Fudge , 160
lemon Brownies, 157
Lemon Daffodil Cake, 189 cakes
Lemon Roll, 204-205 Bittersweet Chocolate Mousse Cake,
Nut and Buckwheat Spice Cake, 191 213-214
Nutty Fruitcake, 208-209 Chocolate Dump-It Cake, 212-213
Old-Fashioned Jelly Roll, 203-204 Chocolate Oblivion Torte, 219-220
orange Chocolate Pound Cake, 217
Orange Birthday Cake, 190 Chocolate Roll, 200-202
Orange Puffs, 195 Chocolate Tea Cakes with Orange
Passover Nut Cake, 197-198 Sauce, 214-215

275
Flourless Chocolate Walnut Cake, Almond Butter Balls, 170-171
211-212 Almond Crispies, 146-147
Sensational Flourless Chocolate Cake, Almond Sugar Cookies, 148
216 Bob's Red Mill Master Cookie Mix, 143
Sour Cream Fudge Cupcakes, 215-216 Butterscotch Cookies, 153
Chocolate Dessert Crepe, 81 Chewy Almond Macaroons, 162
Chocolate Mousse, 223-224 Chocolate Almond Crescents, 168
Chocolate Muddy Buddies, 169 Chocolate Chip Cookies I, 149
Chocolate Muffins, 44 Chocolate Chip Cookies II, 150
Chocolate Torte Royale, 257 Chocolate Coconut Macaroons, 160
Chocolate Truffles with Grapefruit, 232 Chocolate Muddy Buddies, 169
Coconut and White Chocolate Torte, 258 Coconut Macaroons, 161
cookies Cottage Cheese Crescents, 151
Chocolate Almond Crescents, 168 Cream Cheese Balls, 176
Chocolate Chip Cookies I, 149 Forgotten Cookies, 154-155
Chocolate Chip Cookies II, 150 French Lace Cookies, 172
Chocolate Coconut Macaroons, 160 Granola Bars, 173-174
Forgotten Cookies, 154-155 Hazelnut Cookies, 146
Glossy Chocolate Icing, 200 Indonesian Spice and Rice Flour Crackers
liquor, 30 (Rempejeh), 145
White Chocolate Fruit Torte, 258-259 Maple-Almond Butter Cookies, 169-170
Christmas Angel Cake, 182-183 Marshmallow Fluff Squares, 173
Christmas Muffins with Jam Centers, 48 materials for, 142-143
cinnamon, 33 Molasses Snaps, 152
Cinnamon Apple Crepes, 79-80 Monster Cookies, 177
Cinnamon Cake, 209-210 Nitty Gritty Cookies, 144
cloves, 33 Oatmeal Bumps, 171
cocoa powder, 30 Oatmeal Cookies, 155
coconut Old-Fashioned Almond Macaroons, 147
Chocolate Coconut Macaroons, 160 Old-Fashioned Walnut Macaroons, 148
Coconut and White Chocolate Torte, 258 Pumpkin Spice Cookies, 156
Coconut Crust, 250 Quinoa Applesauce Cookies, 163
Coconut Macaroons, 161 Quinoa Peanut Butter Cookies, 174
Coconut Pancakes, 100 Sesame Seed Butter Cookies, 166
Monster Cookies, 177 Sorghum Spice Cookies, 175
confectioners' sugar, 28 Sugar Cookies, 153-154
Cookie Crumb Shell, 248 Thimble Cookies, 167
cookie cutters, 142 tips for making, 141-142
cookie molds, 142-143 Walnut Squares, 178
cookie presses, 142 cookie sheets, 142
cookies corn/corn flours, 23-24
See also brownies Buckwheat-Corn Muffins, 42-43

276 Index
Bu ttermilk Quick Cornbread, 136 Apple Cobbler, 237
Corn Biscotti, 165 Apple Crisp, 228
Cornbread, 129 Baked Alaska, 243-244
Cornbread Muffins, 67-68 Baked Pears, 244
Corn Cakes with Yeast, 90 Banana Whip, 239-240
Corn Muffins, 67 Blueberry Lemon Cream Tarts, 231
Corn Quiche, 262-263 Brandied Fruit Pot, 235
Green Cheese Pie, 263 Chocolate Dessert Crepe, 81
Millet Corn Quick Loaf, 133-134 Chocolate Mousse, 223-224
Rice and Corn Quick Bread, 126 Chocolate Truffles with Grapefruit, 232
Southern Spoon Bread, 136-137 Cranberry Delight, 238
corn grits, 24 Creme Caramel, 224-225
cornmeal, 24 Dried Pineapple Flowers, 241
cornstarch, 24 Emerald Smoothie, 241
Cottage Cheese Crescents, 151 Fruit Alaska, 236
Country Two-Step Yeast Bread, 117-118 Grilled Bananas Flambe, 229-230
crackers Hot Spiced Fruit, 237-238
Indonesian Spice and Rice Flour Crackers Lemon Souffle, 230
(Rempejeh), 145 Pears in Custard Sauce (Poire Monte Dol),
cranberries 233
Cranberry Delight, 238 Popcorn Squares, 227
Cranberry Loaf Cake, 198 Quick Applesauce with Nuts, 229
Cranberry Quick Bread, 12 7 "Red Hot" Stewed Apples, 239
Cranberry Yeast Bread, 119-120 Rummed Watermelon, 238
crepes, 75-76 Spanish Cream, 226-227
Chocolate Dessert Crepe, 81 Strawberry Rhubarb Fool, 240
Cinnamon Apple Crepes, 79-80 Dextrin, 28
Crepes Suzette, 78-79
Herb Crepes, 80 E
serving, 77-78 eggs, 17, 125
tips for making, 76-77 Emerald Smoothie, 241
Cream Cheese Balls, 176 Endosperm, 16
Cream Cheese Icing, 191 English muffins, 36
cream of tartar, 28 Rice Flour English Muffins, 50-51
Creme Caramel, 224-225
Creme Fraiche, 53-54 F
cumin, 32 fava bean flour, 23
cupcakes. See cakes Flannel Shirt Cakes, 97
flat cakes. See pancakes
D flavorings, 29-33
desserts, 221 flax, 24
See also cakes; cheesecakes; pies; puddings

277
Flax Muffins with Vegetables and Fruit, Grapefruit, Chocolate Truffles with, 232
54-55 Green Cheese Pie, 263
flour combinations, 16-17 guar gum, 11, 12, 17, 106, 108
Flourless Chocolate Walnut Cake, 211-212
flowers, 32 H
Foccacia, Olive and Rosemary, 122-123 hazelnuts
Forgotten Cookies, 154-155 Hazelnut Applesauce Cake, 193
French Lace Cookies, 172 Hazelnut Brownies, 158
fruit Hazelnut Cookies, 146
See also specific types Hazelnut Pancakes, 89
Brandied Fruit Pot, 235 Hazelnut-Pine Nut Muffins, 65
Chocolate Truffles with Grapefruit, 232 Hazelnuts Sweet Muffins, 56
Flax Muffins with Vegetables and Fruit, meal, 25
54-55 Herb Crepes, 80
Fruit Alaska, 236 Homey Bread Pudding with Jam Topping, 223
Hot Spiced Fruit, 237-238 Hominy Quick Bread, l31
Nutty Fruitcake, 208-209 Honey Muffins, 74
Upside-Down Cake, 183-184 husk, 16
White Chocolate Fruit Torte, 258-259
fudge I
Baked Fudge, 160 icings, 197, 200, 221
Carob Fudge Cake, 218 Indian ricegrass, 20
Sour Cream Fudge Cupcakes, 215-216 Indian Ricegrass Biscuits, l39
Indian Ricegrass Yeast Bread, 118
G Indonesian Spice and Rice Flour Crackers
garbanzo bean flour. See chickpea flour (Rempejeh), 145
germ, 16 ingredients, 11-12
ginger, 33
gingerbread J
Gingerbread Muffins, 64-65 Jam Quick Bread, l30-l31
Teff Gingerbread, 194
gluten, 12, l3 K
hidden, 27-29, 271 Key Lime Cheesecake, 206
gluten-free bread baking, 102-103
gluten-Free Flour Mixture, 17 L
gluten-free ingredients, 11-12 leavening basics, 36-37
gluten sensitivities, 14 legume flours, 22-23
grain composition, 16 lemon
grains, 15 Blueberry Lemon Cream Tarts, 231
granola, 72-73 Lemon Daffodil Cake, 189
Granola Bars, 173-174 Lemon Pudding, 226
Granola Yeast Bread, 1l3-114 Lemon Roll, 204-205

278 Index
Lemon Souffle, 230 Basic Rice Muffins, 41
limes Blueberry Millet Muffins , 43-44
Fluffy Lime Pie, 252 Blueberry Muffins , 70-71
Key Lime Cheesecake, 206 Buckwheat-Corn Muffins, 42-43
liqueurs, 12, 28 Buttermilk Muffins, 57
liquids, for bread, 107 Carrot Muffins, 52
Chocolate Muffins, 44
M Christmas Muffins with Jam Centers, 48
macaroons Cornbread Muffins , 67-68
Chewy Almond Macaroons, 162 Corn Muffins, 67
Chocolate Coconut Macaroons, 160 Flax Muffins with Vegetables and Fruit,
Coconut Macaroons , 161 54-55
Old-Fashioned Almond Macaroons , 147 Gingerbread Muffins, 64-65
Old-Fashioned Walnut Macaroons, 148 Hazelnut-Pine Nut Muffins , 65
Mace , 33 Hazelnuts Sweet Muffins, 56
malt flavoring, 29 Honey Muffins, 74
maple Hot Herb and Spice Muffins, 68
Canadian Maple Sugar Pie, 256 Oat Flour Muffins , 63-64
Maple-Almond Butter Cookies , 169-170 Parsnip Muffins, 60
Maple Sugar Icing, 221 Pineapple Bran Tea Muffins , 62
Maple Syrup Icing, 221 Pumpkin Muffins, 69-70
Marshmallow Fluff Squares, 173 Quinoa Flakes Muffins , 47
Meringue Shell, 251 Quinoa Morning Muffins , 46
Milk chocolate, 31 Raspberry-Amaranth Muffins with Streusel
See also chocolate Topping, 53-54
millet, 20 Rice Bran Crunchy Muffins, 49
Blueberry Millet Muffins, 43-44 Rice Flour English Muffins, 50-51
Millet Bread, 123 Sorghum Scones, 66
Millet Corn Quick Loaf, 133-134 Soy Muffins, 61
Millet Spoon Bread, 13 7 Squash Muffins, 59
Sake Millet Pudding with Strawberry Gel. Teff Muffins , 71
modified food starch, 27-28 Teff Spicy Pumpkin Muffins , 45
Molasses Snaps, 152 tips for making, 39-40
Monkey Bread, 112-113 Walnut Teff Muffins, 73-74
Monster Cookies, 177 Zucchini Muffins , 58
Moore , Bob, 10
Muesli, 72-73
muffins , 35-40 Nitty Gritty Cookies, 144
Almond Muffins, 72 nondairy beverages, 28
Applesauce Bran Muffins, 69 nut flours, 24-25
Banana Muffins , 55-56 nutmeg, 33
Banana-Nut Muffins , 41-42 NutQuik,25

279
nuts, 28 Especially Tender Teff Pancakes, 99-100
See also specific types Flannel Shirt Cakes, 97
Banana-Nut Muffins, 41-42 Fluffy Pancakes or Waffles, 84
Chopped Nut Sorghum Bread, 110 Hazelnut Pancakes, 89
Granola and Muesli Recipe, 72-73 Oat Hotcakes with Yeast, 88-89
Nut and Buckwheat Spice Cake, 191 Potato and Rice Pancakes, 94
Nut Pie Crust, 249-250 Potato Pancakes, 95
Nutty Fruitcake, 208-209 Pumpkin-Walnut Flapjacks, 93
Passover Nut Cake, 197-198 Quinoa Griddlecakes, 98-99
Quick Applesauce with Nuts, 229 Quinoa Pancakes, 87-88
Sour Milk Pancakes, 96-97
o Soy Griddle Cakes, 94
oat flour, 21 tips for making, 81-82
oats, 14-15, 20-21 Parsnip Muffins, 60
Granola Bars, 173-174 Passover Nut Cake, 197-198
Oat Flour Muffins, 63-64 pastry. See Pie crusts
Oat Hotcakes with Yeast, 88-89 peaches
Oatmeal Bumps, 171 Brandied Fruit Pot, 235
Oatmeal Cookies, 155 Hot Spiced Fruit, 237-238
Oatmeal Muffins, 63 Peach Tart, 255
oil, 107 Peanut Butter Cookies, Quinoa, 174
oil blends, 28 pears
Olive and Rosemary Foccacia with Yeast, Baked Pears, 244
122-123 Brandied Fruit Pot, 235
orange Pears in Custard Sauce (Poire Monte Dol),
Brandied Fruit Pot, 235 233
Chocolate Tea Cakes with Orange Sauce, pecans
214-215 Applesauce Cake, 182
Orange Birthday Cake, 190 Baked Fudge, 160
Orange Puffs, 195 Nutty Fruitcake, 208-209
Pecan Pie, 255-256
p
Pepperoni Bread, Teff, 111-112
pancakes, 75-76 pie crusts
See also crepes; waffles Coconut Crust, 250
Amaranth Applesauce Pancakes, 86 Cookie Crumb Shell, 248
Apple Pancakes, 84-85 Crispy Pie Shell, 248
Baked Dilly Pancakes, 86-87 Meringue Shell, 251
Basic Pancake, 83 Mini Quiche Dough, 261-262
Buttermilk and Bran Pancakes with Fruit, Nut Pie Crust, 249-250
92 Sorghum Pie Dough, 246-247
Coconut Pancakes, 100 Teff Crust for Quiches, 251-252
Down-Home Buckwheat Pancakes, 85

280 Index
Tender Pie Crust, 249 Everlasting Party Pudding, 242-243
Winter Pie, 264 Homey Bread Pudding with Jam Topping,
pies, 245-246 223
Apple Pie, 253-254 Lemon Pudding, 226
Banana Almond Tarts, 164 Sake Millet Pudding with Strawberry Gel,
Blueberry Lattice Pie, 254 242
Blueberry Lemon Cream Tarts, 231 pumpkin
Canadian Maple Sugar Pie, 256 Pumpkin Cake Roll, 202-203
Cherry Torte, 260 Pumpkin Cheesecake, 234
Chocolate Torte Royale, 257 Pumpkin Muffins, 69-70
Coconut and White Chocolate Torte , 258 Pumpkin Spice Cookies, 156
Fluffy Lime Pie, 252 Pumpkin-Walnut Flapjacks, 93
Green Cheese Pie, 263 Pumpkin Yeast Bread, 120
Peach Tart, 255 Teff Spicy Pumpkin Muffins, 45
Pecan Pie, 255-256 Thanksgiving Quick Loaf, 129-l30
Spinach Crust Meat Pie, 261
Two-Potato Pie, 265 Q
White Chocolate Fruit Torte, 258-259 quiches
Winter Pie, 264 Corn Quiche, 262-263
pineapples Mini Quiche Dough, 261-262
Brandied Fruit Pot , 235 Teff Crust for Quiches, 251-252
Dried Pineapple Flowers, 241 quick-rising breads, 102
Hot Spiced Fruit, 237-238 Buttermilk Quick Cornbread, l36
Pineapple Bran Tea Muffins, 62 Butter Pecan Quick Bread, 126-127
Upside-Down Cake, 183-184 Cornbread, 129
pme nuts Cranberry Quick Bread, 127
Hazelnut-Pine Nut Muffins , 65 essentials, 124-125
Nutty Fruitcake, 208-209 Hominy Quick Bread, l31
popcorn flour, 24 Jam Quick Bread, l30-l31
Popcorn Squares, 227 Millet Corn Quick Loaf, l33-l34
Popovers, l35 Millet Spoon Bread, l3 7
potatoes Rice and Corn Quick Bread, 126
Potato and Rice Pancakes , 94 Sesame-Seed, Brown-Rice Tea Bread ,
l32-l33
Potato Cakes, 96
Southern Spoon Bread, l36-l37
Potato Pancakes, 95
Thanksgiving Quick Loaf, 129-l30
Two-Potato Pie, 265
Veggie Quick Bread, l32
potato flours , 25
Zucchini Quick Bread, 128
potato starch, 25
quinoa
puddings
flour, 21
Baked Rice Pudding, 225
Quinoa Applesauce Cookies, 163
Broken Glass Pudding, 222
Quinoa Cake, 192

281
Quinoa Flakes Muffins, 47 flour, 25
Quinoa Griddlecakes, 98-99 Sesame-Seed, Brown-Rice Tea Bread,
Quinoa Morning Muffins, 46 132-133
Quinoa Pancakes, 87-88 Sesame Seed Butter Cookies, 166
Quinoa Peanut Butter Cookies, 174 shortbread molds, 143
Smoothie, Emerald, 241
R Soda Biscuits, 140
Raspberry-Amaranth Muffins with Streusel Soda Muffins, 36
Topping, 53-54 sorghum flour, 21-22
"Red Hot" Stewed Apples, 239 Chopped Nut Sorghum Bread, 110
rice/Rice flours, 25-26 Sorghum Pie Dough, 246-247
Basic Rice Muffins, 41 Sorghum Scones, 66
Brown and White Rice Bread, 116 Sorghum Spice Cookies, 175
Indian Ricegrass Biscuits, 139 Sour Cream Fudge Cupcakes, 215-216
Indian Ricegrass Yeast Bread, 118 Sour Milk Pancakes, 96-97
Indonesian Spice and Rice Flour Crackers Southern Spoon Bread, 136-137
(Rempejeh), 145 soya granules, 23
Potato and Rice Pancakes, 94 soy flour, 23
Rice and Corn Quick Bread, 126 Soy Griddle Cakes, 94
Rice Bran Crunchy Muffins, 49 Soy Muffins, 61
Rice Flour Basic Pie Crust, 247-248 Spanish Cream, 226-227
Rice Flour English Muffins, 50-51 spelt, 12
Sesame-Seed, Brown-Rice Tea Bread, spices, 12,28,32-33
132-133 Spinach Crust Meat Pie, 261
Ricotta Custard Cheesecake, 207 Squash Muffins, 59
root flours, 26 star anise, 33
Rummed Watermelon, 238 strawberries
rye, 27 Baked Alaska, 243-244
Fruit Alaska, 236
s Sake Millet Pudding with Strawberry Gel,
Sake Millet Pudding with Strawberry Gel, 242 242
salt, 18, 107 Strawberry Rhubarb Fool, 240
Scones, Sorghum, 66 Street Waffles, 98
seeds, 28 Sugar Cookies, 153-154
flours, 24-25 sweeteners, 107
Granola and Muesli Recipe, 72-73 sweet rice flour, 26
Sesame-Seed, Brown-Rice Tea Bread,
132-133 T
Sesame Seed Butter Cookies, 166 tapioca
semisweet chocolate, 31 flour, 26
See also chocolate Tapioca Waffles with Cumin, 91
Sensational Flourless Chocolate Cake, 216 Tapioca White Cake, 188
sesame seeds

282 Index
tarts. See pies wheat, hidden, 27-29, 271
teff, 22 wheat allergies, 13
Especially Tender Teff Pancakes, 99-100 Wheat-free grains/flours, 27
Teff Crust for Quiches, 251-252 See also alternative flours
Teff Gingerbread, 194 wheat sensitivities, 14
Teff Muffins, 71 White Chocolate Fruit Torte, 258-259
Teff Pepperoni Bread, lll-l12 white rice flour, 26
Teff Spicy Pumpkin Muffins, 45 Winter Pie, 264
Walnut Teff Muffins, 73-74
Thanksgiving Quick Loaf, 129-130 X
Thimble Cookies, 167 xanthum gum, ll, 12, 17, 26, 106, 108
tools, bread-making, 105
Tortillas, Amaranth , 134 y
Trampoline Cake, 184 yeast, 105-106, 108
Two-Potato Pie, 265 yeast breads, 102-107
See also breads
u Yeast Bread with Molasses, ll5
Upside-Down Cake, 183-184
z
v zucchini
vanilla, 31-32 Green Cheese Pie, 263
vegetables Zucchini Cake, 186
Flax Muffins with Vegetables and Fruit, Zucchini Muffins, 58
54-55 Zucchini Quick Bread, 128
Green Cheese Pie, 263
Squash Muffins, 59
Veggie Quick Bread, 132
Winter Pie, 264

w
waffles, 75
Fluffy Pancakes or Waffles, 84
Street Waffles, 98
Tapioca Waffles with Cumin, 91
walnuts
Flourless Chocolate Walnut Cake,
2ll-212
Old-Fashioned Walnut Macaroons, 148
Pumpkin-Walnut Flapjacks, 93
Walnut Squares, 178
Walnut Teff Muffins, 73-74
Watermelon, Rummed, 238

283
Acknow-1ed~ements

As we sit together on the patio outside the simple New Hampshire country
kitchen where so many of these recipes were tested, rejected, and enjoyed, we
feel grateful that our seed of an idea for a baking book has finally become a
full flower, which we are honored to share through the efforts of Fair Winds
Press. It became a conscious search for tasty, healthy baked goods based on
terrific new grains and flours from all over the world.
But this book is hardly our work alone. The know-how, research, creativi-
ty, and baking skills of a lot of people have been bound between these covers.
We owe a salute to our marvelous alternative flour researcher, Melinda
Dennis, and special thanks to all whose recipes we have adapted, including
Bob Moore of Bob's Red Mill and Sam Wylde III of Ener-G Foods; as well as
the pioneers of wheat- and gluten-free cooking and baking: Bette Hagman,
Phyllis Potts, Carol Lee Fenster, Ph.D., and most recently, Rebecca Riley,
whose books we strongly recommend; and so many others who were helpful,
including Per Zeeberg, a baking teacher whom we met by a campfire in
Oregon, who helped us simplify our bread-making.
It could not have happened without the encouragement, love and organi-
zational and computer skills of our friend, Eleanor King. We would also like
to thank Sandy Smith, our copy editor, for her know-how and the praising
notes she sent with each chapter.
Like every book, our extended family prayed we would finish it, while
eating it up.

285
About the Authors

Mary Ann and Mace Wenniger are a husband and wife who began creating
gluten-free recipes over twenty years ago when Mace was diagnosed with
celiac disease. Artists, art gallery owners, and authors, the Wennigers have
grandchildren with food allergies who benefit from these delicious recipes.

287