You are on page 1of 18

Joseph Haydn

Haydn redirects here. For other uses, see Haydn (dis-


ambiguation).
(Franz) Joseph Haydn[n 1] (/dozf hadn/; German:

Map showing locations where Haydn lived or visited (see List of


residences of Joseph Haydn)

1 Biography

1.1 Early life

Joseph Haydn was born in Rohrau, Austria, a village that


[1]
Portrait of Joseph Haydn by Thomas Hardy (1791) at that time stood on the border with Hungary. His father
was Mathias Haydn, a wheelwright who also served as
Marktrichter, an oce akin to village mayor. Haydns
mother Maria, ne Koller, had previously worked as a
cook in the palace of Count Harrach, the presiding aris-
[jozf hadn]; 31 March[n 2] 1732 31 May 1809) tocrat of Rohrau. Neither parent could read music;[n 4]
was a prolic Austrian composer of the Classical pe-
however, Mathias was an enthusiastic folk musician, who
riod. He was instrumental in the development of chamber during the journeyman period of his career had taught
music such as the piano trio[2] and his contributions to himself to play the harp. According to Haydns later rem-
musical form have earned him the epithets Father of the iniscences, his childhood family was extremely musical,
Symphony" and Father of the String Quartet".[3] and frequently sang together and with their neighbours.[4]
Haydn spent much of his career as a court musician for Haydns parents had noticed that their son was musically
the wealthy Esterhzy family at their remote estate. Un- gifted and knew that in Rohrau he would have no chance
til the later part of his life, this isolated him from other to obtain serious musical training. It was for this reason
composers and trends in music so that he was, as he put that, around the time Haydn turned six, they accepted a
it, forced to become original.[n 3] Yet his music circu- proposal from their relative Johann Matthias Frankh, the
lated widely and for much of his career he was the most schoolmaster and choirmaster in Hainburg, that Haydn
celebrated composer in Europe. be apprenticed to Frankh in his home to train as a musi-
He was a friend and mentor of Mozart, a teacher of cian. Haydn therefore went o with Frankh to Hainburg
Beethoven, and the older brother of composer Michael 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) away; he never again lived with his
Haydn. parents.

1
2 1 BIOGRAPHY

Life in the Frankh household was not easy for Haydn, who his biographer Albert Christoph Dies, Haydn was moti-
later remembered being frequently hungry[5] and humili- vated to sing well, in hopes of gaining more invitations to
ated by the lthy state of his clothing.[6] He began his mu- perform before aristocratic audienceswhere the singers
sical training there, and could soon play both harpsichord were usually served refreshments.[11]
and violin. The people of Hainburg heard him sing treble
parts in the church choir.
1.2 Struggles as a freelancer
There is reason to think that Haydns singing impressed
those who heard him, because in 1739[n 5] he was brought
By 1749, Haydn had matured physically to the point that
to the attention of Georg von Reutter, the director of mu-
he was no longer able to sing high choral parts. Em-
sic in St. Stephens Cathedral in Vienna, who happened to
press Maria Theresa herself complained to Reutter about
be visiting Hainburg and was looking for new choirboys.
his singing, calling it crowing.[12] One day, Haydn car-
Haydn passed his audition with Reutter, and after sev-
ried out a prank, snipping o the pigtail of a fellow
eral months of further training moved to Vienna (1740),
chorister.[12] This was enough for Reutter: Haydn was
where he worked for the next nine years as a chorister.
rst caned, then summarily dismissed and sent into the
streets.[13] He had the good fortune to be taken in by a
friend, Johann Michael Spangler, who shared his fam-
ilys crowded garret room with Haydn for a few months.
Haydn immediately began his pursuit of a career as a free-
lance musician.
Haydn struggled at rst, working at many dierent jobs:
as a music teacher, as a street serenader, and eventu-
ally, in 1752, as valetaccompanist for the Italian com-
poser Nicola Porpora, from whom he later said he learned
the true fundamentals of composition.[14] He was also
briey in Count Friedrich Wilhelm von Haugwitz's em-
ploy, playing the organ in the Bohemian Chancellery
chapel at the Judenplatz.[15]
While a chorister, Haydn had not received any system-
atic training in music theory and composition. As a
remedy, he worked his way through the counterpoint
exercises in the text Gradus ad Parnassum by Johann
Joseph Fux and carefully studied the work of Carl Philipp
Emanuel Bach, whom he later acknowledged as an im-
portant inuence.[16]
As his skills increased, Haydn began to acquire a public
reputation, rst as the composer of an opera, Der krumme
Teufel, The Limping Devil, written for the comic ac-
tor Johann Joseph Felix Kurz, whose stage name was
Bernardon. The work was premiered successfully in
1753, but was soon closed down by the censors due to
St. Stephens Cathedral. In the foreground is the Kapellhaus (de- oensive remarks.[17] Haydn also noticed, apparently
molished 1804) where Haydn lived as a chorister. without annoyance, that works he had simply given away
were being published and sold in local music shops.[18]
Haydn lived in the Kapellhaus next to the cathedral, Between 1754 and 1756 Haydn also worked freelance
along with Reutter, Reutters family, and the other for the court in Vienna. He was among several musicians
four choirboys, which after 1745 included his younger who were paid for services as supplementary musicians at
brother Michael.[7] The choirboys were instructed in balls given for the imperial children during carnival sea-
Latin and other school subjects as well as voice, violin, son, and as supplementary singers in the imperial chapel
and keyboard.[8] Reutter was of little help to Haydn in (the Hofkapelle) in Lent and Holy Week.[19]
the areas of music theory and composition, giving him With the increase in his reputation, Haydn eventually ob-
only two lessons in his entire time as chorister.[9] How-
tained aristocratic patronage, crucial for the career of a
ever, since St. Stephens was one of the leading musical
composer in his day. Countess Thun,[n 6] having seen one
centres in Europe, Haydn learned a great deal simply by
of Haydns compositions, summoned him and engaged
serving as a professional musician there.[10] him as her singing and keyboard teacher.[n 7] In 1756,
Like Frankh before him, Reutter did not always bother Baron Carl Josef Frnberg employed Haydn at his coun-
to make sure Haydn was properly fed. As he later told try estate, Weinzierl, where the composer wrote his rst
1.3 The years as Kapellmeister 3

string quartets. Frnberg later recommended Haydn to


Count Morzin, who, in 1757,[n 8] became his rst full-
time employer.[20]

1.3 The years as Kapellmeister

Schloss Esterhazy, the ancestral home of the Esterhzy family

Count Morzin soon suered nancial reverses that forced


him to dismiss his musical establishment, but Haydn was
quickly oered a similar job (1761) by Prince Paul An-
ton, head of the immensely wealthy Esterhzy family.
The Morzin palace in Doln Lukavice, Czech Republic Haydns job title was only Vice-Kapellmeister, but he
was immediately placed in charge of most of the Ester-
hzy musical establishment, with the old Kapellmeister,
Gregor Werner, retaining authority only for church mu-
sic. When Werner died in 1766, Haydn was elevated to
full Kapellmeister.

View of Eszterhza

As a house ocer in the Esterhzy establishment,


Haydn wore livery and followed the family as they moved
among their various palaces, most importantly the fam-
Haydns wife Anna. Unauthenticated miniature attributed to ilys ancestral seat Schloss Esterhzy in Eisenstadt and
Ludwig Guttenbrunn (Burgenlndisches Landesmuseum) later on Esterhza, a grand new palace built in rural Hun-
gary in the 1760s. Haydn had a huge range of respon-
Haydns job title under Count Morzin was Kapellmeister, sibilities, including composition, running the orchestra,
that is, music director. He led the counts small orchestra playing chamber music for and with his patrons, and
and wrote his rst symphonies for this ensemble. In 1760, eventually the mounting of operatic productions. Despite
with the security of a Kapellmeister position, Haydn mar- this backbreaking workload,[n 10] the job was in artistic
ried. His wife was the former Maria Anna Theresia Keller terms a superb opportunity for Haydn.[n 11] The Esterhzy
(17301800),[21] the sister of Therese (b. 1733), with princes (Paul Anton, then from 17621790 Nikolaus I)
whom Haydn had previously been in love. Haydn and his were musical connoisseurs who appreciated his work and
wife had a completely unhappy marriage,[22] from which gave him daily access to his own small orchestra. During
the laws of the time permitted them no escape. They pro- the nearly thirty years that Haydn worked at the Ester-
duced no children. Both took lovers.[n 9] hzy court, he produced a ood of compositions, and his
4 1 BIOGRAPHY

thetic strings. Haydn was commanded to provide music


for the Prince to play, and over the next ten years pro-
duced about 200 works for this instrument in various en-
sembles, of which the most notable are the 126 baryton
trios. Around 1775 the Prince abandoned the baryton
and took up a new hobby: opera productions, previously
a sporadic event for special occasions, became the focus
of musical life at court, and the opera theater the Prince
had built at Esterhza came to host a major season, with
multiple productions each year. Haydn served as director
of the company, recruiting and training the singers and
preparing and leading the performances. He also wrote
several of the operas performed (see List of operas by
Joseph Haydn) and wrote substitution arias to insert into
the operas of other composers.
1779 was a watershed year for Haydn, as his contract
was renegotiated: whereas previously all his composi-
tions were the property of the Esterhzy family, he now
was permitted to write for others and sell his work to pub-
lishers. Haydn soon shifted his emphasis in composition
to reect this (fewer operas, and more quartets and sym-
phonies) and he negotiated with multiple publishers, both
Austrian and foreign. Of Haydns new employment con-
tract Jones writes,
Portrait by Ludwig Guttenbrunn, painted c. 17912, depicts
Haydn c. 1770 This single document acted as a catalyst in
the next stage in Haydns career, the achieve-
musical style continued to develop. ment of international popularity. By 1790
Haydn was in the paradoxical, if not bizarre,
position of being Europes leading composer,
but someone who spent his time as a duty-
bound Kapellmeister in a remote palace in the
Hungarian countryside.[23]

The new publication campaign resulted in the composi-


tion of a great number of new string quartets (the six-
quartet sets of Op. 33, 50, 54/55, and 64). Haydn also
composed in response to commissions from abroad: the
Paris symphonies (17851786) and the original orches-
tral version of The Seven Last Words of Christ (1786), a
commission from Cadiz, Spain.
The remoteness of Esterhza, which was farther from Vi-
enna than Eisenstadt, led Haydn gradually to feel more
isolated and lonely.[24] He longed to visit Vienna because
of his friendships there.[25] Of these, a particularly impor-
tant one was with Maria Anna von Genzinger (175493),
the wife of Prince Nikolauss personal physician in Vi-
enna, who began a close, platonic, relationship with the
composer in 1789. Haydn wrote to Mrs. Genzinger of-
ten, expressing his loneliness at Esterhza and his hap-
piness for the few occasions on which he was able to
Prince Nikolaus Esterhzy, Haydns most important patron
visit her in Vienna; later on, Haydn wrote to her fre-
Much of Haydns activity at the time followed the spe- quently from London. Her premature death in 1793 was
cic musical interest of his patron Prince Nikolaus. Thus, a blow to Haydn, and his F minor variations for piano,
in about 1765 the Prince obtained, and began to learn Hob. XVII:6, may have been written in response to her
to play, the baryton, an uncommon musical instrument death.[26]
similar to the bass viol but with a set of plucked sympa- Another friend in Vienna was Wolfgang Amadeus
1.4 The London journeys 5

Portrait of Mozart by Joseph Lange

Mozart, whom Haydn had met sometime around 1784.


According to later testimony by Michael Kelly and oth- Haydn as portrayed by John Hoppner in England in 1791
ers, the two composers occasionally played in string quar-
tets together. Haydn was hugely impressed with Mozarts
work and praised it unstintingly to others. Mozart evi-
dently returned the esteem, as seen in his dedication of him travel, and the composer accepted a lucrative of-
a set of six quartets, now called the Haydn quartets, to fer from Johann Peter Salomon, a German violinist and
his friend. For further details see Haydn and Mozart. impresario, to visit England and conduct new symphonies
with a large orchestra.
The choice was a sensible one because Haydn was al-
1.4 The London journeys
ready a very popular composer there. Since the death
of Johann Christian Bach in 1782, Haydns music had
dominated the concert scene in London; hardly a con-
cert did not feature a work by him (Jones).[29] Haydns
work was widely distributed by publishers in London, in-
cluding Forster (who had their own contract with Haydn)
and Longman & Broderip (who served as agent in Eng-
land for Haydns Vienna publisher Artaria).[29] Eorts to
bring Haydn to London had been undertaken since 1782,
though Haydns loyalty to Prince Nikolaus had prevented
him from accepting.[29]
After fond farewells from Mozart and other friends,[30]
Haydn departed Vienna with Salomon on 15 December
1790, arriving in Calais in time to cross the English Chan-
nel on New Years Day of 1791. It was the rst time that
The Hanover Square Rooms, principal venue of Haydns perfor- the 58-year-old composer had seen the ocean. Arriving
mances in London
in London, Haydn stayed with Salomon in Great Pulteney
[31]
In 1790, Prince Nikolaus died and was succeeded as Street (London, near Picadilly Circus) working in a
prince by his son Anton. Following a trend of the time, [27] borrowed studio at the Broadwood piano rm nearby.[31]
Anton sought to economize by dismissing most of the It was the start of a very auspicious period for Haydn;
court musicians. Haydn retained a nominal appointment both the 17911792 journey, along with a repeat visit
with Anton, at a reduced salary of 400 orins, as well in 17941795, were greatly successful. Audiences
as a 1000-orin pension from Nikolaus.[28] Since Anton ocked to Haydns concerts; he augmented his fame and
had little need of Haydns services, he was willing to let made large prots, thus becoming nancially secure.[n 12]
6 1 BIOGRAPHY

Charles Burney reviewed the rst concert thus: Haydn


himself presided at the piano-forte; and the sight of that
renowned composer so electried the audience, as to ex-
cite an attention and a pleasure superior to any that had
ever been caused by instrumental music in England.[n 13]
Haydn made many new friends and, for a time, was in-
volved in a romantic relationship with Rebecca Schroeter.
Musically, Haydns visits to England generated some of
his best-known work, including the Surprise, Military,
Drumroll and London symphonies; the Rider quartet; and
the Gypsy Rondo piano trio.
The great success of the overall enterprise does not mean
that the journeys were free of trouble. Notably, his very
rst project, the commissioned opera L'anima del losofo
was duly written during the early stages of the trip, but
the operas impresario John Gallini was unable to obtain
a license to permit opera performances in the theater he
directed, the Kings Theatre. Haydn was well paid for the
opera (300 pounds) but much time was wasted.[n 14] Thus
only two new symphonies, no. 95 and no. 96 "Miracle",
could be premiered in the 12 concerts of Salomons spring Beethoven in 1801, as portrayed by Carl Traugott Riedel
concert series. Another problem arose from the jealously
competitive eorts of a senior, rival orchestra, the Pro-
fessional Concerts, who recruited Haydns old pupil Ignaz abroad, and Haydn joined forces with the Opera Con-
Pleyel as a rival visiting composer; the two composers, re- certs, headed by the violinist Giovanni Battista Viotti.
fusing to play along with the concocted rivalry, dined to- These were the venue of the last three symphonies, 102,
gether and put each others symphonies on their concert 103, and 104. The nal benet concert for Haydn (Dr.
programs. Haydns night) at the end of the 1795 season was a great
success and was perhaps the peak of his English career.
The end of Salomons series in June gave Haydn a rare
Haydns biographer Griesinger wrote that Haydn consid-
period of relative leisure. He spent some of the time in
ered the days spent in England the happiest of his life. He
the country (Hertingfordbury), but also had time to travel,
was everywhere appreciated there; it opened a new world
notably to Oxford, where he was awarded an honorary
to him.[34]
doctorate by the University. The symphony performed
for the occasion, no. 92 has since come to be known
as the Oxford Symphony, although it had been written in
1789.[32] 1.5 Years of celebrity in Vienna
While traveling to London in 1790, Haydn had met the
Haydn returned to Vienna in 1795. Prince Anton had
young Ludwig van Beethoven in his native city of Bonn.
died, and his successor Nikolaus II proposed that the
On Haydns return, Beethoven came to Vienna and dur-
Esterhzy musical establishment be revived with Haydn
ing the time up to the second London visit was Haydns
serving again as Kapellmeister. Haydn took up the posi-
pupil. Haydn took Beethoven with him to Eisenstadt for
tion on a part-time basis. He spent his summers with the
the summer (where Haydn found he had rather little to
Esterhzys in Eisenstadt, and over the course of several
do) and also taught Beethoven some counterpoint. For
years wrote six masses for them.
discussion of their relationship, see Beethoven and his
contemporaries.[33] While in Vienna, Haydn purchased a By this time Haydn had become a public gure in Vienna.
house for himself and his wife in the suburbs and started He spent most of his time in his home, a large house in
remodeling it. He also arranged for the performance of the suburb of Windmhle,[n 15] and wrote works for pub-
some of his London symphonies in local concerts. lic performance. In collaboration with his librettist and
mentor Gottfried van Swieten, and with funding from van
By the time he arrived on his second journey to England,
Swietens Gesellschaft der Associierten, he composed his
(1794-1795), Haydn had become a familiar gure on the
two great oratorios, The Creation (1798) and The Sea-
London concert scene. The 1794 season was dominated
sons (1801). Both were enthusiastically received. Haydn
by Salomons ensemble, as the Professional Concerts had
frequently appeared before the public, often leading per-
abandoned their eorts. The concerts included the pre-
formances of The Creation and The Seasons for charity
mieres of the 99th, 100th, and 101st symphonies. For
benets, including Tonknstler-Societt programs with
1795, Salomon had abandoned his own series, citing di-
massed musical forces. He also composed instrumental
culty in obtaining vocal performers of the rst rank from
music: the popular Trumpet Concerto, and the last nine
1.6 Retirement, illness, and death 7

the Harmoniemesse.

1.6 Retirement, illness, and death


By the end of 1803, Haydns condition had declined to
the point that he became physically unable to compose.
He suered from weakness, dizziness, inability to con-
centrate and painfully swollen legs. Since diagnosis was
uncertain in Haydns time, it is unlikely that the pre-
cise illness can ever be identied, though Jones suggests
arteriosclerosis.[35]
The illness was especially hard for Haydn because the
ow of fresh musical ideas waiting to be worked out as
compositions (something he could no longer do) contin-
ued unabated. His biographer Dies reported a conversa-
tion from 1806:

[Haydn said] I must have something to do


-- usually musical ideas are pursuing me, to the
point of torture, I cannot escape them, they
stand like walls before me. If its an allegro
that pursues me, my pulse keeps beating faster,
I can get no sleep. If its an adagio, then I no-
tice my pulse beating slowly. My imagination
Haydn portrayed in wax sculpture by Franz Christian Thaler plays on me as if I were a clavier.[n 16] Haydn
around 1800, near the end of his active career smiled, the blood rushed to his face, and he said
I am really just a living clavier.[n 17]

The winding down of Haydns career was gradual. The


Esterhzy family kept him on as Kapellmeister to the
very end (much as they had with his predecessor Werner
long before), but they appointed new sta to lead their
musical establishment: Johann Michael Fuchs in 1802
as Vice-Kapellmeister[36] and Johann Nepomuk Hummel
as Konzertmeister in 1804.[37] Haydns last summer in
Eisenstadt was in 1803,[36] and his last appearance be-
fore the public as a conductor was a charity performance
of The Seven Last Words on 26 December 1803. As de-
bility set in, he made largely futile eorts at composition,
attempting to revise a rediscovered Missa brevis from his
teenage years and complete his nal string quartet. The
The house in Vienna (now a museum) where Haydn lived in the latter project was abandoned for good in 1805, and the
last years of his life quartet was published with just two movements.[38]
Haydn was well cared for by his servants, and he received
many visitors and public honors during his last years, but
in his long series of string quartets, including the Fifths, they could not have been very happy years for him.[n 18]
Emperor, and Sunrise. A brief work, "Gott erhalte Franz During his illness, Haydn often found solace by sitting at
den Kaiser" (the Emperors Hymn"; 1797), achieved the piano and playing his Emperors hymn.
great success and became the enduring emblem of Aus- A nal triumph occurred on 27 March 1808 when a per-
trian identity right up to the First World War (Jones); in formance of The Creation was organized in his honor.
modern times it became (with dierent words) the na- The very frail composer was brought into the hall on an
tional anthem of Germany. armchair to the sound of trumpets and drums and was
During the later years of this successful period, Haydn greeted by Beethoven, Salieri (who led the performance)
faced incipient old age and uctuating health, and he had and by other musicians and members of the aristocracy.
to struggle to complete his nal works. His last major Haydn was both moved and exhausted by the experience
work, from 1802, was the sixth mass for the Esterhzys, and had to depart at intermission.[39]
8 2 CHARACTER AND APPEARANCE

sturm cemetery until 1820, when they were moved to


Eisenstadt by Prince Nikolaus. His head took a dierent
journey; it was stolen shortly after burial by phrenologists,
and the skull was reunited with the other remains only in
1954; for details see Haydns head.

2 Character and appearance

The 1808 performance of The Creation in honor of Haydn; re-


production of a painted stationery box lid painted in watercolors Haydns signature on a work of music: di me giuseppe Haydn
by Balthazar Wigand. Click to enlarge. (by me Joseph Haydn). He writes in Italian, a language he often
used professionally.

James Webster writes of Haydns public character thus:


Haydns public life exemplied the Enlightenment ideal
of the honnte homme (honest man): the man whose
good character and worldly success enable and justify
each other. His modesty and probity were everywhere
acknowledged. These traits were not only prerequisites
to his success as Kapellmeister, entrepreneur and pub-
lic gure, but also aided the favorable reception of his
music.[43] Haydn was especially respected by the Ester-
hzy court musicians whom he supervised, as he main-
tained a cordial working atmosphere and eectively rep-
resented the musicians interests with their employer; see
Papa Haydn and the tale of the Farewell Symphony.
Haydn had a robust sense of humor, evident in his love of
The Bergkirche in Eisenstadt, site of Haydns tomb practical jokes[44] and often apparent in his music, and he
had many friends. For much of his life he beneted from
a happy and naturally cheerful temperament,[45] but in
Haydn lived on for 14 more months. His nal days were his later life, there is evidence for periods of depression,
hardly serene, as in May 1809 the French army under notably in the correspondence with Mrs. Genzinger and
Napoleon launched an attack on Vienna and on 10 May in Diess biography, based on visits made in Haydns old
bombarded his neighborhood. According to Griesinger, age.
Four case shots fell, rattling the windows and doors of
his house. He called out in a loud voice to his alarmed
and frightened people, 'Don't be afraid, children, where
Haydn is, no harm can reach you!'. But the spirit was
stronger than the esh, for he had hardly uttered the brave
words when his whole body began to tremble.[40] More
bombardments followed until the city fell to the French
on 13 May.[41] Haydn, was, however, deeply moved and
appreciative when on 17 May a French cavalry ocer
named Sulmy came to pay his respects and sang, skill-
fully, an aria from The Creation.[42]
On 26 May Haydn played his Emperors Hymn with
unusual gusto three times; the same evening he collapsed
and was taken to what proved to be to his deathbed.[40]
He died peacefully at 12:40 a.m. on 31 May 1809, aged
77.[41] Laus Deo (praise be to God) at the conclusion of a Haydn
[n 19]
manuscript.
On 15 June, a memorial service was held in the
Schottenkirche at which Mozarts Requiem was per- Haydn was a devout Catholic who often turned to his
formed. Haydns remains were interred in the local Hund- rosary when he had trouble composing, a practice that
3.1 Structure and character of his music 9

he usually found to be eective.[46] He normally began phony' and could with greater justice be thus regarded
the manuscript of each composition with in nomine Do- for the string quartet; no other composer approaches his
mini (in the name of the Lord) and ended with Laus combination of productivity, quality and historical im-
Deo (praise be to God).[47] portance in these genres.[52]
Haydns primary character aw was greed as it related
to his business dealings. Webster writes: As regards
3.1 Structure and character of his music
money, Haydn was so self-interested as to shock [both]
contemporaries and many later authorities .... He al-
A central characteristic of Haydns music is the develop-
ways attempted to maximize his income, whether by ne-
ment of larger structures out of very short, simple mu-
gotiating the right to sell his music outside the Ester-
sical motifs, often derived from standard accompanying
hzy court, driving hard bargains with publishers or sell-
gures. The music is often quite formally concentrated,
ing his works three and four times over; he regularly
and the important musical events of a movement can un-
engaged in 'sharp practice' and occasionally in outright
fold rather quickly.[n 21]
fraud. When crossed in business relations, he reacted
angrily.[48] Webster notes that Haydns ruthlessness in Haydns work was central to the development of what
business might be viewed more sympathetically in light of came to be called sonata form. His practice, how-
his struggles with poverty during his years as a freelancer ever, diered in some ways from that of Mozart and
and that outside of the world of business, in dealings, for Beethoven, his younger contemporaries who likewise ex-
example, with relatives and servants and in volunteering celled in this form of composition. Haydn was partic-
his services for charitable concerts, Haydn was a generous ularly fond of the so-called monothematic exposition,
man.[48] in which the music that establishes the dominant key is
similar or identical to the opening theme. Haydn also
Haydn was short in stature, perhaps as a result of having
diers from Mozart and Beethoven in his recapitulation
been underfed throughout most of his youth. He was not
sections, where he often rearranges the order of themes
handsome, and like many in his day he was a survivor
compared to the exposition and uses extensive thematic
of smallpox; his face was pitted with the scars of this
development.[n 22]
disease.[n 20] His biographer Dies wrote: "...he couldn't
understand how it happened that in his life he had been Haydns formal inventiveness also led him to integrate the
loved by many a pretty woman. 'They couldn't have been fugue into the classical style and to enrich the rondo form
led to it by my beauty'".[49] with more cohesive tonal logic (see sonata rondo form).
Haydn was also the principal exponent of the double vari-
His nose, large and aquiline, was disgured by the polypus
ation formvariations on two alternating themes, which
he suered during much of his adult life,[50] an agonizing
are often major- and minor-mode versions of each other.
and debilitating disease that at times prevented him from
writing music. [51] Perhaps more than any other composers, Haydns mu-
sic is known for its humor.[53] The most famous exam-
ple is the sudden loud chord in the slow movement of his
Surprise symphony; Haydns many other musical jokes
include numerous false endings (e.g., in the quartets Op.
33 No. 2 and Op. 50 No. 3), and the remarkable rhyth-
mic illusion placed in the trio section of the third move-
ment of Op. 50 No. 1.
Much of the music was written to please and delight
a prince, and its emotional tone is correspondingly up-
beat. This tone also reects, perhaps, Haydns funda-
mentally healthy and well-balanced personality. Occa-
sional minor-key works, often deadly serious in charac-
ter, form striking exceptions to the general rule. Haydns
fast movements tend to be rhythmically propulsive and
The original copy of "Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser" in Haydns often impart a great sense of energy, especially in the
hand nales. Some characteristic examples of Haydns rol-
licking nale type are found in the London symphony
No. 104, the string quartet Op. 50 No. 1, and the piano
trio Hob XV: 27. Haydns early slow movements are usu-
3 Works ally not too slow in tempo, relaxed, and reective. Later
on, the emotional range of the slow movements increases,
James Webster summarizes Haydns role in the history of notably in the deeply felt slow movements of the quartets
classical music as follows: He excelled in every musical Op. 76 Nos. 3 and 5, the Symphonies No. 98 and 102,
genre.... He is familiarly known as the 'father of the sym- and the piano trio Hob XV: 23. The minuets tend to have
10 3 WORKS

a strong downbeat and a clearly popular character. Over music. The change made itself felt most dramatically in
time, Haydn turned some of his minuets into scherzi 1781, when Haydn published the six string quartets of
which are much faster, at one beat to the bar. Opus 33, announcing (in a letter to potential purchasers)
that they were written in a new and completely special
way.[n 25] Charles Rosen has argued that this assertion on
3.2 Evolution of Haydns style Haydns part was not just sales talk, but meant quite seri-
ously; and he points out a number of important advances
Haydns early work dates from a period in which the com- in Haydns compositional technique that appear in these
positional style of the High Baroque (seen in Bach and quartets, advances that mark the advent of the Classical
Handel) had gone out of fashion. This was a period of style in full ower. These include a uid form of phras-
exploration and uncertainty, and Haydn, born 18 years ing, in which each motif emerges from the previous one
before the death of Bach, was himself one of the musical without interruption, the practice of letting accompany-
explorers of this time.[n 23] An older contemporary whose ing material evolve into melodic material, and a kind of
work Haydn acknowledged as an important inuence was Classical counterpoint" in which each instrumental part
Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach.[16] maintains its own integrity. These traits continue in the
[n 26]
Tracing Haydns work over the six decades in which it many quartets that Haydn wrote after Opus 33.
was produced (roughly from 1749 to 1802), one nds a In the 1790s, stimulated by his England journeys, Haydn
gradual but steady increase in complexity and musical so- developed what Rosen calls his popular style, a method
phistication, which developed as Haydn learned from his of composition that, with unprecedented success, cre-
own experience and that of his colleagues. Several im- ated music having great popular appeal but retaining a
portant landmarks have been observed in the evolution learned and rigorous musical structure.[n 27] An important
of Haydns musical style. element of the popular style was the frequent use of folk
In the late 1760s and early 1770s, Haydn entered a stylis- or folk-like material, as discussed in the article Haydn
tic period known as "Sturm und Drang" (storm and and folk music. Haydn took care to deploy this material
stress). This term is taken from a literary movement of in appropriate locations, such as the endings of sonata ex-
about the same time, though it appears that the musical positions or the opening themes of nales. In such loca-
development actually preceded the literary one by a few tions, the folk material serves as an element of stability,
years.[n 24] The musical language of this period is simi- helping to anchor the larger structure.[56] Haydns popular
lar to what went before, but it is deployed in work that style can be heard in virtually all of his later work, includ-
is more intensely expressive, especially in the works in ing the twelve London symphonies, the late quartets and
minor keys. James Webster describes the works of this piano trios, and the two late oratorios.
period as longer, more passionate, and more daring.[54] The return to Vienna in 1795 marked the last turning
Some of the most famous compositions of this time are point in Haydns career. Although his musical style
the Trauer (Mourning) Symphony No. 44, Farewell evolved little, his intentions as a composer changed.
Symphony No. 45, the piano sonata in C minor (Hob. While he had been a servant, and later a busy en-
XVI/20, L. 33), and the six string quartets of Op. 20 (the trepreneur, Haydn wrote his works quickly and in profu-
Sun quartets), all from c. 177172. It was also around sion, with frequent deadlines. As a rich man, Haydn now
this time that Haydn became interested in writing fugues felt that he had the privilege of taking his time and writing
in the Baroque style, and three of the Op. 20 quartets end for posterity. This is reected in the subject matter of The
with a fugue. Creation (1798) and The Seasons (1801), which address
Following the climax of the Sturm und Drang, Haydn such weighty topics as the meaning of life and the pur-
returned to a lighter, more overtly entertaining style. pose of humankind, and represent an attempt to render
There are no quartets from this period, and the sym- the sublime in music. Haydns new intentions also meant
phonies take on new features: the scoring often includes that he was willing to spend much time on a single work:
trumpets and timpani. These changes are often related to both oratorios took him over a year to complete. Haydn
a major shift in Haydns professional duties, which moved once remarked that he had worked on The Creation so
him away from pure music and toward the production long because he wanted it to last.[57]
of comic operas. Several of the operas were Haydns own The change in Haydns approach was important in the
work (see List of operas by Joseph Haydn); these are sel- history of classical music, as other composers were soon
dom performed today. Haydn sometimes recycled his following his lead. Notably, Beethoven adopted the prac-
opera music in symphonic works,[55] which helped him tice of taking his time and aiming high.[n 28]
continue his career as a symphonist during this hectic
decade.
In 1779, an important change in Haydns contract permit- 3.3 Identifying Haydns works
ted him to publish his compositions without prior autho-
rization from his employer. This may have encouraged Haydns works are listed in a comprehensive catalogue
Haydn to rekindle his career as a composer of pure prepared by Anthony van Hoboken. This Hoboken cat-
11

alogue provides each work with an identifying number, Haydns name, addressing the status of Franz and
called its Hoboken number (abbreviation: H. or Hob.). other names used by Haydn.
The string quartets also have Hoboken numbers, but are
usually identied instead by their opus numbers, which Haydn and folk music
have the advantage of indicating the groups of six quar-
tets that Haydn published together; thus for example the Haydns head, stolen after his death.
string quartet Opus 76, No. 3 is the third of the six quar-
Joseph Haydns ethnicity was Haydn a Croatian?
tets published in 1799 as Opus 76.
Haydns birthplace

4 See also List of Haydns residences

Papa Haydn
Works
Mannersdorf am Leithagebirge, visited by Haydn
Hoboken catalogue during the summer of 1753.

List of concertos by Joseph Haydn Haydns writing for timpani


List of masses by Joseph Haydn

List of operas by Joseph Haydn 5 Notes


List of piano trios by Joseph Haydn
[1] See Haydns name. Franz was not used during Haydns
List of solo piano compositions by Joseph Haydn lifetime and is avoided by scholars today (Haydn, Joseph
by James Webster in Grove Music Online, accessed 18 Jan-
List of string quartets by Joseph Haydn uary 2007).

List of symphonies by Joseph Haydn [2] The date is uncertain. Haydn told others he was born
on this day (Geiringer (1982, 9); Jones (1810, 8)), but
Baryton trios (Haydn) some of his family members reported 1 April instead
(Geiringer). The diculty arises from the fact that in
"Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser" (God save Franz, Haydns day ocial records recorded not the birth date
the Emperor), whose melody later became that of but the date of baptism, which, in Haydns case, was 1
Das Lied der Deutschen, Germanys national an- April (Wyn Jones 2009, p. 23).
them.
[3] Haydn made the remark to his friend and biographer
The Creation Georg August Griesinger; cited from English version by
Vernon Gotwals (Griesinger 1963:17).
The Seasons
[4] Haydn reported this in his 1776 Autobiographical sketch.
The Seven Last Words of Christ
[5] Finscher 2000, p. 12. Jones (2009:7) dates the visit to
Contemporaries early summer, i.e. cherry season, since during the visit
Reutter plied the child with fresh cherries as a means of
inducing him to learn to sing a trill.
Haydn and Mozart
[6] Various individuals bore the title Countess Thun over
Beethoven and his contemporaries time. Candidates for the countess who engaged Haydn are
(a) the elder Countess Maria Christine Thun, (Webster
Marianne von Martines as a child, one of Haydns
2002); (b) Maria Wilhelmine Thun (later a famous sa-
rst students; as an adult, a friend and eminent mu-
lon hostess and patroness of Mozart), (Volkmar Braun-
sician. behrens, 1990, Mozart in Vienna).
Johann Peter Salomon, who organized Haydns jour-
[7] Webster 2002, p. 8. Webster expresses doubts, since the
neys to London. source is the early biography of Nicolas-tienne Framery,
judged (Webster 2002, p. 1) the least reliable of Haydns
Gottfried van Swieten, The Creation and The Sea-
early biographers.
sons' librettist.
[8] This date is uncertain, since the early biography of
List of Austrians in music
Griesinger (1963) gives 1759. For the evidence support-
ing the earlier date see Landon & Jones (1988, p. 34) and
Other topics Webster (2002, p. 10).
12 6 FOOTNOTES

[9] Mrs. Haydns paramour (1770) was Ludwig Guttenbrunn, [21] Sutclie (1989, p. 343) mentions this in a criticism of
an artist who produced the portrait of Haydn seen above contemporary Haydn performance practice: "[Haydns]
(Landon & Jones 1988, p. 109). Joseph Haydn had a music sometime seems to 'live on its nerves ... It is above
long relationship, starting in 1779, with the singer Luigia all in this respect that Haydn performances often fail,
Polzelli, and was probably the father of her son Antonio whereby most interpreters lack the mental agility to deal
(Landon & Jones 1988, p. 116). with the ever-changing 'physiognomy' of Haydns music,
subsiding instead into an ease of manner and a concern for
[10] Robbins Landon and Jones (1988, 100) write: Haydns broader eects that they have acquired in their playing of
duties were crushing. We can notice the eect in his hand- Mozart.
writing, which becomes hastier as the 1770s turn to the
1780s: the notation starts to become ever more careless [22] Hughes (1970, p. 112) writes: Having begun to 'de-
in the scores and the abbreviations multiply. velop', he could not stop; his recapitulations begin to
take on irregular contours, sometimes sharply condensed,
[11] This view is given, for instance, by Webster (2002, p. 13) sometimes surprisingly expanded, losing their rst tame
and Landon & Jones (1988, p. 37). symmetry to regain a balance of a far higher and more
satisfying order.
[12] According to Jones, the London visits yielded a net prot
of 15,000 orins. Haydn continued to prosper after the [23] Rosen (1997, p. 57) writes, the period from 1750 to
visits and at his death left an estate valued at 55,713 orins. 1775 was penetrated by eccentricity, hit-or-miss exper-
These were substantial sums; for comparison, the house he imentation, resulting in works which are still dicult to
bought in Gumpendorf in 1793 (and then remodeled) cost accept today because of their oddities. Similar remarks
only 1370 orins (all gures from Jones 2009:14446). are made by Hughes (1970, pp. 111112)
[13] From Burneys memoirs; quoted from Landon & Jones
[24] See Webster (2002, p. 18): the term has been criti-
(1988, p. 234)
cized: taken from the title of a play of 1776 by Maximilian
[14] The premier performance did not take place until 1951, Klinger, it properly pertains to a literary movement of the
during the Florence May Festival. Maria Callas sang the middle and late 1770s rather than a musical one of about
role of Euridice. The opera and its history are discussed 17681772.
in Geiringer 1982, pp. 34243.
[25] Original German Neu, gantz besonderer Art"; Sisman
[15] The house, at Haydngasse 19, has since 1899 been a (1993, 219)
Haydn museum (16 Top-Rated Museums and Art Gal-
leries in Vienna 16. Haydn House by Bryan Dearsley; [26] Rosens case that Opus 33 represents a revolution in
Haydnhaus, Vienna Museum). style (1971 and 1997, 116) can be found in chapter III.1
of (Rosen 1971 and 1997). For dissenting views, see
[16] Dies (1810:141). Clavier in the original German is am- Larsen (1980, p. 102) and Webster (1991). For discus-
biguous; literally keyboard, it is used by extension to sion of the development of the same trend in Haydns style
denote a keyboard instrument such as the piano or harp- in the symphonies that preceded the Opus 33 quartets see
sichord. Rosen (1988:181-186).

[17] Of Haydns plight Rosen (1971/1997) wrote, The last [27] Rosen discusses the popular style in ch. VI.1 of Rosen
years of Haydns life, with all his success, comfort, and (1971 and 1997).
celebrity, are among the saddest in music. More moving
than the false pathos of a paupers grave for Mozart ... is [28] For discussion, see Antony Hopkins (1981) The Nine Sym-
the gure of Haydn lled with musical ideas which were phonies of Beethoven, Heinemann, London, pp. 78.
struggling to escape, as he himself said; he was too old
and weak to go to the piano and submit to the discipline
of working them out.
6 Footnotes
[18] This is the view of Geiringer (cited below, p. 198), who
gives the testimony of Haydns early biographer Giuseppe [1] For date of portrait see Jones2009a, p. vi.
Carpani.
[2] Smallman, Basil (1992). The Piano Trio: Its History,
[19] The inscription continues (in abbreviations) et Beatae Technique, and Repertoire. Oxford University Press. pp.
Virgini Mariae et omnibus sanctis (and to the Blessed 1619. ISBN 0-19-318307-2.
Virgin Mary and all the saints). The image is taken from
the 1900 edition of Groves Dictionary of Music and Mu- [3] Rosen 1997, pp. 4354
sicians; it does not identify the work in question.
[4] Dies 1810, (in the English translation from Gotwals 1963,
[20] The date of Haydns bout with smallpox is not preserved. pp. 80-1).
It was prior to the time he was hired by Countess Thun
(i.e. as a young adult; see above), since it is recorded that [5] Griesinger 1963, p. 9
when she rst encountered Haydn she observed his scars
as part of the generally poor impression his appearance [6] Dies 1810, (in the English translation from Gotwals 1963,
made on her. See Geiringer (1983:34) p. 82).
13

[7] Jones2009a, pp. 12-3. A third brother, Johann Evange- [35] For symptoms see Jones 2009a, p. 146; for the arte-
list Haydn also pursued a musical career as a tenor, but riosclerosis hypothesis see Jones 2009b, p. 216.
achieved no distinction and was for some time supported
by Joseph. [36] Jones 2009a, p. 209.

[8] Finscher 2000, p. 12 [37] Jones 2009a, pp. 214-5.


[9] Griesinger 1963, p. 10
[38] Jones 2009a, p. 213.
[10] Landon & Jones 1988, p. 27
[39] Source for this paragraph: Geiringer 1982, pp. 1867.
[11] Dies 1810, (in the English translation from Gotwals 1963,
p. 87). [40] Griesinger 1963, p. 50.

[12] Dies 1810, (in the English translation from Gotwals 1963, [41] Jones 2009b, p. 142
p. 89).
[42] Mit Wrd' und Hoheit angetan, the aria narrating the
[13] Geiringer 1982, p. 27
creation of humankind; Griesinger (1810:51):. According
[14] Larsen 1980, p. 8 to the less-reliable Dies, the date was 25 May, the ocers
name was Sulimi, and he sang an aria from The Seasons
[15] Rita Steblin, 'Haydns Orgeldienste in der damaligen (Dies 1810, in the English translation from Gotwals 1963,
Gr. Haugwitzischen Kapelle"', in: Wiener Geschichts- p. 193).
bltter 65/2000, pp. 12434.
[43] Webster 2002, p. 44. These same traits, and his con-
[16] Geiringer 1982, p. 30 nection to the aristocracy contributed to the decline in his
[17] Tom Beghin; Sander M. Goldberg (2007). Haydn and the reputation in the nineteenth century: Proksch 2015
Performance of Rhetoric. University of Chicago Press. p.
[44] Griesinger 1963, p. 20; Dies 1810, (in the English trans-
94. ISBN 9780226041292. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
lation from Gotwals 1963, pp. 92-3).
[18] Griesinger 1963, p. 15
[45] Dies 1810, (in the English translation from Gotwals 1963,
[19] Dexter Edge, 'New Sources for Haydns Early Biography', p. 91).
unpublished paper given at the AMS Montral, 7 Novem-
ber 1993, (see The New Grove Dictionary of Music and [46] Griesinger 1963, p. 54
Musicians (2001), vol. 11, p. 265).
[47] Larsen 1980, p. 81
[20] Source for this paragraph: Geiringer 1982, pp. 345

[21] Michael Lorenz, Joseph Haydns Real Wife (Vienna [48] New Grove, online edition, Haydn, Joseph, section 6
2014). As Lorenz notes, the identity of Haydns wife was
mistaken for most of the history of Haydn scholarship. [49] Dies 1810, (in the English translation from Robbins Lan-
don and Jones 1988, p. 157).
[22] See, e.g., Geiringer 1982, pp. 3640
[50] Hadden 2010, p. 158
[23] Jones 2009b, p. 136.
[51] Cohen, Jack (1998), The agony of nasal polyps and the
[24] Geiringer 1982, p. 60 terror of their removal 200 years ago, The Laryngoscope
[25] For details see Geiringer 1982, Chapter 6 108(9): 13111313 (September 1998).

[26] Geiringer 1982, p. 316, citing Robbins Landon. [52] New Grove, online edition, article Joseph Haydn"; ac-
cessed 3 February 2007
[27] Jones 2009a.
[53] Stephen Isserlis calls him the funniest of the great com-
[28] Geiringer (1982, 96)
posers (preface to Richard Wigmore, The Faber Pocket
[29] Jones 2009b, p. 325. Guide to Haydn (Faber, 2011)). Brendel (2001) focuses
on the humor of both Haydn and Beethoven. Rosen
[30] For narratives of Haydns last days in Mozarts company, (1997:111) attributes to Haydn an aptitude for the face-
see Haydn and Mozart tious that no other composer enjoyed.

[31] Jones 2009b, p. 137 [54] Webster 2002, p. 18


[32] Oxford Symphony, article by Jane Holland in Jones
[55] Webster and Feder 2001, section 3.iii
(2009b:266)

[33] Geiringer 1982, pp. 13135 [56] Rosen (1997 and 2001), 333337

[34] Source for this paragraph: Webster, New Grove [57] Geiringer 1982, p. 158
14 7 REFERENCES

7 References Landon, H.C. Robbins (19761980). Haydn:


Chronicle and Works. Bloomington, Indiana: In-
Biographical sources diana University Press. ISBN 0-253-37003-5. An
extensive compilation of original sources in ve vol-
umes.
Dies, Albert Christoph (1810). Biographische
Nachrichten von Joseph Haydn nach mndlichen Landon, H. C. Robbins; Jones, David Wyn (1988).
Erzhlungen desselben entworfen und herausgegeben Haydn: His Life and Music. Indiana University
[Biographical Accounts of Joseph Haydn, written Press. ISBN 978-0-253-37265-9. Biography chap-
and edited from his own spoken narratives]. Vienna: ters by Robbins Landon, excerpted from Robbins
Camesinaische Buchhandlung. English translation Landon (19761980) and rich in original source
in: Dies, Albert Christoph (1963). Biographical documents. Analysis and appreciation of the works
Accounts of Joseph Haydn. In Gotwals, Vernon. by Jones.
Haydn: Two Contemporary Portraits. (translation
by Vernon Gotwals). Milwaukee: Univ. of Wiscon- Larsen, Jens Peter (1980). Joseph Haydn. New
sin Press. ISBN 0-299-02791-0. One of the rst Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Pub-
biographies of Haydn, written on the basis of 30 in- lished separately as The New Grove: Haydn. New
terviews carried out during the composers old age. York: Norton. 1982. ISBN 0-393-01681-1.
Webster, James; Feder, Georg (2001). Joseph
Finscher, Ludwig (2000). Joseph Haydn und seine Haydn. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and
Zeit. Laaber: Laaber-Verlag. ISBN 3-921518-94- Musicians. Published separately as a book: The New
6. Highly detailed discussion of life and work; in Grove Haydn. New York: Macmillan. 2002. ISBN
German. 0-19-516904-2. Careful scholarship with little sub-
jective interpretation; covers both life and music,
Geiringer, Karl; Geiringer, Irene (1982). Haydn: A
and includes a very detailed list of works.
Creative Life in Music (3rd ed.). University of Cali-
fornia. ISBN 0-520-04316-2. The rst edition was
published in 1946 with Karl Geiringer as the sole Criticism and analysis sources
author.
Brendel, Alfred (2001). Does classical music
Griesinger, Georg August (1963). Biographical have to be entirely serious?". In Margalit, Edna;
Notes Concerning Joseph Haydn. In Gotwals, Ver- Margalit, Avishai. Isaiah Berlin: A Celebration.
non, translator and editor. Haydn: Two Contempo- Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 193
rary Portraits. Milwaukee: University of Wiscon- 204. ISBN 0-226-84096-4. On jokes in Haydn and
sin Press. ISBN 0-299-02791-0. A translation from Beethoven.
the original German: Biographische Notizen ber
Joseph Haydn (1810). Leipzig. Like Diess, a bi- Celestini, Federico (2010). Aspekte des Er-
ography produced from interviews with the elderly habenen in Haydns Sptwerk. In Celestini, Fed-
Haydn. erico; Dorschel, Andreas. Arbeit am Kanon. Vi-
enna: Universal Edition. pp. 1641. ISBN 978-
Hadden, James (1902) Haydn. J. Dent. A very old 3-7024-6967-2. On the sublime in Haydns later
but thoughtful biography; reissued 2010 by Cam- works; in German.
bridge University Press.
Clark, Caryl, ed. (2005). The Cambridge Com-
Hughes, Rosemary (1970). Haydn (Revised ed.). panion to Haydn. Cambridge Companions to Mu-
New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0- sic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN
460-02281-4. Originally published in 1950. Gives a 0-521-83347-7. Covers each of the genres Haydn
sympathetic and witty account of Haydns life, along composed in as well as stylistic and interpretive con-
with a survey of the music. texts and performance and reception.
Griths, Paul (1983). The String Quartet. New
Jones, David Wyn (2009a). The Life of Haydn. Ox-
York: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-01311-X.
ford University Press. Focuses on biography rather
than musical works; an up-to-date study beneting Hughes, Rosemary (1966). Haydn String Quartets.
from recent scholarly research on Haydns life and London: BBC. A brief (55 page) introduction to
times. Haydns string quartets.
Jones, David Wyn (2009b). Oxford Composer Com- Proksch, Bryan (2015). Reviving Haydn: New Ap-
panions: Haydn. Oxford University Press. A com- preciations in the Twentieth Century. Rochester,
prehensive one-volume collection of detailed contri- New York: University of Rochester Press. ISBN
butions by Haydn scholars. 9781580465120. Surveys the decline in Haydns
8.1 Scores and recordings 15

reputation in the nineteenth century before examin- musicologie.org, with biography (French)
ing the factors that led to a resurgence in the twen-
tieth. Haydn Quartet in F minor, Op. 20 No. 5, lecture
by Professor Roger Parker, with the Badke Quartet,
Rosen, Charles (1997). The classical style: Haydn, Gresham College, 8 April 2008 (available for video,
Mozart, Beethoven (2nd ed.). New York: Norton. audio and text download)
ISBN 0-393-31712-9. First edition published in
1971. Covers much of Haydns output and seeks to Haydn anniversary page on Bachtrack, includes lists
explicate Haydns central role in the creation of the of live performances
classical style. The work has been inuential, pro- Joseph Haydn at the Internet Movie Database
voking both positive citation and work (e.g., Web-
ster 1991) written in reaction. Joseph Haydn (character) at the Internet Movie
Database
Rosen, Charles (1988) Sonata forms (2nd ed.) New
York: Norton. Further discussion of Haydns style
and technique as it relates to sonata form. 8.1 Scores and recordings
Sisman, Elaine (1993) Haydn and the classical vari- Free scores by Joseph Haydn at the International
ation. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN Music Score Library Project
0-674-38315-X.
Free scores by Joseph Haydn in the Choral Public
Sutclie, W. Dean (1989). Haydns Musical Per- Domain Library (ChoralWiki)
sonality. The Musical Times. 130 (1756): 341
344. doi:10.2307/966030. JSTOR 966030. www.kreusch-sheet-music.net Free scores by
Haydn
Sutclie, W. Dean (1992). Haydn, string quartets,
op. 50. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Free scores at the Mutopia Project
ISBN 0-521-39103-2. Covers not just Op. 50 but Works by Joseph Haydn at Project Gutenberg
also its relevance to Haydns other output as well as
his earlier quartets. Works by or about Joseph Haydn at Internet Archive

Webster, James (1991). Haydns Farewell sym- Kunst der Fuge: Franz Joseph Haydn, MIDI les
phony and the idea of classical style: through-
composition and cyclic integration in his instrumen- Haydns page at Classical Archives
tal music. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Haydn Symphonies from the British Library Sound
ISBN 0-521-38520-2. This book focuses on a single Archive
work, but contains many observations and opinions
about Haydn in general. Complete recording of Joseph Haydns Pianosonatas
on a sampled Walther Pianoforte
Complete recording of Joseph Haydns Pianosonatas
8 External links on a sampled Steinway D

Haydn material. BBC Radio 3 archives.

Haydn Festival Eisenstadt

Albert Christoph Dies: (German) Biographische


Nachrichten von Joseph Haydn. Wien: Camesinais-
che Buchhandlung, 1810.

Haydns Late Oratorios: The Creation and The Sea-


sons by Brian Robins

Full text of the biography Haydn by J. Cuthbert


Hadden, 1902, from Project Gutenberg. The end
of book contains documentary material including a
number of Haydns letters. Alternatively scanned
copy Haydn at archive.org.

No Royal Directive: Joseph Haydn and the String


Quartet by Ron Drummond
16 9 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

9 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


9.1 Text
Joseph Haydn Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Haydn?oldid=762197806 Contributors: Magnus Manske, Vicki Rosenzweig,
Tarquin, Fcueto, Rmhermen, Christian List, Deb, William Avery, Camembert, Someone else, Leandrod, Nevilley, Bdesham, Gabbe, Ixfd64,
Dcljr, Sannse, Flamurai, Dori, SebastianHelm, Ahoerstemeier, Theresa knott, Angela, Den fjttrade ankan~enwiki, Uri~enwiki, Med,
RodC, Tarosan~enwiki, Zoicon5, Peregrine981, Tpbradbury, Modersbach, Hyacinth, Saltine, Franois~enwiki, Joy, Opus33, Raul654,
Wetman, Hajor, Donarreiskoer, Gentgeen, Robbot, Pigsonthewing, KeithH, Fredrik, Kizor, RedWolf, Nilmerg, Asoane, Wikibot,
JackofOz, Ianml, Lupo, HaeB, Cyrius, MikeCapone, Donald j axel, Snobot, Stirling Newberry, DocWatson42, Sj, Nunh-huh, Anton
Mravcek, Henry Flower, Tagishsimon, OldakQuill, Leonard Vertighel, Antandrus, MarkSweep, MistToys, Jacob grace, Ruzulo, Cihan,
Necrothesp, Tdent, Beginning, Marcus2, MementoVivere, Mike Rosoft, D6, R, Mindspillage, A-giau, Discospinster, Rich Farmbrough,
Francis Schonken, 1pezguy, Pavel Vozenilek, Paul August, Dmr2, Goochelaar, Bender235, Eestevez, Kwamikagami, Dajhorn, Shanes,
RoyBoy, Jashiin, Alxndr, Bobo192, Smalljim, Get It, Jolomo, Rajah, Haham hanuka, Jumbuck, Schissel, Anthony Appleyard, Walter
Grlitz, Karlthegreat, Ricky81682, Riana, Snowolf, Ksnow, Match, Staeiou, Nkour, Jon Cates, RainbowOfLight, Dirac1933, Sciurin,
Jg325, Versageek, Adrian.benko, Sterio, Woohookitty, FeanorStar7, Sburke, WadeSimMiser, Optichan, Noetica, Billions, Ravpapa, Emer-
son7, Mandarax, Graham87, Magister Mathematicae, Island, NebY, Jclemens, Rjwilmsi, Missmarple, Collins.mc, Vary, Tangotango, Mer-
rilee, The wub, Trisdee, Yamamoto Ichiro, Fish and karate, Berserk798, FlaBot, Eldamorie, RobertG, Themanwithoutapast, ReSearcher,
RexNL, Gurch, RobyWayne, Neutrinoman, Alphachimp, Silivrenion, Chobot, Turidoth, Gregorik, Antiuser, Flcelloguy, The Rambling
Man, YurikBot, Wavelength, Conscious, Gardar Rurak, Tresckow, SpuriousQ, Chaser, SCh~enwiki, Devahn58, Vissequ, Wimt, Musi-
calplayer, NawlinWiki, Stephen Burnett, Wiki alf, ZacBowling, Tailpig, QwertyAZ, Ianleow7, Kyle Barbour, Engineer Bob, Pil56, 21655,
Homagetocatalonia, Closedmouth, Oyvind, Zec, KGasso, Rms125a@hotmail.com, Harabanar, JoanneB, Alasdair, Kim.o, Chrishmt0423,
Shyam, Pdraic MacUidhir, Allens, Katieh5584, TrustTruth, Jonathan.s.kt, SkerHawx, Finell, Bibliomaniac15, Matt Heard, Luk, SpLoT,
Yakudza, SmackBot, Reedy, Prodego, KnowledgeOfSelf, McGeddon, Lagalag, Blue520, Jacek Kendysz, AnOddName, Kintetsubuf-
falo, Gilliam, Andy M. Wang, Rmosler2100, Izehar, Chris the speller, Kleinzach, MalafayaBot, Timneu22, Jerome Charles Potts, H
i-c h-a M~enwiki, Baa, DHN-bot~enwiki, Ehelling, Yuenfun, Eusebeus, Springeragh, IfAny~enwiki, Foxjwill, Can't sleep, clown will
eat me, Shalom Yechiel, DRahier, Jwillbur, OrphanBot, Rrburke, Greenshed, SundarBot, Krich, ConMan, Nibuod, Nakon, Kneale,
Dreadstar, Rob~enwiki, ILike2BeAnonymous, Tim riley, Matthew hk, Atlantas, Reccmo, Ugur Basak Bot~enwiki, Ceoil, Ohconfucius,
SashatoBot, Gymnopedist, Ser Amantio di Nicolao, JzG, Kuru, Microchip08, Adagio Cantabile, Rigadoun, Meriadoc~enwiki, Heimstern,
Xornok, Sir Nicholas de Mimsy-Porpington, Guat6, Michael Bednarek, KDou3glas, Mr. Lefty, Chrisd87, Ckatz, Voceditenore, Avs5221,
Kyoko, Darwin Tallhouse, Optakeover, E-Kartoel, Ryulong, Hikitsurisan~enwiki, MTSbot~enwiki, Squirepants101, Eastfrisian, Hu12,
Stephen B Streater, Feldmahler, ILovePlankton, Meservy, Diz syd 63, R~enwiki, Blehfu, Thesexualityofbereavement, Bottesini, Adam
sk, Halorocks19, Tawkerbot2, Emote, INkubusse, JForget, Filiep, CmdrObot, NKSCF, Ale jrb, Drinibot, WeggeBot, Chicheley, Honghu,
Cydebot, Jasperdoomen, Travelbird, Siberian Husky, Flowerpotman, DavidRF, Christian75, Laurahadeld, DumbBOT, Omicronpersei8,
Voldemortuet, Casliber, Thijs!bot, Epbr123, Qwyrxian, Pstanton, N5iln, Mojo Hand, Spicytomato, Marek69, RickinBaltimore, Massimo
Macconi, Edwin Hale, Evergreen Montenegro1, Mentisto, AntiVandalBot, RobotG, Luna Santin, Seaphoto, Prolog, Jbaranao, Mod-
ernist, Altamel, Canadian-Bacon, Ioeth, NBeale, Deective, Leuko, Kaobear, Bundas, MER-C, Dsp13, Patxi lurra, Andonic, Rentaferret,
PhilKnight, Rothorpe, Jarkeld, Chevellefan11, Connormah, Bongwarrior, VoABot II, QwertyUSA, Bobnotts, Avicennasis, KConWiki,
User86654, Canyouhearmenow, Richarddr, Jhabib, Mokgamen, Kraxler, Mattinbgn, Mwidunn, S3000, MartinBot, Infrangible, Clavecin,
BetBot~enwiki, Cholga, Suessmayr~enwiki, Mschel, CommonsDelinker, Patar knight, Tgeairn, J.delanoy, Elfelix, Mizukahosen, TamCaP,
Uncle Dick, Athaenara, Alegreen, Gzkn, LordAnubisBOT, Zeisseng, AntiSpamBot, (jarbarf), Vstrad7, Belovedfreak, NewEnglandYankee,
In Transit, SmilesALot, Ljgua124, Xgretsch, KylieTastic, Parable1991, Remember the dot, Sparafucil, Natl1, Ja 62, Dorftrottel, Stopthe-
DatabaseState, Izno, RjCan, Idioma-bot, McNoddy~enwiki, Hammersoft, VolkovBot, EEye, Marylandwizard, Iosef, A.Ou, Je G., Al-
noktaBOT, Sjones23, Vlmastra, Dougie monty, Philip Trueman, TXiKiBoT, Oshwah, Aymatth2, Vanished user ikijeirw34iuaeolaseric,
Oxfordwang, JanNarveson, Martin451, Kkreitler, Saturn star, Billinghurst, Poopymcpoopface, Thecoolestpersonyoullevermeet, Tomaxer,
Alcmaeonid, AlleborgoBot, CenturionZ 1, GavinTing, Ohiostandard, EmxBot, Vargatamas, Cosprings, SieBot, Coee, TJRC, Frans
Fowler, YonaBot, Scarian, Epan0, Tatiana24, Caltas, Peter cohen, Scientistpatrick, Corrado7mari, Happysailor, Tiptoety, Radon210, Mi-
norContributor, Arbor to SJ, Lightmouse, Poindexter Propellerhead, Miguel.mateo, Danelo, Fratrep, Afernand74, Stfg, Calle Widmann,
Schlier22, Denisarona, Escape Orbit, Ngreen2001, PaulaMS, Jamesfranklingresham, ClueBot, Timeineurope, (RT), The Thing That Should
Not Be, Der Golem, CounterVandalismBot, Parkwells, Puchiko, Aua, Excirial, Keelburg, Noca2plus, PixelBot, Abrech, Metallica-123,
Qampunen, Dekisugi, Thelemon2007, Darz rixx, Rparucci, Marcuskreusch, Aitias, Versus22, Lx 121, MelonBot, DumZiBoT, XLinkBot,
Fearghalionstallion, Cowbell1010, Sakura Cartelet, NellieBly, Rigby27, Dubeerforme, Good Olfactory, Thatguyint, Ibndib, Addbot,
BenedettaS, Some jerk on the Internet, Captain-tucker, Trailblazers2012, Opus88888, Toyokuni3, TutterMouse, Wikiexpert2212, Kevin
hipwell, KorinoChikara, CanadianLinuxUser, Leszek Jaczuk, Fluernutter, Lindert, Chzz, Favonian, LinkFA-Bot, Jasper Deng, Ks
7508, Robomod, Tide rolls, LuK3, Swarm, Rrmsjp, Hockel1000, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Tohd8BohaithuGh1, Hohenloh, DisillusionedBit-
terAndKnackered, Yngvadottir, Washburnmav, South Bay, Eric-Wester, AnomieBOT, DoctorJoeE, Bigoy26789, Xophorus, Yachtsman1,
JackJosher~enwiki, Materialscientist, Sirion123, Citation bot, OllieFury, James500, Bob Burkhardt, Sookiesookie, Gm01, Neurolysis,
Bagumba, Yesmj, Anna m loves craig w, MauritsBot, Xqbot, Annaquinny, Jareh, Daniele-Scozzari78, Cas, TechBot, Mononomic, Zako13,
Aa77zz, AbigailAbernathy, RadiX, GrouchoBot, ProtectionTaggingBot, Omnipaedista, RibotBOT, 78.26, N419BH, Shadowjams, Vlas-
timil Svoboda, Antienne, Thehelpfulbot, Green Cardamom, Josinj, Tobby72, Kkj11210, DonJuanArchiv, Rigaudon, Zlatno Pile, Can-
nolis, Citation bot 1, RaveDog, Intelligentsium, Redrose64, I dream of horses, Metricmike, Elockid, PrincessofLlyr, Calmer Waters,
Jschnur, MrHighway, Pertusaria, Serols, Labrynthia9856, Hbj200, Reconsider the static, December21st2012Freak, Chavo gribower, John
Rat Alexander Green, Hannahlou400, Gerda Arendt, MjMenuet111, Double sharp, , Deskford, Valdemarasl, Vrenator,
Mishae, Tatuaje, Zombiedude101, Seahorseruler, Cd1991, Klambeth91, Losmant69, Haydn Bach, Diannaa, Gordoniz, Minimac, Bi549,
RjwilmsiBot, RepliCarter, Mukhaface, IsambardBrunel, Slon02, Acather96, , Carlotm, Ajraddatz, RA0808, Andone1556,
Masaya sawa, Laab123, Tommy2010, Wikipelli, Dcirovic, K6ka, John of Lancaster, Darkght, Mz7, JDDJS, Laserfart618, ZroBot, Im-
perial Monarch, Mori Maygreen, Stefan Schindler, Honeyadimarco, EWikist, SporkBot, Gz33, Wayne Slam, Crochet, Maki music, Fug-
bachgasse, Danmuz, Mayur, Palosirkka, Donner60, Chewings72, WikiCopter, Drhaydn, Sven Manguard, Mc10je, Manewton1, Kotsios
phoenix, Sonicyouth86, ClueBot NG, Jack Greenmaven, Sweet heart40240, Muon, ScottSteiner, Polovineo, Widr, Exadrid, WikiPuppies,
Ka23338627, Helpful Pixie Bot, Due Date, HMSSolent, AlterBerg, Calabe1992, Shermanmao, BG19bot, Lanatang, Wiki13, ElphiBot,
Piguy101, Solomon7968, Tony Tan, Lrish888, Toccata quarta, Mozartsdentist, Maxdax1709, Kellyhahaha, Snow Blizzard, Brittingham, SK
5471, Trazomaaw, Anbu121, Zombie breast, Sonphan37, Paulscheidl, Haymouse, Mrt3366, The Illusive Man, Mediran, SD5bot, Khazar2,
Goldmark55, BoingBotSonphan1, Dexbot, FoCuSandLeArN, Br'er Rabbit, Webclient101, Mogism, Numbermaniac, Lugia2453, Isarra
9.2 Images 17

(HG), Charlie22712, Sabbarish.govindarajan, ClassicalOprah, Thornton Arbre enchante, Rachizzleo, Tomlikeafox, Bubbaaa111, Jamied-
baker, Hillbillyholiday, Deutschlandlied, WickyLicky, Kaiserlicher Ritter, Epicgenius, Xin-Xin W., Eyesnore, Skateman988, YOUR-
MOTHER37, Piwaiwaka, Ugog Nizdast, HaydnAustria, AtticTapestry, Hilary.Donaldson, Olliemiller1991, Mc13cjr06racec, PerlMonk
Athanasius, Cancina5645, Topkek, The Infobox Strikes Again!, Haydn raado, Tommykat1211, Biblioworm, Miguelmexico69, Ananomous
dude, Spiderjerky, Lgsbndict, GPiktin, Ellianna95, Chrisbull300, Anthonydoughty884, Govindaharihari, Eteethan, Sarr Cat, Mr Neon,
JackjammerbutcCRACK, Eric0928, Morriskahn, Nickpaul516, Bleachyblondie, N474*17, MusikBot, Michael lopez13, CAPTAIN RAJU,
Dedwardsthesix, TheBestGBYT, Annalisha adderley, NgYShung, Marianna251, Pppery, LeGoober, Rachel Katherine Lancour, Dskd-
fvjdjklcvx;kjlhldjafslj, BlaBlahdhfshjdhdh, Wacky Wars, Randomdudeontheinternet, Emma.R.Scarlet, LKCHE, Elitebeach, Maxxchill,
Triplet43, Norahgreen, H8lyf3 and Anonymous: 1045

9.2 Images
File:'A'_(PSF).png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/68/%27A%27_%28PSF%29.png License: Public do-
main Contributors: Archives of Pearson Scott Foresman, donated to the Wikimedia Foundation Original artist: Pearson Scott Foresman
File:1808PerformanceOfHaydnCreation.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3d/
1808PerformanceOfHaydnCreation.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.limelightmagazine.com.au/sites/www.
limelightmagazine.com.au/files/7f9c6bf102.jpg Original artist: Balthasar Wigand
File:AnnaHaydn.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/09/AnnaHaydn.jpg License: Public domain Contribu-
tors: Blog of Michael Lorenz: http://michaelorenz.blogspot.com/2014/09/joseph-haydns-real-wife_11.html Original artist: Attr. to Lud-
wig Guttenbrunn
File:Beethoven_Riedel_1801.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e7/Beethoven_Riedel_1801.jpg License:
Public domain Contributors: www.answers.com Original artist: Carl Traugott Riedel (1769-1832)
File:Bergkirchemitkalvarienberg.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6b/Bergkirchemitkalvarienberg.jpg
License: CC BY-SA 3.0 at Contributors: Own work Original artist: Clemens
File:Commons-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: PD Contributors: ? Origi-
nal artist: ?
File:Doln_Lukavice_castle_01.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f4/Doln%C3%AD_Lukavice_
castle_01.JPG License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Feour
File:Eisenstadt_-_Schloss_Esterhazy.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/27/Eisenstadt_-_Schloss_
Esterhazy.JPG License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Bwag
File:Fertd_-_The_Eszterhzy_Castle_or_Palace.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a9/Fert%C5%
91d_-_The_Eszterh%C3%A1zy_Castle_or_Palace.jpg License: CC BY-SA 2.5 Contributors: Self-photographed Original artist: Civertan
Grakai Stdi
File:Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg License: Cc-by-
sa-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Franz_Joseph_Haydn_1732-1809_by_John_Hoppner_1791.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/
2e/Franz_Joseph_Haydn_1732-1809_by_John_Hoppner_1791.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Unknown Original artist: John
Hoppner
File:Hanover-Square-Rooms.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2d/Hanover-Square-Rooms.png Li-
cense: Public domain Contributors: http://www.bridgemanartondemand.com/art/113837/Hanover_Square_Rooms_for_Concerts Original
artist: Thomas Hosmer Shepherd
File:Haydn_Kaiserlied_Reinschrift.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3e/Haydn_Kaiserlied_
Reinschrift.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.onb.ac.at/download/haydn/02_reinschrift.jpg Original artist: Joseph
Haydn / Scan: sterreichische Nationalbibliothek
File:Haydn_by_Thaler_Wien_SAM_350_2.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5d/Haydn_by_Thaler_
Wien_SAM_350_2.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work (own photograph) Original artist:
Sculpture: Franz Christian Thaler
Photo: Andreas Praefcke
File:Haydnportrait.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/be/Haydnportrait.jpg License: Public domain Con-
tributors: Photo Nevilley at en.wikipedia. Originally from en.wikipedia; description page is/was here. Original artist: Ludwig Guttenbrunn
File:HaydnsHouseInVienna.PNG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8d/HaydnsHouseInVienna.PNG Li-
cense: Public domain Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons by obelix83. Original artist: Opus33 at English Wikipedia
File:Joseph_Haydn.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/05/Joseph_Haydn.jpg License: Public domain Con-
tributors: Unknown Original artist: Thomas Hardy (1757-circa 1805)
File:Joseph_Haydn_Signature.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/81/Joseph_Haydn_Signature.svg Li-
cense: Public domain Contributors: Own work by uploader, traced in Adobe Illustrator from http://www.signature.calligraphy-mvk.ru/
images/stories/musicians/haydn_sign.jpg Original artist: Connormah, Joseph Haydn
File:KapellhausStStephensVienna.PNG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/0/04/KapellhausStStephensVienna.PNG
License: PD Contributors:
Screen-clipped from the Google Books rendition of Haydn, Mozart, and the Viennese School, 1740-1780 by Daniel Heartz.
Original artist: ?
File:Mozart_Lange.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Mozart_Lange.png License: Public domain
Contributors: pileface.com Original artist: Joseph Lange
18 9 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

File:Nikolaus_Esterhazy.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/73/Nikolaus_Esterhazy.jpg License: Public


domain Contributors: From nl-wiki [1] Original artist: Martin Knoller
File:Office-book.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a8/Office-book.svg License: Public domain Contribu-
tors: This and myself. Original artist: Chris Down/Tango project
File:Operalogo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6d/Operalogo.svg License: GFDL Contributors: Own
work Original artist: Javitomad
File:Page_729_(A_Dictionary_of_Music_and_Musicians-Volume_1).jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
commons/3/36/Page_729_%28A_Dictionary_of_Music_and_Musicians-Volume_1%29.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
http://www.archive.org/details/dictionaryofmusi01grovuoft Original artist: George Grove (editor)
File:Speaker_Icon.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/21/Speaker_Icon.svg License: Public domain Con-
tributors: No machine-readable source provided. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims). Original artist: No machine-readable
author provided. Mobius assumed (based on copyright claims).
File:WhereHaydnLived.PNG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/25/WhereHaydnLived.PNG License: CC-
BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons by Obelix83. Original artist: Opus33 at English Wikipedia
File:Wikiquote-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Wikiquote-logo.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: Own work Original artist: Rei-artur
File:Wikisource-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0
Contributors: Rei-artur Original artist: Nicholas Moreau

9.3 Content license


Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0