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Abstract

The modern commercial or office building consists of the HVAC system which is Heating, Ventilation,
Air-conditioned. In this report, well going to identify the purpose and goals of HVACS system, describe
HVAC types, describe HVACS parts and describe how this part works together or its working cycle.
Besides to air-conditioning there are ventilation systems like ceiling fan, fresh air supply and exhaust fan
where ceiling fan is used is used to ventilate the air with rotating blades and exhaust fan is used to
displace the inside air to the outside environment, fresh air supply is used to displace the inside air to the
outside environment by supplying fresh air from the outside air.

Objective
The objective of the report to know and understand the HVAC system, its working cycle, the HVAC parts
and types of HVAC. HVAC stand for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning. With ventilation we can
control the quality of air either by displacing the air to the outside or may be ventilating the air with
ceiling fan.
Introduction
Air quality is essential considerations in maintaining the productivity, comfort and health of the
occupants. If air quality and temperature are not maintained, occupants comfort in the work place can
suffer directly affecting productivity. Air conditioning is the process of altering the properties
of air (primarily temperature and humidity) to more favorable conditions. The control of these conditions
may be desirable to maintain the health and comfort of the occupants, or to meet the requirements of
industrial processes irrespective of the external climatic conditions. It is used to cool products or a
building environment. An air conditioning system is an assembly of different part of the system used
produce a specified condition of air within a require space or building. Refrigeration systems are also
used for providing cooling and dehumidification in summer for personal comfort (air conditioning). The
first air conditioning systems were used for industrial as well as comfort air conditioning. Eastman Kodak
installed the first air conditioning system in 1891 in Rochester, New York for the storage of photographic
films. An air conditioning system was installed in a printing press in 1902 and in a telephone exchange in
Hamburg in 1904. Many systems were installed in tobacco and textile factories around 1900. The first
domestic air conditioning system was installed in a house in Frankfurt in 1894. A private library in St
Louis, USA was air conditioned in 1895, and a casino was air conditioned in Monte Carlo in 1901. Efforts
have also been made to air condition passenger rail coaches using ice. The widespread development of air
conditioning is attributed to the American scientist and industrialist Willis Carrier. Carrier studied the
control of humidity in 1902 and designed a central air conditioning plant using air washer in 1904. Due to
the pioneering efforts of Carrier and also due to simultaneous development of different components and
controls, air conditioning quickly became very popular, especially after 1923. At present comfort air
conditioning is widely used in residences, offices, commercial buildings, air ports, hospitals and in mobile
applications such as rail coaches, automobiles, aircrafts etc. Industrial air conditioning is largely
responsible for the growth of modern electronic, pharmaceutical, chemical industries etc. Most of the
present-day air conditioning systems use either a vapor compression system or a vapor absorption system.
Principle of working cycle (how does it work?)
The goal is to keep it more comfortable inside the house than it is outside.

Fig 1: cycles of refrigeration


Principles of Refrigeration
Liquids absorb heat when changed from liquid to gas

Gases give off heat when changed from gas to liquid.

For an air conditioning system to operate with economy, the refrigerant must be used repeatedly. For this
reason, all air conditioners use the same cycle of compression, condensation, expansion, and evaporation
in a closed circuit. The same refrigerant is used to move the heat from one area, to cool this area, and to
expel this heat in another area.
The refrigerant comes into the compressor as a low-pressure gas, it is compressed and then moves
out of the compressor as a high-pressure gas.
The gas then flows to the condenser. Here the gas condenses to a liquid, and gives off its heat to
the outside air.
The liquid then moves to the expansion valve under high pressure. This valve restricts the flow of
the fluid, and lowers its pressure as it leaves the expansion valve.
The low-pressure liquid then moves to the evaporator, where heat from the inside air is absorbed
and changes it from a liquid to a gas.
As a hot low-pressure gas, the refrigerant moves to the compressor where the entire cycle is
repeated.
Note that the four-part cycle is divided at the center into a high side and a low side This refers to the
pressures of the refrigerant in each side of the system
A.C. works on the mechanism of refrigerant liquid. This liquid change to gas and evaporates as it extracts
heat from the air around it and in low pressure conditions it again gets converted to liquid and after
entering into the normal pressure region this again changes into gas. Any A.C. will comprise of 4 parts
i.e. a compressor, a condenser, expansion valve and an evaporator. Compressor and condenser are usually
kept outside the house where as an evaporator is kept inside the house. Compressor is the most important
part of all the three as it pumps the vapor refrigerant through the system.
In the evaporator, the fluid leaves as low pressure cool gas to reach compressor. The compressor will
compress the gas to liquid. As the gas becomes liquid, the molecules are together and their energy is high
resulting in high temperature. The working fluid leaves compressor and flows into condenser as hot air
which will convert this hot air to low pressurized liquid. One can observe the temperature around outside
unit, which is high due to heat dissipated from compressor.
The temperature in condenser is very low and this converts the high temperature gas into low pressurized
liquid. Through a small hole (expansion valve) this pressurized liquid will flow to into evaporator. In this
process, the pressure drops and the liquid is converted into low pressure cool air to start the cycle once
again. In the process of changing liquid to gas it extracts heat from the air around it. Evaporator has fins
and it will blow that cool air into the room. The hot air is lighter than cool air, so it is in the upper part of
the room whose heat is used to convert high pressurized liquid into low pressurized gas.
This process continues till the room attains the temperature you set. The thermostat present in the A.C.
will temporarily stop A.C. for some time; if the room temperature raises again, the thermostat will
automatically on the A.C. to set the temperature of your room to your desired level.
The basic elements of air conditioning system: --

Fans: For circulation of air


Filters: For cleaning air
Grill: It adjust the direction of the conditioned air to the room.
Tray: It collects condensed water.
Refrigerating Plant: provide cooling. It consists of compressor/generator and absorber,
evaporator, condenser, expansion device (capillary tube).
TYPE OF AIR-CONDITIONING
The choice of which air conditioner system to use depends upon a number of factors including how large
the area is to be cooled, the total heat generated inside the enclosed area, etc. An HVAC designer would
consider all the related parameters and suggest the system most suitable for your space.
1) Window air-conditioning system
2) Split air-conditioning system
3) Centralized air-conditioning system
4) Package air-conditioning system
1) Windows Air-conditioning System
Window air conditioner is the most commonly used air conditioner for single rooms. In this air
conditioner all the components, namely the compressor, condenser, expansion valve or coil, evaporator
and cooling coil are enclosed in a single box. This unit is fitted in a slot made in the wall of the room, or
more commonly a window sill.
Window air conditioners are one of the most commonly used and cheapest type of air
conditioners.
To install one of these units, you need the space to make a slot in the wall, and there should
also be some open space behind the wall.
Window air-conditioner units are reliable and simple-to-install solution to keep a room cool
while avoiding the costly construction of a central air system.
Better yet, when the summer heat dies down, these units can be easily removed for storage,
and you can use the window sill for other purpose

Fig 2: window air conditioner

2) Split Air-Conditioning System


The split air conditioner comprises of two parts: the outdoor unit and the indoor unit. The outdoor unit,
fitted outside the room, houses components like the compressor, condenser and expansion valve. The
indoor unit comprises the evaporator or cooling coil and the cooling fan. For this unit, you dont have to
make any slot in the wall of the room. Further, present day split units have aesthetic appeal and do not
take up as much space as a window unit. A split air conditioner can be used to cool one or two rooms.
The split air conditioner comprises of two parts: the outdoor unit and the indoor unit.
The outdoor unit, fitted outside the room, houses components like the compressor, condenser
and expansion valve.
The indoor unit comprises the evaporator or cooling coil and the cooling fan. For this unit,
you dont have to make any slot in the wall of the room.
Further, the present day split units have aesthetic looks and add to the beauty of the room.
The split air conditioner can be used to cool one or two rooms
The Split Air Conditioner divided in two parts: --
1) First part:-Include the evaporator, filter, evaporator fan and grill. They placed inside the room.
2) Second part:-Include Condenser, fan, compressor. This placed outside the room. Diameter tubes.
therefore, small hole required in wall of installation of split air condition. The split air conditioning
units are available in capacity range of 1 to 3 tons.
WORKING OF SPLIT AC CONDITIONER
The fans blow air over the coils to improve their ability to dissipate heat (to the outside air) and cold (to
the room being cooled). When you get into larger air-conditioning applications, its time to start looking
at split-system units. A split-system air conditioner splits the hot side from the cold side of the system, as
in the diagram below.
The cold side, consisting of the expansion valve and the cold coil, is generally placed into a furnace or
some other air handler. The air handler blows air through the coil and routes the air throughout the
building using a series of ducts. The hot side, known as the condensing unit, lives outside the building.
The unit consists of a long, spiral coil shaped like a cylinder. Inside the coil is a fan, to blow air through
the coil, along with a weather-resistant compressor and some control logic. This approach has evolved
over the years because it's low-cost, and also because it normally results in reduced noise inside the house
(at the expense of increased noise outside the house). Other than the fact that the hot and cold sides are
split apart and the capacity is higher (making the coils and compressor larger), there's no difference
between a split-system and a window air conditioner.
Fig 3: split air conditioner

How is a Split Air Conditioner Different from Other A/C Units?


A split air conditioner does not require major installation work because it does not require ductwork.
Rather, the indoor and outdoor units are connected with a set of electrical wires and tubing. This is good
for your wallet and the environment. The ductwork required for many traditional A/C units generally
increases energy expenditures, as many centralized A/C units lose a lot of energy due to heat exchange in
the air duct system. So, without a duct system, there is very little opportunity for heat or energy loss in a
split air conditioner system.

Benefits of a Split Air Conditioning System


This kind of air conditioner system has many advantages over traditional air conditioners. Perhaps the
most obvious benefit is the quiet performance of a split air conditioner system. The parts of an air
conditioner that make the most noise is the compressor and the fan that cools the condenser. In a split
system, the compressor and fan for the condenser are located outside of the room being cooled and
therefore the major sources of noise are removed - unlike with window units.
Another benefit of a split air conditioner system is that you can opt for a multi-split system, where you
can have more than one indoor unit connected to a single outdoor unit. This makes it easy to cool multiple
rooms or maintain the temperature throughout a large room through the use of two indoor cooling units.
A split air conditioner is an efficient and cost-effective way to cool your home. It should be noted that the
initial cost of this kind of air conditioning unit is significantly higher than a window unit and it does
require professional installation. However, the amount of money you will save on your energy bills as
well as the longevity of the unit will make it worth your while in the end.
3) ) Centralized Air-Conditioning System
The central air conditioning plants or the systems are used when large buildings, hotels,
theaters, airports, shopping malls etc. are to be air conditioned completely.
The window and split air conditioners are used for single rooms or small office spaces.
If the whole building is to be cooled it is not economically viable to put window or split air
conditioner in each and every room.
Further, these small units cannot satisfactorily cool the large halls, auditoriums, receptions
areas etc.
The central air conditioning plants or the systems are used when large buildings, hotels, theaters, airports,
shopping malls etc. are to be air conditioned completely. The window and split air conditioners are used
for single rooms or small office spaces. If the whole building is to be cooled it is not economically viable
to put window or split air conditioner in each and every room. Further, these small units cannot
satisfactorily cool the large halls, auditoriums, receptions areas etc.
In the central air conditioning systems, there is a plant room where large compressor, condenser,
thermostatic expansion valve and the evaporator are kept in the large plant room. They perform all the
functions as usual similar to a typical refrigeration system. However, all these parts are larger in size and
have higher capacities. The compressor is of open reciprocating type with multiple cylinders and is cooled
by the water just like the automobile engine. The compressor and the condenser are of shell and tube type.
While in the small air conditioning system capillary is used as the expansion valve, in the central air
conditioning systems thermostatic expansion valve is used.
The chilled is passed via the ducts to all the rooms, halls and other spaces that are to be air conditioned.
Thus, in all the rooms there is only the duct passing the chilled air and there are no individual cooling
coils, and other parts of the refrigeration system in the rooms. What is we get in each room is the
completely silent and highly effective air conditions system in the room. Further, the amount of chilled air
that is needed in the room can be controlled by the openings depending on the total heat load inside the
room.
The central air conditioning systems are highly sophisticated applications of the air conditioning systems
and many a times they tend to be complicated. It is due to this reason that there are very few companies in
the world that specialize in these systems. In the modern era of computerization, a number of additional
electronic utilities have been added to the central conditioning systems.
WORKING OF CENTRAL AC CONDITIONER
The central A.C. type that Addis Ababa bole airport uses consists of an evaporator, compressor,
condenser & expansion valve. The compressor is of open type and can be driven by the motor directly or
by the belt via pulley arrangement connected to the motor. The refrigerant fluid enters the compressor
Inhaling the refrigerant from the suction channel Compressing to the discharge channel. There is a
silencer device which is used to keep the noise level low or keep it silent.
In the condenser heat is removed by cooled water, with water flowing along the shell side and refrigerant
along the tube side. In the condenser, Refrigerant vapor turn to liquid.
To complete the cycle, the high-pressure liquid is made to flow through an expansion valve (venturi-
valve). The thermostatic expansion valve is operated automatically by the solenoid valve. In the
expansion valve, Low the temperature and pressure of liquid is obtained.it controls Control the flow rate
in to the evaporator.
The refrigeration effect is obtained in the cold region as heat is extracted by vaporization of refrigerant in
the evaporator. The evaporator is also called as the chiller, because it chills the water. If the water flows
along the shell side and refrigerant on the tube side, it is called as the dry expansion type of chiller.
In the evaporator liquid turns to vapor and cold air flows out room.

Fig 4: central air-conditioner


with blower distributing the chilled is passed via the ducts to all the rooms, halls and other spaces that are
to be air conditioned.
There are two types of central air conditioning plants or systems:
1) Direct expansion or DX central air conditioning plant: In this system the huge compressor, and the
condenser are housed in the plant room, while the expansion valve and the evaporator or the cooling coil
and the air handling unit are housed in separate room. The cooling coil is fixed in the air handling unit,
which also has large blower housed in it. The blower sucks the hot return air from the room via ducts and
blows it over the cooling coil. The cooled air is then supplied through various ducts and into the spaces
which are to be cooled. This type of system is useful for small buildings.
2) Chilled water central air conditioning plant: This type of system is more useful for large buildings
comprising of a number of floors. It has the plant room where all the important units like the compressor,
condenser, throttling valve and the evaporator are housed. The evaporator is a shell and tube. On the tube
side the Freon fluid passes at extremely low temperature, while on the shell side the brine solution is
passed. After passing through the evaporator, the brine solution gets chilled and is pumped to the various
air handling units installed at different floors of the building. The air handling units comprise the cooling
coil through which the chilled brine flows, and the blower. The blower sucks hot return air from the room
via ducts and blows it over the cooling coil. The cool air is then supplied to the space to be cooled through
the ducts. The brine solution which has absorbed the room heat comes back to the evaporator, gets chilled
and is again pumped back to the air handling unit. To operate and maintain central air conditioning
systems you need to have good operators, technicians and engineers. Proper preventative and breakdown
maintenance of these plants is vital.
4) Packaged Air-Conditioning System
The window and split air conditioners are usually used for the small air conditioning capacities up
to 5 tons.
The central air conditioning systems are used for where the cooling loads extend beyond 20 tons.

The packaged air conditioners are used for the cooling capacities in between these two extremes.

The packaged air conditioners are available in the fixed rated capacities of 3,5, 7, 10 and 15 tons.

These units are used commonly in places like restaurants, telephone exchanges, homes, small
halls, etc.

Fig 5: packaged air-conditioner

Conclusion
We have seen that how the A.C. works , different parts, types and the working cycle