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228 26

1. NHK1991
2. The League of Nations. The Report of the Commission of Enquiry into the Sino-Japanese
Dispute, Tokyo: The League of Nations Association of Japan, 1932.
3. 11983
4.
1963
5.
1962
6. 8
1976
7. 9
1976
8. 1972
9. 1972
10. 1933
11. (5)1999
12. 1
1993
13. 1974
14. 1996
15. 11956
16. 1986
17. 2003
18. 1972
19. 1970
20. 1964
21. 1994
22. 1991
23. 181973
24. 1994
25. 1966
26. 1985
27. 1973
229

1.
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1980
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1986
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1985
230 26

Japanese and Chinese Political Mobilization and Military


Tactics during the Mukden Incident

Hung, Tzu-chin
Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica

First,war; second, talk; and third, reassurance was the tripartite military
tactics taken by the Kwantung Army. The Kwantung Army took war to the
Nationalists Northeast Garrison Force of Liaoning, since its first and foremost
goal was to seize the Southern Manchurian Railway. In addition to gaining
control over transportation lines and thereby assure the free movement of the
armies, the 25 cities along the Southern Manchurian Railway also provided the
best target for takeover in Manchuria, since control of the railway lines meant
control of the core.
The Kwantung Army tackled Jilin Province with talk. Xiqia, the
representative chairman of Jilin, opened up the door to the Kwantung Army on
the third day following the Mukden incident, and leading the whole provincial
surrender soon came on the tenth day. Xiqia's attitude from war to peace was the
entire elaborate plan during the incident. With a chessman Xi-qia, 7 infantry
brigades, 1 cavalry brigade, 85 percent of the Nationalist infantry and 100
percent of the cavalry troops, abandoned resistance and willing to accept the
adjustment. Hence, it is clear that the Kwantung Armys political strategy was a
great success.
For Heilongjiang, the Kwantung Army offered reassurance, since this area,
commonly called northern Manchuria, remained under the influence of USSR.
Japan had no power on this area. However, it used the commissioner Zhang
Jinghui, a respected man who had power to influence political and military affairs
231

in Manchuria, to build up its power.


As opposed to the Kwantung Armys strategy First, war; second, talk; and
third, reassurance, the Nationalists Northeast Garrison responded with refuse
battle, fear battle, and observe battle. The response of the military operations
with positive or passive decided who would win or lose. The Kwantung Army
took positive actions according to the local conditions, while the Nationalist
Northeastern Garrison remained the same old rut and waited to death. Aside from
the two sides different military strategies, the Kwantung Armys capacity for
political mobilization cannot be ignored. Jilin recovered within a week and
Mukden within two and a half months. The Kwantung Armys ability to lead the
recovery is explained by its intimate knowledge of Manchurian conditions. Given
the Kwantungs Armys mastery of Manchurian conditions, the Mukden incident
progressed according to its plans.

Keywords: Mukden Incident, Manchukuo, Kwantung Army, Zhang


Xueliang; nonresistance policy
232 26