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abidondo@untref.edu.ar

www.untref.edu.ar

1

Basic Metrology:

Error:

Diferencia ente el valor verdadero y el valor medido.

Precision:

Hace referencia a la repetibilidad (en el tiempo) del error.

Accuracy (Exactitud):

Es la medida del error que presenta un instrumento.

Precisin alta. Precisin baja. Precisin alta.

2

Traditional measurements

Impedance tube: (for small samples)

impedance in impedance tubes Part 1: Method using standing wave method.

ISO 10534-2: 1998 - Acoustics Determination of sound absorption coefficient and

impedance in impedance tubes Part 2: Transfer function method.

3

2

preflejada

1

pincidente

Absorcin 2

c c ROE 1

2

I

r r 2 2 1 1

I i 2 c2 1c1 ROE 1

Presin mxima

ROE

Presin mnima

4

Impedance tube:

Impedance Tube: Common error

(debido al corte incorrecto de las muestras del material - due to bad cutting the material samples)

6

Impedance Tube:

Analyzing road absorption coefficients: portable Impedance Tube.

7

Traditional measurements

Reverberation chamber: (for large samples)

ASTM C-423 -09a: Standard Test Method for Sound Absorption and Sound Absorption

Coefficients by the Reverberation Room Method

American Society for Testing

and Materials (ASTM),

Scale reverberation chamber

8

Reverberation chamber Absorption Measurement: ISO 354

fSchroeder<120Hz

demonstrate) low modal density in a

room?

9

Rev Chamber: ISO 354 Reverberation room

Shape of reverberation room:

The shape of the reverberation room shall be such that the following condition is fulfilled:

I max 1.9 3 V

Where Imax is the length of the longest straight line which fits within the boundary of the

room (e.g. in a rectangular room it is the major diagonal), in metres;

V is the volume of the room, in cubic metres.

low-frequency bands, no two dimensions of the room shall be in the ratio of small whole

numbers.

Diffusion of the sound field:

The decaying sound field in the room shall be sufficiently diffuse. In order to achieve

satisfactory diffusion whatever the shape of the room, the use of stationary or suspended

diffusers or rotating vanes is, in general, required.

The volume of the reverberation room shall be at least 150 m3. For new constructions, the volume is

strongly recommended to be at least 200 m3. When the volume of the room is greater than about 500

m3, it may not be possible to measure sound absorption accurately at high frequencies because of air

absorption.

10

Rev Chamber: ISO 354 Reverberation room

6.2 Test specimens

6.2.1 Plane absorbers

6.2.1.1 The test specimen shall have an area between 10 m2 and 12 m2. If the volume V of

the room is greater than 200 m3, the upper limit for the test specimen area shall be

increased by the factor (V/200 m3)2/3.

The area to be chosen depends on the room volume and on the absorption capability of

the test specimen.

The larger the room, the larger the test area should be. For specimens with small

absorption coefficient, the upper limit area should be chosen.

6.2.1.2 The test specimen shall be of rectangular shape with a ratio of width to length of

between 0,7 and 1. It should be placed so that no part of it is closer than 1 m to any edge

of the boundary of the room; the distance shall be at least 0,75 m. The edges of the

specimen shall preferably not be parallel to the nearest edge of the room. If necessary,

heavy test specimens may be mounted vertically along the walls of the room, and directly

resting on the floor. In this case, the requirement of at least 0,75 m distance need not be

respected.

6.2.1.3 The test specimen shall be installed in one of the mountings specified in Annex B,

unless the relevant specifications provided by the producer or the application details

provided by the user require a different mounting. The measurement of the reverberation

time of the empty room shall be made in the absence of the frame or the side walls of the

test specimen except for the barrier around a Type J mounting.

11

Rev Chamber: ISO 354 Reverberation room

7.1.2 Microphones and microphone positions

The directivity characteristic of the microphones used for the measurement shall be

omnidirectional. The measurements shall be made with different microphone positions

which are at least 1,5 m apart, 2 m from any sound source and 1 m from any room

surface and the test specimen. Decay curves measured at different microphone positions

shall not be combined in any way.

7.1.3 Source positions

The sound in the reverberation room shall be generated by a sound source with an

omnidirectional radiation pattern. Different sound source positions which are at least 3

m apart shall be used.

7.1.4 Number of microphone and loudspeaker positions

The number of spatially independent measured decay curves shall be at least 12.

Therefore the number of microphone positions times the number of sound source

positions shall be at least 12. The minimum number of microphone positions shall be

three, the minimum number of sound source positions shall be two. It is permissible to

use more than one sound source simultaneously provided the difference in the radiated

power is within a tolerance band of 3 dB for each one-third-octave band. If more than

one sound source is used for excitation simultaneously, the number of spatially

independent measured decay curves may be reduced to six.

12

Cmara reverberante

1

RT60:

Lmax 1.9 V 3

Segundo 5 5 5 4.5 3.5 2

1 1 s

3 3

Dim _ sugeridas : 1 : 2 : 4 Hertz 125 250 500 1K 2K 4K

13

Repetitividad y Reproducibilidad

The standard defines repeatability as the value below which the absolute difference

between two single test results obtained with the same method on identical test

material, under the same conditions can be expected to lie with a probability of 95%.*1+

1 n

r t 2 i

2

Anexo C de ISO354

n 1 i 1

t = 2.78 para n = 5;

t = 2.23 para n = 10;

n: cantidad de mediciones.

The reproducibility is the value below which the absolute difference between two

single test results obtained with the same method on identical test material in a

different laboratory may be expected to lie with a probability of 95%.

[1]: ASTMC423, Standard Test Method for Sound Absorption and Sound Absorption Coefficients by the 14

Reverberation Room Method. 2002, ASTM International.

Repetitividad: valores de ejemplo

15

ISO 354: Repeatability

Repeatability of measured reverberation times:

The relative standard deviation of the reverberation time T20, evaluated over a 20 dB

decay range, can be estimated by the following formula (see ISO/TR 140-13 for details):

3.59

2.42

20 T N

, for each analysis band.

T f T

20 (T): is the standard deviation of the reverberation time T20;

T: is the reverberation time measured [s];

F: is the centre frequency of the one-third-octave band [Hz];

N: is the number of decay curves evaluated.

decay registration at each position is illustrated in next figure .

16

Rev Chamber absorption measurement: ASTM C-423

El mtodo de la ASTM-C423 requiere de la medicin de la absorcin con el recint vaco y de la

absorcin del recinto con la muestra en l.

A A2 A1

Donde:

A = absorption of the specimen, m2 or Sabins,

A1 = absorption of the empty reverberation chamber, m2 or Sabins, and

A2 = absorption of the reverberation room after the specimen has been installed, m2 or

Sabins.

Absorcin.

A2 A1

1

S

Donde:

= absorption coefficient of the test specimen, no units or Sabins/ft2.

S = area of the test specimen, m2 or ft2, and

1= absorption coefficient of the surface covered by the specimen.

The absorption coefficient, 1, of the room surface covered by the specimen should be added

when it is significant. However, the absorption coefficients of a hard surface, such as the floor of

a reverberation chamber, are so small that they may be neglected and no adjustment should be

made for such a floor.

This coefficient is supposed to be dimensionless and is described in Sabins per square foot,

Sabins/ft2. 17

Rev Chamber: ISO 354 Reverberation room

correction from Ed Ledhert: RT 60

S Sabine 4mV

Random incidence In case of having the

A2 A1

absorption coefficient climating conditions

inside of the Rev

S Chamber.

A2 4 V m2

c T2

With the specimen 55 3V

A1 4 V m1 Climate conditions: ISO 9613-1

c T1

Without the specimen

18

Statistical Acoustics

19

ISO 354

and

ASTM C-423 RT20

comparison:

RT25

20

Diferencias entre ISO & ASTM :

A. What is the sample shape and size required by each standard? (ASTM-C423)

ASTM-C423 requires a rectangular sample with a size of 72 ft 2 (6.69m2). The dimensions

shall be a length of 9 ft (2.74m) and a width of 8ft (2.44m). The standard will accept, as

an option, a sample size of 64 ft2 (5.95m2) with a length and width of 8ft (2.44m).

B. What is the sample shape and size required by each standard? (ISO-354)

ISO-354 requires a rectangular sample with a size of 10m2 to 12m2. The dimensions of

the sample shall have a width to length ratio of 0.7 and 1.0.

C. What is the sample shape and size required by each standard? (ISO-17497-1)

ISO-17497-1 requires a circular sample with a minimum area of 7.068 meters2. The

dimensions of the sample shall have a minimum diameter of 3 meters.

ASTM-C423 and ISO-354 require similar sample shapes and sizes but ISO-17497-1 requires

a circular sample.

ASTM-C423, ISO-354 and ISO17497-1 can use different methods to measure the RT of the

reverberation room.

All standards have different sample area requirements.

All standards have different perimeter requirements.

All standards give different Coefficients of Absorption. 21

Rev Chamber: some experimental results

MATERIAL: 15 elements of mineral wool (Rockwool type 211, thickness 100 mm and density of ca. 44 kg/m3) in a wooden casing (1,2*0,6m),

covered with a nonwoven fleece (Lantor type 3103HO) and an open wire mesh for protection. The back is made of a 3 mm hardboard.

Improving the accuracy of sound absorption measurement according to ISO 354. Vercammen M. L. S. Melbourne, Australia. ISRA 2010. 2010.

22

Rev Chamber: suggestions on diffusers

1:

2:

23

Rev Chamber: boundary diffusers

24

Difusores en Cmaras Reverberantes:

J.L. Davy et al.[2] investigated the suggested methods of ISO 354 and found an empirical

value for the optimal diffuser-to-chamber floor surface area ratio.

Davy defined as the ratio of the total diffuser area (both sides) to the chamber floor

area. He tested the absorption of a specimen, varying from 0 to 1.75 in two chambers,

with volumes of 200 and 600 m3. He found that for both chambers the sound absorption

coefficient of a specimen increased linearly with , until was approximately 1.250.14

and remained constant thereafter [2]. Therefore, the optimum value of was 1.25.

For comparison, ASTM C423 and ISO 354 state that, in general, the optimum diffuser area

is 15-25% of the total chamber surface area.

Although the exact relationship depends on the chamber shape, these two conclusions

are not incompatible.

Absorption Measurements. Applied Acoustics, 1989. 28: p. 177-185.

25

Absorption coefficient vs. Real Life conditions

The Absorption Coefficient is used in calculating the reverberation time of closed spaces such

as auditoriums, churches, working offices, theaters, classrooms, recording studios, etc. Some of

the equations for calculating the reverberation time are:

For Sabine Equation:

0.161V

RT 60 If 1, RT60 0.

S Sabine

For Eyring Equation:

0.161V

RT 60 If 1, RT60 0.

S ln(1 Eyring )

0,163 V

RT 60

4mV Si ln 1 Millingtoni

i

The perimeter is only used to simplify flexibility (for changing materials cut and try) geometrical models

Edge diffraction edge absorption 26

Statistical Acoustics

Absorption coefficients:

Sabine & Eyring

Sabine: is that absorption coefficient measured from the initial and final RT60

variation inside a reverberant chamber as states in ISO 354 standard.

Sabine

S Material c RT 60 final S final total RT 60inicial

BUT:

Eyring: It is a statistical descriptor. It is calculated from the flux

resistance or the acoustic impedance at normal incidence (Kundts

tube).

27

Statistical Acoustics

Absorption coefficients:

Sabine & Eyring

Sabine: A S Sabine

Eyring:

A S 2,3 log1 Eyring

28

Statistical Acoustics

Absorption Coefficients:

Sabine & Millington

29

Acoustic Absorbers and Diffusers. Cox, T. 2004

Absorption Coefficient:

Tubo de Kundt

30

Absorption coefficient

What if > 1?

EDGE EFFECT: In cases where the absorption footprint is larger than the area of the specimen,

the sound absorption coefficient is greater than 1.00. This is called the edge effect or

diffraction effect because it results from wave diffraction at the edges of the specimen.

decreasing frequency,

decreasing specimen size,

increasing aspect ratio, and

increasing sound absorption

Relative edge coefficient.

length:

E

Perimeter

stat S

Valor medido

Perimeter

materials revisited, NAG 2007 .

Absorption coefficient

Absorcin

NRC: Noise reduction Coefficient.

Es el promedio de los coeficientes de absorcin en las frec. 250Hz, 500Hz, 1KHz y

2KHz, expresado al mltiplo ms cercano a 0.05.

Frecuencia [Hz]

125 0.07

250 0.26

500 0.7

1K 0.99

2K 0.99

4K 0.98

NRC 0.75 32

4

Fenmenos Fsicos, Herramientas Acsticas

Absorcin

33

Fenmenos Fsicos, Herramientas Acsticas

Coeficientes de absorcin de 1 de lana

de vidrio vs. espaciamiento de la pared

Absorcin slida trasera:

34

Fenmenos Fsicos, Herramientas Acsticas

Absorcin

= f(Diferentes montajes):

La absorcin de un material

depende de las condiciones de

montaje mecnico.

35

Fenmenos Fsicos, Herramientas Acsticas

Absorcin

Efectos del montaje en la absorcin de la superficie acstica:

36

Fenmenos Fsicos, Herramientas Acsticas

Coeficientes de absorcin de

diferentes alfombras

37

Fenmenos Fsicos, Herramientas Acsticas

Tabla de coeficientes de absorcin:

Absorcin

38

Absorcin

39

Absorcin del Aire (m)

Absorcin del Aire en funcin de la humedad relativa y de las frecuencias.

que las medias y que las bajas.

cuenta puede acarrear una psima

prediccin de la inteligibilidad de la

palabra.

control de ruidos al aire

libre.

40

Individual Experiment:

Measure the statistical absorption coefficient of a sample applying ISO 354, in 1/3

octave bands. Choose any room, describing it geometrically and in acoustic terms.

Calculate the edge effect portion, as Ten Wolde results. Graphs in function of

frequency.

In Geometric and Statistical Room Acoustic Models

the absorption coefficients of surfaces are required.

already built?

surface after it is installed?

42

In Situ measurements: Motivation

What if you dont know the absorption coefficient of a material or youre

not sure of its real use absorption coefficient?

industries including the automotive industry which could benefit from the ability to

measure surfaces such as seats, door panels, and headliners after installation.

Measurement of sound absorption

properties of road surfaces in

situ - Part 1: Extended surface method.

43

Concept

44

Theory

the sound absorption coefficient is estimated through the sound reflection

coefficient measurement.

Distance

1 2

( f ) 1 2 Rp ( f )

compensation

coefficient

a Pressure Reflection Coefficient

frequency and sound paths distances.

pi (di )

pd F IR

Pressures are the Fourier Transforms of the reflected and

incident Impulse Responses.

pr f

2

R f

2

Reflection coefficient is the fraction between reflected

pi f

2 and incident energies.

45

Measurement Setup

Absorber sample radius r (considering spherical sound spreading):

rSampledArea

1

ds dm c TW ds c TW 2 dm c TW c TW

ds dm c TW 2

TW: Time window length

Attenuation coefficient:

ds dm

a

ds dm

Attenuation due to

divergence of spherical

waves

time windowing.

dm

ds

46

Methods:

Half Blackman-Harris.

Rectangular.

H absorber f

2

f 1

H referencewall f

In situ Absorption absorption coeff.

Measurement IR Substraction.

Direct path.

coefficient 1/a2

Direct IR substraction from direct + reflected IR. (inverse square law)

Direct IR should be taken in an anechoic sound field.

47

The subtraction technique allows the

IR Substraction: microphone to be placed very close to

the surface-under-test and to make a

temporal window around the reflection

limited only by the next-arriving

(parasitic) reflection from the

environment

Parasitic

reflections:

Windowed

out

Cancellation requires an exact inverse of the direct wave. Even a one sample

48

difference or slight phase shift will result in incomplete cancellation.

Direct wave measured

in anechoic field (or

equivalent).

IR Substraction

Example:

( Dir Re fl )

1 10 10

xdB

1 10 10

49

IR Substraction

Example:

50

Attenuation and Absorption Coefficient:

51

Distance attenuation coefficient:

Irregular To apply to the source reflected IR.

surface

under test

Attenuation due to

the larger sound path

from the surce at

Regular

wich sperical waves

surface

really spread off?

under test

Impulse response:

Reflections isolation by

using a Rectangular or

Blackman Harris time

window.

properties of surfaces. Mallais, S. 2009.

53

Impulse Response Windowing:

54

Example Arrays:

55

Example Arrays:

56

Systematic errors:

Small sample size.

Inaccurate acoustic center (compact source aproximation: 2b << )

Not enough low freq data: duration of the time windowing.

Irregular geometric absorber surface.

Low freq resolution when trying impulse substraction.

Diffraction from sound source. 57

Effects of Systematic Errors:

58

Systematic errors:

Parasitic reflections:

proper windowing:

Recommended

Rectangular

window with half-

Hann portions on

either side:

In Situ Measurements

of Acoustic

Properties of Surfaces.

Mallais, S. 2009.

59

Systematic errors:

Inaccurate Acoustic Center:

(f): correction factor to the propagation distance for low frequencies.

The compact source approximation is valid when the source is much smaller than the

wavelength of its radiation:

f

c

2b

2 b f

c

2b

???

f

c

0

2b

source (speaker or baffle) radius

From the IEC standard [7], the acoustic centre of a sound source is: For a sound emitting

transducer, for a sinusoidal signal of given frequency and for a specified direction and

distance, the point from which the approximately spherical wavefronts, as observed in a

small region around the observation point, appear to diverge. The thrust of this definition

may be to ensure that the amplitude of the acoustic pressure accurately follows a 1/r

dependence.

1 pr f

2

a

ds dm ( f ) 1 2

a pi f 2

Correction (when needed):

ds dm

60

(Direct path method)

Systematic errors:

Acoustic Center ( Cabinet Center):

It is defined in [1] and [2] as the position of the point from which spherical wavefronts

appear to diverge, and in [3] and [4] as the position from which the

sound pressure varies inversely as the distance.

Knowledge of the acoustic center is of concern whenever a well-defined distance to a

source is needed.

The acoustic centre is that point for which the polar response is truly omni -directional

at frequencies for which the wavelength is large compared to the source size.

In general the acoustic center of a source varies with the frequency, with the

direction of the observer, and with the distance from the source [1] as

demonstrated theoretically in [5] and [6]. Also with cabinet and speaker size [7].

[1]: C. L. Morfey, Dictionary of Acoustics (Academic, San Diego, 2001).

[2]: IEC International Standard 61094-3, Measurement microphones, Part 3: Primary methods for free-field

calibration of laboratory standard microphones by the reciprocity technique, 1995.

*3+: IEC International Standard 50(801), International electrotechnical vocabulary, 1994.

*4+: American National Standard ANSI S1.1, Acoustical Terminology, 1994.

*5+: J. R. Cox, Jr., Physical limitations on free-field microphone calibration, Massachusetts Institute of

Technology, Ph.D. thesis, 1954.

[6]: K. Rasmussen, Acoustic centre of condenser microphones, The Acoustics Laboratory, Technical University of

Denmark, Report No. 5, 1973.

*7+: Polar plots at low frequencies: the acoustic centre. Vanderkooy, J., Henwood, D. AES. 2006. 61

Acoustic Center ( Cabinet Center):

For wavelengths much larger than the size of the cabinet, the acoustic flow

pattern shows a very simple symmetry at some distance from the cabinet, essentially

pointing to the real natural centre of the system. In addition this leads to a very

pleasing set of nested polar responses versus angle for the lower frequencies [7].

62

Acoustic Center:

63

Acoustic Center:

Acoustic responses have frequency character that scales inversely with size. At low

frequencies the wavelength is much larger than the loudspeaker, and distance to the

acoustic centre will be scaled by the loudspeaker size, R, so that the ratio /R is the

relevant variable.

S0

d 1

180

S Pressure decay: = 1/r

S0

2 1

S180

R (Half) Speaker

Cabinet radius. 64

Acoustic Center:

a a a

For typical loudspeaker boxes, the acoustic centre concept is valid up to about 200 Hz, hence the whole sub-bass

region of the spectrum is encompassed. The concept remains useful to even higher frequencies. [8]

[7]: Polar plots at low frequencies: the acoustic centre. Vanderkooy, J., Henwood, D. AES. 2006.

*8+: Applicatins of the Acoustic Centre. Vanderkooy, J. 122nd AES Convention. Vienna. Austria. 2007. 65

Acoustic Center: And what for intermediate frequencies?

For very high frequencies, the new method gives an acoustic centre position which is

essentially at the source, and the curve of the above figure would hover near zero

position for frequencies above 1kHz. This is reasonable, since at very high frequencies,

we would expect a point source to send out spherical waves precisely from where it is

located, and line-of-sight ray tracing would be appropriate.

Another point to make regarding the acoustic centre at intermediate frequencies is that

the concept does not break down quickly as frequency rises. The flow pattern near the

source does show some modification as the wavelength goes down and approaches the

source size, but this process is gradual. If one is fairly close to a transducer, the acoustic

centre concept may be useful well into the region in which the response is no longer

quite omnidirectional. [8] 66

Systematic errors:

The low end of the usable frequency range is determined by the (limited) length of the time

windows. 1

f min

Tw

The direct sound time window cannot be made so long as to overlap the reflected response,

whereas the reflected sound time window is limited by the tail of the direct response, and the

parasitic reflections.

Both windows can be extended by using the subtraction technique as described by E. Mommertz

in Angle-dependent in-situ measurements of reflection coefficients using a subtraction

technique (Applied Acoustics, Vol.46, 1995, pp. 251-263).

It can be seen that a frequency resolution on the order of 10Hz requires a time window of one

tenth of a second, corresponding to a nearest surface of about 17m away. This is half the distance

that the reflected sound wave travels. On the other hand, a frequency resolution on the order of

one 100Hz is achieved with a nearest surface of almost 2m. It is therefore clear that the frequency

resolution of a measurement is limited by the geometry of the experimental setup.

67

Systematic errors:

1) The difference between the arrival time of the reflected wave and the arrival

time of the incident wave: tri = tref - tinc.

2) The difference between the arrival time of the foor reflection and the arrival

time of the reflected wave: tfr = tfloor - tref .

3) The difference between the arrival time of the speaker reflection and the arrival

time of the reflected wave: tsr = tspk - tref .

68

Systematic errors:

Diffraction from sound source:

Tube

speaker

Spherical

speaker

Auratone

69

Ideal Uniform distribution vs. Real Gaussian distribution

of impinguing sound energy over the sample:

Therefore, a non-dimensionalized parameter, ke, which is multiplication of the wavenumber and the

characteristic length of a sample, is introduced to effectively indicate the general trend of the

relative errors. A high value of ke means a high frequency and/or a large sample.

2

Wavenumber k

The angular distribution of energy density incident on a sample has been simulated for a

rectangular room and a reverberation chamber with non-parallel surfaces by using the beam

tracing method. A large variation in incident energy density was found depending on the source

position. To achieve a uniform distribution, the source should be located perpendicularly from the

boundary of the target surface, as close as possible to the target surface. Therefore a room with

non-parallel walls is advantageous for obtaining a uniform distribution. A long distance from a

source to a target surface results in a concentration of acoustic energy near the normal direction.

The simulated reverberant energy distribution plays the role of a weighting factor in calculating the

angle-weighted absorption coefficient. The importance of non-uniform incident energy becomes

significant for high ke values. For smaller values of ke, the calculated absorption coefficient

adopting fairly uniform distribution agrees well with the measurement, while the averaged

Gaussian-like weighting function agrees better with the measurement for high ke.

Cheol Ho Jeong. A correction of random incidence absorption coefficients for the angular distribution of acoustic

energy under measurement conditions. Acoustic Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering. Technical 70

University of Denmark (DTU).

Ke & error from uniform absorption coefficient:

Rev chamber

measurements

Relative error

Cheol Ho Jeong. A correction of random incidence absorption coefficients for the angular distribution of acoustic

energy under measurement conditions. Acoustic Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering. Technical

University of Denmark (DTU). 71

Individual Experiment:

Instructions:

Choose any room. Measure the in situ absorption coefficients. Calculate

the statistical RT60 (total and by bands). Get conclusions on every related

topic, including systematic errors. Give explanations of applied practices.

Main Objetive:

time by measuring the individual absorption coefficients, and the

measured RT60 with Log Sine Sweep techniques.

Secondary objetives:

Description of the sound field inside the room in relation with the

experimental results.

Comparison of the obtained absorption coefficients with the available

commercial information of each one.

Analysis of the systematic errors. Develop a proposal to minimize them.

Any programming or signal processing software development is very welcome. 72

Butacas: Mtodo de Kath & Kuhl

73

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