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LESLIE ANN F. DESTAJO LLB II PACU v. Secretary of Education, G.R. L-5279,


Sanidad v. COMELEC, G.R. L-44640, 12 October 31October 1955
CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 1 1976 Gonzales v. Hechanova, G.R. L-21897, 22 October
1st Semester 2016-2017 1963
Atty. Amando Virgil D. Ligutan c. Submission of Proposed Amendments Gonzales v. Marcos, G.R. L-31685, 31 July 1975
People v. Vera, G.R. L-45685, 16 November 1937
Tolentino v. COMELEC, 41 SCRA 702 (1971) Flast v. Cohen, 392 U.S. 83 (1968)
I. Preliminary Readings
Sierra Club v. Morton, 405 U.S. 727 (1972)
d. Ratification U.S. v. SCRAP, 412 U.S. 669 (1973)
Pacifico A. Agabin, The Politics of Judicial Review over Executive Action: The
Kilosbayan v. Guingona, G.R. 113375, 5 May 1994
Supreme Court and Social Change in Unconstitutional Essays, pp. 167-198
Plebiscite v. Referendum Kilosbayan v. Morato, G.R. No. 118910, 6
(1996)
November 1995
Steffel v. Thompson, 415 U.S. 452 (1974)
Irene C. Cortez, Constitutionalism in the Philippines- A View from the III. THE CONSTITUTION AND JUDICIAL REVIEW
Automotive Workers Alliance v. Romulo, G.R. No.
Academia, pp. 338-348, Vol. 59, 4th Quarter (1984)
157509, January 18, 2005
Walter Murphy, Constitutions, Constitutionalism, and Democracy in 1. Judicial Review Overview
Requisites for Taxpayers, Lawmakers, Voters &
Constitutionalism and Democracy: Transitions in the Contemporary World, pp.
Art. VIII, 1987 Phil. Const. Concerned Citizens Suits
1-20 (1993)
Sec. 1, 2, 4 (2), 5 (2) (a)
Francisco v. House of Representatives, G.R.
II. THE CONSTITUTION- Adoption, Interpretation, Amendment & Revision See Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137 (1803) 160261, 10 November 2003
Angara v. Electoral Commission, G.R. No. L-45081, 15 July 1936 Sanlakas v. Executive Secretary, G.R. 159085, 3
Provisional Constitution February 2004
2. Requisites Tan v. Macapagal, G.R. L-32979-81, 29 February
Proclamation No. 1, 25 February 1986 (Provisional Government) 1972
Proclamation No. 3, 25 March 1986 (Provisional Constitution) SC Petitions challenging the constitutionality of RA 9372 Demetria v. Alba, G.R. 71977, 27 February 1987
(October 5, 2010) G.R. Nos. 178552, 178554, 178581, Gonzales v. Narvasa, G.R. 140835, 14 August 2000
1987 Philippine Constitution 178890,179157, 179461 David v. Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, G.R. 171396, 3
May 2006
1. Adoption and Effectivity a. Case or Controversy Paguia v. Office of the President, G.R. 176278, 25
June 2010
De Leon v. Esguerra, G.R. No. 78059, 31 August 1987 Garcia v. Board of Investments, G.R. 92024, 9
November 1990 c. Raised at Earliest Opportunity
2. Interpretation Oposa v. Factoran, Jr., G.R. 101083, 30 July 2003
Manila Prince Hotel v. GSIS, G.R. 122156, 3 People v. Vera, G.R. 45685, 16 November 1937
Nitafan v. CIR, 152 SCRA 284 (1987) February 1997
Civil Liberties Union v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. Kilosbayan v. Morato, G.R. 118910, 17 July 1995 d. Lis Mota of the Case
83896, 22 February 1991 Taada v. Angara, G.R. 118295, 2 May 1997
Filoteo v. Sandiganbayan, 263 SCRA 222 (1996) Santiago v. Bautista, G.R. L-25024, 30 March 1970 Luis General v. Urro, G.R. No. 191560, 29 March
People v. Ferrer, G.R. L-32613-14, 27 December 2011
3. Amendment and Revision 1972
Director v. Ang Chio Kho, G.R. L-30001, 23 June IV. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES
a. In General (Art. XVII) 1970
b. Proposals J.M. Tuason v. LTA, G.R. L-21064, 18 February Preamble of the 1987 Constitution
1970
i. By Congress as Constituent Assembly
1. Principles
Ripeness
Gonzales v. COMELEC, G.R. L-28196,
a. Sovereignty of the People and Republicanism
9 November 1967 Tan v. Macapagal, G.R. L-34161, 29
February 1972 Art. II, Sec. 1- 1987 Constitution
ii. By Constitutional Convention Poe v. Ullman, 367 U.S. 497 (1961)
U.S. v. Richardson, 418 U.S. 166 (1974) Perez v. Suller, G.R. No. L-46710, 18 November 1939
Del Rosario v. COMELEC, 35 SCRA 367 (1970),
Villavicencio v. Lukban, 39 Phil. 778
G.R. L-32476, 20 October 1970 Mootness
Imbong v. COMELEC, G.R. L-32432, 11
b. Adherence to International Law
September1970 DeFunis v. Odegaard, 416 U.S. 312
(1974) Art. II, Sec. 2- 1987 Constitution
iii. By Peoples Initiative Land Bank of the Phils. v. Suntay,
G.R. 188376, 14 December 2011 Kuroda v. Jalandoni, 83 Phil. 171, 178 (1949)
Santiago v. COMELEC, G.R. 127325, 19 March
Secretary of Justice v. Lantion, G.R. No. 139465, 18 January
1997 b. Legal Standing 2000
Lambino v. COMELEC, 505 SCRA 160 (2006)
Pharmaceutical Association v. Duque, G.R. No. 173034, 9
Muskrat v. U.S., 219 U.S. 346 (1911) October 2007
Note: Emergency Power of the President

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c. Supremacy of Civilian Authority xi. Independent Peoples Organizations (Sec. 23) Republic Act No. 9522 (2009)
xii. Communication and Information (Sec. 24)
Art. II, Sec. 3- 1987 Constitution xiii. Autonomy of Local Governments (Sec. 25) Magallona v. Ermita, et al, G.R. No. 187167, 16 July 2011
See Art. VII, Sec. 18- 1987 Constitution xiv. Equal Access of Opportunities for Public Service (Sec. 26) The Province of North Cotabato v. GRP Peace Panel, G.R. No.
xv. Honest Public Service and Full Disclosure (Sec. 27, 28) 183591, 14 October 2008
See Alih v. Castro, 151 SCRA 279
3. People
V. STATE: SOVEREIGNTY, TERRITORY, PEOPLE & GOVERNMENT
d. Government as protector of the People; People as
defender of the State Art. IV, Sec. 1-5- 1987 Constitution
State in General
See Exec. Ord. No. 292 (1987), Book 1, Sec. 5-9
Art. II, Sec. 4- 1987 Constitution
Collector of Internal Revenue v. Campos Rueda, 42 SCRA 23
a. Citizens of the Philippines
See Lagman v. Zosa, 66 Phil. 13
1. Sovereignty
Tecson v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 161434, 3 March 2004
e. Separation of Church and the State Bengson III v. HRET, G.R. No. 142840, 7 May 2001
People v. Gozo, 53 SCRA 476
Valles v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 137000, 9 August 2000
People v. Perfecto, 43 Phil. 887
Art. II, Sec. 6- 1987 Constitution Co v. HRET, G.R. No. 92191-92, 30 July 1991
Macariola v. Asuncion, 114 SCRA 77
Art. III, Sec. 5 (Freedom of Religion clause) Balgamelo Cabiling, et al v. Commissioner, G.R. No. 183133,
Art. IX-C, Sec. 2 (5) (religion sect not allowed as registered 26 July 2010
i. Dominium v. Imperium
political party)
Art. VI, Sec. 5 (2) (no sectoral representative from religious b. Loss and Reacquisition of Citizenship
A. Sovereign Immunity- Doctrine of Non-Suability of State
sector)
Art. VI, Sec. 29 (2) (prohibition against appropriation for sectarian Republic Act No. 9225 (2003)
Art. XVI, Sec. 3- 1987 Constitution
benefit)
Aznar v. COMELEC, 185 SCRA 703 (1990)
Kawawanakoa v. Polybank, 205 U.S. 349 (1907)
i. Establishment Clause Mercado v. Manzano, G.R. No. 135083, 26 May 1999
Republic v. Villasor, 54 SCRA 83
Willie Yu v. Santiago, G.R. No. 83882, 24 January 1989
Aglipay v. Ruiz, 64 Phil. 201 (1937) Labo, Jr. v. COMELEC, 176 SCRA 1 (1989)
i. Suit against the State
Garces v. Estenzo, 104 SCRA 510 (1981) Frivaldo v. COMELEC, 174 SCRA 245 (1989)
See Lemon v. Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602 (1971) Frivaldo v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 120295, June 28, 1996
Republic v. Feliciano, 148 SCRA 424 (1987)
Angat v. Republic, G.R. No. 132244, 14 September 1999
Sanders v. Veridiano, 162 SCRA 88
ii. Free Exercise Clause Altarejos v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 163256, 10 November 2004
Lansang v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 102667, 23
February 2000
American Bible Society v. City of Manila, 101 Phil. c. Dual Citizenship; Dual Allegiance
Tan v. Director of Forestry, 125 SCRA 302
386
Veterans Manpower v. Court of Appeals, 214 SCRA 286
Gerona v. Secretary of Education, G.R. No. L- Republic Act No. 9225 (2003)
PNB v. Commission on Internal Revenue, 81 SCRA 314
13954, 12 August 1959
Farolan v. Court of Tax Appeals, 217 SCRA 298
Ebranilag v. Division Superintendent, G.R. No. Mercado v. Manzano, supra.
95770, 1 March 1993 AASJS Member Calilung v. Datumanong, G.R. No. 160869, 11
ii. Need for Consent- Express or Implied
May 2007
Exceptions:
Republic v. Feliciano, supra.
4. Government (see next chapters)
Lansang v. Court of Appeals, supra.
Art. VI, Sec. 28 (3), 29 (2)
Froilan v. Pan Oriental Shipping, G.R. No. L-6060, 30
Art. XIV, Sec. 3 (3), 4 (2)
Sept. 1950 VI. LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT
U.S. v. Ruiz, 136 SCRA 487
2. State Policies
U.S. v. Guinto, 182 SCRA 644 1. Definition
Republic v. Villasor, supra
Art. II- 1987 Constitution
2. By the People
iii. Suability v. Liability of State
a. Independent Foreign Policy and Nuclear-Free Philippines (Sec.
a. Initiative
7, 8)
Merrit v. Government, 34 Phil 311 (1916) b. Referendum
b. Just and Dynamic Social Order (Sec. 9)
Fontanilla v. Maliaman, 194 SCRA 486
i. Promotion of Social Justice (Sec. 10)
Commissioner of Public Highway v. San Diego, 31 3. By Congress
See Calalang v. Williams, 70 Phil 726
SCRA 616 (1970)
ii. Respect for Human Dignity and Human Rights (Sec. 11)
NHA v. Heirs of Guivelondo, G.R. No. 154411, June 19, a. Composition, Qualification & Term of Office
iii. Sanctity of Family and Promotion of Youth (Sec. 12, 13)
2003
Imbong v. Ochoa, G.R. No. 204819, April 8, 2014
Makati v. Court of Appeals, G.R. Nos. 89898-99, October 1, Sec. 1, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
iv. Equality of Men and Women (Sec. 14)
1990
v. Promotion of Health and Ecology (Sec. 15, 16)
Star Special Watchman v. Puerto Princesa City, G.R. No. 1. Senate
See Oposa v. Factoran, 224 SCRA 792
181792, April 21, 2014
vi. Priority to Education, Science and Technology (Sec. 17)
Secs. 1-4, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
vii. Protection of Labor (Sec. 18)
2. Territory
viii. Self-reliant and Independent Economic Order (Sec. 19, 20)
2. House of Representatives
See Taada v. Angara, supra.
Art. I-1987 Constitution
ix. Land Reform (Sec. 21)
Secs. 5-8, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
x. Indigenous Cultural Minorities (Sec. 22)
See Exec. Ord. No. 292 (1987), Book 1, Sec. 3

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i. District Representatives i. Salaries
Sec. 16 (3), Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Macias v. COMELEC, No. L-18684, 14 September Sec. 10, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
1961 Alejandrino v. Quezon, 46 Phil. 83 Sec. 17, Art. XVIII, 1987 Constitution
Mariano v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 118577, 7 March Osmena v. Pendatun, 109 Phil. 863
1995 Santiago v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 128055, 19 April Philconsa v. Mathay, 18 SCRA 300
Montejo v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 118702, 16 March 2001
1995 Pimentel v. Senate Committee, supra. ii. Privileges
Marcos v. COMELEC, 248 SCRA 300
Aquino v. COMELEC, 248 SCRA 400 v. Journal and Congressional Records 1. Freedom from Arrest
Torayno v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 137329, 9 August
2000 Sec. 16 (4), Art. VI, 1987 Constitution Sec. 11, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Aquino v. Comelec, G.R. No. 189793, April 7, 2010
a. Enrolled Bill Theory People v. Jalosjos, G.R. No. 132875, 3 Feb. 2000
ii. Party-List Representatives
Mabanag v. Lopez Vito, 78 Phil 1 2. Privilege of Speech & Debate
Republic Act 7941 Phil. Judges Assoc. v. Prado, 27 SCRA 703
Farinas v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 147387, Sec. 11, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Veterans Fed. Party v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 10 December 2003
136781, 6 Oct. 2000 Jimenez v. Cabangbang, 17 SCRA 876
Bagong Bayani v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 147589, 26 b. Probative Value of the Journal Pobre v. Santiago, AC No. 7399, 25 August 2009
June 2001
Atong Paglaum v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 203766, 2 U.S. v. Pons, 34 Phil. 729 iii. Disqualifications
April 2013
BANAT v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 179271, 21 April c. Matters to be entered in the Journal Secs. 13, 14, 12, 20, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
2009; Resolution 8 July 2009
Ang Ladlad-LGBT v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 190582, d. Journal Entry v. Enrolled Bill Theory Adaza v. Pacana, 135 SCRA 431
8 April 2010 Puyat v. de Guzman, 113 SCRA 31
Phil. Guardians Brotherhood v. COMELEC, G.R. Astorga v. Villegas, 56 SCRA 714 Liban v. Gordon, G.R. No. 175352, 15 July 2009 & 18
No. 190529, 29 April 2010 Morales v. Subido, 27 SCRA 131 Janaury 2011
Arroyo v. de Venecia, supra. Villegas v. Legaspi, G.R. No. 53869, 25 March 1982
iii. Sectoral Representatives
vi. Congressional Record e. Electoral Tribunals
b. Election
Sec. 16 (4), Art. VI, 1987 Constitution Secs. 17 & 19, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Secs. 8-9, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Tolentino v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 148334, 21 January 2004 vii. Sessions Vera v. Avelino, 34 Phil 725
Macalintal v. COMELEC, G.R. 157013, 10 July 2003 Tanada v. Cuenco, G.R. No. L-10520, 28 Feb. 1957
a. Regular Sessions Pimentel v. HRET, 141489, 29 Nov. 2002
c. Organization & Sessions Codilla v. de Venecia, G.R. No. 150605, 10 Dec. 2002
Secs. 15, 16 (5), Art. VI, 1987 Constitution Barbers v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 165691, 22 June 2005
i. Election of Officers Vilando v. COMELEC, G.R. Nos. 178831-32, 1 April 2009
b. Special Sessions Vilando v. HRET, G.R. Nos. 192147 & 192149, 23 August 2011
Sec. 16 (1), Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 15, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution f. Commission on Appointments
ii. Quorum Secs. 10-11, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 16 (2), Art. VI, 1987 Constitution Sec. 18, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution Secs. 18 & 19, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution

Avelino v. Cuenco, 83 Phil. 17 c. Joint Sessions Daza v. Singson, 180 SCRA 496
See: SC Ruling on the Motion for Reconsideration filed Coseteng v. Mitra, 187 SCRA 377
March 14, 1949 1. voting separately Guingona v. Gonzales, 214 SCRA 789
Santiago v. Guingona, 298 SCRA 756 Drilon v. de Venecia, G.R. No. 180055, 31 July 2009
Secs. 4, 11 (4), 9, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
iii. Rules of Proceedings Sec. 23 (1), Art. VI, 1987 Constitution g. Legislative Powers
Sec. 1 (1), Art. XVII, 1987 Constitution
Secs. 16 (3), 21, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution i. General Plenary Powers
2. voting jointly
Arroyo v. de Venecia, G.R. No. 127255, 14 August 1997 Sec. 1, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Pimentel v. Senate Committee, G.R. No. 187714, 8 March Sec. 18, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
2011
d. Salaries, Privileges and Disqualifications
iv. Discipline of Members
Sema
v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 1775597, 16 July 2008 a. Express
1. Substantive Limitations
ii. Limitations on Legislative Power Art III, 1987 Constitution

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Secs. 25, 28, 29, 30, 31, Art. VI, 1987
Constitution Secs. 9 & 16, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution a) Appropriation Laws

Sec. 4 (3), Art. XIV, 1987 Constitution Sarmiento v. Mison, G.R. No. 79974, 17 Dec. 1987 Secs. 24-25, 29, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 3, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
Abakada Guro Party List v. Purisima, G.R. No. x. Concur in Treaties
166715, 14 August 2008 Demetria v. Alba, 148 SCRA 208
Belgica, et al. v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. Sec. 21, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution Guingona v. Carague, 196 SCRA 221
208566 November 19, Tolentino v. Sec. of Finance, 235 SCRA 630
2013 Bayan Muna v. Romulo, G.R. No. 159618, 1 Feb. 2011 Pichay v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No.
196425, 24 July 2012
b. Implied xi. Declare War & Delegate Emergency Powers
b) Tax Laws
- Non-Delegation of Legislative Powers Sec. 23, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 28, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Exceptions: xii. Judge Presidents Fitness Sec. 4 (3) & (4), Art. XIV, 1987 Constitution

1) Delegation to the President (Secs. Sec. 11, par. 4, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution Tolentino v. Secretary of Finance, G.R. No.
23 (2) & 28 (2) Art. VI, 1987 115455, 25 Aug. 1994
Constitution xiii. Power of Impeachment John Hay PAC v. Lim, G.R. No. 119775, 24
2) Delegation to the People (Sec. 32, October 2003
Art. VII) Art. XI, 1987 Constitution Lung Center v. Quezon City, G.R. No.
3) Delegation to Local Governments 144104, 29 June 2004
1. Impeachable Officers
- Non-Passage of Irrepealable Laws ii. Procedure for Passage of Bills
Sec. 2, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
2. Procedural Limitations Sec. 26 (2), Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
In re Gonzales, 160 SCRA 771
Secs. 26-27, 1987 Constitution Tolentino v. Secretary of Finance, supra.
2. Grounds Gonzales v. Macaraig, G.R. No. 87636, 19 November
a. only one subject expressed in the title 1990
Sec. 2, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution Farinas v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 147387, 10
b. three readings on separate days December 2003
3. Procedure
iii. Question Hour iii. Veto by President
Romulo v. Yniguez, 141 SCRA 263
Sec. 22, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution Francisco, Jr. v. House of Representatives, G.R. Sec. 27, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
No. 160261, 10 Nov. 2003
iv. Legislative Investigation Gutierrez v. House of Representatives, G.R. No. Gonzales v. Macaraig, supra.
193459, 15 Feb. 2011 & 8 March 2011 Bolinao Electronics v. Valencia, 11 SCRA 486
Sec. 21, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution PHILCONSA v. Enriquez, G.R. No. 113105, 19 August
Bengzon v. Blue Ribbon Committee, 203 SCRA 767 4. Effects 1994
Sabio v. Gordon, G.R. No. 174177, October 17, 2006
Standard Chartered v. Senate, G.R. No. 167173, Sec. 3 (7), Art. XI, 1987 Constitution iv. Effectivity of Laws
December 27, 2007
Blue Ribbon Comm. v. Hon. Majaducon, G.R. No. xiv. Allow Utilization of Natural Resources Tanada v. Tuvera, 136 SCRA 27
136760, July 29, 2003 E.O. 200, 18 June 1987
Sec. 2, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution PVB Employees v. Hon. Vera, G.R. No. 105364, 28 June
v. Board of Canvassers for Presidential Elections 2001
xv. Amend or Revise the Constitution
Sec. 4 (4), Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
VII. EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT
Secs. 1-2, Art. XVII, 1987 Constitution
vi. Call for Special Election for President & Vice-President
1. The President
h. Legislative Process
Sec. 10, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
a. Qualifications, Election, Term & Oath
i. Requirement as to bills
vii. Revoke or Extend suspension of privilege of writ of habes
Secs. 2, 4-5, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
corpus or Declaration of Martial Law 1. titles of bills
Pormento v. Estrada, G.R. No. 152154, 15 July 2003
Sec. 18, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution Sec. 26, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Macalintal v. Presidential Electoral Tribunal, G.R. No. 191618,
23 Nov. 2010; 7 June 2011
viii. Approve Presidential Amnesties Cruz v. Paras, 123 SCRA 569 (1983)
Giron v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 188179, 22 January
b. Privilege and Salary
Sec. 19, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution 2013
Sec. 6, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
ix. Confirm Certain Appointments 2. as to specific laws

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c. Prohibitions
Drilon v. Mayor Lim, G.R. No. 112497, 4 August 1994 Sec. 19, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 13, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution Sec. 5, Art. IX, C, 1987 Constitution
iv. Appointment Power
Doromal v. Sandiganbayan, 177 SCRA 354 (1989) a. pardon distinguished from probation
Civil Liberties Union v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 83896, Sec. 16, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
22 Feb. 1991 People v. Vera, 65 Phil. 56
Public Interest Center v. Elma, G.R. No. 138965, 30 June 2006
b. pardon distinguished from parole
Exceptions:
a. With consent of the Commission on Appointments Torres v. Gonzales, 152 SCRA 272 (1987)
i. Vice-President as member of the cabinet
1. Heads of Departments c. pardon distinguished from amnesty
[Sec. 3 (2), Art. VII, 1987 Constitution] 2. Ambassadors, Public Ministers & Consuls
3. AFP Officers from Colonel & Naval Captain Barrioquinto v. Fernandez, 82 Phil 642
ii. DOJ Secretary as Judicial and Bar Council (JBC) member 4. Constitutional Commissions Chairpersons &
Members 1. who may avail of amnesty
[Sec. 8 (1), Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution]
5. Regular Members of the Judicial and Bar
Macagaan v. People, 152 SCRA 430
d. Succession Council (JBC)
[Sec. 8 (2), Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution] d. effect of pardon
i. vacancy at the beginning of term 6. Sectoral Representatives
[Sec. 7, Art. XVIII, 1987 Constitution] Monsanto v. Factoran, Jr., G.R. No. 78239, 9 Feb.
[Secs. 7, 10, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution] 1989
Sarmiento v. Mison, supra.
ii. vacancy during the term Quintos-Deles v. Comm. on Appointments, 177 vi. Commander-in-Chief
SCRA 259 (1989)
[Secs. 8, 10, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution] Calderon v. Carale, G.R. No. 91636, 23 April 1992 Sec. 18, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
Matibag v. Benipayo, G.R. No. 149036, 2 April 2002 Sec. 3, Art. II, 1987 Constitution
Estrada v. Desierto, G.R. Nos. 146710-15, 2 March 2001 Rufino v. Endriga, G.R. No. 139565, 21 July 2006
Estrada v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 146738, 3 April 2001 IBP v. Zamora, G.R. No. 141284, 15 August 2000
b. Upon Recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Lacson v. Perez, G.R. No. 147780, 10 May 2001
iii. temporary disability Council (JBC) Sanlakas v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 159085, 3 Feb.
2004
[Secs. 11-12, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution] 1. Members of the Supreme Court & all other David v. Ermita, G.R. No. 171396, 3 May 2006
courts Fortun, et al v. Gloria Arroyo, G.R. No. 190293, 20 March
Estrada v. Desierto, supra. [Sec. 9, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution] 2012
2. Ombudsman & deputies
e. Removal [Sec. 9, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution] vii. Emergency Powers

Secs. 2-3, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution c. Appointment of Vice-President as cabinet member Sec. 23 (2), Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
f. Powers and Functions [Sec. 3, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution]
David v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 171390, 3 May 2006
i. Executive Power d. Appointments solely by the President
viii. Contracting and Guaranteeing Foreign Loans
Secs. 1 & 17, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution Sec. 16, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
Secs. 20-21, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
Marcos v. Manglapus, 177 SCRA 668 (1989) 1. Appointments not otherwise provided by law
Birago v. Philippine Truth Commission, G.R. No. 192935, 2. As maybe authorized by law to appoint ix. Power over Foreign Affairs
7 Dec. 2010
e. Limitations to Appointing Power Sec. 21, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
ii. Control of Executive Departments
1. Prohibited & Midnight Appointments Pimental v. Ermita, G.R. No. 158088, 6 July 2005
Sec. 17, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution Bayan v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 138570, 10 Oct.
Secs. 13 & 15, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution 2000
De Leon v. Carpio, 178 SCRA 457 (1989) Lim v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 151445, 11 April 2002
Dadole v. Commission on Audit, G.R. No. 125350, 3 Dec. Arturo de Castro v. JBC, G.R. No. 191002, 17 Secretary of Justice v. Lantion, G.R. No. 139465, 17 Oct.
2002 March 2010 2000
DENR v. DENR Employees, G.R. No. 149724, 19 August Go Tek v. Deportation Board, 79 SCRA 17 (1977)
2003 2. Interim or Recess Appointments
Rufino v. Endriga, G.R. No. 139565, 21 July 2006 x. Power over Legislation
Sec. 19, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
iii. General Supervision over Local Governments & Sec. 16 (2), Art. VII, 1987 Constitution a. to address congress
Autonomous Regions
Matibag v. Benipayo, supra. Sec. 23, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
Secs. 4, 16, Art. X, 1987 Constitution
v. Executive Clemency
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b. budget preparation & submission
Vargas v. Rilloraza, 80 Phil. 297 (1948) Sec. 5 (4), Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 22, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
b. Appointments and Qualifications iv. Discipline of judges
see Guingona v. Carague, supra.
Sec. 7, 8, 9, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution Sec. 11, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
c. veto power
Kilosbayan v. Ermita, G.R. No. 177721, 3 July 2007 v. Appointment of officials and employees
Sec. 27, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution Arturo de Castro v. JBC, G.R. No. 191002, 17 March 2010, supra.
Sec. 5 (6), Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
see Gonzales v. Macaraig, supra. c. Salary
see Bolinao Electronics v. Valencia, supra. j. Rule Making
see PHILCONSA v. Enriquez, supra. Sec. 10, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 17, Art. XVIII, 1987 Constitution Sec. 5 (5), Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
d. emergency powers Sec. 14 (2), Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
Nitafan v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, G.R. No. 78780, 23 Sec. 18 (3), Art. XIII, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 23 (2), Art. VI, 1987 Constitution July 1987
Bustos v. Lucero, 81 Phil 640 (1948)
xi. Executive Immunity d. Security of Tenure In re Cunanan, 94 Phil. 534 (1954)
Javellana v. DILG, G.R. No.102549, 10 Aug.1992
Beltran v. Makasiar, G.R. No. 82585, 14 Nov. 1988 Sec. 11, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
Estrada v. Desierto, supra. k. No quasi-judicial and administrative work for judges
Gloria v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 119903, August 15, 2000 Vargas v. Rilloraza, 80 Phil. 297 (1948)
De La Llana v. Alba, 112 SCRA 294 Sec. 12, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
xii. Executive Privilege
e. Removal In re Judge Mariano, 166 SCRA 246 (1988)
Senate v. Ermita, G.R. No. 169777, 20 April 2006
Neri v. Senate Committee, G.R. No. 180843, March 25, 2008 Sec. 11, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution l. Report on the judiciary
Sec. 2, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
2. The Vice-President Sec. 16, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
f. Fiscal Autonomy
a. Qualifications, Election, Term & Oath m. Manner of sitting and votes required
Sec. 3, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
Secs. 3-5, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution Sec. 4, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
Bengzon v. Drilon, G.R. No. 103524, 15 April 1992 Sec. 2, Rule 56, Rules of Court
b. Privilege and Salary Sec. 3, Rule 125, Rules of Court
g. Jurisdiction
Sec. 6, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution Fortich v. Corona, G.R. No. 131457, 19 August 1999
Sec. 1, 2, 5, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution People v. Dy, G.R. Nos. 115236-37, 16 January 2003
c. Prohibitions Sec. 30, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution People v. Ebio, G.R. No. 147750, 29 Sept. 2004
Sec. 18, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 13, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution n. Requirements as to decisions
Bengzon v. Drilon, G.R. No. 103524, 15 April 1992
d. Succession Joya v. PCGG, G.R. No. 96541, 24 August 1993 Secs. 13-14, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
Macasiano v. NHA, G.R. No. 107921, 1 July 1993
Sec. 9, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution Mariano v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 118577, 7 March 1995 Air France v. Carrascoso, 18 SCRA 155 (1956)
Gonzales v. Narvasa, G.R. No. 140835, 14 August 2000 Valdez v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 85082, 25 Feb. 1991
e. Removal People v. Lizada, G.R. Nos. 143468-71, 23 Jan. 2003
Secs. 2-3, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution h. Presidential Electoral Tribunal
i. Period for deciding cases
Sec. 4, par. 4, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
VIII. JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT
Sec. 15, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
i. Administrative Powers Sec. 18 (3), Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
Judicial Power
Secs. 12-14, Art. XVIII, 1987 Constitution
i. Supervision of Lower Courts
Sec. 1, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
2. Lower Courts
Sec. 6, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
Santiago v. Bautista, 32 SCRA 188 (1970)
a. Jurisdiction
Echegaray v. Secretary of Justice, G.R. No. 132601, 19 January 1999
Maceda v. Vasquez, G.R. No. 102781, 22 April 1993
Fuentes v. Ombudsman, G.R. No. 124295, October 23, 2001 Sec. 1, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
See: Chapter III
ii. Temporarily assign judges to other stations b. Appointments and Qualifications
1. Supreme Court
Sec. 5 (3), Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution Sec. 7 (2-3), 8 (5), 9, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
a. Composition
iii. Order change of venue/trial c. Salary
Sec. 4, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution

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Sec. 10, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution a. Exceptions A. Public Office as Public Trust

d. Tenure i. legal succession Sec. 1, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution

Sec. 11, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution Ramirez v. vda. De Ramirez, 111 SCRA 704 (1982) Hipolito v. Mergas, A.M. No. P-90-412, 11 March 1991

e. Removal ii. acquisition by former natural-born citizens 1. Disclosure of assets, liabilities and net worth

Sec. 11, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution Sec. 8, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution Sec. 17, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution

f. Requirements as to preparation of orders 2. Agrarian Reform 2. Ban on financial accommodation

Sec. 14, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution Secs. 4-8 Art. XIII, 1987 Constitution Sec. 16, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution

i. Period for deciding cases 3. Urban land reform and housing B. Impeachment by Congress

Sec. 15, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution Secs. 9-10, Art. XIII, 1987 Constitution See: Chapter VI
Secs. 12-14, Art. XVIII, 1987 Constitution
D. Economic Activities C. Sandiganbayan
3. Judicial and Bar Council
1. Rationale Sec. 4, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 8, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution P.D. 1606, 10 December 1979
Secs. 6, 12 & 13, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution
Nunez v. Sandiganbayan, 111 SCRA 433 (1982)
IX. NATIONAL ECONOMY AND PATRIMONY
2. Organization and regulation of private corporations Mayor Lecaros v. Sandiganbayan, 128 SCRA 324 (1984)
A. Objective
Sec. 16, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution D. Ombudsman
Sec. 1, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution
NADECO v. PVB, 192 SCRA 257 1. Composition
B. Natural Resources
3. Operation of public utilities Sec. 5, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
1. Regalian Doctrine
Secs. 11, 17 & 18, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution Gonzales v. Office of the President, G.R. No. 196231, September
24, 2012
Lee Hong Kok v. David, 48 SCRA 372, 377 (1972)
Albano v. Reyes, 175 SCRA 264 Gonzales v. Office of the President, G.R. No. 196231, January 28,
Tatad v. Garcia, Jr., G.R. No. 114222, 6 April 1995 2014
2. Citizenship Requirement
Associated Communications v. NTC, G.R. No. 144109, 17 Feb. 2. Powers and Functions
2003
Secs. 2 & 7, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution
JG Summit v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 124293, 24 Sept. 2003 Secs. 12-13, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
Chavez v. PEA and AMARI, G.R. No. 133250, 9 July 2002
4. State Operation of private enterprises Raro v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 108431, 14 July 2000
Acop v. Ombudsman, 248 SCRA 566 (1995)
3. Classification, Size, & Conditions for grant of public lands
Secs. 17-18, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution Deloso v. Domingo, 191 SCRA 545 (1990)
Ombudsman v. Santiago, G.R. No. 161098, September 13, 2007
Sec. 3, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution
See: David v. Ermita, G.R. No. 171396, 3 May 2006
3. Qualifications
Director of Lands v. IAC, 146 SCRA 509 (1986)
5. Practice of Professions
Republic v. Court of Appeals, 155 SCRA 344 (1987)
Sec. 8, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 14, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution
4. Conservation of forest lands and national parks
4. Appointment and Term
6. Money, Banking and Credit
Sec. 4, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution
Secs. 9 & 11, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
Secs. 20-21, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution
5. Protection of ancestral lands of indigenous cultural communities
5. Rank and Salary
7. Cooperatives
Sec. 5, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 10, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 15, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution
See: Cruz v. DENR, 347 SCRA 128
8. Monopolies, Combinations & Unfair Competition 6. Disqualification
C. Private Lands
Sec. 19, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution Sec. 8, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
1. Citizenship requirement Sec. 2, Art. IX-A, 1987 Constitution
Eastern Assurance v. LTFRB, G.R. No. 149717, 7 Oct. 2003
Sec. 7, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution 7. Fiscal Autonomy
Godinez v. Pak Luen, 120 SCRA 223 (1983) X. ACCOUNTABILITY OF PUBLIC OFFICERS Sec. 14, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution

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8. Appointment of Personnel Art. IX, C, Sec. 1 (2) Art. XIII, Sec. 17 (1-4)

Sec. 6, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution 9. Personnel- Appointment 1. Powers and Functions

9. Office of the Special Prosecutor Art. IX, A, Sec. 4 Art. XIII, Sec. 18 (1-9)

Sec. 7, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution 10. Salary


B. National Police Commission
Zaldivar v. Sandiganbayan, 160 SCRA 843 (1988) Art. IX, A, Sec. 4
Art. XVIII, Sec. 17 Art. XVI, Sec. 6
XI. CONSTITUTIONAL COMMISSIONS
11. Disqualifications and Removal
C. National Language Commission
A. Civil Service Commission
Art. IX, A, Sec. 2
Art. XI, Sec. 2 Art. XVI, Sec. 9
1. Scope of Civil Service
12. Review of Decisions D. Commission on Indigenous Cultural Communities
Art. IX, B, Sec. 2 (1)
Art. IX, C, Sec. 2 (2) Art. XVI, Sec. 12
Gamogamo v. PNOC Shipping, G.R. No. 141707, May 7, 2002
Art. IX, A, Sec. 4
Leyson v. Ombudsman, G.R. No. 134990, April 27, 2000
PNOC v. Leogardo, G.R. No. 58494, July 5, 1989 XII. LOCAL GOVERNMENTS (See: Atty. Amando Virgil Ligutans Syllabus on
13. Fiscal Autonomy Local Government)
2. Commission- Composition and Qualifications
Art. IX, A, Sec. 5 ---END---
Art. IX, B, Sec. 1 (1)
C. Commission on Audit
Art. VII, Sec. 13, par. 2
The future does not belong to the fainthearted, it belongs to the
1. Powers and Functions brave.
3. Commissioners- Appointment and Term of Office
Art. IX, D. Sec. 2-3
Art. IX, B, Sec. 1 (2)
Art. VI, Sec. 20 -Ronald Reagan
4. Personnel- Appointment
2. Commission- Composition and Qualifications
Art. IX, A, Sec. 4
Art. IX, D, Sec. 1 (1)
5. Salary
4. Commissioners- Appointment and Term of Office
Art. IX, A, Sec. 3
Art. IX, D, Sec. 1 (2)
Art. XVIII, Sec. 17
14. Personnel- Appointment
6. Disqualifications and Removal
Art. IX, A, Sec. 4
Art. IX, A, Sec. 2
Art. XI, Sec. 2
15. Salary
7. Review of Decisions
Art. IX, A, Sec. 3
Art. XVIII, Sec. 17
Art. IX, A, Sec. 7
16. Disqualifications and Removal
8. Fiscal Autonomy
Art. IX, A, Sec. 2
Art. IX, A, Sec. 5
Art. XI, Sec. 2
B. Commission on Elections
17. Review of Decisions
1. Powers and Functions
Art. IX, A, Sec. 7
Art. IX, B, Sec. 2 (1-9)
18. Fiscal Autonomy
2. Commission- Composition and Qualifications
Art. IX, A, Sec. 5
Art. IX, C, Sec. 1 (1)
Art. VII, Sec. 13 (2) XII. NATIONAL COMMISSIONS

3. Commissioners- Appointment and Term of Office A. Commission on Human Rights

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