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Transportation and Erection of Pressure Vessels 373

Table 7-1
Barge Shipping Forces

F = force due to barge motion, Ib


W = shipping weight, Ib
T = period of vibration of barge, secs

Condition FY Diagram
__-
I Gravity -1 .ow -

?a -0.4~

a
b - a

?b Roll +0.4w

3a -1.5~ 1.ow
b - a
Pitch +1.5w 1.ow
3b

1.2w
t
Heave

Collision - 11.5w

5a Roll + Gravity +0.95w -1.266~


+O.O5w

%030 666 w 5w

5b -0.466W

0.5w f@ 0.666 w

7a Pitch + Gravity -2.5~ 10.5~

7b +0.5w 10.5~
9
0.966 w
374 Pressure Vessel Design Manual

Pitch Roll
~~

Case 2a: O2 = 30" max

I I \ I

e, =5" max
Pitch center J

FY
u
FP

Cases 3a and 3b Case 2b

Forces invessel Due to Pitch Forces invessel Due to Roll


Genera1:

WRO
F = 0.0214-
T2

41 = tan-' (k)
0.0214WRlO1
F, = Case 2a: F, = -FR sin $2
T? F, = FR COS 42

Case 3a: F, = -F, sin 4' Case 3b : F, = F, sin 41 Case 2b: F, = FR sin 42
F, = F, COS $1 F, = -F, COS $1 F, = -FR COS 42
Transportation and Erection of Pressure Vessels 375

Directions of Ship Motions

Z = surge
X = sway
Y = heave
C#J = roll

0 =pitch
$ =yaw

(centerline of

Aft
d rudder post)

The job of the designer is to translate the loads resulting do. In fact, the best way to think of these loads is as vertical
from the movement of the ship into loads applied to the and horizontal seismic forces. Vertical seismic forces either
pressure vessel that is stored either at or below decks. The add or subtract to the weight of the vessel. Horizontal seis-
ship itself will rotate about its own center of buoyancy (C.B.) mic forces are either transverse or longitudinal.
depending on the direction of the sea and the ships orienta- The X, Y, and Z axes translate into and are equivalent to
tion to that direction of sea. The vessel strapped to its deck is the following loadings in the vessel:
in turn affected by its location in relation G the C.B. of the
ship. For example, if the C.G. of the vessel is located near
axis: transverse,
axis: corresponds to vertical loads by either adding or
the C.B. of the ship, the forces are minimized. The farther subtractingfrom the weight of the vessel,
apart the two are in relation to each other, the more pro- axis: longitudinal axis of the vessel, All axis loads are
nounced the effect on the vessel. longitudinal loadings.
The ships movement translates into loads on the three
principal axes of the vessel. Saddles and lashings must be Load Combinations for Sea Forces
strong enough to resist these external forces without exceed-
ing some allowable stress point in the vessel. The point of 1. dead load + sway + heave + wind
application of the load is at the C.G. of the vessel. These 2 . dead load + surge + heave + wind
loads affect the vessel in the same manner as seismic forces
376 Pressure Vessel Design Manual

Forces on Truck and Rail Shipments

3 RAIL
T.0.R

TRUCK /TRAILER

TRUCK /TRAILER

RAIL