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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composite materials are finding increased


applications in variety of engineering fields such as aeronautical, automotive, etc and
subsequently, the need for accurate machining of composites has increased enormously.
The mechanism behind the machining of fiber reinforced polymer composite is quite
different from that of metals, and it brings about many undesirable results, such as rapid
tool wear, rough surface finishes on finished components, and a defective sub-surface
layer with cracks and de-lamination.
In order to drill holes efficiently with the least waste and defects, it is essential to
understand the machining behavior of FRPs. Traditional machining research has relied
extensively on using experiments to understand machining behavior, but as materials get
more complex obtaining results from experiments can become very cumbersome. Hence
there is a need to turn to alternate methods of experimental techniques and this is where
we find analytical and numerical modeling techniques useful. Let us first take a look at
what FRP composites are and why such a modeling approach is preferred. Composites
have a low co-efficient of thermal expansion, which can provide a greater dimensional
stability when required. The machining of fiber reinforced composite materials is not the
same as the machining of conventional metals. Hence, the spindle speed, drill diameter,
feed rate of the machining operation should be selected carefully in the machining of fiber
composite materials.
Composite materials are continuously replacing traditional materials due to their
excellent properties. A single large part made of composites can replace many metal parts.
They have high stiffness to density ratio thereby providing greater strength at lighter
weights. The use of light-weight materials means an increase in the fuel efficiency of
automobiles and airplanes. Also the endurance limit of some composites is higher than
that of aluminum and steel. Most composites are made up of plastics or resins and hence
provide a high level of resistance to corrosion, while aluminum and iron need special
treatments like alloying to protect them from corrosion. Composites have a low co-
efficient of thermal expansion, which can provide a greater dimensional stability when
required. The machining of fiber reinforced composite materials is not the same as the

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machining of conventional metals. Hence, the spindle speed, drill diameter, feed rate of
the machining operation should be selected carefully in the machining of fiber composite
materials. Drilling of composite materials is analyzed by many researchers.
A composite material can be defined as a multiphase material with chemically
dissimilar phases separated by a distinct inter phase .Composite materials are inherently
anisotropic in the macro scale due to the multiple phases (in many cases, the phases
themselves are anisotropic) and it is possible to design the materials with controlled
anisotropy. This makes composites very useful in applications where specific engineering
properties are needed in specific material orientations. Although composites can be made
of several phases, in the most general case the constituents can be modeled as a matrix
phase surrounding a dispersed reinforcement phase. Usually, the reinforcement provides
load bearing properties while the matrix ensures efficient load distribution. Based on the
type of reinforcement, composites can be classified as particle-reinforced and fiber-
reinforced. Fiber-reinforced composites may be either have continuous, aligned fibers or
discontinuous, short fibers as reinforcement. This report deals exclusively with
continuous fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites.
Fiber reinforced composites are usually used in the forms of laminates. A laminate
is made by bonding two or more lamina together. Laminas usually are made of parallel
fibers set in a polymer matrix at some constant volume fraction. The laminate is
assembled with the individual lamina at different fiber orientations. Figure 1.2 shows the
individual lamina (which are at different angular orientations) as well as a fully assembled
FRP composite. The load-response behavior and engineering properties of the laminate
are determined by both the fiber orientations in the lamina and the order in which they are
assembled together
in the laminate.
Fiber reinforced polymer matrix (FRP) composites are extensively used in
airframe structural applications. Carbon (CFRP), Glass (GFRP) and Kevlar (KFRP) are
the most commonly used composite materials in aerospace industry. Some of the general
applications of composite materials in helicopter airframe structures include, the
empennage consisting of vertical fin, horizontal stabilizers and end plates made from
CFRP, GFRP and KFRP, main rotor hub and blade made from CFRP and GFRP, tail rotor
blades made from KFRP and GFRP, while cockpit frame is made from CFRP and KFRP
composites.

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Buckling is a mode of failure characterized generally by an unstable lateral
deflection caused by compressive or shear action on the structure element. In composites
buckling may take the form not only of conventional general instability and local
instability, but also a micro-instability of individual fibers.
Panel of rectangular shape between the structural members (ribs and stringers) of
the top skin of the wing is taken for buckling analysis. At first, the panel is assumed to be
simply supported under in-plan loading.
Initially the Composite material and its Mechanical behavior are studied under
Classical Lamination Theory. Then the Properties of material which will be used for the
Panel are identified. Now loading and boundary condition are studied, after selecting
varying thicknesses at different locations in the skin as a panel. Finally Governing
equation of Buckling and calculations of buckling strength are found out.

1.1. OBJECTIVES
To study the Properties and Behavior of glass-epoxy Composites.
To do the experimental analysis glass-epoxy composites
To study the Buckling characteristics of Composite panel for Wing Skin.
To analyze the Buckling behavior of Composite panel using ANSYS.

1.2. METHODOLOGY
Study of Composite material and its Mechanical behavior under Classical
Lamination Theory.
Properties of material which will be used for the Panel.
Idealization of the Panel.
Study of loading and boundary condition.
Governing equation of Buckling and calculations of buckling strength.

1.3.COMPOSITE MATERIAL AND ITS MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR


1.3.1. COMPOSITE MATERIALS[6]
What are Composites?
The term "composites" can be used in several different ways, and the definition
can range from general to very specific. Combining many individual photographs
into one picture is known as a composite photograph. It is a combination of

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different components. Composite materials are also a combination of different
components. A broad definition of a composite is: "Two or more dissimilar
materials which when combined are stronger than the individual materials."
Composites can be both natural and synthetic (or man-made).
Wood is a good example of a natural composite. Wood is a combination of
cellulose fiber and lignin. The cellulose fiber provides strength and the lignin is
the "glue" that bonds and stabilizes the fiber.
Bamboo is a very efficient wood composite structure. The components are
cellulose and lignin, as in all other wood, however bamboo is hollow. This results
in a very light yet stiff structure. Composite fishing poles and golf club shafts
copy this natural design.
Plywood is a man-made composite combining natural and synthetic materials.
Thin layers of wood veneer are bonded together with adhesive to form flat sheets
of laminated wood that are stronger than natural wood.
There are other man-made combinations of natural materials that form useful
composites. The ancient Egyptians manufactured composites! Adobe bricks are a
good example. The combination of mud and straw forms a composite that is
stronger than either the mud or the straw by itself.
Concrete and steel combine to create structures that are rigid and strong. This is a
classic composite material where there is a synergy between materials. In this
case, synergy means that the composite (or combination) of materials is stronger
and performs better than the individual materials. Concrete is rigid and has good
compression strength, while steel has high tensile strength. The result is a
structure that is strong in both tension and compression.
Another composite product with which we are all familiar is the rubber tire. A
typical car tire is a combination of a rubber compound and reinforcement such as
steel, nylon, aramid or other fibers. The rubber acts as a matrix, holding the
reinforcement in place. The matrix is the glue that holds the fiber in place.
While the broad definition of composites is accurate, it is too general. A specific
definition of composites for our purposes is: "A combination of fiber
reinforcement and a polymer matrix." For example, polyester resin is the matrix
and glass fiber is the reinforcement. The glass fiber provides strength and
stiffness, and the resin provides shape and protects the fibers.

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1.3.2. WHY COMPOSITES ARE DIFFERENT?
Composites have different properties than other materials. Metals for example
have equal strength in all directions. Composites can be custom tailored to have strength
in a specific direction. If a composite has to resist bending in one direction, most of the
fiber can be oriented at 900 to the bending force. This creates a very stiff structure in one
direction. What actually happens is that more of the material can be used where it counts.
With metals, if greater strength is required in one direction, the material must be made
thicker overall, which adds weight.
Composites differ from metals due to the wide range of material combinations that
can be used. Because of this, it is difficult to use a "handbook" approach to composites
design. For example, if one were looking for a steel I-beam to span 20 feet and carry a
2000-pound load, you could simply open a structural steel handbook and choose the
proper beam thickness and flange width from a chart.
Composites are more complicated. The performance characteristics of composites
can be varied to a tremendous degree and there is no such thing as a "generic" or typical
composite. The very thing that makes composites a highly adaptable engineering material
also makes them more difficult to describe.
There are many combinations of resins and reinforcements used in composites.
Each specific material contributes to specific unique properties in the finished FRP
product.

There are a number of different resins used in composites. These include:


polyester, vinyl ester, modified acrylic, epoxy, phenol, and urethane resin systems. The
list goes on; however, the important point to note is that each of these resins has specific
performance characteristics. For example, if a product needs to be corrosion resistant,
isophthalic or vinyl ester resin might be used. If high strength is critical, an epoxy might
be the resin of choice. If product cost is an issue, polyester resin is most commonly used.
In the realm of polyester resins alone, different formulations will be used if cosmetics are
important, if enhanced corrosion resistance is required, if elevated temperatures will be
encountered, or if cost is an overriding factor. The resin system is selected based on the
functional and cost requirements of the product.

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In addition to different resins, various types of reinforcement fibers are used in
composites. Glass fiber is used in over 90% of all composites. However, if required,
advanced fibers such as Kevlar or carbon fiber offer high level performance at a
significant price.
In the realm of glass fiber, there are many "styles" of reinforcement. Depending
on the molding process and the strength requirements of the product there are many
options. Glass fiber is available in random fiber orientation in the form of chopped strand
mat. There are also lightweight textile fabrics, heavy woven materials, knitted fabrics, and
unidirectional fabrics that all serve specific purposes in composite design.
To maximize the cost/benefit of composite products, the component materials
must be custom tailored to the application. The ability to adapt composites over a wide
range of requirements makes them different from other materials.

1.4. THE ADVANTAGES OF COMPOSITES [5]


Composites offer a number of advantages over traditional engineering materials.
These beneficial characteristics have enabled the rapid acceptance of composites in many
products.

1.4.1. HIGH SPECIFIC STRENGTH


Specific strength is a term that relates strength to weight. Composites have a
higher specific strength than many other materials. To understand this, consider the
following example:
Compare a inch diameter steel rod to a inch diameter fiberglass composite
rod. The steel rod will have higher tensile and compressive strength, but will weigh more.
If the fiberglass rod were increased in diameter to the same weight as the steel rod, it
would be stronger.

1.4.2. ABILITY TO FORM SHAPES


Composites can be formed into complex and accurate shapes easier than other
materials. This gives designers the freedom to create any shape or configuration. Boats
are a good example of the success of composites. Boats can be made out of a variety of
materials wood, aluminum, steel, and even cement! Why are most pleasure boats today

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built from fiberglass composites? The reason is that composites can be easily molded into
complex shapes which improve boat design.

1.4.3. INHERENT DURABILITY


How long do composites last? The answer is, we do not knowbecause we have
not come to the end of the life of many original composites. There are numerous
examples of composites that have been is service for forty to fifty years.
In 1947 the U.S. Coast Guard built a series of forty-foot patrol boats, using
polyester resin and glass fiber. These boats were used until the early 1970s when they
were taken out of service because the design was outdated. Extensive testing was done on
the laminates after decommissioning, and it was found that only 2-3% of the original
strength was lost after twenty-five years of hard service.
There are numerous examples of boats, buildings, and other composites structures
built in the 1950s, which are still in service. The bodies of the original 1953 Corvette are
fiberglass, and with the exception of cosmetic repairs, are still structurally sound.
There are case histories of fiberglass ductwork being in service in chemical
manufacturing plants for over twenty-five years - operating in harsh chemical
environments twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. How long do composites last?
In many cases, over fifty years and still counting!

1.4.4. LOW RELATIVE INVESTMENT


One reason the composites industry has been successful is because of the low
relative investment in setting-up a composites manufacturing facility. This has resulted in
many creative and innovative companies in the field.
Today, many of the largest composites molding companies have their roots in
small entrepreneurial companies that entered the business because of the low initial
investment. There are processes, such as thermoplastic injection molding, which require
large multi-million dollar investments in equipment. Open molding of composites
requires a much more moderate investment in equipment and molds. Although today,
complying with regulations has added to the cost of being in the composites business, the
overall cost to enter the industry is less than many other manufacturing ventures.

1.5. TYPES OF FIBERS, MATRIX AND ADVANTAGES[5]

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The materials with embedded fibers such as fiberglass, quartz, Kevlar or, most
typically, carbon (though some analysis programs handle other types and combinations
like wood with fiberglass) are used. The matrix component is usually an epoxy or
polyamide-resin that transfers the load between broken fibers and unbroken ones, and
between fibers not oriented along the lines of tension. Fibers serve to resist tension, the
matrix resists shear, and in combination, the new material resists compression.

Such aerospace-grade materials are formed to the end-shape, and generally require
heat and pressure for manufacturing. Molding and casting are two common processes,
and the end product (individual layers or plies) can be further laid up (laminated) to
achieve final performance specifications. Each ply has its own material properties, fiber
orientation, and thickness.
Possible advantages of using composites as compared to traditional metals and
alloys include reduced costs due to lower production costs, long-term durability and
reduced maintenance requirements; lighter weight or the possibility to readily create non-
uniform weight distributions; higher strength-to-weight ratios and directional strength or
stiffness;
The opportunity to design larger, single-piece parts with unusual geometries;
corrosion or weather resistance; low thermal conductivity and coefficient of expansion;
and non-magnetic, high-dielectric strength.

1.6. FRP COMPOSITES [1]


A composite material can be defined as a multiphase material with chemically
dissimilar phases separated by a distinct inter phase . Composite materials are inherently
anisotropic in the macro scale due to the multiple phases (in many cases, the phases
themselves are anisotropic) and it is possible to design the materials with controlled
anisotropy. This makes composites very useful in applications where specific engineering
properties are needed in specific material orientations.
Although composites can be made of several phases, in the most general case the
constituents can be modeled as a matrix phase surrounding a dispersed reinforcement
phase. Usually, the reinforcement provides load bearing properties while the matrix
ensures efficient load distribution. Based on the type of reinforcement, composites can be
classified as particle-reinforced and fiber-reinforced. Fiber-reinforced composites may be

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either have continuous, aligned fibers or discontinuous, short fibers as reinforcement.
Some of these types are shown in Figure 1.1. This report deals exclusively with
continuous fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites.

Figure 1.1: Some Composite Material Types

Fiber reinforced composites are usually used in the forms of laminates. A laminate
is made by bonding two or more lamina together. Lamina usually are made of parallel
fibers set in a polymer matrix at some constant volume fraction. The laminate is
assembled with the individual lamina at different fiber orientations.
Figure 1.2 shows the individual lamina (which are at different angular
orientations) as well as a fully assembled FRP composite. The load-response behavior and
engineering properties of the laminate are determined by both the fiber orientations in the
lamina and the order in which they are assembled together in the laminate.

Figure 1.2: Laminated Fiber-reinforced Composite

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1.7. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE CONSTITUENTS[3]

In the micromechanics approach to determining the stiffness of a lamina, certain


assumptions are made about the constituents (fiber reinforcement and matrix). The
constituents are assumed to be homogeneous, void- free, linear elastic, and isotropic. For
an isotropic material, the mechanical properties are represented by two properties:
Youngs modulus, E, and Poissons ratio, . The shear modulus, G, of an isotropic
material is found using the relationship:

The elastic properties of each constituent are needed to determine the stiffness of a
lamina.

1.7.1. FIBER REINFORCEMENT


The fiber reinforcement used in the FRP that is analyzed in this thesis is made of
E-glass. E-glass fiber reinforcement (E for electrical), because of its low cost, is the
primary fiber type used in pultruded FRP (Pultex Design Manual). Based on a variety of
sources, (Barbero, Pultex, Jones, Fiber Glass Industries, Inc., etc.) the following
mechanical properties of E-glass fiber reinforcement were used in this thesis to analyze
pultrude FRP,
Ef = 10.5 X 106 N/mm2

nf = 0.22

Gf = 4.30 X 106 N/mm2

f= 2.6 g/cc

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1.8. FRP AND THE AEROSPACE INDUSTRY
Multilayer materials (or stack ups) are used extensively in the construction of
aerospace structural members. They provide increased strength-weight ratios compared to
traditional structural material. Also, the different layers provide a wide range of
functionality that increases the utility of the structural member. Composite materials are
being used increasingly as constituents of these stack ups. Typical aerospace panel stack
ups include: CFRP/CFRP (CFRP - Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers), CFRP/Titanium,
CFRP/Titanium/CFRP, and CFRP/Aluminum. The principal machining operation
performed on aerospace structures is drilling. These structures are usually assembled and
drilled in one operation during which interface burrs are formed and debris from
machining is also lodged between the layers. The aim is to control the formation of the
interface burrs and accumulation of the debris. The need in industry is to be able to drill
through these layers in one operation without need for any rework (i.e. without having to
disassemble and clean the parts before fastening). Currently, debarring operations account
for about 30% of the total manufacturing cost.

The major aircraft manufacturers, Boeing and Airbus, are shifting from traditional
aerospace alloys to composite stack ups for use in their new aircraft designs (Figure 1.3).
Airbus achieved significant weight savings due to switching from Aluminum trusses to
composite trusses, also leading to better fuel economy and a lower operating cost. Airbus
extensively uses GLARE or Glass Reinforced Aluminum which is a proprietary material
developed in conjunction with Delft University (Figure 1.4). Boeing is developing
composites which can be used in the construction of the airplane fuselage. Figure 1.5
shows the use of a drilled metal-composite stack up in a Boeing 777. The metal is
Titanium and the composite is Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP).

1.9. FRP COMPOSITES IN AIR-CRAFT STRUCTURES


The use of high-performance polymer-matrix fiber composites in aircraft
structures has grown steadily. This is despite the significant weight-saving and other
advantages that these composites can provide.
The main reason for the slower-than-anticipated take-up is the high cost of aircraft
components made of composites compared with similar structures made from metal,
mainly aluminum, alloys. Other factors include the high cost of certification of new
components and their relatively low resistance to mechanical damage, low through-

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thickness strength, and (compared with titanium alloys) temperature limitations. Thus,
metals will continue to be favored for many airframe applications.
The most important polymer-matrix fiber material for Aircraft Structures is carbon
fiber-reinforced epoxy (carbon/epoxy). Although the raw material costs of this and similar
composites will continue to be relatively high, with continuing developments in materials,
design, and manufacturing technology, their advantages over metals are increasing.
However, competition will be fierce with continuing developments in structural
metals. In aluminum alloys developments include improved toughness and corrosion
resistance in conventional alloys; new lightweight alloys (such as aluminum lithium);
low-cost aerospace-grade castings; mechanical alloying (high-temperature alloys); and
super-plastic forming. For titanium, they include use of powder pre-forms, casting, and
super-plastic-forming/diffusion bonding. Advanced joining techniques such as laser and
friction welding, automated riveting techniques, and high-speed (numerically controlled)
machining also make metallic structures more affordable.

1.10. APPLICATIONS OF FRP COMPOSITES IN AIR-CRAFT


STRUCTURES [7]
The use of high-performance polymer-matrix fiber composites in aircraft
structures has grown steadily. This is despite the significant weight-saving and other
advantages that these composites can provide.
The main reason for the slower-than-anticipated take-up is the high cost of aircraft
components made of composites compared with similar structures made from metal,
mainly aluminum, alloys. Other factors include the high cost of certification of new
components and their relatively low resistance to mechanical damage, low through-
thickness strength, and (compared with titanium alloys) temperature limitations. Thus,
metals will continue to be favored for many airframe applications.
The most important polymer-matrix fiber material for Aircraft Structures is carbon
fiber-reinforced epoxy (carbon/epoxy). Although the raw material costs of this and similar
composites will continue to be relatively high, with continuing developments in materials,
design, and manufacturing technology, their advantages over metals are increasing.
However, competition will be fierce with continuing developments in structural
metals. In aluminum alloys developments include improved toughness and corrosion
resistance in conventional alloys; new lightweight alloys (such as aluminum lithium);

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low-cost aerospace-grade castings; mechanical alloying (high-temperature alloys); and
super-plastic forming. For titanium, they include use of powder pre-forms, casting, and
super-plastic-forming/diffusion bonding. Advanced joining techniques such as laser and
friction welding, automated riveting techniques, and high-speed (numerically controlled)
machining also make metallic structures more affordable.

1.11. DRIVERS FOR IMPROVED AIRFRAME MATERIALS

Weight saving through increased specific strength or stiffness is a major driver for
the development of materials for airframes. A crucial issue in changing to a new material,
even when there are clear performance benefits such as weight saving to be gained, is
affordability. This includes procurement (up front) cost (currently the main criterion) and
through life support cost (i.e., cost of ownership, including maintenance and repair).
Thus the benefits of weight savings must be balanced against the cost. In choosing
new materials for airframe applications, it is essential to ensure that there are no
compromises in the levels of safety achievable with conventional alloys. Retention of
high levels of residual strength in the presence of typical damage for the particular
material (damage tolerance) is a critical issue. Durability, the resistance to cyclic stress or
environmental degradation and damage, through the service life is also a major factor in
determining through-life support costs. The rate of damage growth and tolerance to
damage determine the frequency and cost of inspections and the need for repairs
throughout the life of the structure.

The fiber composite approach can provide significant improvements in specific


(property/density) strength and stiffness over conventional metal alloys. As summarized
in Table below, the approach is to use strong, stiff fibers to reinforce a relatively weaker,
less stiff matrix. Both the fiber and matrix can be a polymer, a metal, or a ceramic.

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1.12. DRIVERS FOR IMPROVED MATERIAL FOR AEROSPACE
APPLICATIONS

Weight Reduction

Increased range
Reduced fuel cost
Higher pay load
Increased maneuverability

Reduced Acquisition Cost


Reduced fabrication cost
Improved fly-to-buy ratio
Reduced assembly costs

Improved Performance
Smoother, more aerodynamic form
Special aero Elastic properties
Increased temperature capability
Improved damage tolerance
Reduced detestability
Reduced Through-Life Support Cost

Resistance to fatigue and corrosion


Resistance to mechanical damage

The stiffness under loading in the fiber direction (unidirectional fibers) may be
determined by the simple law of mixtures. This is simply a sum of the volume (or area)
fraction of the fibers and the matrix multiplied by the elastic modulus.
The strength estimation is similar (for a reasonably high fiber-volume fraction)
but with each elastic modulus multiplied by the breaking strain of the first-failing
component.

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In the case of carbon fiber/epoxy composites, this is generally the fiber-breaking
strain. If, however, the lowest failure strain is that of the matrix, the first failure event
may be the development of extensive matrix cracking, rather than total fracture. This
damage may or may not be defined as failure of the composite. However, toughness is
usually much more than the sum of the toughness of each of the components because it
depends also on the properties of the fiber/ matrix interface. Therefore, brittle materials
such as glass fibers and polyester resin, when combined, produce a tough, strong
composite, most familiarly known as fiberglass, used in a wide range of structural
applications.
Control of the strength of the fiber/matrix interface is of paramount importance for
toughness, particularly when both the fiber and the matrix are brittle. If the interface is
too strong, a crack in the matrix can propagate directly through fibers in its path. Thus it
is important that the interface is able to disband at a modest stress level, deflecting the
crack and thereby avoiding fiber failure. However, if the interface is too weak, the
composite will have unacceptably low transverse properties.

1.13. SUMMARY OF THE APPROACH FOR DEVELOPMENT OF A


HIGH-PERFORMANCE
Fibers

Stiff,strong,brittle,low density

High temperature capability

Able to carry major load as reinforcement

Usually continuous

Oriented for principal stresses

Polymer Matrix

Low stiffness and strength ductile or brittle

Can be polymer, metal, or ceramic

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Transmits load to and from fiber

Forms shape and protects fiber

Composite

Toughness through synergistic action (wood like)

High strength and stiffness in fiber direction, weak at angles to fiber axis

Tailor fiber directions to optimize properties

The composite structure is arranged (tailored) during manufacture of the component


with the fibers orientated in various directions in sufficient concentrations to provide the
required strength and stiffness. For in-plane loading, this is usually achieved using a
laminated or plywood type of construction consisting of layers or plies of unidirectional
or bi-directional orientated fibers.

This concept is illustrated in Figure below for an aircraft wing. Alternatively, the
fibers may be arranged by a variety of advanced textile techniques, such as weaving,
braiding, or filament winding.

Thus to obtain the desired mechanical properties, the fiber layers or plies in a
laminate are arranged at angles from 0 to 90 relative to the 0 primary loading
direction. However, certain sequence and symmetry rules must be obeyed to avoid
distortion of the component after cure or under service loading. For simplicity the plies
are most often based on combinations of 0 , 45 , and 90 orientations. The laminate is
stiffest and strongest (in-plane) in the direction with the highest concentration of 0
fibers, but it will have much reduced strength and stiffness in other directionsthe
laminate is then said to be orthotropic. When the ply configuration is made of equal
numbers of plies at 0 , 45, and 90 the in-plane mechanical properties do not vary
with loading direction and the composite is then said to be quasi-isotropic. A similar
situation arises with a 0 60 ply configuration.

The quasi-isotropic ply configuration is used when in-plane loading is bi-


directional. Because the quasi-isotropic configuration has a stress concentration factor

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(similar to that of an isotropic material), it is also used where local stresses are high, such
as in a mechanical joint. However, for most cases, the quasi-isotropic configuration is an
inefficient use of the composite material.

Fig.1.3 Tailoring of fiber directions for the applied loads


in a composite wing skin.

Composite materials made by imbedding high strength, high modulus fibers


within an essentially homogeneous matrix. Most common advanced composite materials
are Carbon fiber, Kevlar fiber and boron fiber. Carbon fiber is the most versatile of the
advanced reinforcements and is extensively used in Aircraft and Aerospace industries. An
important element in determining the material behavior is the composition of matrix
resin. The matrix classified into thermo set and thermoplastic which has unique
properties.

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The selection of composite materials for specific applications is determined by the
properties of the material, evaluated for both function and fabrication. The functional
considerations include the strength, weight, and service life. Fabrication considerations
include cure cycle (time, temperature, pressure), quantity of parts, tooling cost,
equipment, and availability of facilities.

Fig.1.4 Stress- Strain relationship of composites and aluminum

Table1.1. APPLICATIONS
1 Aerospace Wings, fuselage, readmes, antennae, tail-planes, helicopter
blades, landing gears, seats, floors, interior panels, fuel
tanks, rocket motor cases, nose cones and launch tubes.
2 Automobile Body panels, cabs, spoil consoles, instrument panels,
lamp-housings, bumpers, leaf springs, drive shafts and
gears and bearings.
3 Boats Hulls, decks, masts, engine shrouds and interior panels.
4 Chemical Pipes, tanks, pressure vessels, hoppers, valves, pumps and
impellers.
5 Domestic Interior and exterior panels, chairs, tables, baths, shower
units and ladder.
6 Electrical Electrical panels, housing, switch gear, insulators and
connectors.
7 Leisure Motor homes, trailers, protective helmets, skis, archery
bows, surfboards, fishing rods, canoes, pools, diving

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boards and playground equipment.
8 Oil exploration Off shore structures and piping.

1.14. BASIC ASSUMPTIONS


The structure is thin and combination of lamina cured and consolidated into a
single plate. The through plate thickness direct stress (z) is zero and only plane
stress (xy) exists.
The theory is point analysis in an effectively infinitely large plate and shell
completely ignoring the effects of neighboring edges and holes stiffeners, cutouts
or any discontinuity.
The loading is assumed to be in-plane membrane stress and moments resultants.

1.15. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


1.15.1. WHILE DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING OF COMPOSITE LAMINATE
i. The Plies of a laminate must be stacked symmetrically and overall balance must be
maintained to
avoid bending-stretching-torsion coupling.
ii. The adjacent to a bonded joint should be oriented with the fiber parallel or 45 to
the direction of
Loading.
Avoid grouping of 90 plies and separate them by 0 or 45 to minimize inter
laminar shear and normal stresses. Avoid grouping more than 2 plies of the same
orientation to minimize edge splitting. Exterior surface plies should be continuous.
Standard proportionate of the plies may be 0-50%, 45-20% each, 90-10%.
iii. Local beef-up thickness will increase fasteners bearing strength. Symmetry should be
maintained if
the elements are to be bonded or co-cured. The add-on or drop-off plies should not be
outside
surface and taper of the slope angel should not be more than 10. Cover all steps with
at least one
continuous outer ply to aid in load redistribution and prevent edge delimitation.
iv. Spring back i.e. Degree of variation between part and tool depends on resin,
debunking, fiber

20
orientation, thickness to be compensated while designing the tool with slightly
opened angle.
1.15.2. WHILE PREPARING DETAILED DRAWING AND LAYOUT

i. Ply identification number, and material to be shown.


ii. The symbol and notations are used to describe the plies and its orientations.
iii. Surface roughness, tolerance details based on the material and thickness can be
called. Tool side surface and process specified in the note.

1.16. STRUCTURAL MEMBERS[10]


Following are the major structural members in a typical transport Aircraft Wing.
1. Top and Bottom Skins.
2. Stringers.
3. Front and Rear Spars.
4. Ribs.
Skins are the primary structural members which take the bending. Two spars
(front and rear spar) of inverted J sectioned are running continuously between each wing
tip which is mainly for shear and three ribs are positioned with uniform spacing to
minimize skin panel buckling. Both top and bottom skins are stiffened with stringers of T
cross section so as to increase the bulking strength of the skin and also have cut outs. Web
of the spars and ribs stiffened with gussets of T cross-section. All ribs are provided with
cutouts. The construction is as shown in fig.

Top skin

Bottom skin
Spar

Fig.1.5, Typical construction of structural members

21
22
1.17. PRELIMINARY LAYOUT[7]
The overall size and shape of the Wing, Station Diagram (location of Spar, Ribs,
stringers, etc,)

23
Skin Panel

Fig .1.6, Station Diagram

24
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. STRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL FOR


AIRCRAFT PANELS WITH STRENGTH, STABILITY, AND DEFLECTION
RESTRICTIONS[10]
Ya. S. Karpo, A theoretical approach is put forward for the structural design (in
terms of the number of layers, layer thickness, and reinforcement orientation angle) for
laminated composite material of minimal weight aircraft panels with restrictions on their
strength, stability, and deflection. We deduce dependences for calculation of potential
number of uniform-strength layers in a stack, for which the strength criterion in the form
of equality is satisfied.
A problem of structural optimization for a composite made up of uniform-strength
layers is formulated and solved. The structures with reinforcement orientation angles
[0], [90], [0, 90], [], [1, 2 ], [0, ], [90, ], and [0, 90, ]
are demonstrated to be the optimal ones, depending on the load type and magnitude. We
derived the necessary and sufficient sets of equations for the determination of design
parameters. Several examples and particular loading cases are discussed.

2.2. SINGLE-LEVEL COMPOSITE WING OPTIMIZATION BASED ON


FLEXURAL LAMINATION PARAMETERS[11]
B. Liu, R.T. Haftka;
An optimization procedure based on flexural lamination parameters is used to
integrate un stiffened composite panel design and wing structural design. The lamination
parameters are constrained to a hexagonal domain when the amounts of 0, 45, and 90
plies are given.
The single-level optimization based on continuous flexural lamination parameters
for the minimization of wing weight is compared with a two-level optimization using
response surfaces of maximal buckling load for a simple wing box design example.
Reasonable agreement between the two procedures indicates that the two-level approach
leads to near-optimal designs.

25
2.3. THE MULTI-DISCIPLINARY DESIGN OF A LARGE-SCALE CIVIL
AIRCRAFT WING TAKING ACCOUNT OF MANUFACTURING COSTS[12]
K. Gantois, A.J. Morris, This paper presents results from a major research
programmer funded by the European Union and involving 14 partners from across the
Union. It shows how a complex tool set was assembled which was able to optimize a
large civil airliner wing for weight, drag and cost. A multi-level MDO process was
constructed and implemented through a hierarchical system in which cost comprised the
top level. Conventional structural sizing parameters were employed to optimize structural
weight but the upper-level optimization used 6 overall design variables representing
major design parameters. The paper concludes by presenting results from a case study
which included all the components of the total design system.

2.4. MAXIMIZATION OF BUCKLING LOADS OF COMPOSITE PANELS


USING FLEXURAL LAMINATION PARAMETERS[13]
B. Liu, R.T. Haftka, P. Trompette, non stiffened composite panels are optimized
by using flexural lamination parameters as continuous design variables for the case in
which the amounts of 0, 45, and 90 plies are given. It is shown that for this case, the
lamination parameters are located in a hexagonal domain. Continuous optimization is
compared with genetic optimization for the stacking sequence that accounts for the
discreteness of the design space and constraints on the number of contiguous plies of the
same orientation.
It is shown that only for very thin panels with low aspect ratios is there a
significant difference between the continuous and discrete solutions.

2.5. DESIGN, ANALYSIS, MANUFACTURE AND TEST OF SHALLOW WATER


PRESSURE VESSELS USING E-GLASS/EPOXY WOVEN COMPOSITE
MATERIAL FOR A SEMI- AUTONOMOUS UNDER WATER VEHICLE[14]

R. K.H. Ng, A. Yousefpour, M. Uyema, M. N. Ghasemi Nejhad;

Six E-glass/Epoxy shallow water composite pressure vessels with effective length of
45.72 cm and inner diameter of 33.02 cm were designed, analyzed, manufactured, and
tested for an external hydrostatic design pressure of 1.14 MPa that corresponds to a depth

26
of 91m in ocean. Composite pressure vessels were designed as composite cylinders
fabricated by roll-wrapping and enclosed by two flat plug-supported end-caps due to their
ease of manufacturing and cost-effectiveness. The plug-supported end-caps had a
combination of tapered contour and initial radial clearance to account for bending and
shear stresses in composite cylinders at the end-cap locations. Buckling and stress finite
element analyses were performed for the design of the pressure vessels. An eigenvalue
buckling analysis was performed to determine a bifurcation buckling pressure (2.51MPa)
and a modal shape of the structure for a wall-thickness of 7.72 mm based on 32 layers of
0.2413 mm thick each. These results were then used to perform a nonlinear buckling
analysis. The nonlinear buckling pressure was determined to be 1.42 MPa yielding a
buckling pressure factor of safety of 1.25. Stress analysis was performed to investigate
the stress response of the structure with the wall-thickness of 7.72 mm under the design
pressure. Maximum stress and strain criteria were used and stress and strain factor of
safety of 11.95 and 17.17 were achieved, respectively. The composite pressure vessels
were made of plain weave E-glass/Epoxy fabric. A comparative study of various materials
property modeling for woven materials was performed and reported in this work. The
three-dimensional Crimp model was explained and employed in this investigation to
model the effective properties of a woven composite material, and the results were
compared with other existing models. In addition, general guidelines to model the
effective properties of woven hybrid materials are also provided. Tube roll-wrapping with
wet-laying technique was used to fabricate the pressure vessels. This technique consisted
of several steps, namely set-up preparation, fabric impregnation, fabric rolling, shrink
taping, curing and cooling, and post-processing. The total time of manufacturing was 7 h
for each pressure vessel. The final products needed minor machining. The final total
length, inner diameter, and thickness of the manufactured pressure vessels were 49.53 cm,
33.02 cm, and 8.23 mm, based on 32 cured layers, respectively. An average fiber volume
fraction of 55% and an average porosity content of 5% was achieved. The fiber waviness
due to the fiber migration during the manufacturing under the cylinder compaction was in
the order of the waviness of the woven material due to its weave undulation. End-caps
were designed using Aluminum 6061-T6 employing Von Mises criterion. The end-caps
have seven holes, which are used to place the connectors and a vacuum bolt. The stress
factor of safety of 4.2 was achieved for the end-caps. Aluminum 6061-T6 end-caps with
2.9 cm thickness were fabricated. An axial washer and two radial O-rings were used to
seal the pressure vessel/end-caps interfaces. The pressure vessels and end-caps were

27
assembled using six tie-rods. Six pressure vessels were tested at the external hydrostatic
design pressure of 1.14 MPa inside a high-pressure water-filled chamber. The pressure
vessels were intact and no leakage was observed. The pressure vessels were strain gauged
during the testing to compare the experimental and finite element analysis results of axial
and hoop strains at the mid-length as well as the vicinity of the end-caps for composite
cylinders, and excellent agreements were achieved.

2.6. STRESS ANALYSIS OF LAMINATED E-GLASS EPOXY COMPOSITE


PLATES SUBJECT TO IMPACT DYNAMIC LOADING[15]

W. J. Liou, C. I. Tseng and L. P. Chao;

The transient response of an E-glass epoxy laminated composite plate impacted by a steel
circular cylinder is analyzed. The analysis is performed by using a three-dimensional
hybrid stress finite element program. The contact force between the projectile and the
laminated plate is modeled by the Hertzian impact law. The predicted transverse
deflection at the center of the laminated plate agrees with the deflection determined
experimentally. The effects of projectile velocity and thickness of the laminated plate on
the impacted stress distributions and the central transverse deflection are also
investigated.

Analysis of laminated E-glass epoxy composite plates subject to impact dynamic loading
W.J.
Lion, C.I.Tseng Department of Mechanical Engineering, Feng-Chia University, Taichung,
Taiwan, R.O.C. ABSTRACT The transient response of an E-glass epoxy laminated
composite plate impacted by a steel circular cylinder is analyzed. The analysis is
performed by using a three dimensional hybrid stress finite element program. The contact
force between the projectile and the laminated plate is modeled by the Hertzian impact
law. The transverse deflection at the center of the laminated plate agrees with the
deflection determined experimentally. The displacement and stress distributions are
plotted as a function of time to show the transient response of the laminated plate when
impacted by a projectile.

28
CHAPTER 3
PROPERTIES

3.1. GENERAL PROPERTIES OF FRP COMPOSITES[4]

Mechanical properties characterize the strength, stiffness, toughness, and other


load-carrying capabilities of materials. Typical tests used to characterize mechanical
properties of FRP composites include tensile, flexure (bending), compression, and impact
properties. Test methods for determining these properties are described in Appendix A.
Cured, neat or unreinforced, resins are glasslike in
nature and most are relatively brittle. The addition of reinforcing fiber dramatically
improves the mechanical properties. The use of reinforcing fiber also allows FRP
composites to be anisotropic. This means that they can be engineered to have different
properties in different directions. The mechanical properties of steel, aluminum, and other
structural materials are isotropic or have the same properties in all directions. The
anisotropy of composites is achieved by selective
orientation of reinforcing fibers. When the fibers are oriented in the direction of known
stresses, the strength of the reinforcement is used more efficiently, and better performance
is achieved at a lighter weight. For instance, less roving reinforcement, oriented parallel
to a tensile load, is needed to carry the load than if a mat with random fibers were used.
However, the mat may be more efficient in an application where the loads are more
random. Another way to illustrate the anisotropy and design flexibility of composites is to
look at properties of various product forms. A rod made of parallel glass roving strands
can have a tensile strength of 150,000 psi, whereas a spray up laminate (made of
randomly oriented, chopped glass fibers) may have a tensile strength of 15,000 psi. A
combination mat and woven laminate will have tensile and flexural strengths from 30,000
to 50,000 psi.
Another difference between composites and other construction materials such as
steel and aluminum is how they react to an impact. When a steel or aluminum panel is
impacted at low forces no change occurs. Impacts at higher forces may cause a dent. If
the impact force is high enough, the impact may rupture the panel. FRP panels, when
impacted, will show no change at low forces, cracking at higher forces, and rupture if the

29
force is high enough. FPR has no yield point and as a result does not dent. Mineral fillers
are used in some FRP applications to
lower cost. Fillers increase the stiffness of FRP but decrease strength. Temperature also
affects mechanical properties. Like most materials, FRP becomes more brittle in colder
temperatures and more flexible in warmer temperatures. Thermal performance of FRP is
discussed in more detail below.

Table No.3.1 Mechanical Properties of FRP

3.1.1. HARDNESS

Hardness of an FRP laminate is an indication of the type of resin matrix and/or the
extent of cure of the resin matrix. More rigid resins will give higher BARCO readings,
while resilient and flexible resins will give lower readings. The hardness of a resin matrix
increases as it cures. When the resin reaches its maximum hardness value it is completely
cured and its properties are fully developed. Hardness can be measured using a variety of
impressers. The most common are the Shore D, BARCO 935, and BARCO 934. These
impressers are simple handheld devices that use a needle and spring assembly to register a
reading on a dial gauge. For FRP, Shore D and BARCO 935 impressers are used for softer
materials or during the early stages of cure. The BARCO 934 impresser is used for
advanced cure stages as well as fully cured materials. For typical FRP construction, a
BARCO 934 Impresser should show a reading of 35 to 45 when the resin matrix has
cured. Hardness of gel coat films of typical thicknesses cannot be measured using these
types of impressers. The needle fully penetrates the film and will read the hardness of the
substrate beneath.

30
3.1.2. SPECIFIC GRAVITY
The specific gravity or relative density of unfilled, FRP is low in relation to other
structural materials. At typical resin-to-glass ratios the specific gravity of FRP is
approximately 1.7. For comparison the specific gravity of aluminum is approximately 2.8
and steel is approximately 8.0. The low specific gravity coupled with the design
flexibility of mechanical properties described above results in an extremely high strength-
to-weight ratio for FRP. Strength-to-weight ratio is a significant factor in weight sensitive
applications such as aerospace and transportation.
The use of fillers in FRP affects the specific gravity. Most commonly used fillers
(calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, alumina tri hydrate) and clays increase the specific
gravity. However, light-weight fillers, such as hollow glass microspheres, are available
that can lower the specific gravity of FRP.

3.1.3. THERMAL PERFORMANCE

FRP components are used in a number of elevated temperature applications,


including under the hood applications in the transportation industry as well as numerous
applications in the corrosion and electronic industries. The thermal performance of these
components is largely determined by the polymer matrix, both the type of resin matrix
and the component cure process. Isoph-thalic resins and most vinyl ester resins have
excellent thermal performance. Orthophthalic resins generally have poor thermal
performance. The same polymer matrix resin cured at different temperatures can have
different thermal performance, with the material cured at lower temperatures having
lower thermal performance. This is true until the maximum thermal performance of the
polymer is reached. Curing the polymer above the temperature at which the maximum
thermal performance is reached will not result in any additional increase in performance.
The limitation on use of FRP in structural applications at elevated temperatures is loss of
modulus or stiffness. This loss of stiffness is typically gradual at lower temperatures until
the resin matrix polymer reaches a point where it transitions from a glassy to a rubbery
state. This transition is called the glass transition temperature, Tg. Typically composites
are not used in structural or load-carrying applications where the part will see extended
exposure above the resin matrix Tg. However, composites are used above their Tg in
electrical or corrosion applications. Even for nonstructural applications the Tg or thermal
performance of the polymer can be an important factor. A part that has been exposed to

31
temperatures above its Tg can have diminished cosmetic appeal due to distortion, print,
and other factors. Depending on the type of polymer matrix used, this can occur in dark-
colored parts that are in the exposed to sunlight. Tg can be measured by various methods.
Two common methods are Differential Scanning Calorimetery (DSC) and Dynamic
Mechanical Analysis (DMA). DSC is a chemical measure of Tg. DSC measures Tg by
detecting energy absorption. A polymer needs to absorb energy to go through its glass
transition just as ice needs to absorb energy to melt into water. DMA is a physical
measure of Tg with the modulus of a sample being measured versus temperature. The Tg
is determined based on a significant loss of modulus or stiffness. In both DSC and DMA,
the transition of the polymer from glassy to rubbery occurs over a range of temperatures.
The Tg can be defined as the onset, midpoint or end of the transition. The most applicable
measure depends upon how the data will be used. However, for Tg results to be
comparable, they must all be defined using the same criteria. Another measure of thermal
performance that is commonly used in the FRP industry is the heat distortion temperature,
HDT. HDT is defined by ASTM D648. It is the temperature at which a sample deflects,
0.10 in. (0.25 mm) under a load of 0.264 psi. HDT can be run on neat resin or composites
samples. The sample must be 0.5 inches wide by 4 inches long. Thickness of the sample
can vary between 0.125 to 0.5 inches. HDT cannot be determined for most reinforced
laminates since they do not reach the required deflection at a temperature within the safe
operation range for the test equipment. While Tg and HDT are indicators of FRP use
temperatures, another consideration is the effect of long term elevated temperature
exposure. Long-term elevated temperature exposure can cause the polymer resin matrix to
oxidize, making the resin matrix increasingly brittle. This a concern in any application
involving long-term elevated temperature exposure, but particularly in electrical
applications where impact resistance or flexibility are required in addition to insulating
properties. The long-term elevated temperature performance of FRP is evaluated by
thermal aging studies. In these studies FRP samples are exposed to a range of elevated
temperatures for varying intervals. Critical properties are then tested. These results
indicate whether the FRP sample is appropriate for use at the temperature and for the
duration required for the application. Two additional properties that are important for
characterization of FRP thermal performance are the coefficient of thermal expansion
(CTE) and thermal conductivity. CTE is a measure of the dimensional stability of
materials versus temperature changes. Most materials expand when heated and contract
when cooled. An understanding of CTE is needed by parts designers to ensure that a part

32
will fit in its assembly over the application temperature range. CTE is also an important
consideration when dissimilar materials are used in the same part or mated together in
assembly. Stresses created by differing expansion and contraction rates should be
minimized. Mold designers need CTE information to ensure that parts built on the molds
will have the required dimensions. Thermal conductivity is a measure of how rapidly heat
is transferred into or out of a material. Thermal conductivity of FRP is low compared to
metallic materials, making FRP suitable for insulating applications. The relatively low
thermal conductivity of FRP also makes the surface pleasing to the touch in hot or cold
ambient conditions. Both CTE and thermal conductivity of FRP vary depending on
temperature, filler and reinforcement content, and reinforcement orientation. The obvious
effect of temperature on CTE is that materials contract in cold temperatures and expand at
warm temperatures. CTE and thermal conductivity behavior can also be significantly
different, depending on whether the temperature is above or below the resin matrix Tg.
The addition of filler and reinforcement generally reduces the CTE. This is especially true
in dimensions in-plane or parallel to the reinforcement. The effect of reinforcement on
CTE is much less in the dimension perpendicular to the reinforcement, which is generally
through the thickness of the FRP part.

3.1.4. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

FRP components are used in many applications requiring chemical resistance.


These include tanks, processing vessels, pipes, fans, pollution control equipment, and
scrubbers. The chemical resistance of FRP components is influenced by both the resin
matrix and the reinforcement. Polyester and vinyl ester resins resist chemical degradation
to varying degrees. Iso-phthalic based resins have better chemical resistance than ortho-
phthalic resins. Vinyl ester resins are typically even better than isophthalics. FRP
components produced with isophthalic and vinyl esters have good chemical resistance to
weak caustics, strong acids, and non-polar solvents. Strong caustics, polar solvents such
as ketones (acetone), and those having chlorine (carbon tetrachloride and chloroform)
rapidly attack FRP. These chemicals either react chemically with the polymers or swell
the layers of the polymers to the point where they mechanically break (blisters). Use of
glass fiber reinforcement generally does not improve corrosion resistance and, in some
cases, reduces the performance. This is especially true in strong caustic environments
because these chemicals can attack and dissolve the glass. Surfacing materials such as

33
veils are available to enhance FRP part corrosion resistance. The suitability of an FRP
component for use in a specific corrosion application depends on the type of chemical to
which the component will be exposed, the exposure temperature, and the exposure
duration. Resin matrix suppliers provide a corrosion guide with specific recommendations
based on these factors for their products. Typically, testing material sample coupons in the
actual environment and conditions is the best method for choosing which resin will have
the best longer performance.

3.1.5. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES

FRP components generally have excellent electrical properties and are used in a
wide range of electrical applications. Electrical properties of FRP components are
affected by the type of resin matrix, filler type and content, and glass content. Many
electrical applications also require elevated temperature performance so the same types of
resins used in thermal applications are used in electrical applications. These include
isopthalics and vinyl esters. Dicyclopentiadiene resins are also used in electrical
applications. A unique property of FRP is that it is electrically transparent. This is
particularly useful in the manufacture of random, Doppler systems, etc. FRP can be made
to be electrically conductive through the use of
special fillers.

3.1.6. FIRE RESISTANCE

FRP components are used in many applications requiring fire resistance. The
construction, transportation and consumer goods markets generally require some
resistance to burning and have limitations on smoke generation and smoke toxicity. FRP
components can meet many of these requirements. Some standards can be met by using
typical FRP resins and reinforcements, but with filler, usually alumina tri hydrate. Other
standards require the use of specialized FR resins. These resins typically contain a
halogen such as bromine. The fire resistance of FRP can be improved even further
through the use of additives such as antimony oxide.

34
3.1.7. OPTICAL PROPERTIES

Most general purpose polyester fiberglass laminates are translucent, although up


to 90 percent light transmission can be achieved in a 1/16 inch to 1/8 inch FRP laminate
through the use of special resins and mat. Opaque laminates can be made by
incorporating pigments and fillers in the resin. Color can be molded into the product so
that painting is unnecessary.

3.1.8. WEATHERING PROPERTIES

The outdoor weathering properties of FRP are generally good. However, there is a
certain susceptibility to ultraviolet rays which require that ultra-violet absorber be
specified for translucent laminates. Normally, UV absorbers are not required for gel coat
because the pigments and fillers act as absorbers. In addition, all exposed laminates
should either have a gel coat or a glass surfacing mat specified for the exposed surfaces to
prevent fiber blooming or surface exposure of the fibers.

3.1.9. POLYESTER SHRINKAGE

All FRP resin matrices shrink to varying degrees during cure. Reinforcements and
fillers are inert and do not shrink. Shrinkage is an important consideration for mold
building and must be accounted for to ensure that parts will have the correct dimensions.
(For more information on shrinkage and mold building see Part Eight Polyester Tooling.)
Shrinkage of the resin matrix can also affect part cosmetics. Shrinkage of the resin matrix
around fiber reinforcement can result in fiber print on the surface of the part. Shrinkage
can also lead to part distortion.
The level of shrinkage of the overall FRP part depends on the type of resin matrix,
cure process, the level of fillers and reinforcements, and reinforcement orientation. FRP
resin matrices shrink approximately 6 to 9% by volume. Flexible resins generally shrink
less than rigid resins. DCPD resins, although typically brittle, shrink less than isophthalic
or vinyl ester resins.
Some specialized resins, mainly used in tooling applications, have a low profile
additive that reduces or eliminates shrinkage. The shrinkage of FRP resin matrices also
depends on the cure process and, specifically, the cure temperature. A resin cured in

35
ambient conditions will not shrink as much as a resin cured at elevated temperature. The
addition of filler and reinforcement to a resin matrix will reduce shrinkage. For
reinforcement the shrinkage is less parallel to the reinforcement than perpendicular to the
reinforcement.

GRAPHENE :

Graphene is an allotrope of carbon in the form of a two-dimensional, atomic-scale,


hexagonal lattice in which one atom forms each vertex. It is the basic structural element
of other allotropes, including graphite, charcoal, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. It can
be considered as an indefinitely large aromatic molecule, the ultimate case of the family
of flat polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

GRAPHENE PROPERTIES :

Mechanical

The carboncarbon bond length in graphene is about 0.142 nanometers. Graphene sheets
stack to form graphite with an interplanar spacing of 0.335 nm

Graphene is the strongest material ever tested, with an intrinsic tensile strength of 130
GPa and a Young's modulus (stiffness) of 1 TPa (150000000 psi). The Nobel
announcement illustrated this by saying that a 1 square meter graphene hammock would
support a 4 kg cat but would weigh only as much as one of the cat's whiskers, at 0.77 mg
(about 0.001% of the weight of 1 m2 of paper).

Large-angle-bent graphene monolayer has been achieved with negligible strain, showing
mechanical robustness of the two-dimensional carbon nanostructure. Even with extreme
deformation, excellent carrier mobility in monolayer graphene can be preserved.

The spring constant of suspended graphene sheets has been measured using an atomic
force microscope (AFM). Graphene sheets were suspended over SiO
2 cavities where an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip was used to apply a stress to the
sheet to test its mechanical properties. Its spring constant was in the range 15 N/m and
the stiffness was 0.5 TPa, which differs from that of bulk graphite. These intrinsic
properties could lead to applications such as NEMS as pressure sensors and resonators.

36
Due to its large surface energy and out of plane ductility, flat graphene sheets are
unstable with respect to scrolling, i.e. bending into a cylindrical shape, which is its lower-
energy state.

As is true of all materials, regions of graphene are subject to thermal and quantum
fluctuations in relative displacement. Although the amplitude of these fluctuations is
bounded in 3D structures (even in the limit of infinite size), the MerminWagner theorem
shows that the amplitude of long-wavelength fluctuations grows logarithmically with the
scale of a 2D structure and would therefore be unbounded in structures of infinite size.

Local deformation and elastic strain are negligibly affected by this long-range divergence
in relative displacement. It is believed that a sufficiently large 2D structure, in the absence
of applied lateral tension, will bend and crumple to form a fluctuating 3D structure.
Researchers have observed ripples in suspended layers of graphene. It has been proposed
that the ripples are caused by thermal fluctuations in the material. As a consequence of
these dynamical deformations, it is debatable whether graphene is truly a 2D structure. It
has recently been shown that these ripples, if amplified through the introduction of
vacancy defects, can impart a negative Poisson's ratio into graphene, resulting in the
thinnest auxetic material known.

Graphene nanosheets can be incorporated into a nickel matrix through a plating process to
form Ni-graphene composites on a target substrate. The enhancement in mechanical
properties of the composites is attributed to the high interaction between Ni and graphene
and the prevention of the dislocation sliding in the Ni matrix by the graphene.

Fracture toughness

In 2014, researchers indicated that despite its strength, graphene is also relatively brittle,
with a fracture toughness of about 4 MPam. This indicates that imperfect graphene is
likely to crack in a brittle manner like ceramic materials, as opposed to many metallic
materials that have fracture toughnesses in the range of 1550 MPam. Later in 2014, the
researchers announced that graphene showed a greater ability to distribute force from an
impact than any known material, ten times that of steel per unit weight. The force was
transmitted at 22.2 kilometres per second (13.8 mi/s).

Spin transport

Graphene is claimed to be an ideal material for spintronics due to its small spin-orbit
interaction and the near absence of nuclear magnetic moments in carbon (as well as a
weak hyperfine interaction). Electrical spin current injection and detection has been
demonstrated up to room temperature. Spin coherence length above 1 micrometre at room
temperature was observed, and control of the spin current polarity with an electrical gate
was observed at low temperature

37
Strong magnetic fields

These observations with indicate that the four-fold degeneracy (two valley and two spin
degrees of freedom) of the Landau energy levels is partially or completely lifted. One
hypothesis is that the magnetic catalysis of symmetry breaking is responsible for lifting
the degeneracy

Spintronic and magnetic properties can be present in graphene simultaneously. Low-


defect graphene nanomeshes manufactured using a non-lithographic method exhibit large-
amplitude ferromagnetism even at room temperature. Additionally a spin pumping effect
is found for fields applied in parallel with the planes of few-layer ferromagnetic
nanomeshes, while a magnetoresistance hysteresis loop is observed under perpendicular
fields.

3.2. Manufacturing of Composites[16]

Wet/Hand Lay-up

Fig: 3.2 Wet/Hand Lay-up


Description:

The hand layup is one of the oldest and most commonly used methods for manufacture of
composite parts. Hand layup composites are a case of continuous fiber reinforced
composites. Layers of unidirectional or woven composites are combined to result in a

38
material exhibiting desirable properties in one or more directions. Each layer is oriented
to achieve maximum utilization of its properties. Layers of different materials (different
fibers in different directions) combined to further enhance the over all performance of the
laminated composite materials.Resins are impregnated by hand into fibers which are in
the form of woven, knitted, stitched or bonded fabrics. This is usually accomplished by
rollers or brushes, with an increasing use of nip-roller type impregnators for forcing resin
into the fabrics by means of rotating rollers and a bath of resin. Laminates are left to cure
under standard atmospheric conditions.

Materials Options:

Resins: Any, e.g. epoxy, polyester, vinyl ester, phenol


Fibers: Any, although heavy aramid fabrics can be hard to wet-out by hand.
Cores: Any.

Typical Applications:
Standard wind-turbine blades, production boats, architectural moldings.

3.3. APPLICATION OF FRP COMPOSITES

ConstructionBathtubs, shower stalls and floors, hot tubs, spas, vanities and sinks,
pipes, building panels, portable buildings, swimming pools, floor grating, doors, satellite
dishes
MarineSki boats, fishing boats, sail boats, yachts, personal water craft, canoes,
kayaks, docks.
CorrosionTanks, processing vessels, pipes, fans, pollution control equipment,
scrubbers.
TransportationAutomobile body panels and structural components, truck hoods
and caps, trailer sidewalls, RV sidewalls, train seating.
ConsumerSporting goods, hobby castings, decorative art, insulating boards.

39
CHAPTER 4
EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS[8]
4.1 TENSILE TEST
The tensile test is used to measure the yield strength and the ultimate strength. In
this test the ends of the test piece are fixed into the grips connected to a straining device
and to a load measuring device. If the applied load is small enough the deformation of
any solid body is entirely elastic. An elastically deformed solid body will return to its
original form as soon as load is removed. If the load is large, the material can be
deformed permanently. The initial part of the tension curve is termed as elastic (which is
removable immediately after unloading).The curve which represents the manner in which
the material undergoes plastic deformation is termed as plastic.
The stress below which the deformation is entirely elastic is known as the yield point.
However, some materials do not exhibit a sharp yield point. During plastic deformation,
at larger extensions, strain hardening cannot compensate for the decrease in section. At
this stage the ultimate strength which is defined as the ratio of load on specimen to
original cross sectional area reaches maximum value. Further loading will eventually
cause rupture.
Specimen used for the testing is 300*300*6(Dimensions are in mm) plate.
Specimen is loaded at two ends using hook joints.
Specimen is fractured at the load of 800 kg.
Yield strength of specimen is 54.5 Mpa

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Fig 4.1 Tensile test
COMPRESSION TEST :

Compressive strength or compression strength is the capacity of a material or structure


to withstand loads tending to reduce size, as opposed to tensile strength, which withstands
loads tending to elongate. In other words, compressive strength resists compression
(being pushed together), whereas tensile strength resists tension (being pulled apart). In
the study of strength of materials, tensile strength, compressive strength, and shear
strength can be analyzed independently.

Some materials fracture at their compressive strength limit; others deform irreversibly, so
a given amount of deformation may be considered as the limit for compressive load.
Compressive strength is a key value for design of structures..

When a specimen of material is loaded in such a way that it extends it is said to be in


tension. On the other hand, if the material compresses and shortens it is said to be in
compression.

On an atomic level, the molecules or atoms are forced apart when in tension whereas in
compression they are forced together. Since atoms in solids always try to find an
equilibrium position, and distance between other atoms, forces arise throughout the entire
material which oppose both tension or compression. The phenomena prevailing on an
atomic level are therefore similar.

The "strain" is the relative change in length under applied stress; positive strain
characterises an object under tension load which tends to lengthen it, and a compressive
stress that shortens an object gives negative strain. Tension tends to pull small sideways
deflections back into alignment, while compression tends to amplify such deflection into
buckling.

By definition, the ultimate compressive strength of a material is that value of uniaxial


compressive stress reached when the material fails completely. The compressive strength
is usually obtained experimentally by means of a compressive test. The apparatus used for

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this experiment is the same as that used in a tensile test. However, rather than applying a
uniaxial tensile load, a uniaxial compressive load is applied. As can be imagined, the
specimen (usually cylindrical) is shortened as well as spread laterally. A stressstrain
curve is plotted by the instrument and would look similar to the following:

True Stress-Strain curve for a typical specimen


The compressive strength of the material would correspond to the stress at the red point
shown on the curve. In a compression test, there is a linear region where the material
follows Hooke's Law. Hence for this region where this time E refers to the Young's
Modulus for compression. In this region, the material deforms elastically and returns to
its original length when the stress is removed.

This linear region terminates at what is known as the yield point. Above this point the
material behaves plastically and will not return to its original length once the load is
removed.

There is a difference between the engineering stress and the true stress. By its basic
definition the uniaxial stress is given by:

The compressive strength would therefore correspond to the point on the engineering
stress strain curve defined by where F* = load applied just before crushing and l* =
specimen length just before crushing.

4.3. TEST RESULTS

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1. Tensile Test

Panel Type Tensile Strength Youngs modulus

GPa GPa

Glass 0.228 18.312

Table 4.1: Result of tensile test

The things which are highlighted by tensile test are as follows:

Tensile test on different specimens is influenced by the strength and modulus of the
fibers.

2. Compressive Test

Panel Type Compressive Shear modulus


Strength

GPa GPa

Glass 0.500 4.14

Table 4.2: Result of Compressive test

The things which are highlighted by tensile test are as follows:

Compressive test on different specimens is influenced by the strength and modulus of


the fibers.

5.1. Comparison Results of Stress Analysis for different


applying loads

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Stress
Deformation
Stress (GPa) intensity
Load (mm )
(GPa)
(N)
X Y X Y
8000 0.000650 0.001294 0.180 0.181 0.210
9000 0.000730 0.001456 0.203 0.204 0.236
10000 0.000817 0.001617 0.226 0.226 0.263
11000 0.000899 0.001779 0.248 0.249 0.289
12000 0.000980 0.001941 0.271 0.272 0.315

CONCLUSION (for 8000N)


By comparing Tensile stress Results of both Experimental and Structural Analysis,
we can determine the efficiency as follows.
ANALSIS TENSILE STRESS EFFICIENCY
EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS 0.228 GPa
STRUCTYRAL ANALYSIS 0.228 GPa
92%

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CHAPTER 7

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

7.1. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS


. The tensile test, hardness test, impact test & flexural test were carried out for
Epoxy Glass woven fiber and compared with the graphite and unidirectional fiber. From
the table below is clear that the tensile, compressive strength and hardness of the
materials are greater than other fibers.
7.1. COMPARISION OF PROPERTIES WITH OTHER COMPOSITES

PROPERTY GRAPHITE UNIDIRECTIONAL GLASS EPOXY


FIBRE FIBRE WOVEN FIBRE
Elastic Modulus (GPa) 10-15 30-40 18.3
Tensile Strength (MPa) 40-60 150-200 228
Compressive Strength 110-200 150-200 500
(MPa)
Hardness (HRB) 30-35 30-35 37.6
Impact strength(N/mm) 120 130 141.3
Flexural 300 340 368.6
Strength(N/mm2)
Corrosion Resistance Very Low Poor Better than
Unidirectional Fiber

Hence comparing with graphite fiber and unidirectional fiber we have attained a better
value in all the material properties for epoxy glass fiber. So our woven epoxy glass fiber
is a well suitable component to be used in wings, fuselage, landing gears, seats, fuel
tanks, helicopter blades and launch tubes. The use of E-Glass as the reinforcement
material in polymer matrix composites is extremely common. Optimal strength properties
are gained when straight, continuous fibers are aligned parallel in a single direction. To
promote strength in other directions, laminate structures can be constructed with
continuous fibers aligned in other directions.

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7.2. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
In the structural analysis, we have conducted the deformation and stress
analysis through ANSYS and compared with experimental analysis and calculated the
efficiency.

CONCLUSION(for 8000N)
By comparing Tensile stress Results of both Experimental and Structural Analysis;
we can determine the efficiency as follows.

ANALSIS TENSILE STRESS EFFICIENCY


EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS 0.228 GPa
STRUCTYRAL ANALYSIS 0.228 GPa
92%

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