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# LAB 2 FINITE ELEMENT APPLICATIONS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

(2 HOURS)

CES 512/513

## STEEL TRUSS STRUCTURE ANALYSIS INVESTIGATION UNDER SELF WEIGHT AND

LEARNING OUTCOMES

## At the end of this laboratory session, student should be able to:

a) Create the geometry of the given civil engineering problem using LUSAS software
(CO2:PO9)
b) Use proper element type and meshing number on the created geometry (CO2:PO9)
c) Assign member section on the elements (CO2:PO9)
d) Assign appropriate loadings and boundary conditions on the elements and boundary
(CO2:PO9)
e) Execute analysis using LUSAS solver (CO2:PO9)
f) View the deformed shape and display the numerical displacement of the geometry
(CO2:PO9)
g) Display the internal member forces and its value (CO2:PO9)
h) Handle multiple load combination analysis of the problem using LUSAS (CO2:PO9)

OBJECTIVES

## In this laboratory exercise, the objectives of the activity are as follows;

a) To model a 2D steel structural frame structure using LUSAS
b) To analyse and investigate the effect of self-weight and other loads on the frame
responses using LUSAS
c) To interpret the numerical values of the frame response

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The roof is possibly the most vital part of any building which is very important aspect of peoples
everyday life in this modern world. The roof structure protects the house owner and all valuable
possessions from the outside world and its different elements by the engineered roof truss and
structural frame. Roof trusses form the stability and core for a roof of a home or commercial
building.

Therefore, the strength and stability of the roof truss structure should be analysed and
investigated
by the engineers to satisfy the limit state design requirement and the human comfort perception
of
thethis
In structure.
laboratory, a two-dimensional truss structure will be studied using LUSAS to investigate the
structural response.
2.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT

## A 2D frame is fixed at both supports by steel plates connection is required to construct by a

client.

All members are made of mild steel with a Young's modulus of 210x 10 6 Pa, a Poisson's Ratio
of 0.3 and a mass density of 7860 kg/m3 . The structural column is constructed from 127 x 76
x 131 kgUB section and the truss members are from 70 x 70 x 6 EA section. The structure is
subjected to two loads; the self-weight of the structure, and a sway load at the top of the left-
hand column.
You are required to conduct investigation on the given structure based on the given Load
combination 1 and 2

## The units of the analysis are N, m, kg, s, C throughout.

3.0 PROCEDURE

Modelling the
Geometry

Creating a New
Model
File > New to start a new model file. Modeller will prompt for any unsaved data and
display the New model dialog.

## Enter the file name as frame_2D

Use the User define working folder and choose your pen drive

## Set the units to be N,m,kg,s,C

Select the startup template Standard from those available in the drop down list.

## Select the Vertical Y axis option and OK button.

Feature Geometry

Enter coordinates of (0, 0), (0, 3), (4, 3) and (4, 4) to define the main setting-out
points
for one-half of the portal frame. Use the Tab key to move to the next entry field on the
dialog with all the coordinates entered click the OK button.

Select the Points on the left-hand side of the model. Connect the selected Points with
a Line representing the left-hand column of the portal frame.
Create the horizontal member by selecting the appropriate Points and define a Line in
a similar manner.

Select the Points at the top of the left hand column and the apex of the roof. Connect
the selected Points with a Line representing the sloping member of the frame
Select the 2 Lines shown (Hold down the Shift key to add the second Line to the initial
selection). Enter the number of divisions for both Lines as 2. Ensure that Delete
original
lines after splitting is set so that the original Lines are deleted and click the OK
button.
Drag a box around the 2 Points just created. Create the Line representing the internal
member.

Meshing/Discretisatio
n
The Line features are to be meshed using two-dimensional beam elements.

Select Thick beam, 2 dimensional, linear elements. Set the number of divisions to be
1. Enter the attribute name as Thick Beam then click OK
Select the whole model. (Ctrl and A keys together). Drag and drop the mesh attribute
Thick Beam from the selected model Lines.

Material
Properties
Select material Mild Steel from the drop-down list, leave the units as N,m,kg,s,C and
click OK to add the material attribute to the Treeview.
With the whole model selected (Ctrl and A keys together) drag and drop the material
attribute Mild Steel Ungraded (N,m,kg,s,C) from the Treeview onto the selected
features.

Geometric Properties

## The standard sections dialog will appear.

Select section type Universal Beams (BS4). Select section name 127x76x13kg UB. In
the Usage section select 2D Frame. In the Rotation section ensure 0 degrees is
selected. Click the Apply button to add the Universal Beam attribute to the Treeview.
Change the section type in the Type drop-down list to Equal Angles (BS4848) and
select the 70x70x6 EA section name. Click the OK button to add the Equal Angle
attribute to the Treeview.

## Drag a box around the Lines representing the roof members.

Drag a box around the Lines representing the roof members. Drag and drop
the
geometry attribute 70x70x6 EA from the Treeview onto the selected Lines.
Select the Line representing the left-hand vertical member. Drag and drop the
geometry attribute 127x76x13kg UB (m) from the Treeview onto the selected Line.
Supports

Select the Point at the bottom of the left-hand vertical member. Drag and drop the
support attribute fully fixed from the Treeview onto the selected feature. Ensure the
Assign to points and All loadcases options are selected and click OK.

Mirroring the
Model
One half of the 2D frame has now been generated. This half can now be mirrored to
create the complete frame. The first step in the process is to define the mirror plane.
Select the 2 points on the right-hand side of the model that define the axis about
which
the frame will be mirrored.

Set the point in the memory by using Edit-> Selection Memory-> Set
Select the whole model (Ctrl and A keys together). Select mirror from Point 3 and
Point 4 from the drop down list and click the Use button on the dialog. This will use the
points stored in memory to create the mirror plane. Click the OK button to create the
full model.
Clear the memory by using Edit-> Selection memory-> Clear
Layers Treeview double-click on geometry to display the geometry layer properties.
Select the Line directions option and click OK.
Select the 4 Lines to be reversed. (Hold down the Shift key to add lines to the initial
selection).

Use geometry -> Line -> Reverse to reverse the orientation. Click the OK
button.

Two loadcases will be considered; self weight, and a concentrated sway load acting at the top
of the left-hand vertical member.

Weight
Select Attribute -> Loading. Select the Body Force option and click Next.
Enter a linear acceleration in the Y direction of -9.81. Enter the attribute name as Self
weight and click Finish.
Select the whole model (Ctrl and A keys together) and drag and drop the loading
attribute Self weight from the Treeview onto the selected features.
Ensure that the Assign to lines option is selected and the loading is applied to
will be displayed.

Loadcase 2 is a sway load acting at the top of the left-hand vertical member.

Select Attribute-> Loading. Ensure the Concentrated option is selected and click Next.
Enter a concentrated load in the X direction of 500. Enter the attribute name as Sway
Select the Point at the top of the left-hand column.

Point.
Change the loadcase name to Loadcase 2 and ensure that the Assign to points option
is selected.
Click the OK button to assign the loading as the active loadcase with a factor of 1.

## Save The model.

4. SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM

Analysis Execution
Click the green button with icon = to run the problem using Finite Element method
procedures.

You are required to obtain the numerical values of the maximum displacement, the axial
forces. You are required to plot the model, the displacement diagram and the axial forces
diagram.

## RESULTS AND INTERPRETATIONS

Plot and save the deformed shape of the structure. Investigate and interpret
the
deformed shape under Load Combination 1 and 2. Propose means to reduce
the
Investigate, plot and save the picture of the effect of the load combinations on the
displacement of the frame.
axial
force diagram.
Inspect the reactions values based on the given Load Combinations.

## Figure 1 : Maximum displacement and Axial load from load case 1

Figure 2 : Maximum displacement and Axial load from load case 2

Figure 4 : Displacement from load combination 1

5. REPORT

## 1. The stiffness of a structure is generally understood to be the ability of a structure to resist

deformation. Structural stiffness describes the capacity of a structure to resist
deformations induced by applied loads. Therefore having a higher stiffness can resist
more deformation.
2. In addition, braced frames reduce lateral displacement, as well as the bending moment in
columns, they are economical, easily erected and have the design flexibility to create the
strength and stiffness required. Therefore, having a braced frame can reduce
displacement.
3. Increasing of column inertia in the frame increased the stiffness of frame by a significant
value. Therefore reduce the displacement of frame.
4. Decreasing the aspect ratio h/L from of frame decreased the stiffness of the frame.
Therefore, decrease the displacement.