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midas GTS

Seepage Analysis

Presenter: Abid Ali, Geotechnical Engineer

June 19, 2012

MIDAS Information Technology Co., Ltd. [1]


INDEX
1.Introduction

2. Types of Analysis

3. Functions in Seepage Analysis

4. Boundary Conditions

5. Application Areas

6. Results

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Introduction
Groundwater flow occurs due to head difference or change in flux
(inflow/outflow).

Seepage analysis is used to model groundwater flow.

Two types of seepage analysis possible in GTS

Steady state Time independent solution.

Transient state Time dependent solution. (used to model effect of


changing BC).

Flow governed by Darcys Law (both for saturated and unsaturated flow).

Only pore pressure DOF considered in seepage analysis.

Both 2D & 3D seepage analysis can be performed in midas GTS.

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Types of Analysis
Steady State Analysis Used to model groundwater flow under equilibrium
conditions. (BC do not change with time).
Transient State Analysis Used to observe the immediate changes in flow due
to a change in hydraulic BC.
Function needed to define the change in permeability /water content with
pore pressure head in transient analysis.
Function can be defined to relate the variation in Degree of Saturation /
Water content with head and permeability.
User must specify the time steps for analysis.
Semi-coupled analysis Seepage Analysis coupled with stress analysis.
Seepage Analysis is performed first and stress analysis subsequently.
Used for determining stability of ground structures (e.g. Dams, sheet pile)
Results obtained include both stresses in soil and pore pressure.
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Functions in Seepage Analysis
In GTS the variation of permeability and water content can be considered
through the Unsaturated Property Function.

Gardener coefficients and Frontal function - variation of permeability with


pressure head.

Van Genuchtens function - variation of water content with pore pressure.

Anisotropic permeability can be considered by defining permeability


coefficients along co-ordinate axes

Time varying functions

(see right) can be

defined to model the changes

in BC (head/flux) with time.

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Functions in Seepage Analysis

Fig. on the
right shows
variation of
permeability
with pressure
head and
variation of
water
content with
pore pressure

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Functions in Seepage Analysis

Define the
nonlinear
equations of
permeability
and
volumetric
water
content
separately or
at the same
time.

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Boundary Conditions
Boundary conditions describing pore pressure or flow conditions at a
boundary in seepage analysis termed Hydraulic Boundary Conditions.

Hydraulic Boundary conditions in GTS

Nodal head Used to define total or pressure head at nodes.

Seepage face Used to review the seepage conditions at face/edge.

Flux (Nodal/Surface) Used to model flow rate at nodes/surfaces.

Ground Water Table The position of GWT can be explicitly defined


for the whole model or for individual mesh sets.

No flow when no flow conditions assigned at a boundary.

Time varying function can be used to consider head/flow variation with


time.

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Application Areas
GTS can be used to model the following types of problems

Confined Flow - The flow does not involve phreatic surface e.g. around
sheet pile wall.

Contour lines of groundwater head for confined flow

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Application Areas
Unconfined Flow The flow involves phreatic surface e.g. in Dams
Phreatic line
Phreatic Line

Unconfined flow in Dam (vector and contour plot for velocity).

Infiltration Can be modeled by specifying the flow rate at nodes or element


edges.

Infiltration at top of slope (left), with contour and vector plots for velocity.
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Application Areas
Sources and Sinks Can be modeled by using nodal flux BC. e.g. Pumping /
Injection.

Reservoir full /Sudden drawdown in dams.

Initial water level


Final phreatic line Initial phreatic line

Drain

Changes in water table at different time steps for sudden drawdown.


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Results
Results obtained include Flow rate, total & pore pressure head, pore pressu
re, velocity, hydraulic gradients, hydraulic conductivity and water content.

Sign convention in seepage analysis is + for compressive pore water


pressure and vice-versa in stress analysis.

Total head contours give the position of equipotential lines.

Flow lines can be generated for any node at any stage.

Fig. shows the equi-potential lines (represented by the contour bands for
total head) with flow lines (white).
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Results
Floq quantity for any nod
e and for any step can a
Fig. shows the
lso be determined. contour plot for
flow rate with
Phreatic line for different flow quantity
through
stages can also be highlighted nodes

generated using the multi-


step iso-surface function.

Results can also be


exported in tabular form.

Total head results in tabular form


MIDAS Information Technology Co., Ltd. [13]
Problem

Varying Heads Total Head 22m

Stage 1 Soil 1

Soil 2
Stage 2
Soil 3
Stage 3

Soil 4

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Problem

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THANKS

For Queries: email to esupport@midasit.com

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