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CONCEPT OF FACULT SUPERVISOR (DUAL)POSITION

INTRODUCTION
Nursing education prepares nurses to practice in a variety of settings. The impact of
modernization, globalization and liberalization on the society has brought tremendous
changes in general and nursing education. The significant trends in modern education are
creativity, changes in teaching - learning process and advanced educational technology.

The current trends in nursing education are numerous. The scientific and technological
advances in medicine along with social changes have resulted in emergence of new diseases
and the development of specialties and super specialties. Advanced nurse practice enables
nurses to practice in new roles such as nurse practitioners and clinical nurse specialists. Large
number of private nursing educational institutions has been set up, which require faculty with
postgraduate education. In developed countries, great emphasis is given on preparing
individuals with critical thinking and problem solving skills.

The concept of faculty supervisor position (dual role) in nursing has evolved since a decade.
But the practice has not been implemented in a wide range. Only very few institutions are
practicing it today. The main reason for the emergence of dual role is the shortage of nursing
faculty and clinical nurses. Its been widely seen in the Indian setting that highly competent
faculty members are confined only to academic aspects only thus ignoring their clinical
competencies. So it has been suggested in that the faculty of an educational institution in
nursing has to work as a supervisor in the parent hospital or affiliated hospital

SUPERVISION

Concepts of supervision have changed in recent years. Today there is more democracy in
supervision. Educators think of supervision either as guidance or working together for
common goals. Supervision of graduate staff nurses differs from that of student nurses in one
aspect.

Supervision of the student has two goals, the development of the student and the
improvement of nursing care. With graduate nurse supervision is focused on the attainment of
one goal, the giving of high quality care. A good supervisor is one who has broad professional
and cultural interests and vision and enthusiasm for work. As per dual role supervision can be
of student nurses as faculty or the supervision of staff nurses as ward in charge.

QUALITIES OF A GOOD SUPERVISOR


First and most important, a supervisor must have something to give which is greater
than that which is possessed by the individual whom he/she is supervising.
A good supervisor inspires confidence by his ability and his high expectation.
A good supervisor has enthusiasm for nursing and a consuming interest in patients
and their care.

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A good supervisor is approachable.
A good supervisor is also a good leader.
A good supervisor is fair: Treats each individual impartially but with accordance of
his own special interests.
A supervisor should have infinite patience and hope.
A good supervisor is able to look at himself objectively: To try to put himself in the
other persons place and see how he will be affected by his own actions.

NURSING SUPERVISOR JOB DESCRIPTION

The following is Nursing Supervisor Job Description with details about education, skills,
experience and duties.

A Nursing Supervisor leads a team of registered nurses, nurse aids and trainee
nurses. They ensure that there are adequate nursing staffs during all the shifts. It is also
their responsibility to make sure that nurses are properly educated and trained to handle
different diseases and illnesses. They organize and monitor nursing staff and nursing
procedures. The nursing department functions under their guidance adhering to the
hospital policies and principles. The Nursing Supervisor position combines both nursing
skills and managerial abilities.
Nursing Supervisors Job Duties:

A Nursing Supervisor may work in corporate hospitals or nursing homes. Usually,


they work in big hospitals or healthcare units where a group of nurses serve. They
play a leadership role guiding nurses. Their duties are to:

1) Take care of patients, sometimes just likes any other registered nurse.
2) See to it that patients are getting the best care from the nurses.
3) Get the nursing station organized.
4) Hire adequately qualified and trained nurses.
5) Assign shifts and job responsibilities to various nurses.
6) Monitor them and make sure that they are adhering to the hospitals guidelines.
7) Give in-service training to nurses.
8) Resolve any issues with the nursing staff.
9) Ensure that medicines and other essentials are always in full stock and readily
available for use.
10) Minimize wastage.
11) Meet and appraise higher ups about the functioning, issues and developments with
the nursing department.
12) Suggest improvements in nursing care.

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Nursing Supervisor Knowledge and Skills:

1) should be caring with thorough knowledge of nursing practice.


2) Good knowledge of more than one branch of nursing and specialized knowledge in
one branch is essential.
3) Good at emergency care.
4) Leadership abilities and the ability to lead through demonstrations and actions.
5) Always alert during the shift.
6) Attend to patients whenever there is need and help nurses when they cannot cope
with a particular patient or situation.
7) Good computer skills.

Nursing Supervisor Educational Qualification and Experience:


1) A masters degree in nursing and certification is essential for a Nursing
Supervisors position..
2) Ideal to begin their careers as registered nurses and experience as a registered nurse
in large hospitals.

NURSING FACULTY;-
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in school or
college of nursing. Clinical faculty members are essential for the success of nursing
students. It is impossible to learn nursing without effective clinical experiences provided in
an environment that provides support and respect for students while they learn the art and
science of nursing.

PRIMARY ORGANIZATIONAL RELATIONSHIP


Nursing faculty members are responsible to the Principal and management authorities and also to
the affiliated University.

JOB SUMMARY
Provides students with instruction of the highest standards, evaluate student progress, assist in
preparation of syllabi, assist in activities furthering the work of the institution, communicate
necessary information to students, provide academic advice to students as needed.

EDUCATION
A masters degree in nursing and certification or a basic degree or post basic degree in
Nursing.

RESPONSIBILITIES

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Provide competent instruction in the clinical and theoretical areas of nursing.
Maintain high standards and promote excellence in education.
Participate in and contribute to the team-teaching of classroom and clinical courses and
model team-enhancing behaviour for students.
Serve as a role model for students in professional interaction with other health workers
and with clinical facilities.
Promote positive and productive relationships with service area hospitals and community
Assist the Coordinator of Nursing in scheduling and confirming use of clinical sites.
Assist the coordinator of nursing in scheduling curriculum content and classroom
scheduling.
Maintain relationships with clinical sites and professional peers that support the
reputation of the College and the Practical Nursing Program
Continue as competent faculty in nursing by seeking new knowledge, improving nursing
skills, and updating professional competencies.
Maintain attendance records for classes taught
.Evaluate the progress of students in all classes according to institutional, divisional,
departmental, and individual criteria.
Prepare or assist in the preparation of materials such as those used in academic
administration when requested, including course syllabi, program outlines,
articulation, and catalogue materials.
Participate in scheduled in-service activities.
Promote student development through enrichment and mentoring experiences.
Serve as academic advisors and mentors.
Become familiar with institutional policies and procedures as outlined in the College
Catalogue and the Faculty Handbook and follow such policies and procedures.
Perform any other professional duties as assigned by the authorities
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CONCEPT OF FACULTY SUPERVISOR (dual role)
According to National League for Nursing (NLN), the main competency of faculty role is
described as Creating an environment in classroom, laboratory and clinical setting that
facilitates student learning and an achievement of desired cognitive, affective and
psychomotor outcomes.

A faculty supervisor is the member of the teaching team or the faculty is who will be
responsible for supervising the student and determining at the end of the term whether the
student should receive academic credit for the externship in light of the students performance
at the host agency, the students research project and students final report on the externship.

Faculty supervisor job description

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Education qualification and experience; - Basic nursing education + master in many
of the specialties in nursing + doctoral program in or outside nursing scope

General;- the same prerequisites so that of a staff nurse.

Professional; M.Sc nursing or M.N or equivalent degree in nursing recognized by INC


or PhD in nursing with any specialty or other equivalent doctoral degree in nursing.

Experience; should have teaching experience in college of nursing for not less than 5
years.

Job summary- based on needs of the institution.

Role importance and initiation


The role of faculty supervisor comes into play when student wishes to start their
program of internship and ends with the evaluation and issuing of their internship
certificates.

The process and series of steps that taken place throughout the
program
Step 1- student should find the internship program.

Step 2- student should request the particular faculty according to her/his area of
interest.

Step 3- if the faculty agrees for being her supervisor then the role comes to play

Step 4- faculty supervisor discusses the objectives and goal to be achieved in the
program of completing her internship. Conserves and act as a resource person in
choosing the area of selecting the internship and completing program.

Step 5- once the student has found and internship, the faculty supervisor will advise
the student in defining the learning contract objectives, tasks, and evaluation criteria,
as well as the amount of credits. The faculty supervisor will also help the student in
defining the academic requirements for the internship. Academic requirement can be a
journal, paper, relevant research.

Step 6- the faculty supervisor maintains appropriate contact with the student
throughout the internship to give direction and support.

Step 7- at the end of the semester, the faculty supervisor and student intern will meet
to review the academic projects and to review the experience.

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Other Roles and Responsibilities

Administration
Participating in determining educational purposes and objectives.
Contributes to the total development and implementation of the philosophy and
purposes of the total internship program.
Utilizes the opportunities through group action tom initiate improvement in the
internship programme.
Interprets the educational philosophy and policies to others.
Directs the activities of staff working both in the college and also hospital.

Instruction
Identifying needs of the learners in terms of the objectives of the programme by
utilizing records of previous experience, personal interviews, tests and observations.
Assists learners in identifying needs.
Develops plan for learning experiences.
Participates in the complete and continuous development and evaluation of the
curriculum.
Ascertains, selects and organizes facilities equipment and materials necessary for
learning.
Helping the learners to acquire desirable knowledge skill and attitude.
Seeks to create a climate conductive to learning.
Assists learners in using problem solving technique.
Uses varied and appropriate teaching methods effectively.
Uses incidental and planned opportunities for teaching.
Encourages learners to assume increasing responsibility for own development.

Evaluating Learners Progress:


Recognizes individual differences in appraising the learners progress.
Uses appropriate devices for evaluation.
Measures and describes quality of performance objectively.
Helps learners for self evaluation.
Participates in staff evaluation of learners progress.

Recording and Reporting:


Maintains and uses adequate and accurate reports.
Prepares and channels clear and concise reports.
Shares information about learners needs and achievements with others concerned
with instruction and guidance.
Participates in the formulation and maintenance of comprehensive record system.

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Guidance
Co-operating in guidance programme
Shares in planning developing and using guidance programme.
Gives guidance within on field of competence.
Helps the learners with special problems to seek and use additional help as indicated.

Counselling
Helps the learner to grow in self understanding
Promotes continuous growth and development towards maturity.
Assists in selection and promotion of learners.
Participates in development of criteria for selection and promotion of learners.

Investigating Ways of Improving Teaching


Measures effectiveness of instruction by use of appropriate devices.
Increase knowledge and skill in own curriculum area.
Analysis and evaluates resource material.
Devices teaching methods appropriate to objectives and content.

Colleges in INDIA Equipped With Faculty Supervisors for Interns.


Christian medical college- Vellore
JJ hospital Mumbai

Overall, Faculty supervisor is a member of both the college and as well as of the hospital
working in order to help the interns who ought to complete their internship program.

Strategies for Clinical Nurses Considering a Dual Role

A clinical nurse is a nurse who is practicing in a clinical institution, such as a hospital. A


faculty member is a nurse who is employed by an academic institution to teach nursing. If
considering a dual role as both a clinical nurse and a faculty member, a critical care nurse will
want to acquire a significant amount of information about the nature of a faculty position, the
requirements and responsibilities of faculty members, and the day-to-day realities of a dual
role. As clinical nurses collect information, they will be comparing their interests and abilities
with the varying aspects of the faculty role, deciding whether a dual role is the right role at
the right time for them

The focus of faculty members is to facilitate the learning of students. Nursing faculty prepare
licensed practical nurses (LPNs) and RNs for entry into the practice of nursing. Nursing
faculty also teach in graduate programs at the master's and doctoral level, where nurses are
prepared as APNs, nurse educators, nursing administrators, nurse researchers, and in other
leadership roles.

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The NLN is an organization that oversees all facets of nursing education in the United States.

A main competency of the faculty role is described by the NLN as "creating an environment
in classroom, laboratory and clinical settings that facilitates student learning and the
achievement of desired cognitive, affective, and psychomotor outcomes"

In past decades, faculty members lectured while students passively listened. However, in the
current paradigm of education, faculty do not simply teach information but rather support
students' learning.

The difference between teaching and supporting learning is an important one that critical
care nurses will want to explore as they consider a faculty role. For example, rather than
lecture for 2 hours on hemodynamic monitoring, an astute faculty member will engage
student in presenting "real-life" case scenarios along with hemodynamic monitor printouts.

The faculty and students together will explore possible interpretations and propose decisions
based on the data set. Alternately, the "real-life" hemodynamic case scenarios may be
available on-line for students and faculty to review and discuss asynchronously.

Clinical expertise is a necessary, but not sufficient, criterion for teaching nursing students.
Expert critical care nurses may have the clinical knowledge to try a dual role if they are
willing to learn the science of teaching and learning. Just as there is evidence required for
clinical nursing practice, evidence also guides the teaching practices of faculty members. For
example, research suggests that nursing students learn some skills best in simulated contexts.
Therefore, faculty must now plan and use computerized patient simulation scenarios and
actual simulators, along with branching logic software that may accompany nursing
textbooks.

Advantages and disadvantages of dual role

Advantages

1. Abundant learning opportunities.

2. Improves clinical competencies.

3. Professional recognition and status.

4. Variety and novelty in work

5. Gets authority both in hospital and educational instituition.

Disadvantages

1. Requires at least a graduate degree and competency in teaching and


clinical skills.

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2. Requires expert knowledge and skills both in nursing and in education.

3. Have to set firm boundaries on time and energy spent in both roles.

4. Can be overburdened with work; sometimes adversely affecting the


teaching process.

DIFFERENT MODELS OF COLLABORATION BETWEEN


NURSING EDUCATION AND SERVICE
Henneman et al. have suggested that collaboration is a process by which members of various
Disciplines (or agencies) share their expertise. Accomplishing this requires these individuals
understand and appreciates what it is that they contribute to the whole. The nursing literature
presents several collaborative models that have emerged between educational institutions and
clinical agencies as a means to integrate education, practice and research initiatives (Boswell
& Cannon, 2005; McKenna & Roberts, 1998; Acorn, 1990), as well as, providing a vehicle
by which the theory -clinical practice gap is bridged and best practice outcomes are achieved
(Gerrish & Clayton, 2004; Gaskill et al., 2003).

Clinical school of nursing model (1995)

The concept of a Clinical School of Nursing is one that encompasses the highest level of
academic and clinical nursing research and education. The development of the Clinical
School offers benefits to both hospital and university. It brings academic staff to the hospital,
with opportunities for exchange of ideas with clinical nurses with increased opportunities for
clinical nursing research. Many educational openings for expert clinical nurses to become
involved with the university's academic program were evolved. The move to the concept of
the clinical school is founded on recognition of the fundamental importance of the close
And continuing link between the theory and practice of nursing at all levels
Dedicated Education Unit Clinical Teaching Model (1999)

In this model a partnership of nurse executives, staff nurses and faculty transformed patient
care units into environments of support for nursing students and staff nurses while continuing
the critical work of providing quality care to acutely ill adults. Various methods were used to
obtain formative data during the implementation of this model in which staff nurses assumed
the role of nursing instructors. Results showed high student and nurse satisfaction and a
marked increase in clinical capacity that allowed for increased enrolment.

Research Joint Appointments (Clinical Chair) (2000)

The goal of this approach is to use the implementation of research findings as a basis for
improving critical thinking and clinical decision-making of nurses. In this arrangement
the researcher is a faculty member at the educational institution with credibility in
conducting research and with an interest in developing a research programme in the

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clinical setting. The Director of Nursing Research provides education regarding research
and assists with the conduct of research in the practice setting. She/he also lectures or
supervises in the educational institution. A formal agreement exists within the two
organisations regarding specific responsibilities and the percentage of time allocated
between each. Salary and benefits are shared between the two organisations.
Practice-Research Model (PRM) (2001)

The process of the collaborative partnership agreement involved the development of a


Practice-Research Model (PRM) of collaboration. This model encouraged a close working
relationship between registered nurses and academics, and has also facilitated strong links at
the health service with the Nursing Research and Evaluation Unit, medical staff and other
allied health professionals. The key concepts exemplified in the application of the model
include practice-driven research development, collegial partnership, collaborative ownership
and best practice. Many specific outcomes have been achieved through implementation of the
model, but overall the partnership between registered nurses and academics in the pursuit of
research to support clinical practice has been the highlight.

Collaborative Clinical Education Epworth Deakin (CCEED) model


(2003)

In an effort to improve the quality of new graduate transition, Epworth Hospital and Deakin
University ran a collaborative project (2003) funded by the National Safety and Quality
Council to improve the support base for new graduates while managing the quality of patient
care delivery. The Collaborative Clinical Education Epworth Deakin (CCEED) model
developed to facilitate clinical learning, promote clinical scholarship and build nurse
workforce capability. This model provided a framework for the first initiative, a CCEED
undergraduate program that nested the clinical component of Deakin University's
undergraduate nursing curriculum within Epworth Hospital's health service environment.

The Collaborative Learning Unit (British Columbia) Model, (2005)

The Collaborative Learning Unit (CLU) model of practice education for nursing is a clinical
education alternative to Preceptorship. In the CLU model, students practice and learn on a
nursing unit, each following an individual set rotation and choosing their learning assignment
(and therefore the Registered Nurse with whom they partner), according to their learning
plans. Unlike the traditional one-to-one Preceptorship-, an emphasis is placed on student
responsibility for self-guiding, and for communicating their learning plan with faculty and
clinical nurses (e.g., the approaches to learning and the responsibility they are seeking to
assume). All nursing staff members on the Collaborative Learning Unit are involved in this
model and, therefore, not only do the students gain a wide variety of knowledge but the unit
also has the ability to provide practice experiences for a larger number of students.

The Collaborative Approach to Nursing Care (CAN- Care) Model (2006)

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The CAN-Care model emerged as academic and practice leaders acknowledged the need to
Work together to promote the education, recruitment and retention of nurses at all stages of
their career. The idea of a partnership model emerged when the Christine E. Lynn College of
Nursing, Florida Atlantic University, was awarded a grant from Tenet HealthCare Foundation
to initiate an Accelerated Second-degree BSN Program. The goal was to design an
educationally dense, practice based experience to socialize second-degree students to the role
of professional nurse. A secondary goal was to enhance and support the professional and
career development of unit-based nurses. A commitment to a constructivist approach to
learning, an immersion experience to recognize the unique needs of accelerated second-
degree learners, and to emphasize the partnership among the academic and practice setting,
were guiding forces in the creation and enactment of the model.
The Bridge to Practice Model (2008)
The Bridge to Practice model emphasizes professional incentives for hospital nurses to
participate in nursing education. Planned incentives include the rewarding of hospital nurses
with continuing education credits for participation in the short-term training on educational
methodology and approaches. A tuition discount is offered for graduate course work at
the university for institutional students and faculty, more involvement with clinical support
services and care management, and more informed employment choices by senior students.
Challenges include recruitment of interested senior clinical nurses, retention of clinical
liaison faculty, and management of the trade-off between institutional stability offered by
clinical site continuity and the variety of experiences offered by rotation across several
clinical settings.

CURRICULUM RESEARCH IN NURSING


Research is the application of scientific method in the study of problems. Research is a
systemic attempt to obtain answers to meaningful questions about phenomena or events
through the application of scientific procedures. Research in curriculum is systematic attempt
to gain a better understanding of all components of curriculum. It is an application of
scientific method to the study of curriculum. Curriculum inquiry or research is a realm, which
enables to think about curriculum problems.

Definition
Research in education curriculum pertaining to nursing discipline is to address questions or
solve problems through the collection and analysis of primary data for the purpose of
description, exploration, generalization and prediction of problems that needs to be modified

There are some basic elements in curriculum and its implementation. Research in
this elements help one to improve their curriculum and evaluate it. They are

The teacher

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Subject matter
Learners
Milieu

Travers (1969) has pointed out some areas of curriculum research which need consideration
by researchers in the field of education. One of these is concerned with the structure of
subject matter. In nursing research can be done in relation to placement, adequacy of content,
prescribed theory and practical hours and its relation to fulfilment of learning objectives.

Another area proposed by Travers is concerned with the development of techniques for
making analysis of the psychological demands placed on the learner by various learning
experiences. The development of audiovisual materials and their impact on the learning of
subject matter also falls within the area of curriculum research.

Research also can be done in organization of curriculum , adaptation of curriculum to local


needs, effects of examination on curriculum organization, analysis of text books, concept of
development on various subjects, effectiveness of various teaching methods, human relation
in curriculum development , study habits, duration of college work, revision and
modernization of curricula. As technology advances and the dynamics of disease changes
and newer disease emerges, it is necessary to upgrade the curriculum. In order to upgrade
there is a need for systematic curriculum research so that the revision of the curriculum may
be worked out as a well coordinated program of improvement on the basis of the research
findings. The preparation of suitable textbooks and other teaching materials is also basic to
the success of any attempt at curriculum improvement. Thus not only does the suitability of
the existing textbooks need to be verified, but there also seems to be a need for investigation
into the best types of text books. The research would also help us in solving the problems that
relate to the vocabulary content, printing and illustrations of text books.

Teacher education and preparation is another area where research is required. Teacher
education refers to the total educative process which contributes to the preparation of person
for a teaching job in colleges. The educative process includes the programme of courses and
other experiences offered by an educational institution and universities offering courses for
the purpose of preparing persons for teaching and other educational services and for
contributing to their growth in the competency for such service. Thus research in the areas of
syllabi, curriculum and programme is essential for qualitative improvement of nursing
education.

The research in curriculum needs to be focused on the following issues;

Whether the designed curriculum is in tune with the philosophy of nursing education?
How can the curriculum be related to the needs of developing nation and the man
power requirements of our country?
How can the curriculum be related to the global needs and demands?
How can the theory and practise component in the curriculum be correlated?
What kind of preparation and training is required for teachers to make the curriculum
a meaning full experience for pupils?

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What is the relative importance and suitability of each course of study?
What type of instruction or teaching strategies should be best suitable for
implementing the curriculum?
What are the future needs of the pupils as for as curriculum is concerned?
What method of evaluation helps in assessing the effectiveness of curriculum in all
stages?
When the existing curriculum needs reformation and changes or revision?
What is the effective clinical learning environment for the students?
How can the effective clinical learning environment provided for the students?

There is a need for curriculum research in nursing because of the changing needs of the
society. Nursing is a discipline where the core is the patient that is the human being. The
curriculum of nursing education mainly revolves around the care of human being. A well
planned and implemented curriculum ultimately improves of the welfare of the society which
requires in depth research in curriculum planning, implementation and evaluation.

Basis of curriculum research


Broad philosophies, theories and empirical result.
Research is used to identify nursing practices that is developmentally appropriate nad
interesting to students in the target population.
Activities are structured so that it helps the students to think and learn.
Each phase of the development process is documented, reflected, analyzed and
reported in the scientific literature.
Characteristics of nursing education research
Attempt to solve problem.

Involve gathering new data from primary or firsthand sources or using existing data
for a new purpose.

To make accurate observation and description.

To employ carefully designed procedures.

To develop generalizations, principles or theories that will help in understanding,


prediction and control.

To find an objective, unbiased solution to the problem.

To refine the problems or questions as research progresses.

To record and report other person interest in the problem.

Advantages of research based curriculum development

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More effective curriculum materials because the research reveals critical issues for
instruction.

Better understanding of student thinking abilities.

Research based changes in nursing curriculum.

Levels of research

There are essential four levels at which educational research take place;-

DESCRIPTIVE

EXPLORATORY

GENERLIZATION

BASIC OR THEORETICAL

DESCRIPTIVE

Major questions;

What is happening?
What happened in the past?

Method / approach

Case study
Content analysis
Ethnography
EXPLORATORY

Major question

What is causing it to happen?


Why did it happen?

Method /approach

Case study
Comparative correlation
observation
GENERALIZATION

Major question

Will the same thing happen happen under different circumstances?

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Method/Approach

Comparative
Experimental
Multiple case study
BASIC

Major questions

Are there some underlining principles at work?

Methods/Approach

Experimental
Policy research

Supportive agencies for nursing education research

Nursing education research unit (NERU)


The nursing educational research unit was established in 1995 by the Mc master
university.
Function
Help the school of nursing to promote nursing educational research within the
school.
To investigate curriculum related issues.
The centre for higher education research and development
The centre for higher education research and development was established in 1987 as
a centre for graduate preparation, research and publication in higher education.
CHERD offers regional, national and international courses, programs, seminars and
workshop.
National league for nursing education research
Main function of national league for nursing education research includes conduction
of research that informs and promotes evidence based teaching.

CONCLUSION
Many nursing service administrators believe that academic nurse educators, removed from
the realities of the employment setting, are preparing students to function in ideal
environments that rarely exist in the real and extremely diverse worlds of work. For preparing
high quality professionals and to prevent the dilution of practice standards, the faculty
themselves need to be oriented to the actual clinical situations, so dual role is extremely
important in nursing. Curriculum research still remains a specialist activity engaged by
professionally trained nurses, who operate outside the curriculum and class room chiefly for

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the benefit of those outside the school and classroom. Qualitative field researchers have made
major contribution to the study of curriculum.

REFERENCES
1. Shabeer P Basheer.Text Book Of Nursing Education.Bangalore:Emmess Medical
publishers;2015;p 473-476.
2. D. Elakkuvana Bhaskararaj,Nima Bhaskar.Text Book Of NursingEducation.2nd
edition.Bangalore:Emmess Medical Publishers;2015;p 422-424.
3. R Sudha.Nursing Education Principles and Concepts.New Delhi:Jaypee Brothers
Medical Publishers;2013;p 338-3398.
4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed
5. www.toniau.ac.ir/doc/books/Curriculum%20Development%20in%20Nursing.

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