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# 2/4/2017

## CIVL6935 Surface Water Hydrology

Chapter 7 Part I

Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering
Sultan Qaboos University
Sultanate of Oman
sana@squ.edu.om

Textbook

## Ground and Surface

Water Hydrology
First Edition

Larry W. Mays

Chapter 7 to Chapter 11

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Hydrologic Processes
What is Surface Water Hydrology?
The Hydrologic Cycle

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## Nested hierarchy of watersheds or basins

An average temperature
profile through the lower
layers of the atmosphere.
Height (in miles and
kilometers) is indicated
along each side.
Temperatures in the
thermosphere continue to
climb, reaching as high as
2,000C.
Coutesy: NOAA

http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/yos/
resource/JetStream/atmos/atmprofile.htm

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## Idealized atmospheric circulation (Courtesy of NASA).

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Hydrologic Budget

## Surface Water System Hydrologic Budget

P + Qin - Qout + Qg - Es - Ts - I = Ss

## Groundwater System Hydrologic Budget

I+ Gin - Gout - Qg - Eg - Tg = Sg

## Using net mass exchanges : P-Q-G-E-T=S

Precipitation Formation
and Types

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Frontal lifting
Orographic lifting
Convective lifting

## Cyclonic storms in mid-latitude

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(a) Rainfall hyetographs for Kickapoo Station. (b) Mass rainfall curves

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Computation of
areal average
rainfall
(a) Arithmetic-mean
method
(b) Thiessen method
(c) Isohyetal
method

in Oman

## Water Resources in Oman, 2nd Ed.,

2008, MRMWR, Oman

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## Schematic illustration of the disposal of precipitation during a storm

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IDF Relationships c
i
T f
d
e

## where i = design rainfall intensity in inches per hour

Td = duration in minutes
c, e, f = coefficients that vary for location and return period

## The following relationships can also be used

cT m cT m
i i e
Td f Td f
where T = Return period
m = coefficient that varies for location

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## EVAPORATION Energy Balance Method

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Radiation and heat balance in the atmosphere and at the earth's surface. (NOAA).

## Control volume defined

for continuity and energy
equation development for
an evaporation pan

Rn
Er
lv w
lv 2.501 106 2370T
w Mass density of water

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Aerodynamic Method

## Rh= Relative humidity

Combined Method
E Er Ea

()Er = vapor transport term, ()Ea =aerodynamic term
= psychrometric constant (approximately 66.8 Pa/oC)
= gradient of the saturated vapor pressure curve
given as
4098e as

237.3 T
2

## Priestley and Taylor (1972) discovered that the aerodynamic term in

Equation (7.3.19) is approximately 30 percent of the energy term, so

E 1.3 Er

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