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CIVL6935 Surface Water Hydrology

Chapter 7 Part I

Ahmad Sana
Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering
Sultan Qaboos University
Sultanate of Oman
sana@squ.edu.om

Textbook

Ground and Surface


Water Hydrology
First Edition

Larry W. Mays

Chapter 7 to Chapter 11

Copyright 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Hydrologic Processes
What is Surface Water Hydrology?
The Hydrologic Cycle

Drainage basin or Watershed or Catchment

Watershed divide or Basin divide

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Nested hierarchy of watersheds or basins

An average temperature
profile through the lower
layers of the atmosphere.
Height (in miles and
kilometers) is indicated
along each side.
Temperatures in the
thermosphere continue to
climb, reaching as high as
2,000C.
Coutesy: NOAA

http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/yos/
resource/JetStream/atmos/atmprofile.htm

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Idealized atmospheric circulation (Courtesy of NASA).

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Hydrologic Budget

Surface Water System Hydrologic Budget


P + Qin - Qout + Qg - Es - Ts - I = Ss

Groundwater System Hydrologic Budget

I+ Gin - Gout - Qg - Eg - Tg = Sg

System Hydrologic Budget

P - (Qout -Qin)- (Es + Eg )- (Ts + Tg)- (Gout - Gin) = Ss+Sg

Using net mass exchanges : P-Q-G-E-T=S

Precipitation Formation
and Types

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Frontal lifting
Orographic lifting
Convective lifting

Cyclonic storms in mid-latitude

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(a) Rainfall hyetographs for Kickapoo Station. (b) Mass rainfall curves

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Computation of
areal average
rainfall
(a) Arithmetic-mean
method
(b) Thiessen method
(c) Isohyetal
method

Average Annual Rainfall


in Oman

Water Resources in Oman, 2nd Ed.,


2008, MRMWR, Oman

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Schematic illustration of the disposal of precipitation during a storm

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IDF Relationships c
i
T f
d
e

where i = design rainfall intensity in inches per hour


Td = duration in minutes
c, e, f = coefficients that vary for location and return period

The following relationships can also be used

cT m cT m
i i e
Td f Td f
where T = Return period
m = coefficient that varies for location

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Synthetic Storm Hyetograph

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EVAPORATION Energy Balance Method

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Radiation and heat balance in the atmosphere and at the earth's surface. (NOAA).

Control volume defined


for continuity and energy
equation development for
an evaporation pan

Rn
Er
lv w
lv 2.501 106 2370T
w Mass density of water
Rn Net radiation

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Aerodynamic Method

Evaporation from an open water surface

Rh= Relative humidity

Combined Method
E Er Ea

()Er = vapor transport term, ()Ea =aerodynamic term
= psychrometric constant (approximately 66.8 Pa/oC)
= gradient of the saturated vapor pressure curve
given as
4098e as

237.3 T
2

eas = saturated vapor pressure

Priestley and Taylor (1972) discovered that the aerodynamic term in


Equation (7.3.19) is approximately 30 percent of the energy term, so

E 1.3 Er

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End of Part 1 of Chapter 7

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