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Biogas

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Pipes carrying biogas (foreground), natural gas and condensate


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t
e

Biogas typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the


breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be produced
from raw materials such as agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, plant
material, sewage, green waste or food waste. Biogas is a renewable energy source
and in many cases exerts a very small carbon footprint.
Biogas can be produced by anaerobic digestion with anaerobic organisms, which
digest material inside a closed system, or fermentation of biodegradable
materials.[1]
Biogas is primarily methane (CH
4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H
2S), moisture and siloxanes. The gases methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide
(CO) can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen. This energy release allows biogas
to be used as a fuel; it can be used for any heating purpose, such as cooking.
It can also be used in a gas engine to convert the energy in the gas into
electricity and heat.[2]
Biogas can be compressed, the same way natural gas is compressed to CNG, and
used to power motor vehicles. In the UK, for example, biogas is estimated to
have the potential to replace around 17% of vehicle fuel.[3] It qualifies for
renewable energy subsidies in some parts of the world. Biogas can be cleaned and
upgraded to natural gas standards, when it becomes bio-methane. Biogas is
considered to be a renewable resource because its production-and-use cycle is
continuous, and it generates no net carbon dioxide. Organic material grows, is
converted and used and then regrows in a continually repeating cycle. From a
carbon perspective, as much carbon dioxide is absorbed from the atmosphere in
the growth of the primary bio-resource as is released when the material is
ultimately converted to energy.

Contents [hide]
1 Production 1.1 Dangers
2 Landfill gas 2.1 Technical
3 Composition
4 Benefits of manure derived biogas
5 Applications 5.1 Biogas upgrading
5.2 Biogas gas-grid injection
5.3 Biogas in transport
5.4 Measuring in biogas environments
6 Legislation 6.1 European Union
6.2 United States
7 Global developments 7.1 United States
7.2 Europe
7.3 UK
7.4 Germany
7.5 Indian Subcontinent
7.6 China
7.7 In developing nations
8 Society and culture
9 See also
10 References
11 Further reading
12 External links

Production[edit]
Main article: Anaerobic digestion

Biogas production in rural Germany


Biogas is produced as landfill gas (LFG), which is produced by the breakdown of
Biodegradable waste inside a landfill due to chemical reactions and microbes, or
as digested gas, produced inside an anaerobic digester. A biogas plant is the
name often given to an anaerobic digester that treats farm wastes or energy
crops. It can be produced using anaerobic digesters (air-tight tanks with
different configurations). These plants can be fed with energy crops such as
maize silage or biodegradable wastes including sewage sludge and food waste.
During the process, the microorganisms transform biomass waste into biogas
(mainly methane and carbon dioxide) and digestate. The biogas is a renewable
energy that can be used for heating, electricity, and many other operations that
use a reciprocating internal combustion engine, such as GE Jenbacher or
Caterpillar gas engines.[4] Other internal combustion engines such as gas
turbines are suitable for the conversion of biogas into both electricity and
heat. The digestate is the remaining inorganic matter that was not transformed
into biogas. It can be used as an agricultural fertiliser.
There are two key processes: mesophilic and thermophilic digestion which is
dependent on temperature. In experimental work at University of Alaska
Fairbanks, a 1000-litre digester using psychrophiles harvested from "mud from a
frozen lake in Alaska" has produced 200300 liters of methane per day, about
20%30% of the output from digesters in warmer climates.[5]
Dangers[edit]
The dangers of biogas are mostly similar to those of natural gas, but with an
additional risk from the toxicity of its hydrogen sulfide fraction. Biogas can
be explosive when mixed in the ratio of one part biogas to 8-20 parts air.
Special safety precautions have to be taken for entering an empty biogas
digester for maintenance work.
It is important that a biogas system never has negative pressure as this could
cause an explosion. Negative gas pressure can occur if too much gas is removed
or leaked; Because of this biogas should not be used at pressures below one
column inch of water, measured by a pressure gauge.
Frequent smell checks must be performed on a biogas system. If biogas is
smelled anywhere windows and doors should be opened immediately. If there is a
fire the gas should be shut off at the gate valve of the biogas system.[6]
Landfill gas[edit]
Main article: Landfill gas
Landfill gas is produced by wet organic waste decomposing under anaerobic
conditions in a biogas.[7][8]
The waste is covered and mechanically compressed by the weight of the material
that is deposited above. This material prevents oxygen exposure thus allowing
anaerobic microbes to thrive. Biogas builds up and is slowly released into the
atmosphere if the site has not been engineered to capture the gas. Landfill gas
released in an uncontrolled way can be hazardous since it can become explosive
when it escapes from the landfill and mixes with oxygen. The lower explosive
limit is 5% methane and the upper is 15% methane.[9]
The methane in biogas is 20 times more potent a greenhouse gas than carbon
dioxide. Therefore, uncontained landfill gas, which escapes into the atmosphere
may significantly contribute to the effects of global warming. In addition,
volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in landfill gas contribute to the formation of
photochemical smog.
Technical[edit]
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a measure of the amount of oxygen required by
aerobic micro-organisms to decompose the organic matter in a sample of water.
Knowing the energy density of the material being used in the biodigester as well
as the BOD for the liquid discharge allows for the calculation of the daily
energy output from a biodigester.
Another term related to biodigesters is effluent dirtiness, which tells how much
organic material there is per unit of biogas source. Typical units for this
measure are in mg BOD/litre. As an example, effluent dirtiness can range between
8001200 mg BOD/litre in Panama.[citation needed]
From 1 kg of decommissioned kitchen bio-waste, 0.45 m of biogas can be
obtained. The price for collecting biological waste from households is
approximately 70 per ton.[10]
Composition[edit]
Typical composition of biogas

Compound
Formula
%
MethaneCH
45075
Carbon dioxideCO
22550
NitrogenN
2010
HydrogenH
201
Hydrogen sulfideH
2S03
OxygenO
200.5
Source: www.kolumbus.fi, 2007[11]
The composition of biogas varies depending upon the origin of the anaerobic
digestion process. Landfill gas typically has methane concentrations around 50%.
Advanced waste treatment technologies can produce biogas with 55%75%
methane,[12] which for reactors with free liquids can be increased to 80%-90%
methane using in-situ gas purification techniques.[13] As produced, biogas
contains water vapor. The fractional volume of water vapor is a function of
biogas temperature; correction of measured gas volume for water vapor content
and thermal expansion is easily done via simple mathematics[14] which yields the
standardized volume of dry biogas.
In some cases, biogas contains siloxanes. They are formed from the anaerobic
decomposition of materials commonly found in soaps and detergents. During
combustion of biogas containing siloxanes, silicon is released and can combine
with free oxygen or other elements in the combustion gas. Deposits are formed
containing mostly silica (SiO
2) or silicates (Si
xO
y) and can contain calcium, sulfur, zinc, phosphorus. Such white mineral
deposits accumulate to a surface thickness of several millimeters and must be
removed by chemical or mechanical means.
Practical and cost-effective technologies to remove siloxanes and other biogas
contaminants are available.[15]
For 1000 kg (wet weight) of input to a typical biodigester, total solids may be
30% of the wet weight while volatile suspended solids may be 90% of the total
solids. Protein would be 20% of the volatile solids, carbohydrates would be 70%
of the volatile solids, and finally fats would be 10% of the volatile solids.
Benefits of manure derived biogas[edit]
High levels of methane are produced when manure is stored under anaerobic
conditions. During storage and when manure has been applied to the land, nitrous
oxide is also produced as a byproduct of the denitrification process. Nitrous
oxide (N2O) is 320 times more aggressive as a greenhouse gas than carbon
dioxide[16] and methane 25 times more than carbon dioxide.[17]
By converting cow manure into methane biogas via anaerobic digestion, the
millions of cattle in the United States would be able to produce 100 billion
kilowatt hours of electricity, enough to power millions of homes across the
United States. In fact, one cow can produce enough manure in one day to generate
3 kilowatt hours of electricity; only 2.4 kilowatt hours of electricity are
needed to power a single 100-watt light bulb for one day.[18] Furthermore, by
converting cattle manure into methane biogas instead of letting it decompose,
global warming gases could be reduced by 99 million metric tons or 4%.[19]
Applications[edit]

A biogas bus in Linkping, Sweden


Biogas can be used for electricity production on sewage works,[20] in a CHP gas
engine, where the waste heat from the engine is conveniently used for heating
the digester; cooking; space heating; water heating; and process heating. If
compressed, it can replace compressed natural gas for use in vehicles, where it
can fuel an internal combustion engine or fuel cells and is a much more
effective displacer of carbon dioxide than the normal use in on-site CHP
plants.[20]
Biogas upgrading[edit]
Raw biogas produced from digestion is roughly 60% methane and 29% CO
2 with trace elements of H
2S; it is not of high enough quality to be used as fuel gas for machinery. The
corrosive nature of H
2S alone is enough to destroy the internals of a plant.[21][22]
Methane in biogas can be concentrated via a biogas upgrader to the same
standards as fossil natural gas, which itself has to go through a cleaning
process, and becomes biomethane. If the local gas network allows, the producer
of the biogas may use their distribution networks. Gas must be very clean to
reach pipeline quality and must be of the correct composition for the
distribution network to accept. Carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen sulfide, and
particulates must be removed if present.[21]
There are four main methods of upgrading: water washing, pressure swing
adsorption, selexol adsorption, and amine gas treating.[23] In addition to
these, the use of membrane separation technology for biogas upgrading is
increasing, and there are already several plants operating in Europe and
USA.[21][24]
The most prevalent method is water washing where high pressure gas flows into a
column where the carbon dioxide and other trace elements are scrubbed by
cascading water running counter-flow to the gas. This arrangement could deliver
98% methane with manufacturers guaranteeing maximum 2% methane loss in the
system. It takes roughly between 3% and 6% of the total energy output in gas to
run a biogas upgrading system.
Biogas gas-grid injection[edit]
Gas-grid injection is the injection of biogas into the methane grid (natural gas
grid). Injections includes biogas[25] until the breakthrough of micro combined
heat and power two-thirds of all the energy produced by biogas power plants was
lost (the heat), using the grid to transport the gas to customers, the
electricity and the heat can be used for on-site generation[26] resulting in a
reduction of losses in the transportation of energy. Typical energy losses in
natural gas transmission systems range from 1% to 2%. The current energy losses
on a large electrical system range from 5% to 8%.[27]
Biogas in transport[edit]

"Biogastget Amanda" ("The Biogas Train Amanda") train near Linkping station,
Sweden
If concentrated and compressed, it can be used in vehicle transportation.
Compressed biogas is becoming widely used in Sweden, Switzerland, and Germany. A
biogas-powered train, named Biogastget Amanda (The Biogas Train Amanda), has
been in service in Sweden since 2005.[28][29] Biogas powers automobiles. In
1974, a British documentary film titled Sweet as a Nut detailed the biogas
production process from pig manure and showed how it fueled a custom-adapted
combustion engine.[30][31] In 2007, an estimated 12,000 vehicles were being
fueled with upgraded biogas worldwide, mostly in Europe.[32]
Measuring in biogas environments[edit]
Biogas is part of the wet gas and condensing gas (or air) category that includes

mist or fog in the gas stream. The mist or fog is predominately water vapor that
condenses on the sides of pipes or stacks throughout the gas flow. Biogas
environments include wastewater digesters, landfills, and animal feeding
operations (covered livestock lagoons).
Ultrasonic flow meters are one of the few devices capable of measuring in a
biogas atmosphere. Most thermal flow meters are unable to provide reliable data
because the moisture causes steady high flow readings and continuous flow
spiking, although there are single-point insertion thermal mass flow meters
capable of accurately monitoring biogas flows with minimal pressure drop. They
can handle moisture variations that occur in the flow stream because of daily
and seasonal temperature fluctuations, and account for the moisture in the flow
stream to produce a dry gas value.
Legislation[edit]
European Union[edit]
The European Union has legislation regarding waste management and landfill sites
called the Landfill Directive.
Countries such as the United Kingdom and Germany now have legislation in force
that provides farmers with long-term revenue and energy security.[33]
United States[edit]
The United States legislates against landfill gas as it contains VOCs. The
United States Clean Air Act and Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations
(CFR) requires landfill owners to estimate the quantity of non-methane organic
compounds (NMOCs) emitted. If the estimated NMOC emissions exceeds 50 tonnes per
year, the landfill owner is required to collect the gas and treat it to remove
the entrained NMOCs. Treatment of the landfill gas is usually by combustion.
Because of the remoteness of landfill sites, it is sometimes not economically
feasible to produce electricity from the gas.
Global developments[edit]
United States[edit]
With the many benefits of biogas, it is starting to become a popular source of
energy and is starting to be used in the United States more. In 2003, the United
States consumed 147 trillion BTU of energy from "landfill gas", about 0.6% of
the total U.S. natural gas consumption.[32] Methane biogas derived from cow
manure is being tested in the U.S. According to a 2008 study, collected by the
Science and Children magazine, methane biogas from cow manure would be
sufficient to produce 100 billion kilowatt hours enough to power millions of
homes across America. Furthermore, methane biogas has been tested to prove that
it can reduce 99 million metric tons of greenhouse gas emissions or about 4% of
the greenhouse gases produced by the United States.[34]
In Vermont, for example, biogas generated on dairy farms was included in the
CVPS Cow Power program. The program was originally offered by Central Vermont
Public Service Corporation as a voluntary tariff and now with a recent merger
with Green Mountain Power is now the GMP Cow Power Program. Customers can elect
to pay a premium on their electric bill, and that premium is passed directly to
the farms in the program. In Sheldon, Vermont, Green Mountain Dairy has provided
renewable energy as part of the Cow Power program. It started when the brothers
who own the farm, Bill and Brian Rowell, wanted to address some of the manure
management challenges faced by dairy farms, including manure odor, and nutrient
availability for the crops they need to grow to feed the animals. They installed
an anaerobic digester to process the cow and milking center waste from their 950
cows to produce renewable energy, a bedding to replace sawdust, and a
plant-friendly fertilizer. The energy and environmental attributes are sold to
the GMP Cow Power program. On average, the system run by the Rowells produces
enough electricity to power 300 to 350 other homes. The generator capacity is
about 300 kilowatts.[35]
In Hereford, Texas, cow manure is being used to power an ethanol power plant. By
switching to methane biogas, the ethanol power plant has saved 1000 barrels of
oil a day. Over all, the power plant has reduced transportation costs and will
be opening many more jobs for future power plants that will rely on biogas.[36]
In Oakley, Kansas, an ethanol plant considered to be one of the largest biogas
facilities in North America is using Integrated Manure Utilization System "IMUS"
to produce heat for its boilers by utilizing feedlot manure, municipal organics
and ethanol plant waste. At full capacity the plant is expected to replace 90%
of the fossil fuel used in the manufacturing process of ethanol.[37][38]
Europe[edit]
The level of development varies greatly in Europe. While countries such as
Germany, Austria and Sweden are fairly advanced in their use of biogas, there is
a vast potential for this renewable energy source in the rest of the continent,
especially in Eastern Europe. Different legal frameworks, education schemes and
the availability of technology are among the prime reasons behind this untapped
potential.[39] Another challenge for the further progression of biogas has been
negative public perception. [40]
In February 2009, the European Biogas Association (EBA) was founded in Brussels
as a non-profit organisation to promote the deployment of sustainable biogas
production and use in Europe. EBA's strategy defines three priorities: establish
biogas as an important part of Europes energy mix, promote source separation of
household waste to increase the gas potential, and support the production of
biomethane as vehicle fuel. In July 2013, it had 60 members from 24 countries
across Europe.[41]
UK[edit]
As of September 2013[update], there are about 130 non-sewage biogas plants in
the UK. Most are on-farm, and some larger facilities exist off-farm, which are
taking food and consumer wastes.[42]
On 5 October 2010, biogas was injected into the UK gas grid for the first time.
Sewage from over 30,000 Oxfordshire homes is sent to Didcot sewage treatment
works, where it is treated in an anaerobic digestor to produce biogas, which is
then cleaned to provide gas for approximately 200 homes.[43]
In 2015 the Green-Energy company Ecotricity announced their plans to build three
grid-injecting digesters.
Germany[edit]
Germany is Europe s biggest biogas producer[44] and the market leader in biogas
technology.[45] In 2010 there were 5,905 biogas plants operating throughout the
country: Lower Saxony, Bavaria, and the eastern federal states are the main
regions.[46] Most of these plants are employed as power plants. Usually the
biogas plants are directly connected with a CHP which produces electric power by
burning the bio methane. The electrical power is then fed into the public power
grid.[47] In 2010, the total installed electrical capacity of these power plants
was 2,291 MW.[46] The electricity supply was approximately 12.8 TWh, which is
12.6% of the total generated renewable electricity.[48]
Biogas in Germany is primarily extracted by the co-fermentation of energy crops
(called NawaRo , an abbreviation of nachwachsende Rohstoffe, German for
renewable resources) mixed with manure. The main crop used is corn. Organic
waste and industrial and agricultural residues such as waste from the food
industry are also used for biogas generation.[49] In this respect, biogas
production in Germany differs significantly from the UK, where biogas generated
from landfill sites is most common.[44]
Biogas production in Germany has developed rapidly over the last 20 years. The
main reason is the legally created frameworks. Government support of renewable
energy started in 1991 with the Electricity Feed-in Act (StrEG). This law
guaranteed the producers of energy from renewable sources the feed into the
public power grid, thus the power companies were forced to take all produced
energy from independent private producers of green energy.[50] In 2000 the
Electricity Feed-in Act was replaced by the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG).
This law even guaranteed a fixed compensation for the produced electric power
over 20 years. The amount of around 8 /kWh gave farmers the opportunity to
become energy suppliers and gain a further source of income.[49]
The German agricultural biogas production was given a further push in 2004 by
implementing the so-called NawaRo-Bonus. This is a special payment given for the
use of renewable resources, that is, energy crops.[51] In 2007 the German
government stressed its intention to invest further effort and support in
improving the renewable energy supply to provide an answer on growing climate
challenges and increasing oil prices by the Integrated Climate and Energy
Programme.
This continual trend of renewable energy promotion induces a number of
challenges facing the management and organisation of renewable energy supply
that has also several impacts on the biogas production.[52] The first challenge
to be noticed is the high area-consuming of the biogas electric power supply. In
2011 energy crops for biogas production consumed an area of circa 800,000 ha in
Germany.[53] This high demand of agricultural areas generates new competitions
with the food industries that did not exist hitherto. Moreover, new industries
and markets were created in predominately rural regions entailing different new
players with an economic, political and civil background. Their influence and
acting has to be governed to gain all advantages this new source of energy is
offering. Finally biogas will furthermore play an important role in the German
renewable energy supply if good governance is focused.[52]
Indian Subcontinent[edit]
Biogas in India[54] has been traditionally based on dairy manure as feed stock
and these "gobar" gas plants have been in operation for a long period of time,
especially in rural India. In the last 2-3 decades, research organisations with
a focus on rural energy security have enhanced the design of the systems
resulting in newer efficient low cost designs such as the Deenabandhu model.
The Deenabandhu Model is a new biogas-production model popular in India.
(Deenabandhu means "friend of the helpless.") The unit usually has a capacity of
2 to 3 cubic metres. It is constructed using bricks or by a ferrocement mixture.
In India, the brick model costs slightly more than the ferrocement model;
however, India s Ministry of New and Renewable Energy offers some subsidy per
model constructed.
LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) is a key source of cooking fuel in urban India and
its prices have been increasing along with the global fuel prices. Also the
heavy subsidies provided by the successive governments in promoting LPG as a
domestic cooking fuel has become a financial burden renewing the focus on biogas
as a cooking fuel alternative in urban establishments. This has led to the
development of prefabricated digester for modular deployments as compared to RCC
and cement structures which take a longer duration to construct. Renewed focus
on process technology like the Biourja process model[55] has enhanced the
stature of medium and large scale anaerobic digester in India as a potential
alternative to LPG as primary cooking fuel.
In India, Nepal, Pakistan and Bangladesh biogas produced from the anaerobic
digestion of manure in small-scale digestion facilities is called gobar gas; it
is estimated that such facilities exist in over 2 million households in India,
50,000 in Bangladesh and thousands in Pakistan, particularly North Punjab, due
to the thriving population of livestock. The digester is an airtight circular
pit made of concrete with a pipe connection. The manure is directed to the pit,
usually straight from the cattle shed. The pit is filled with a required
quantity of wastewater. The gas pipe is connected to the kitchen fireplace
through control valves. The combustion of this biogas has very little odour or
smoke. Owing to simplicity in implementation and use of cheap raw materials in
villages, it is one of the most environmentally sound energy sources for rural
needs. One type of these system is the Sintex Digester. Some designs use
vermiculture to further enhance the slurry produced by the biogas plant for use
as compost.[56]
To create awareness and associate the people interested in biogas, the Indian
Biogas Association[57] was formed. It aspires to be a unique blend of nationwide
operators, manufacturers and planners of biogas plants, and representatives from
science and research. The association was founded in 2010 and is now ready to
start mushrooming. Its motto is "propagating Biogas in a sustainable way".
In Pakistan, the Rural Support Programmes Network is running the Pakistan
Domestic Biogas Programme[58] which has installed 5,360 biogas plants[59] and
has trained in excess of 200 masons on the technology and aims to develop the
Biogas Sector in Pakistan.
In Nepal, the government provides subsidies to build biogas plant at home.
China[edit]
The Chinese have experimented with the applications of biogas since 1958. Around
1970, China had installed 6,000,000 digesters in an effort to make agriculture
more efficient. During the last years the technology has met high growth rates.
This seems to be the earliest developments in generating biogas from
agricultural waste.[60]
In developing nations[edit]
Domestic biogas plants convert livestock manure and night soil into biogas and
slurry, the fermented manure. This technology is feasible for small-holders with
livestock producing 50 kg manure per day, an equivalent of about 6 pigs or 3
cows. This manure has to be collectable to mix it with water and feed it into
the plant. Toilets can be connected. Another precondition is the temperature
that affects the fermentation process. With an optimum at 36 C the technology
especially applies for those living in a (sub) tropical climate. This makes the
technology for small holders in developing countries often suitable.[61]

Simple sketch of household biogas plant


Depending on size and location, a typical brick made fixed dome biogas plant can
be installed at the yard of a rural household with the investment between US$300
to $500 in Asian countries and up to $1400 in the African context.[62] A high
quality biogas plant needs minimum maintenance costs and can produce gas for at
least 1520 years without major problems and re-investments. For the user,
biogas provides clean cooking energy, reduces indoor air pollution, and reduces
the time needed for traditional biomass collection, especially for women and
children. The slurry is a clean organic fertilizer that potentially increases
agricultural productivity.[61]
Domestic biogas technology is a proven and established technology in many parts
of the world, especially Asia.[63] Several countries in this region have
embarked on large-scale programmes on domestic biogas, such as China[64] and
India.
The Netherlands Development Organisation, SNV,[65] supports national programmes
on domestic biogas that aim to establish commercial-viable domestic biogas
sectors in which local companies market, install and service biogas plants for
households. In Asia, SNV is working in Nepal,[66] Vietnam,[67] Bangladesh,[68]
Bhutan, Cambodia,[68] Lao PDR,[69] Pakistan[70] and Indonesia,[71] and in
Africa; Rwanda,[72] Senegal, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia,[73] Tanzania,[74] Uganda,
Kenya,[75] Benin and Cameroon.
In South Africa a prebuilt Biogas system is manufactured and sold. One key
feature is that installation requires less skill and is quicker to install as
the digester tank is premade plastic.[76]

Society and culture[edit]


In the 1985 Australian film Mad Max Beyond Thunderdome the post-apocalyptic
settlement Barter town is powered by a central biogas system based upon a
piggery. As well as providing electricity, methane is used to power Barter s
vehicles.
"Cow Town", written in the early 1940s, discuss the travails of a city vastly
built on cow manure and the hardships brought upon by the resulting methane
biogas. Carter McCormick, an engineer from a town outside the city, is sent in
to figure out a way to utilize this gas to help power, rather than suffocate,
the city.
See also[edit]
Sustainable development portal
Renewable energy portal
Energy portal
Anaerobic digestion
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Biodegradability
Bioenergy
Biofuel
Biohydrogen
Landfill gas monitoring
MSW/LFG (municipal solid waste and landfill gas)
Natural gas
Renewable energy
Renewable natural gas
Relative cost of electricity generated by different sources
Tables of European biogas utilisation
Thermal hydrolysis
Waste management
European Biomass Association
References[edit]
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Factsheet: Anaerobic Digestion", Retrieved on 2011-02-16
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2011.
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Energy Conference Bath, UK. 24 October 2009.
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for Fuel.", 23 April 2009. Web. 3 October 2009.
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Sunita Harrington. 6 November 2010. p. 14. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
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Bioenergy.org.nz. 29 November 2006. Retrieved 21 February 2010.
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Retrieved 22.10.07.
Jump up ^ Obrecht, Matevz; Denac, Matjaz (2011). "Biogas - a sustainable
energy source: new measures and possibilities for SLovenia" (PDF). Journal of
Energy Technology (5): 1124.
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Machine., www.kolumbus.fi. Retrieved 2.11.07.
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T. E. (1994). "In situ methane enrichment in methanogenic energy crop
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2009. Web. 3 October 2009.
Jump up ^ Webber, Michael E and Amanda D Cuellar. "Cow Power. In the News:
Short News Items of Interest to the Scientific Community." Science and
Children os 46.1 (2008): 13. Gale. Web. 1 October 2009 in United States.
^ Jump up to: a b Administrator. "Biogas CHP - Alfagy - Profitable Greener
Energy via CHP, Cogen and Biomass Boiler using Wood, Biogas, Natural Gas,
Biodiesel, Vegetable Oil, Syngas and Straw". Retrieved 15 May 2015.
^ Jump up to: a b c Abatzoglou, Nicolas; Boivin, Steve (2009). "A review of
biogas purification processes". Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining. 3 (1):
4271. doi:10.1002/bbb.117. ISSN 1932-104X.
Jump up ^ Huertas, J.I.; Giraldo, N.; Izquierdo, S. (2011). "Removal of H2S
and CO2 from Biogas by Amine Absorption". doi:10.5772/20039.
Jump up ^ "Nyheter - SGC" (PDF). Retrieved 15 May 2015.
Jump up ^ Petersson A., Wellinger A. (2009). Biogas upgrading technologies -
developments and innovations. IEA Bioenergy Task 37
Jump up ^ "National Grid: Half Britain s homes could be heated by renewable
gas, says National Grid". Retrieved 15 May 2015.
Jump up ^ "Biogas Flows Through Germany s Grid Big Time - Renewable Energy
News Article". 14 March 2012. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012.
Retrieved 17 June 2016. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
Jump up ^ "energy loss, transmission loss". Retrieved 15 May 2015.
Jump up ^ Biogas train in Sweden
Jump up ^ Friendly fuel trains (30 October 2005) New Straits Times, p. F17.
Jump up ^ "Bates Car - Sweet As a Nut (1975)". BFI. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
Jump up ^ National Film Board of Canada. "Bate s Car: Sweet as a Nut". NFB.ca.
Retrieved 15 May 2015.
^ Jump up to: a b What is biogas?, U.S. Department of Energy, 13 April 2010
Jump up ^ "CHP | Combined Heat and Power | Cogeneration | Wood Biomass
Gasified Co-generation | Energy Efficiency | Electricity Generation".
Alfagy.com. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 21 February
2010.
Jump up ^ Cuellar, Amanda D and Michael E Webber (2008). "Cow power: the
energy and emissions benefits of converting manure to biogas". Environ. Res.
Lett. 3 (3): 034002. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/3/3/034002.
Jump up ^ Zezima, Katie. "Electricity From What Cows Leave Behind." The New
York Times, 23 September 2008, natl. ed.: SPG9. Web. 1 October 2009.
Jump up ^ State Energy Conservation Office (Texas). "Biomass Energy: Manure
for Fuel." State Energy Conservation Office (Texas). State of Texas, 23 April
2009. Web. 3 October 2009.
Jump up ^ Trash-to-energy trend boosts anaerobic digesters [1]."
Jump up ^ Western Plains Energy finishing up North Americas largest biogas
digester [2]."
Jump up ^ "About SEBE". Archived from the original on 28 November 2014.
Retrieved 15 May 2015.
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Rohstoffe e.V.: FNR" (PDF). Retrieved 17 June 2016. [permanent dead link]
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Retrieved 15 May 2015.
Jump up ^ The Official Information Portal on AD Biogas Plant Map
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^ Jump up to: a b "European Biogas Barometer" (PDF). EurObserv ER. Retrieved 7
November 2011.
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^ Jump up to: a b /$file/11-06-27_Biogas%20Branchenzahlen%202010_eng.pdf
"Biogas Segments Statistics 2010" Check |url= value (help) (PDF). Fachverband
Biogas e.V. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
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November 2011.
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Energy Crops and Wastes in Germany" (PDF). Applied Biochemistry and
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Innovationsgeschehens" (PDF). IfnE et al. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
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2011.
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Dimensionen, neue Akteurslandschaften und planerische
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November 2011.
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Further reading[edit]
Updated Guidebook on Biogas Development. United Nations, New York, (1984)
Energy Resources Development Series No. 27. p. 178, 30 cm.
Book: Biogas from Waste and Renewable Resources. WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.
KGaA, (2008) Dieter Deublein and Angelika Steinhauser
A Comparison between Shale Gas in China and Unconventional Fuel Development in
the United States: Health, Water and Environmental Risks by Paolo Farah and
Riccardo Tremolada. This is a paper presented at the Colloquium on
Environmental Scholarship 2013 hosted by Vermont Law School (11 October 2013)
Marchaim, Uri (1992). Biogas processes for sustainable development. FAO. ISBN
92-5-103126-6.
Woodhead Publishing Series. (2013). The Biogas Handbook: Science, Production
and Applications. ISBN 978-0857094988
External links[edit]
European Biogas Association
Biogas Portal on Energypedia
American Biogas Council
An Introduction to Biogas, University of Adelaide
Biogas Wiki with a lot of useful information about basic principles and
documentation from projects of various sizes
Micro Biogas Production in Kenya
Indian Biogas Association
Listing of small scale domestic Biogas kits available by country
Biogas flaring, cleaning, dehumidification equipment

[show]
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