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ABSTRACT

Based on the definition of spectral emissivity, an experimental apparatus for normal spectral
emissivity measurement at different temperatures has been developed. The sample and
blackbody are heated by the same heating system, which permits to measure spectral emissivity
up to 1273K. The temperatures of the sample and blackbody are measured and controlled by an
infrared radiation thermometer and PID controller. The signal detection is carried out by a silicon
photo detector at 1.5 m. The experimental results focus on the capability of the apparatus to
perform emissivity measurements as a function of temperature at a fixed wavelength. Using this
apparatus, the spectral emissivity of SUS304 is first measured at different temperatures. In order
to validate the measurement capability of the apparatus for different sample, three kinds of steel
samples which have different percentages of constituents were measured. The measurement
uncertainty of the experimental apparatus is analyzed. The overall uncertainty of the apparatus
estimated is about 5%.
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUTION

BACKGROUND

Emissivity measurement apparatus: The experimental set up consists of two circular


aluminum plates identical in size provide with heater coils at the bottom Fig.1

It is kept in an enclosure so as to provide undisturbed natural convection surroundings. The


heat input to the heaters is varied by two regulators and is measured by an ammeter and
voltmeter. Each plate is having three thermocouples; hence an average temperature is
taken. One thermocouple is kept in the enclosure to read the chamber temperature. One
plate is blackened by a layer of enamel black paint to form the idealized black surface
whereas the other plate is the test plate. The temperatures of the plates are measured by
using thermocouples.

All substance at all temperature emits


thermal radiation. Thermal radiations are
an electromagnetic wave and do not
require any material medium for
propagation. All bodies can emit
radiation and have also the capacity to
absorb all or a part of radiation coming
from the surroundings towards it. An
idealized black surface is one which absorbs all the incident radiation with
reflectivity and transmissivity equal to zero. The radiant energy per unit time
per unit area from the surface is called as the emissive power and is
usually denoted by E. the emissivity of the surface is defined as the ratio
of the emissive power of a surface to that of a black surface at the same
temperature. It is dented by Thus e= E/ E

Where E
e= Emissive power of black body For a black body emissivity is unity

The emissivity of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in emitting


energy as thermal radiation. Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation
and it may include both visible radiation (light) and infrared radiation, which
is not visible to human eyes. The thermal radiation from very hot objects
(see photograph) is easily visible to the eye. Quantitatively, emissivity is the
ratio of the thermal radiation from a surface to the radiation from an ideal
black surface at the same temperature as given by the StefanBoltzmann
law. The ratio varies from 0 to 1. The surface of a black object emits thermal
radiation at the rate of approximately 448 watts per square meter at room
temperature (25 C, 298.15 K); real objects with emissivities less than 1.0
emit radiation at correspondingly lower rates.

THEORY
In radiation, energy is carried by the electromagnetic waves emitted by every object. In
general, radiation is a volumetric phenomenon. This is because the electrons, atoms and
molecules of all solids, liquids and gases above absolute zero temperature are in constant
motion and hence energy is constantly emitted, absorbed and transmitted throughout the
entire volume of the matter.

The radiation from a surface is emitted in all possible directions. A body at a temperature
above absolute zero emits radiation in all directions over a wide range of wavelength. The
amount of radiation from the surface of a body at a given temperature and at a given
wavelength depends on the material of the body and nature of its surface. A concept of an
idealized surface has been made which are perfect emitter and absorber of radiation. This
ideal surface is known as a black body.

A black body or ideal radiator is a body that emits and absorbs at any temperature the
maximum possible radiation at any given wavelength.

A black body has the following features

At a specified temperature and wavelength a black body emits more radiation energy than
the real one.

1. It absorbs all incident radiation regardless of wavelength and direction

2. It emits radiation energy uniformly in all direction. That is black body is a diffuse
emitter the term diffuse means independent of direction.
Depending on type of surface, the
reflected radiation is specular or
diffuse. A smooth and polished
surface is more specular while the
rough surface is more diffuse.

The fraction of incident energy


absorbed by the surface is called
the absorptivity. For a black body
it is equal to one.

Actually black body do not exist in nature through its characteristics are approximated by a
hole in a box filled with highly absorptive material. The emission spectrum of such a black
body was first fully described by Max Planck.

Emissivity of a surface is defined as ratio of the radiation emitted by the surface to the
radiation emitted by the black body at the same temperature.

If a sample is replaced by a black body of temperature of same area at same temperature,


under thermal equilibrium, the emissivity of the body is equal to the absorptivity.

Relationship between Absorptivity and Emissivity:


Consider two flat infinite plates, surface A and surface B, both emitting radiation towards
one another. Surface B is assumed to be an ideal emitter, B= 1.

Surface A will emit radiation according to Stefans Boltzmann law as

(1)

And will receive radiation as

(2)
Net heat flow from surface A will be

(3)

Heat emitted by the black body per unit area, (4)

Heat emitted by the test plate per unit area, (5)


b Emissivity of the black plate.
p Emissivity of the test plate
Stefan-Boltzmann constant = 5.6710-8 W m-2K-4
Tb Black body temperature in Kelvin
Tc Chamber temperature in Kelvin
Tp Test plate temperature in Kelvin
Qb = Qp since input power to the two plates is same and conduction heat loss are also same.

Emissivity, (6)

Experimental Setup:

The experimental setup consists of two similar circular copper discs

and is provided with heating coil sandwiched. One disc is blackened to


form an

1. Heater for black & test plate.


2. Test Plate : Polished Aluminum.
3. Reference Plate : Black Aluminum
4. nsulating Chamber with Perspex cover.
5. Set of thermocouples.

CONTROL PANEL :

1. 12 Channel Digital Temperature Indicator


2. Dimmerstat : 0 - 2 A., 2 Nos.
3. Main's On/Off Switch.
4. Voltmeter :0 - 250 V.
5. Ammeter :0 - 3 A.
6. Ammeter Selector Switch.

SPACE REQUIRED :

1.5 m.(L)x 1.0 m(W) table top.

Service Required :

230 v Ac Supply 50 Hz

PARTS OF EMMISIVITY APPARATUS


1.AMMETER

2.VOLTMETER

3.THERMOCOUPLE

4.THERMAL INDICATOR

AMMETER:

When using an ammeter, it is very important that the instrument is correctly


connected to the circuit. To gain an understanding of how the ammeter must be set
up, we'll use a simple circuit with a voltage source and three resistors.
This circuit has a combination of series and parallel elements. Resistor 1 and
resistor 2 form a parallel circuit that is connected in series with resistor 3. The
ammeter must be connected in series with the part of the circuit where we want to
measure the current. Let's start by seeing how to measure the overall current
flowing through the entire circuit.

On the right of the image above, the ammeter is incorrectly connected to the circuit
in parallel, which presents two problems. The first problem is that there are
alternative paths through which current can flow, meaning it will not be measured
by the ammeter. The second problem is that a short circuit has been created. Like a
wire, ammeters have a very low resistance so they will not affect the current when
correctly installed in a circuit. However, when incorrectly

VOLTMETER:

A voltmeter, also known as a voltage meter, is an instrument used for measuring the potential
difference, or voltage, between two points in an electrical or electronic circuit. Some voltmeters
are intended for use in direct current (DC) circuits; others are designed for alternating current
(AC) circuits. Specialized voltmeters can measure radio frequency (RF) voltage.

A basic analog voltmeter consists of a sensitive galvanometer (current meter) in series with a
high resistance. The internal resistance of a voltmeter must be high. Otherwise it will draw
significant current, and thereby disturb theoperation of the circuit under test. The sensitivity of
the galvanometer and the value of the series resistance determine the range of voltages that the
meter can display.
A digital voltmeter shows voltage directly as numerals. Some of these meters can determine
voltage values to several significant figures. Practical laboratory voltmeters have maximum
ranges of 1000 to 3000 volts (V). Most commercially manufactured voltmeters have several
scales, increasing in powers of 10; for example, 0-1 V, 0-10 V, 0-100 V, and 0-1000 V.

BLOCK DIAGRAM:
THERMOCOUPLE:
A thermocouple is an electrical device consisting of two dissimilar conductors forming
electrical junctions at differing temperatures. A thermocouple produces a temperature-dependent
voltage as a result of the thermoelectric effect, and this voltage can be interpreted to measure
temperature. Thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature sensor.[1]
Commercial thermocouples are inexpensive,[2] interchangeable, are supplied with standard
connectors, and can measure a wide range of temperatures. In contrast to most other methods of
temperature measurement, thermocouples are self powered and require no external form of
excitation. The main limitation with thermocouples is accuracy; system errors of less than one
degree Celsius (C) can be difficult to achieve.[3]
Thermocouples are widely used in science and industry; applications include temperature
measurement for kilns, gas turbine exhaust, diesel engines, and other industrial processes.
Thermocouples are also used in homes, offices and businesses as the temperature sensors in
thermostats, and also as flame sensors in safety devices for gas-powered major appliances.

THERMAL INDICATOR:

CoolPac is extending its range of temperature controlled packaging solutions to


include Thermal Indicators. Similar to Freeze Watch, they are small adhesive
squares that can be stuck onto temperature sensitive products to indicate when the
temperature of the package reaches below 0 deg C.

This competitively costed solution ensures that any quality issues resulting from
temperature excursions are identified and the appropriate action can be taken.
WORKING PRINCIPLE:
1.Connect the three pin plug to the 230V, 50Hz, 15 amps main supply and
switch on the unit.

2.thermocouple selector switch in first position.


3. Keep the toggle switch in position 1.
4. By operating the energy regulator 1 power will be fed to black plate.
5. Now keep the toggle switch in position 2 and operate regulator 2 and feed
power to the test .Allow the unit to stabilize.
6. Ascertain the power inputs to the black and test surfaces are at set values.
7. i.e. equal.Turn the thermocouple selector switch clockwise step by step
and note down the temperatures indicated by the temperature indicator
from channel 1 to 7.
8.Tabulate the readings and calculate.
9.After the experiment is over turn both the energy regulators 1 & 2.
10.For various power inputs repeat the experiment.
TABULATION

TABULATION :

Polished Emmissivity
Black body Chamber
Average body Average
Sl.No. temperature
Temp. Tb temperature Temp. Tp Temp. T4
T5 T6 T7 T1 T2 T3