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Construction and Building Materials 134 (2017) 641648

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Construction and Building Materials


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/conbuildmat

Flexural behaviour of bamboo based ferrocement slab panels with flyash


S. Jeeva Chithambaram , Sanjay Kumar
Department of Civil Engineering, NIT, Jamshedpur 831014, Jharkhand, India

h i g h l i g h t s

 Enhanced first crack load with the addition of flyash.


 Improved crack resistance behavior of ferrocement slab panels.
 Development of ferrocement slab panel system using bamboo reinforcement.
 Effective use of flyash and bamboo in ferrocement slab panel system.

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: There is a need to develop low cost building elements with the help of locally available materials to fulfil
Received 2 June 2016 the demand of low cost houses. In rural areas the bamboo, available in abundance, may be utilized as
Received in revised form 6 December 2016 replacement of common M.S. or HYSD bars (a costly building material). Flyash, a by-product from ther-
Accepted 29 December 2016
mal power plants can replace cement in normal mortar or concrete. The flexural behaviour of bamboo
Available online 5 January 2017
based ferrocement slab panels reinforced with chicken wire mesh layers has been studied to improve
the serviceability limit. Experimental investigations on simply supported ferrocement slab panels sub-
Keywords:
jected to monotonically increasing uniformly distributed load have been investigated. The experimental
Ferrocement slabs
Bamboo strips
programme consists of testing 12 ferrocement slab panels of size 470 mm  940 mm with the thickness
Wire mesh of 40 mm and 50 mm each having 6 slabs. Out of these slabs, 6 numbers with conventional mortar 1:3
Flyash and 6 after 15% cement replacement by fly ash, with adopting grids of bamboo strips as skeletal reinforce-
First-crack load ment, were cast, cured under wet gunny bags for 28 days and then tested under uniformly distributed
Ultimate load loading and the test results obtained were compared with the theoretical results. Test results show that
Crack pattern the first crack load and the experimental failure load have been found almost same for both types of slabs.
The ultimate load has been found to be about doubled the first crack loads. All slabs exhibited large duc-
tility before final failure in flexure.
2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction the design, construction and repair in 1989 [4]. There is a need
to achieve the alternative building materials like flyash as partial
In most developing countries, the technology for construction of replacement of cement, and bamboo for steel bars, a costly build-
houses depends on imported building materials to a large extent. ing material. This gives considerable savings in consumption of
With the rapid increase in the demand for housing, the existing cement and steel. If bamboo can be cured to not absorb water, pre-
stock of conventional building materials like cement, steel etc. served, and then be coated to adhere to cement well, bamboo
would fall short of the demand, if it is consumed indiscriminately. would be better than steel in concrete for poor countries lacking
In order to provide basic infrastructure facilities as proper dwelling a cheap source of steel. In this context, this research work has been
units to the millions of homeless people, low cost building materi- undertaken in the laboratory to develop cheap building elements
als has become an important issue. Researchers suggest that ferro- using locally available bamboo as the main structural element.
cement can be an alternative material for roofing as it is Ferrocement is a composite produced from cement, sand, wire
economical [1,2]. American Concrete Institute ACI 549 developed mesh, skeletal steel and certain mineral admixtures like flyash.
a report on ferrocement in 1988 [3] and consecutively a guide for Studies on the use of ferrocement done by Al-Kubaisy [5], suggest
that the cracking behavior of slabs made of ferrocement improved
Corresponding author. considerably well. The use of ferrocement proves to be worthy
E-mail addresses: jeeva.4191@gmail.com (S.J. Chithambaram), sanjaykumar. with respect to the small crack space and width. This is due to
civil@nitjsr.ac.in (S. Kumar).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.12.205
0950-0618/ 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
642 S.J. Chithambaram, S. Kumar / Construction and Building Materials 134 (2017) 641648

the high specific surface of the ferrocement meshes. Also, it is said suggested that a replacement of 20% cement by flyash has shown
to have a greater cracking performance along with a high tensile marginal loss in the strength and the structural performance of fer-
strength and modulus of rupture. Studies by Chee Ban Cheah et. rocement panels with woven and hexagonal wire mesh under flex-
al. [6] suggest that there is a high tendancy for thin ferrocement ure [18]. Based on the studies done by T. Ahmed et. al. [19], it is
panels to fail in the pure bending mode when subjected to a flex- suggested that the suitability of using roof slab system comprising
ural load. The long term effects and the durability of bamboo rein- of ferrocement panels with 0% and 20% flyash resting over rein-
forcement is of real concern. Studies by Cordero [7] and Lopez [8] forced concrete beams for low cost housing as it is said to have
conclude that bamboo is widely used as reinforcement material in lower crack width. They also suggest that the aforesaid system
the load bearing walls in Brazil with durability of more than 10 using flyash is ductile and environmentally viable. To reduce its
decades. They also concluded that when the correct practices and cost, the use of flyash as partial replacement of cement in the mor-
procedures for using bamboo as reinforcement in the construction tar matrix would further lead to an eco-friendly low cost construc-
industry were not followed, bamboo degradation is possibly tion without any loss of structural integrity. The thickness of
observed. Many researchers [916] have reported use of bamboo ferrocement slab panels generally ranges from 25mmto 50 mm.
as reinforcement in the construction of bamboo based ferrocement Flexural tests were conducted on ferrocement panels of size
slab panels. Mansur et al. [9] studied the cement mortar reinforced 470 mm  940 mm (40 mm and 50 mm thickness) with hexagonal
with bamboo mesh in a manner similar to ferrocement. The main wire meshes in 2 layers using 15% flyash as partial replacement of
parameter of the study was the volume fraction of bamboo and cement. The main objective of this investigation was to examine
its surface treatment. Test results indicate that inclusion of bam- the suitability of using flyash in the mortar matrix. Test on mortar
boo mesh imparts considerable ductility and toughness to the mor- control specimens and the wire meshes were also carried out. The
tar, and increases significantly its tensile, flexural and impact structural units using the ferrocement panels can be used with
strengths. Use of some waterproofing coating has been found to confidence as roofing elements.
be effective to overcome high water absorption of bamboo and to
improve its seemingly poor bond strength. Wu You and Zongjin 2. Experimental programme
Li [10] reported the flexural behavior of bamboo-fibre-reinforced
mortar laminates. The laminate considered in this study is a sand- In order to study the effect of flyash on the flexural behaviour of
wich plate and extruded fibre-reinforced mortar sheet. Due to its ferrocement slabs, test panels of 40 mm and 50 mm thick were
high strength to weight ratio, the reinforced bamboo can remark- considered. The bamboo strips in the skeletal grid with two layers
ably strengthen the mortar and reduce the total weight of the lam- of chicken wire mesh were placed as reinforcement in the test pan-
inate. Test results show that, for the laminates with reformed els. A minimum of three identical specimens were tested for each
bamboo plate on the bottom as tensile layer and fibre-reinforced group.
mortar sheet on the top as compressive layer, the flexural strength
values can be improved to greater than 90 MPa. Vijay Raj [11]
2.1. Materials
investigated the potential of bamboo for utilization as reinforce-
ment in ferrocement skeletal grid. He concluded that bamboo is
The materials required for casting test panels are cement, fly-
a cheap and replenishable agricultural resource; the availability
ash, sand, water, bamboo strips and wire meshes, which are dis-
of which can be regulated as per the demand. The utilization of
cussed below.
bamboo reinforcements in ferrocement can thus turn out to be a
cheap and ideal alternative for the present and future time, where
most other resources like steel etc are rapidly getting depleted. He 2.1.1. Cement and flyash
has also recommended that to popularize their use it is necessary Ordinary Portland Cement 43-grade satisfying the requirements
to develop standard designs so that these are available to the com- of IS specifications [20] having specific gravity 3.1, fineness-3.25%
mon man. Lee, Teang Shui [12] investigated the properties of bam- on IS 90 micron sieve was used. The class F-Type flyash obtained
boo material that can be utilized for the skeletal framework in from Jojobera power plant (Jamshedpur) confirming to IS specifica-
ferrocement structures and tests were performed to establish the tions [21] with its physical properties: grey in colour, fine spherical
properties of bamboo and bamboo reinforced mortar. Bond, particulates ranging in diameter from 100 to 0.5 lm, 1.5% fineness
swelling-shrinkage behavior of bamboo culm and impact are some retained on IS 90 micron sieve and specific gravity 2.04 was used.
of the tests conducted. It was found that structurally sound and The chemical properties of class F-type flyash were found to be Fe
lighter structures made from bamboo as the skeletal framework (T) = 2.13.5, MgO = 0.200.60, CaO = 0.851.2, Alkali = 1.451.55,
can be constructed. Prasad, J. et al. [13] studied the use of bamboo Al2O3 = 21.924.3, SiO2 = 44.947.6, TiO2 = 1.49, C = 1220,
for making low cost housing in hilly regions. However, wall and P2O5 = 0.3090.663, percents.
roof elements made of simple bamboo mat do not last due to their
poor strength against static as well as impact loads and durability. 2.1.2. Sand and water
It is recommended to use bamboo based cement-sand mortar pan- Locally available sand from river, Kharkai, Jamshedpur, India
els as wall and roofing elements in dwelling units made in hilly passing through the IS 4.75 mm sieve, and free from impurities
regions. As suggested by P.K. Imbulan et al. [14], based on the having specific gravity 2.59, fineness modulus-2.61 and confirm-
available literature on physical and mechanical properties of bam- ing to zone-II as per IS specifications [22] was used. Tap water was
boo, bamboo is no longer the poor mans timber and it can be used for both mixing of mortar and curing of test specimens.
used confidentally in structural applications.
It has been established that bamboo based ferrocement slabs up 2.1.3. Bamboo strip and wire mesh
to an effective span of 1.5 m can be easily constructed for use in Locally available bamboo strip of size 12 mm  12 mm thick
residential public buildings [15]. Based on the studies by Kumar coated with anti-termite and then protective coating (TOP COAT)
Sanjay et. al., it is reported that the cost of bamboo reinforced fer- to preserve it against the action of insects, fungus and water, was
rocement slab with conventional mortar and flyash was found to used as specified by IS: 8242-1976 [23]. The specimen tested
be about 50% less than the conventional reinforced ferrocement was having an ultimate tensile strength (max.) = 72.54 N/mm2,
elements [16]. The span/deflection ratio as 200 for ribbed ferroce- modulus of elasticity (max.) = 45.2 kN/mm2, moisture con-
ment element was suggested by Trikha et. al. [17]. Arif M et. al. tent = 18.18% and specific gravity = 0.811. Fig. 1 indicates a typical
S.J. Chithambaram, S. Kumar / Construction and Building Materials 134 (2017) 641648 643

80 Table 2
Properties of mortar.

Property Cement Mortar Mortar Strength after


70 Strength (N/mm2) 15% Cement Replaced
by flyash (N/mm2)

60 28-day compressive strength 44.12 44.05


TENSILE STRESS, N/mm 2

Direct tensile strength 4.41 4.40


Modulus of rupture 4.65 4.67
50

40 gunny bags for 28 days and then air dried for 5 days before the
testing. The volume fraction of bamboo and the wire mesh were
kept constant. A total of 12 ferrocement panels were cast in two
30 groups having 6 specimens each for 40 mm and 50 mm thick pan-
els. Each 6 panels were further divided into two sub groups were
20 considered with conventional cement mortar and after 15%
replacement of cement by flyash. Three cubes of 70.6 mm in size
were also cast for each panel to assess the avg. compressive
10 strength of mortar at 28 days of maturity. Table 3 shows the details
of ferrocement slab panels tested under flexure.
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 2.4. Testing of panels
STRAIN x 10 -4
All panels were tested as simply supported along the edges and
Fig. 1. A typical stress - strain curve for bamboo specimen. a uniformly distributed load over the entire top surface of slab was
applied through the brick layers. The subsequent brick layers were
corbelled out by providing steps giving 1/2 horizontal to 1 vertical
stress-strain curve for bamboo specimen used. In ferrocement, the slope. This corbelling was continued till the size of the top brick
overlapped chicken wire is generally used, as it gives great strength layer was equal to about 200 mm  200 mm so as to accommodate
and ability to withstand stress. On putting two layers of hexagonal a steel plate of the same size. The load was applied on the panels
chicken wire placed over and under bamboo grid the cement mor- through a hand jack with proving ring of 50 kN capacity as per IS
tar is forced to fill in all the spaces to get a compact cement struc- specifications [24] for all practical purposes. Photo 1 shows the test
ture. The hexagonal chicken wire mesh procured from local market set up for ferrocement slab.
having dia. 0.90 mm and side 12.5 mm was used. The mechanical
properties of the wire mesh obtained are shown in Table 1.
3. Theoretical analysis

2.2. Mortar mix


3.1. Specific surface of mesh reinforcement

Mortar control specimens were prepared from a 43-grade of


The specific surface of the mesh reinforcement (mm) [25], is
Ordinary Portland Cement and well-graded dry sharp sand in the
ratio of 1:3 with clean water of water/cement ratio of 0.45 and SL 4NWm =kUh 1
15% replacement of cement by fly ash for ferrocement construc-
where;
tion. Table 2 shows the properties of mortar. The ultimate tensile
N = number of mesh layers in the composite
strength of mortar, rmu was taken one tenth of the compressive
Wm = the weight of a mesh per unit area, N/mm2
strength of mortar.
k = unit weight of steel, kN/mm3
h = thickness of ferrocement elements, mm
2.3. Casting and curing of test panels U = wire diameter, mm

Steel moulds were used for casting of test panels. All moulds
3.2. First-crack load
were thoroughly cleaned and corner junctions were bolted and
mobile oil was applied at inner faces. A grid of bamboo strip
The first crack stress, rcr, (N/mm2) of the composite was esti-
12 mm  12 mm in size was used as skeletal reinforcement in both
mated by using Logan and Shahs expression [26], i.e.
directions with 100 mm spacing and covered with a hexagonal
wire mesh was laid on the compacted 6 mm thick uniform mortar rcr 28:02SL rmu 2
layer. The mortar layer was spread and compacted manually. This
where;
process is repeated till the required thickness of the test panel was
SL = the specific surface of mesh reinforcement in mm1 and
obtained. Test panels were demoulded after 24 h, cured under wet
rmu = modulus of rupture of mortar, N/mm2,respectively.

Table 1 The moment at first crack, Mcr of the composite is calculated by,
Mechanical properties of wire mesh. !
2
h
Wire mesh type Properties Values Mcr rcr  1  3
6
Hexagonal mesh Average diameter 0.90 mm
Dimension of repeating Y section 12.5  12.5 mm where;
Yield strength in tension 400.15 N/mm2
Modulus of elasticity 99.57  103 N/mm2
h = the thickness of the slab, mm
rcr = bending stress at the onset of first crack, N/mm2
644 S.J. Chithambaram, S. Kumar / Construction and Building Materials 134 (2017) 641648

Table 3
Details of ferrocement slab panels tested.

Slab Panel Designation Slab Panel Thickness (mm) No. of Hexagonal Mesh Layer Mesh Volume Fraction Fly Ash Percent Mix Proportion C/FA/S
S1 40 2 0.00028 00 1.00:0.00:3.00
S2 40 2 0.00028 00 1.00:0.00:3.00
S3 40 2 0.00028 00 1.00:0.00:3.00
SF1 40 2 0.00028 15 0.85:0.15:3.00
SF2 40 2 0.00028 15 0.85:0.15:3.00
SF3 40 2 0.00028 15 0.85:0.15:3.00
S4 50 2 0.00028 00 1.00:0.00:3.00
S5 50 2 0.00028 00 1.00:0.00:3.00
S6 50 2 0.00028 00 1.00:0.00:3.00
SF4 50 2 0.00028 15 0.85:0.15:3.00
SF5 50 2 0.00028 15 0.85:0.15:3.00
SF6 50 2 0.00028 15 0.85:0.15:3.00

S Bamboo Reinforced Cement Mortar Ferrocement Slab.


SF Bamboo Reinforced Flyash Cement Mortar Ferrocement Slab.
C: Cement; FA: Fly Ash; S: Sand.

(iii) All the tensile forces are taken by wire mesh and bamboo
strips which are stretched to their yield strength. These yield
strengths are assumed to be 90% of their ultimate strengths
of the wire mesh and skeletal steel.

Consider 1 m strip of bamboo based ferrocement panels.


The compressive force taken by mortar

C 0:67b xu f ck 6
The tensile force contributed by wire mesh and skeletal bamboo
strips

T f ys  Ast f yb  Ab 7

where;
Photo 1. Test set-up of ferrocement slab.
fys = the yield strength of wire mesh; fyb = the yield strength of
bamboo strip
Ast = the area of wire mesh; Ab = the area of bamboo strip.
The moment at the center of a simply supported rectangular
slab subjected to u.d.l. in the shorter direction [27] is Xu f ys  Ast f yb  Ab =0:67b xu f ck 8
qxa  x
Mx  qa2 p2
2 The moment of resistance; MR C or T  Lever arm 9
" #
X X1
mpx
  m2 f2mBm  1  mAmg sin 4 If m and lm are the moment carrying capacities of the slab
m1;3;5
a about the longitudinal and transverse axis, then the ultimate load
carrying capacity of the slab, wu is given by
The condition for maximum moment at the mid span, at x = a2,
y = 0 and considering only the first term of the above series i.e. 24  m  a
m = 1, the above equation reduces to Wu 10
a2  3a  2 tan u
Mx Maximum 0:077qa2 5
where; a ab 2, take l = 1 for all practical purposes.
where q is the intensity of uniformly distributed load, the short
q
span length and 0.077 is the coefficient for long span over short
span ratio of 1.5 and assumed Poissons ratio of 0.15 for mortar. tan / 3l l=a2  l=a 11
The computed first crack load for various slabs and their corre- The theoretical ultimate loads taken by wire mesh and mortar,
sponding experimental values are given in Table 4. and bamboo strips are as under (Fig. 2).
The theoretical load taken by wire and mortar
3.3. Ultimate loads
fT m1  dm1  0:5xu T m2  dm2  0:5xu g
Assumptions considered are  wu 12
Total M:O say m

(i) The tensile strength of the mortar is neglected. The theoretical load taken by bamboo
(ii) The compressive force is taken by mortar having rectangular
T sk :dsk  0:5xu
stress block of width 0.67 fck taken from Indian Standard  wu 13
Specification IS 456: 2000 [28] as shown in Fig. 2 where m
fck = characteristic strength of mortar and xu = depth of neu- By using the yield line theory the ultimate load carrying capac-
tral axis. The contribution of wire mesh in resisting com- ity of the slab is calculated. Fig. 3 shows yield line patterns of a fer-
pression is neglected. rocement slab.
S.J. Chithambaram, S. Kumar / Construction and Building Materials 134 (2017) 641648 645

Table 4
Theoretical and experimental values of first crack and ultimate load.

Slab Theoretical First Crack Load Experimental First Crack Theoretical Ultimate Load Total (A Experimental Ultimate load
Series (kN) Load (kN) + B) (kN)
Mortar and Wire Mesh (A) Bamboo Strips(B)
(kN) (kN)
S1 12.00 13.50 6.29 19.24 25.53 28.80
S2 12.00 14.45 6.29 19.24 25.53 29.25
S3 12.00 14.50 6.29 19.24 25.53 28.50
SF1 12.05 14.25 6.43 19.69 26.12 27.85
SF2 12.05 14.35 6.43 19.69 26.12 26.40
SF3 12.05 14.60 6.43 19.69 26.12 26.35
S4 18.75 20.70 7.80 27.76 35.56 38.25
S5 18.75 20.95 7.80 27.76 35.56 39.05
S6 18.75 21.45 7.80 27.76 35.56 39.50
SF4 18.83 22.00 7.80 27.76 35.56 40.30
SF5 18.83 21.80 7.80 27.76 35.56 39.35
SF6 18.83 21.45 7.80 27.76 35.56 38.65

0.67 fck
3.9 xu
C

d ds d d
h
Tm1
Tsk T
Tm2

Fig. 2. Strain and stress distribution in a ferrocement section under bending.

ash respectively. Similarly, the slab series S4 to S 5 and SF4 to SF6


b denotes the 50 mm thick ferrocement panels without and with fly-
ash respectively. It is clear from the table that the theoretical first
crack loads of ferrocement slab without and with flyash having a
Yield lines thickness of 40 mm are 12.00 kN and 12.05 kN respectively,
whereas the corresponding experimental values are in the range
of 13.50 kN to 14.60 kN. For 40 mm thick panels the theoretical
a ultimate loads taken by mortar without and with flyash and wire
where = long span/short span = b/a mesh are found to be 6.29 kN and 6.43 kN whereas for bamboo
strips the corresponding values are 19.24 kN and 19.69 kN, respec-
tively. The experimental ultimate loads of the ferrocement panels
without flyash and after 15% cement replacement by flyash are
in the range of 26.35 kN to 29.25 kN.
Table 4 also indicates that the theoretical first crack loads of 6
a numbers of ferrocement panels having thickness 50 mm without
. tan and with fly ash are 18.75 kN and 18.83 kN respectively whereas
2
the corresponding experimental values are in the range of
Fig. 3. A Yield line pattern of a ferrocement slab. 20.70 kN and 22.00 kN. The theoretical ultimate loads taken by
mortar and wire mesh, and bamboo strips for 50 mm thick slab
are found to be 7.80 kN and 27.76 kN, respectively, whereas the
4. Test results and discussions corresponding experimental ultimate loads of the ferrocement slab
without flyash and after 15% cement replacement by flyash are in
4.1. Load-deflection behaviour the range of 38.25 kN to 40.30 kN. This shows that the first crack
load and experimental failure load have been found nearly the
Table 4 shows the details of theoretical and experimental values same for both types of slab and the experimental ultimate load is
of first crack load and ultimate load for 6 numbers of each 40 mm about doubled of that of the first crack load for all slabs. As the
and 50 mm thick panels. The slab series S1 to S1 and SF1 to SF1 thickness of the slab increases from 40 mm to 50 mm, the load car-
denotes the 40 mm thick ferrocement panels without and with fly- rying capacity of the slab is increased by 50% for all slabs. With 15%
646 S.J. Chithambaram, S. Kumar / Construction and Building Materials 134 (2017) 641648

Table 5
Comparison of loads and deflections for ferrocement slab panels.

Slab First Crack Deflection at First Crack Ultimate Deflection at Ultimate Ratio of Ultimate Load to Ratio of Deflection at Ultimate Load to
Series Load (kN) Load (mm) Load (kN) Load (mm) First Crack Load First Crack Load
S1 13.50 15.20 28.80 28.80 34.40 2.26
S2 14.45 15.10 29.25 29.25 36.20 2.40
S3 14.50 13.00 28.50 28.50 37.00 2.85
SF1 14.25 12.30 27.85 27.85 36.50 2.97
SF2 14.35 15.20 26.40 26.40 38.70 2.55
SF3 14.60 14.10 26.35 26.35 40.80 2.89
S4 20.70 18.20 38.25 38.25 39.80 2.19
S5 20.95 17.90 39.05 39.05 41.20 2.30
S6 21.45 17.80 39.50 39.50 42.50 2.30
SF4 22.00 19.50 40.30 40.30 40.50 2.10
SF5 21.80 19.80 39.35 39.35 38.80 1.96
SF6 21.45 19.60 38.65 38.65 35.60 1.92

cement replacement by flyash for 40 mm thick slab tested under mesh of the theoretical ultimate load capacity of the slab is about
flexure, only 510% reduction in load carrying capacity is observed three times higher corresponding to experimental ultimate load
and for 50 mm thick slab the load carrying capacity is found to be capacity which is about 67 to 74 percent for slabs panels without
nearly the same. Based on the experimental results, as the load and with flyash. All slabs exhibited large ductility before final fail-
increases the first cracks were seen on the tension face which is ure in flexure as it is clear from the figures. When compared its cost
due to the failure of mortar on the tension face. But, the load car- with the conventional reinforced concrete elements and ferroce-
rying capacity of slab panels increased since the wire meshes pre- ment elements with steel skelton the cost of bamboo ferrocement
sent carried additional loads. With the constant increase in loading,
cracks started to propagate near the mortar layer. Also, the number
of cracks and their width increased. 50
The load deflection behavior of ferrocement slabs having a
45
thickness of 40 mm and 50 mm has been presented in Table 5
and its graphical representation through Figs. 47. The comparison 40
of loads and deflection of ferrocement slab panels are given up in
35
Table 5.
It is clear from the Table 5 that the ratio of the deflection at ulti-
LOAD, kN

30
mate load to first crack load varies from 2.26 to 2.97 for ferroce-
25
ment panels without and with flyash content for 40 mm thick
whereas the corresponding values of 50 mm thick panels are in 20
the range of 1.922.30.
In general, the load deflection curve is found to be steeper for all 15 SF1
slabs. For mortar with and without flyash, the load deflection 10 SF2
curves were found to be linear up to the first crack load and then
non-linearity started. The slope decreased continuously and finally 5 SF3
became zero at ultimate load. It was observed that ferrocement 0
slab reinforced with hexagonal wire mesh with and without flyash 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
gives nearly the same ultimate load. The theoretical values of the CENTRAL DEFLECTION,mm
first crack load and ultimate load for various slabs have shown rea-
sonably good agreement with the corresponding experimental val- Fig. 5. Load-deflection curve of 40 mm thick ferrocement with flyash.
ues. The contribution of bamboo strips along with mortar and wire

50

50 45
45 40
40 35
35
LOAD, kN

30
LOAD, kN

30
25
25 S4
20
20 S5
S1 15
15 S6
10 S2 10

5 S3 5
0 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
CENTRAL DEFLECTION, mm CENTRAL DEFLECTION, mm
Fig. 4. Load-deflection curve of 40 mm thick ferrocement slab without flyash. Fig. 6. Load-deflection curve of 50 mm thick ferrocement slab without flyash.
S.J. Chithambaram, S. Kumar / Construction and Building Materials 134 (2017) 641648 647

50 the use of bamboo as replacement of steel and flyash as partial


replacement of cement can be used as roofing slab panels particu-
45
larly for inaccessible roofing for low cost housing. This type of sys-
40 tem will be useful for low cost housing in rural and sub urban
35 areas. The benefits of this system is the utilization of flyash waste
LOAD, kN

30 and bamboo, thus conserving the environment without hindering


the structural integrity of the system. Also, Ferrocement and bam-
25
boo strips can be considered as one among the building materials
20 SF4 that are less capital intensive and can be categorized under low
15 SF5 cost roofing materials.
10 SF6
5 Funding
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 This research did not receive any specific grant from funding
CENTRAL DEFLECTION, mm agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Fig. 7. Load-deflection curve of 50 mm thick ferrocement with flyash.


Acknowledgements

Authors are thankful to the faculty members & staff of the


Department of Civil Engineering, for their assistance, and the
Director, National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur, India for
his permission to publish the paper.

References

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1984.
[3] ACI Committee 549, State-of-the-Art Report on Ferrocement. Reported by ACI
Committee 549, 1988.
[4] ACI Committee 549, Guide for Design, Construction and Repair of Ferrocement
Photo 2. Crack pattern of ferrocement slab. ACI 549 IR-881989, 1989.
[5] M.A. Al-Kubaisy, M.Z. Jumaat, Flexural behavior of reinforced concrete slabs
with ferrocement tension zone cover, J. Construct. Build. Mater. 14 (2000) 245
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