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# ABSTRACT

The experiment was carried out using the SOLTEQ Film and Dropwise
Condensation (Model: HE163). It has been specially developed for use in students
teaching which enable them to visually observe the process of heat transfer during
condensation. In the other hand, as well as gather experimental data for a better
theoretical understanding.

## Filmwise and dropwise are two forms of condensation. In filmwise

condensation a laminar film of vapour is created upon a surface. This can then flow
downwards, increasing in thickness as additional vapour is picked up along the way.
In dropwise condensation vapour droplets below them along the way. The first
objective of this experiment is to demonstrate the filmwise and dropwise
condensation. The second is to determine the filmwise heat flux and surface heat
transfer coefficient at constant pressure. The third objective is similar with second
objective but it is for dropwise condensation. The last objective is to investigate
what effect the presence of air in the condenser has on heat flux and surface heat
transfer coefficient.

ABSTRACT

This Film and Dropwise Condensation Unit is used to observe the process of
heat transfer during condensation, as well as gather experimental data for a better
theoretical understanding. The unit itself contained bench top unit, with an
integrated steam generator and air extraction system. The main components in the
unit are the specially designed condensers for the observation of both filmwise and
dropwise condensation about the differences of them. In this experiment, we want
to study the heat transfer coefficient and the heat flux. Besides that, we were study
the effect of air inside the chamber. Condensation occurs when vapour changes to
liquid state with a large heat-transfer coefficient. Filmwise condensation occurs on a
vertical or horizontal plane when a film of condensate is formed on surface and
flows by action of gravity. Dropwise condensation occurs when small drops formed
on surface. The heat transfer coefficient can be calculated using Nussselt
equation. . Nusselt assumed that the heat transfer that occurs from the vapour
through the film and to the wall is conduction. Since the process is conduction is
well known, therefore calculation on the heat-transfer coefficients can be done. In
this experiment, obtained data are for Tsat, Tsurf , Tin and Tout.
INTRODUCTION

The use of steam both for power production to convey heat has a long history
and its use in these fields is likely to continue into the foreseeable future.

## In all applications, the steam must be condensed as it transfers heat to a

cooling medium which could be cold water in a condenser of generating station, hot
water in a heating calorifier, sugar solution in a sugar refinery and etc. During
condensation very high heat fluxes are possible and provided that the heat can be
quickly transferred from the condensing surface into the cooling medium, the heat
exchangers can be compact and effective.

Steam may condense onto a surface in two distinct modes, known as the
Filmwise and the Dropwise condensation. For the same temperature difference
between the steam and the surface, dropwise condensation is several times more
effective than filmwise, and for this reason the former is desirable although in
practical plants, it seldom occurs for prolonged periods.

The SOLTEQ Film and Dropwise Condensation Unit (Model: HE163) is designed
to help student to understand several key aspects in condensation topic, in
particular the process of filmwise and dropwise condensation. It allows students to
visualize both phenomena and perform a few experiments to demonstrate both
concepts.

Aims

## To demonstrate the filmwise and dropwise condensation

To determine the filmwise heat flux and surface heat transfer coefficient at
constant pressure
To determine the dropwise heat flux and surface heat transfer coefficient at
constant pressure
To determine the effect of air on heat transfer coefficient of condensation
Abstract

The equipment that is used is Film and Dropwise Condensation Unit (Model:
NE 163). There are about four experiments that should be run to achieve the
objective of the experiment. The student must be observed the process of heat
transfer during condensation, as well as gather experimental data for a better
theoretical understanding. The main components in the unit are the specially
designed condensers for the observation of both filmwise and dropwise
condensation.

Introduction

## Filmwise and Dropwise are two form of condensation. In filmwise

condensation a laminar film vapour is created upon a surface. This film can then
flow downward, increasing in thickness as additional vapour is picked up along the
way. In dropwise condensation vapour droplets form at an acute angle to a surface.
These droplets then flow downwards, accumulating static droplets below them
along the way.

## The objective of this experiment is to investigate the difference in heat flux

between the two forms of condensation for the same conditions. The next objective
is to investigate what effect the presence of air in the condenser has on the heat
flux and surface heat transfer coefficient. This experiment would be used in by any
industry which is trying to increase the efficiency of heat transfer. An example of
this is any vapour cycle such as the Rankine cycle. By increasing the efficiency of
the condenser, its operational pressure can be reduced and the overall efficiency of
the cycle can be increased.

OBJECTIVES

## To demonstrate the filmwise and dropwise condensation.

To determine the filmwise heat flux and surface heat transfer coefficient at
constant pressure.
To determine the dropwise heat flux and surface heat transfer coefficient at
constant pressure.

INTRODUCTION

## Filmwise and dropwise are two type of condensation. In filmwise

condensation, when the surface is cooled down, water form a continuous film.

## Dropwise condensation occurs when a vapor condenses on a surface not

wetted by the condensate. For nonmetal vapors, dropwise condensation gives much
higher heat transfer coefficients than those found with film condensation. For
instance, the heat transfer coefficient for dropwise condensation of steam is around
10 times that for film condensation at power station condenser pressures and more
than 20 times that for film condensation at atmospheric pressure. In circumstances
where the filmwise coefficient is of similar magnitude to that on the cooling side, a
change of mode to dropwise condensation offers a potential improvement in overall
coefficient by a factor of up to around 2.

## In all application, the steam must be condensed as it transfer heat to a

cooling medium which could ;be cold water in a condenser of generating station,
hot water in a heating calorifier, sugar solution in a sugar refinery and etc. During
condensation very high heat flux is provided so that the heat can be quickly
transferred from the condensing surface into the cooling medium, the heat
exchangers can be compact and effective.

## HE163) is designed to help student to understand several key aspects in

condensation topic, in particular the process of filmwise and dropwise condensation.
It allows students to visualize both phenomena and perform a few experiments to
demonstrate both concepts and how their applied and give benefit in industry.