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NME-501, Machine Design-1

UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Introduction
5.1 Design for Fluctuating Loads
5.2 Estimated Endurance Limit , Se
5.3 Endurance Limit for Axial loading
5.4 Endurance Strength of Machine Components
Example (5.1, 5.2)
5.5 Theoretical Fatigue Stress Concentration factor Kt
5.6 Notch Sensitivity Factor, q
5.7 Miscellaneous factors Ke
5.8 Methods of Reducing Stress Concentration
5.9 Failure points under fluctuating and pulsating stresses
5.10 Soderberg and Goodman lines (for axial and bending stresses)
5.11 Gerber Curve
5.12 Fluctuating Torsional Shear Stresses
5.13 Fatigue Design Under Fluctuating Combined Stresses
5.14 Combined Loading due to Rotating Shaft Subjected to
Constant Torque and Stationary Bending Load
Example (5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6)
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UNIT-2: Chapter-5
Design for Fluctuating Loads
5.1 A large number of mechanical components are subjected to
loads that are not static but fluctuating or cyclic. Even a static
load causes cyclic stresses in a rotating shaft. As such we shall
discuss design of mechanical elements subjected to fluctuating
cyclic stresses.

Fluctuating stresses are also called cyclic as they are repetitive


when plotted against time as abscissa. The shape of repetitive
stress-time curve is not important but the mean and amplitude
of stresses are; and same will be discussed.

Ultimate and yield strengths were used in the design under static
loads. In the case of fluctuating loads, in addition to ultimate and
yields strengths, we shall need the strength of materials under
fluctuating stresses. It is called fatigue strength of a material
which is much lower than ultimate or yield strength.

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Fatigue Testing Machine (rotating beam machine)

Fig. 5.1

Fig. 5.2

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Variation of Stresses in rotating beam machine

Fig. 5.3

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Stress-time relations

Fig. 5.4

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Classification of Cyclic Stresses


Stress-time relations show that the stresses are not static
but vary in magnitude with time. Cyclic stresses cause
fatigue failure and the objective here is to design machine
elements that do not fail due to fatigue during the specified
design life.
Broadly speaking, the cyclic stresses are classified according
to the relative magnitudes of mean stress and stress
amplitude as follows:
1
Mean stress: = ( + ) (5.1)
2
1
Stress amplitude: = ( ) (5.2)
2
Where are the maximum and minimum
stresses, respectively?

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Classification of Cyclic Stresses (Contd.)


1
- Reversed stresses : = 0, = ( ) (5.3)
2
- Repeated or pulsating stresses: = 0 (5.4)

- Fluctuating stresses : , and are all non-zero


- Any of the three types of stresses is superimposed upon a
steady or static component.

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Fatigue Strength: The S-N Curve

Fig. 5.5

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Fatigue Strength and Endurance Limit (The S-N Diagram)


The determine the fatigue strength of materials; standard specimen is
subjected to reversed stresses in a Rotating Beam fatigue testing
machine The machine subjects the specimen to pure bending. The
specimen is very carefully machined to standard dimensions and
polished. (Fatigue-Testing machine are also available for applying
fluctuating or reversed axial stresses, torsional stress, or combined
stresses to the test specimens)
To determine the fatigue strength of a material, a number of tests are
necessary with different values of stress amplitude , mean stress
being zero in all the cases. For example, the first test with = 0.94 Sut,
Second one with = 0.85 Sut, and so on till = 0.5 Sut or so. The
number of cycles N to failure is record in each case. The observations
are plotted on a semi-log or log-log paper.
The ordinate of S-N diagram is called the fatigue strength Sf and the
number of cycle N to which it belongs.

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Fatigue Strength and Endurance Limit (The S-N Diagram)

Fig. 5.6

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Nomenclature of Fatigue Strengths based on life in cycles

Low cycle and higher cycle Fatigue


Generally, the region upto 103 cycles is low cycle fatigue. Strictly
speaking Sut may be defined as - cycle fatigue, but in the S-N diagram
Sut is plotted against 100 cycles. As such on the log-log plot, line joining
(0, Su) and (3,0.9 Su) is the failure line for low cycle fatigue. Some
defense equipment is design for life in this region.
Limited cycle fatigue for finite life design is the life between 103 to 106
cycles, for which a line connecting points (3, 0.9 Su) and (6, Se) is
drawn. From this line, life of a component can be estimated.
Infinite Cycle Fatigue
When the amplitude of stress in a reversed cycle stress is less than
endurance strength Se, the life of the component is considered infinite.

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Nomenclature of Fatigue Strengths based on life in cycles

Fig. 5.7

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5.2 Estimated Endurance Limit , Se


The determination of endurance limit by fatigue testing is lengthy and expensive,
but for initial failure analysis or preliminary design, a quick method for estimating
endurance in bending, shear and tensile loads is needed. On the basis of a large
number of tests, the following relations for estimating the mean endurance limit
Se are used

1. Rotating-beam specimen (Bending)

For Steels,
Se = 0.5 Sut Sut 1400 MPa
Se = 700 MPa Sut > 1400 MPa (5.5)

For Cast iron and cast steels,


Se = 0.45 Sut MPa Sut 600 MPa
Se = 275 MPa Sut > 600 MPa (5.6)

(Se = 0.4 Sut according to Bhandari)

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Endurance Limit (Contd.)

For wrought aluminum alloys (in bending)


Se = 0.4 Sut (5.7)

For cast aluminum alloys (in bending)


Se = 0.3 Sut (5.8)

2. Endurance Limit for Torsional shear stresses

Sse = 0.5 Se (maximum-shear-stress theory) (5.9)

Sse = 0.577 Se (maximum-distortion-energy theory) (5.10)

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Endurance Limit (Contd.)

5.3 Endurance Limit for Axial loading

(Se) axial = 0.8 Se for steels (5.11)

Se = endurance limit of a standard specimen of the respective material in a


rotating beam machine.

Sut is ultimate tensile strength of a standard tension specimen of the respective


material in tension testing machine. (Se) axial is the endurance limit of steel in push
pull type fatigue testing machine.

It may be observed that the endurance limit of a polished specimen is being


estimated from the ultimate strength of the same material.

Further, it should be noted the estimated or measured endurance limit is an


average or mean value from the somewhat scattered data points.

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Fatigue Strengths in tension

Fig. 5.7

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5.4 Endurance Strength of Machine Components


The endurance limit of a real machine component is lower than the estimated of
experimentally determined endurance limit because the size, shape, surface finish, etc
of a components are generally quite different from those of the specimens used in
testing. As such the following relationship is generally used to determine endurance
strength of real component.

Se = Ka Kb Kc Kd Ke Se (5.12)

Se = endurance strength of a component, MPa


Se = endurance limit or endurance strength of the material of the component, MPa
Ka = surface finish factor
Kb = size factor
Kc = reliability factor
Kd = modifying factor for stress concentration
Ke = miscellaneous factor

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Surface finish factor Ka

Fig. 5.8

The surface finish factors in the figure are based on large number of
experiments on wrought steels and are not applicable to other ductile
materials like aluminum.
Cast iron is generally not used for machine components under fluctuating
loads; but if needed ka may be used as 1 because even the mirror finished.
Cast-iron specimen will have graphite flakes and other discontinuities.
Ka = 1 for cast iron (5.13)
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Size factor Kb for rotating circular parts


The diameter of a rotating-beam specimen is only 7.5 mm; machine
part having larger diameters are likely to have lower endurance
strength than Se because larger the part, greater the possibility of a
flaw in the part. Therefore the chances of fatigue failure originating
from any one of those flows are more. Thus, the endurance limit of
machine member is reduced by the size factor Kb as shown in the table

Table 5.1 Values of Factor Kb for rotating Shafts


(Load type: bending or torsional)
Diameter d (mm) Kb

d 7.5 1.00
7.5 <d 50 0.85
d > 50 0.75
For axial loading 1.00
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Reliability Factor Kc
The published fatigue strength data has a scatter, and the SN curve is plotted
through the mean of the scatter points. It means that the endurance limit has
a reliability of 50%, i.e., 50-percent components may fail earlier than the one
million stress cyber. The standard deviation of the data points for steels is
limited to 8% of the mean value. Using this value of standard deviation,
reliability factor Kc for a desired reliably is calculated below:
Table 5.2 Values of Reliability Factor
Reliability R (%) Kc
50 1.000
90 0.897
95 0.868
99 0.814
99.9 0.753
99.99 0.702
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Example 5.1
A 20-mm bar is made of 45C8 steel (Su = 630, Sy = 380 MPa) is subjected to a completely
reversed bending stress.
Estimate the following:
(a) Endurance Limit of 45C8 steel
(b) Endurance strength of polished 20-mm bar
(c) Endurance Strength of machined 45C8 steel bar of 20-mm dia with 99% reliability
(d) Fatigue strength of machined 45C8 steel 20-mm dia bar with 99% reliability for a life of
80,000 cycles
Solution
Given 20-mm bar of 45C8, Su = 630 MPa and Sy = 380 MPa
Loaded by completely reversed bending stress
Assumptions
- Actual fatigue data not known for the material
- Endurance limit to be estimated
- S-N curve to be constructed

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Analysis
Estimated endurance limit Se = 0.5 Sut from Equation 5.5 for steels
Size factor Kb = 0.85 (Table 5.1)
(a) Se = 315 MPa for polished 7.5 mm bar
(b) Se = Ka Kb Kc Kd Ke Se for Polished 20-mm bar:
Se = (1) (0.85) (1) (1) (1) (315) = 267.8 MPa
(c) Se for machined, 99% rel., 20-mm
Ka = Surface finish factor = 0.77
Kc = 0.814 (99% Rel)
Se = (0.77) (0.85) (0.814) (1) (1) (315) = 167.8 MPa
(d) Fatigue strength for 80,000 cycles: for the given bar, Se = 167.8 MPa (Point B)
log10 (Se) = log10 (167.8) = 2.225, Point B is (6, 2.225)
Fatigue st. at. 103 cycles, A
log10 (0.9 x 630) = 2.754, Point A is (3, 2.754)
log10 80,000 = 4.903
2.754 2.225
tan = = 0.1763, AC = (CD) (tan ) = (4.903 3) (0.1767) = 0.3355
3
log DE = 2.7540 0.3355 = 2.4185, DE = 262 MPa

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Fatigue strength of machined 45C8 bar of 20-mm dia for 80,000 cycles at 99% reliability is 262
Mpa.

Comment: If the design of bar is critical, an experiment should be conducted, because the
calculated fatigue strength is an estimate only.

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Example 5.2
A 20-mm bar is made of 45C8 steel (Su = 630, Sy = 380 MPa) is subjected to a
completely reversed tensile stress.
Estimate the following:
(a) Endurance Limit of 45C8 steel in tension
(b) Endurance strength of polished 20-mm bar
(c) Endurance Strength of machined 45C8 steel bar of 20-mm dia with 99%
reliability
(d) Fatigue strength of machined 45C8 steel 20-mm dia bar with 99% reliability
for a life of 80,000 cycles

Solution: follow the method used in example 5.1


Ans.
(a) (Se) axial = 0.8 Se = 252 MPa (Eq. 5.11)
(b) Kb = 1; Se = (1) (252) MPa = 252 MPa (Table 5.1)
(c) Ka = 0.77, Kb = 1, Kc = 0.814
Se = 157.9 MPa
(d) 252 MPa

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5.5 Theoretical Fatigue Stress Concentration factor Kt


It was discussed earlier that any discontinuity (or notch) in a machine
element in the form of holes, grooves, change in diameter, etc. raises stress
near the boundary of the discontinuity. To estimate the quantum of increase,
a static or theoretical-stress concentration factor Kt used:


Kt = (5.14)

Values of Kt for a number of discontinuities are available in data books, hand


books and other published literature.

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Theoretical Fatigue Stress Concentration factor Kt

Fig. 5.10
Fig. 5.9

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Theoretical Fatigue Stress Concentration factor Kt

Fig. 5.11

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5.6 Notch Sensitivity Factor, q


It has been observed that the actual stress concentration in
fatigue, Kf, is less than the theoretical stress concentration Kt.
The difference between the actual increase in stress and the
theoretical increase in stress is related by notch sensitivity factor
q as follows:
1 (5.15)
q=
1
Kf = 1 + q (Kt -1) and modifying factor Kd = 1 / Kf (5.16)

It may be observe that if q = 0, i.e. the material is not sensitive to


notches and Kf = 1.
When the material is fully sensitive to notches, q = 1 and Kf = Kt

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Notch Sensitivity Factor, q

Fig. 5.12 Fig. 5.13

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5.7 Miscellaneous factors Ke


There are other factors such as temperature, chemical and stress
corrosion, also influence the fatigue strength, but the same will
included when a specifically needed. As such, the miscellaneous
factor will be taken as unity in common cases.

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5.8 Methods of Reducing Stress Concentration

Fig. 5.14

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Methods of Reducing Stress Concentration (Contd.)

Fig. 5.15

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Methods of Reducing Stress Concentration (Contd.)

Fig. 5.16

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Methods of Reducing Stress Concentration (Contd.)

Fig. 5.17

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Methods of Reducing Stress Concentration (Contd.)

Fig. 5.18

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5.9 Failure points under fluctuating and pulsating stresses


In pulsating and fluctuating stresses, magnitude of mean stress
(m) influences the failure of a component significantly. In stress
amplitude (a) has been plotted on the ordinate and mean stress
component (m) plotted on the abscissa. The figure shows the
failure points under several combinations of m and a. It is clear
from the figure that failure occurs at a < Se and m < Syt or Sut.

Fig. 5.19

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For designing a machine element, one needs to know the


limits of combination of m and a that define the failure
criterion.
Several failure criterions have been suggested, out of
them, the following criterion will be discussed:
1. Soderberg line
2. Goodman line
3. Modified Goodman diagram
4. Gerber curve

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5.10 Soderberg and Goodman lines (for axial and bending


stresses)
Soderberg line: a straight line joining Se on the ordinate and Syt
on the abscissa defines the soderberg line. Points falling on the
line or above the line indicate failure.
Equation for failure line may be written as
(5.17)

+ =1

Equation for design line is
(5.18)
1
+ =

Fig. 5.20

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Goodman Line: a straight line joining Se on the ordinate and Sut


on abscissa is called the Goodman line, Points falling on or above
the line indicate failure as per this criteria.
Equation for Goodman line

+ =1 (5.19)

Equation for design


1
+ = (5.20)

Fig. 5.21

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Modified Goodman line: Also shows the yield line for a ductile material.
It is drawn joining the Syt points on both axes. It is also called the limit of first
cycle stress, because if a part yields, it has failed and there would be no
safety in fatigue. Modified Goodman diagram is defined by two straight lines-
Goodman line from Se to the point of intersection with the yield line, there
after it follows the yield line

Fig. 5.22

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Modified Goodman line (Contd.): Equations for failure and


design lines for Modified Goodman criteria may be written as
follows:
Failure Lines: (5.21)

+ =1 (A to C)
(5.22)

+ =1 (C to D)

Design Equation:
(5.23)
1
+ = (A to C)
Fig. 5.22
(5.24)
1
+ = (C to D)

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5.11 Gerber Curve


Soderberg and Goodman design criterion are based on linear
relations. There are some non-linear theories based on parabolic
or elliptic curves for predicting failure under fluctuating stresses.
Gerber theory is a popular non-linear theory based on a
parabolic curve as follows:

2
Gerber failure curve: ( ) + =1 (5.25)

2
Gerber design curve: ( ) + =1 (5.26)

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Gerber Curve (Contd.)


Gerber failure curve is shown in Fig. 5.23, along with the
Soderberg and Goodman failure lines. Design curves and lines
are obtained by using a suitable value for factor of safety (fs). It
may be recalled these criterion are recommended for designing
against fluctuating bending or axial stresses.
Gerber failure curve:
2
( ) + =1

Gerber design curve:
2
( ) + =1

Fig. 5.23

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5.12 Fluctuating Torsional Shear Stresses


Maximum shear stress theory predicts strength in shear as
Ss = 0.50 Sy.

This relation gives conservative values. Distortion-energy theory


predicts strength in shear as Ss = 0.577 Sy
Interestingly, experimental results available in published
literature indicate that the endurance limit of polished test
pieces in shear is related to endurance limit in bending as
follows:
Sse = 0.577 Se

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Fluctuating Torsional Shear Stresses


Let us consider a case in which the torsional shear stress has a mean torsional
shear stress and a torsional stress amplitude . A torsional fatigue
diagram using torsional shear strengths Ssy and Sse is drawn in Fig.5.24
Experimental results indicate that upto a point B on yield line torsional mean
shear stress has no effect on torsional endurance limit as shown in Fig.
5.24 by points A and B. Thereafter, the failure line follows the yield line in
torsional shear. Thus
Fatigue failure when
= Sse (5.27)
Static failure when
= + (5.28)
Design stresses
Sse/ fs, and (5.29)
Ssy/ fs (5.30) Fig. 5.24

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5.13 Fatigue Design Under Fluctuating Combined Stresses


So far we have considered design under fluctuating stresses due to an axial
load, a bending moment or a torsional moment. However, in practice it is
common that a machine element is subjected to more than one fluctuating
load, i.e., a moment and a torque, both having mean and reversed
components.
We shall use the general equation of the distortion energy theory which is as
follows:

1
2 = [( )2 + ( )2 + ( )2 + 6 (xy2 + yz2 + zx2)] (a)
2

, , are normal stresses in X,Y and Z directions, , , are shear


stresses in their respective planes, and is a stress which is equivalent to
three-dimensional stresses.

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Fatigue Design Under Fluctuating Combined Stresses (Contd.)


If we use principal stresses in place of normal and shear stresses in (a), then

1
2 = 2 [(1 2 )2 + (2 3 )2 + (2 3 )2 ] (b)

For a two dimensional stress system:


= [1 2 - 1 2 +2 2 ].5 (c)

If the principal stresses have mean and alternating components, we may


assume that
= [1m2 - 1 2 + 2m2]1/2 (5.31)

= [1a2 - 1 2 + 2a2]1/2 (5.32)

Goodman diagrams maybe used with equation (5.31) and (5.32) for design
purpose.

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5.14 Combined Loading due to Rotating Shaft Subjected to


Constant Torque and Stationary Bending Load
Torsional stress on an element on the surface of rotating shaft
is constant in magnitude and direction. But the same element
will have a normal stress varying from tension to
compression, and back again as the shaft rotates.

Substituting these values in equation (a)


1
2 = [2x2 +6 2 ] or
2
= [x2 +3 2 ].5 (5.33)
Fig. 5.25

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If normal and shear stresses have mean and varying


components, equation can be written as
= [xm2 + 3m2 ].5 (5.34)

(5.35)
= [ xa2 + 3a2 ].5
Soderberg or Goodman diagrams may now be used for design of
shafts in such cases.

Fig. 5.25

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Example 5.3
A 25-mm shaft is made of 30C8, Su = 500 MPa steel and is subjected to reversed
bending. There is a step in the shaft and the theoretical stress concentration at
the step is 2.1. The notch sensitivity factor is 0.84. Determine the endurance limit
of the shaft for a 50 percent reliability if the shaft is forged.

Solutions
Assumptions
As actual fatigue data is not known, Se of the material to be estimated
Se = 0.5, Sut = 0.5 (500) = 250 MPa
Analysis
Se = Ka Kb Kc Kd Ke Se
Ka = surface finish factor
Kb = size factor
Kc = reliability factor
Kd = 1 / stress conc. factor = 1 /Kf
Ke = Misc. factors

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Ka = 0.5 (Fig. 5.8)


Kb = 0.85 (Table 5.1)
Kc = 1.0 (Table 5.2)
Kt = 2.1, q = 0.84 (Given)
Kf = 1 + q (Kt 1) = 1.0 + 0.84 (2.1 1) = 1.924
Ke = 1 assumed
Hence, Se = (0.5) (0.85) (1.0) (1 / 1.924) (1) (250) MPa = 55.2 MPa
Comment:
Calculated fatigue strength is an estimate since the surface is as forged, the
part is perhaps not so critical.

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Example 5.4
A circular rod made of ductile material has endurance strength of 280 N/mm2 and ultimate
strength of 350 N/mm2. The member is subjected to a variable axial load varying from + 70
kN (tensile) to 300 kN (Compressive). Take fatigue stress concentration factor as 1.8 and
factor of safety as 2.0. Find a suitable diameter of the rod. (UPTU/2005-06)
Solutions
Given: Rod of ductile material Se = 280 MPa, Sut = 350 MPa, Axial Load varying + 70 kN to
300 ka, fs = 2.0, Kf = 1.8
Assumption:
- Equation for Goodman line will be used because Se and Sut are given
- Ka = Surface finish factor = 0.85 assumed
for Su = 350, machines
To find dia d.
Analysis:
1
+ =

Se = 280 MPa, Kf = 1.8, fs = 2.0
Su = 350 MPa
Se = Ka Kb Kc Kd Ke Se

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Kb = 1.0 axial load


Kc = 1 assumed 50% Reliability
Kd = 1/Kf = 1/1.8, Ke =1
Se = (0.85) (1) (1) (1/1.8) (1) (280) = 132.2 MPa
Mean Stress and stress amplitude: Let A = area of cross-section
1 1 115
= + = 70 300 = /2
2 2

1 185
= = /2
2

1
+ =

115 1000 185 1000 1


+ =
(350) (132.2) 2

115 185
= 2000 + = 3456 2
350 132.2
d = 66.3 mm
Comment: Ductile material as such Sue was assumed to be equal to Sut.
Dia d = 68 mm is suggested.
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NME-501, Machine Design-1 Design for Fluctuating Loads
UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Example 5.5
A bar of steel has an ultimate tensile strength of 700 MPa, a yield point stress
of 400 MPa and fully corrected endurance limit (Se) of 220 MPa. The bar is
subjected to a mean bending stress of 60 MPa and a stress amplitude of 80
MPa. Superimposed on it is a mean torsional stress and torsional stress
amplitude of 70 and 35 MPa respectively. Find the factor of safety.
Solutions

Given Data:

Sut = 700 MPa
Syt = 400 MPa
(Se)rod = 220 MPa Torsional stress
= 60
= 80
= 70
= 35
Bending stress

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NME-501, Machine Design-1 Design for Fluctuating Loads
UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Assumptions:
The stress cycles have the same frequency and are in phase.
The design is fatigue under fluctuating combined two dimensional stress
system.
Using Distortion energy theory.
Analysis:
2
1
= ( )2 + ( )2 + ( )2 6( + + )
2

, = 0, = = , , = 0
1
2 = 2 2 + 6 2
2
= 2 + 3 2

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

1 1
2 2 2
= [ + 3 ] ; = [2 +3 2 2
]

= (802 + (3)352 ) = 100.4 /2

= (602 + (3)702 ) = 135.3 /2

1 135.2 100
= + = +
() 700 220
fs = 1.54

Using Solder berg Diagram


1
= + = = 1.26
()

Comment : As the Soderberg Diagram is safe as compared to Goodman, a low fs is


indicated. In either case, the factor of safety is low

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NME-501, Machine Design-1 Design for Fluctuating Loads
UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Example 5.6
A rotating shaft of 38-mm is made of forged 40C8 steel (Sut = 550 MPa, Syt = 400
MPa). The shaft is stepped down to 32-mm, diameter and is subjected to a
bending moment (maximum 150 N-m, minimum 50 N-m) at the step. Determine
factor of safety for 99% reliability and machined surface finish. Fillet radius at the
step = 2 mm.
Solutions
Given: Material
40C8
Sut = 550 MPa
Syt = 400 MPa
Mmax = 150 N.m
MMin = 50 N.m
Assumptions: the frequency of variation of moment is equal to the speed of shaft
Analysis:
150 + 50
= = 100 1000 .
2

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

150 50
= = 50 1000 .
2
3
D/d = 38 /32 = 1.19 = = 3217 3
32
r/d = 2 /32 = 0.0625
q = 0.75 (Fig. 5.13)
Kt = 1.9 (Fig. 510)
Kf = 1 + q (Kt 1) = 1.675
Surface finish factor Ka = 0.78 (Fig. 5.8, Sut = 550, machined
Size factor Kb = 0.85(Table 5.1)
Reliability factor Kc = 0.814 (Table 5.2)
Modifying factor Kd = 1/Kf = 1/1.675 = 0.597
Misc. factor Ke = 1
Se = Ka Kb Kc Kd Se
= (0.78) (0.85) (0.814) (0.597) (550/2)
= 88.6 N/mm2

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

100 103
= = = 31.08 /2
3217
50 103
= = = 15.54
3217

Using Soderberg

1 31.08 15.54
= +
400 88.6
fs = 3.95
Comment:
Se has been estimated as Sut /2. However, a factor of safety of the order of 4
is quite acceptable.

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