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Machine design chapter from MIT.
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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Introduction

5.1 Design for Fluctuating Loads

5.2 Estimated Endurance Limit , Se

5.3 Endurance Limit for Axial loading

5.4 Endurance Strength of Machine Components

Example (5.1, 5.2)

5.5 Theoretical Fatigue Stress Concentration factor Kt

5.6 Notch Sensitivity Factor, q

5.7 Miscellaneous factors Ke

5.8 Methods of Reducing Stress Concentration

5.9 Failure points under fluctuating and pulsating stresses

5.10 Soderberg and Goodman lines (for axial and bending stresses)

5.11 Gerber Curve

5.12 Fluctuating Torsional Shear Stresses

5.13 Fatigue Design Under Fluctuating Combined Stresses

5.14 Combined Loading due to Rotating Shaft Subjected to

Constant Torque and Stationary Bending Load

Example (5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6)

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Design for Fluctuating Loads

5.1 A large number of mechanical components are subjected to

loads that are not static but fluctuating or cyclic. Even a static

load causes cyclic stresses in a rotating shaft. As such we shall

discuss design of mechanical elements subjected to fluctuating

cyclic stresses.

when plotted against time as abscissa. The shape of repetitive

stress-time curve is not important but the mean and amplitude

of stresses are; and same will be discussed.

Ultimate and yield strengths were used in the design under static

loads. In the case of fluctuating loads, in addition to ultimate and

yields strengths, we shall need the strength of materials under

fluctuating stresses. It is called fatigue strength of a material

which is much lower than ultimate or yield strength.

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Fig. 5.1

Fig. 5.2

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Fig. 5.3

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Stress-time relations

Fig. 5.4

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Stress-time relations show that the stresses are not static

but vary in magnitude with time. Cyclic stresses cause

fatigue failure and the objective here is to design machine

elements that do not fail due to fatigue during the specified

design life.

Broadly speaking, the cyclic stresses are classified according

to the relative magnitudes of mean stress and stress

amplitude as follows:

1

Mean stress: = ( + ) (5.1)

2

1

Stress amplitude: = ( ) (5.2)

2

Where are the maximum and minimum

stresses, respectively?

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

1

- Reversed stresses : = 0, = ( ) (5.3)

2

- Repeated or pulsating stresses: = 0 (5.4)

- Any of the three types of stresses is superimposed upon a

steady or static component.

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Fig. 5.5

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

The determine the fatigue strength of materials; standard specimen is

subjected to reversed stresses in a Rotating Beam fatigue testing

machine The machine subjects the specimen to pure bending. The

specimen is very carefully machined to standard dimensions and

polished. (Fatigue-Testing machine are also available for applying

fluctuating or reversed axial stresses, torsional stress, or combined

stresses to the test specimens)

To determine the fatigue strength of a material, a number of tests are

necessary with different values of stress amplitude , mean stress

being zero in all the cases. For example, the first test with = 0.94 Sut,

Second one with = 0.85 Sut, and so on till = 0.5 Sut or so. The

number of cycles N to failure is record in each case. The observations

are plotted on a semi-log or log-log paper.

The ordinate of S-N diagram is called the fatigue strength Sf and the

number of cycle N to which it belongs.

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Fig. 5.6

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Generally, the region upto 103 cycles is low cycle fatigue. Strictly

speaking Sut may be defined as - cycle fatigue, but in the S-N diagram

Sut is plotted against 100 cycles. As such on the log-log plot, line joining

(0, Su) and (3,0.9 Su) is the failure line for low cycle fatigue. Some

defense equipment is design for life in this region.

Limited cycle fatigue for finite life design is the life between 103 to 106

cycles, for which a line connecting points (3, 0.9 Su) and (6, Se) is

drawn. From this line, life of a component can be estimated.

Infinite Cycle Fatigue

When the amplitude of stress in a reversed cycle stress is less than

endurance strength Se, the life of the component is considered infinite.

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Fig. 5.7

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

The determination of endurance limit by fatigue testing is lengthy and expensive,

but for initial failure analysis or preliminary design, a quick method for estimating

endurance in bending, shear and tensile loads is needed. On the basis of a large

number of tests, the following relations for estimating the mean endurance limit

Se are used

For Steels,

Se = 0.5 Sut Sut 1400 MPa

Se = 700 MPa Sut > 1400 MPa (5.5)

Se = 0.45 Sut MPa Sut 600 MPa

Se = 275 MPa Sut > 600 MPa (5.6)

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Se = 0.4 Sut (5.7)

Se = 0.3 Sut (5.8)

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

rotating beam machine.

material in tension testing machine. (Se) axial is the endurance limit of steel in push

pull type fatigue testing machine.

estimated from the ultimate strength of the same material.

average or mean value from the somewhat scattered data points.

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Fig. 5.7

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UNIT-1: Chapter-5

The endurance limit of a real machine component is lower than the estimated of

experimentally determined endurance limit because the size, shape, surface finish, etc

of a components are generally quite different from those of the specimens used in

testing. As such the following relationship is generally used to determine endurance

strength of real component.

Se = Ka Kb Kc Kd Ke Se (5.12)

Se = endurance limit or endurance strength of the material of the component, MPa

Ka = surface finish factor

Kb = size factor

Kc = reliability factor

Kd = modifying factor for stress concentration

Ke = miscellaneous factor

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Fig. 5.8

The surface finish factors in the figure are based on large number of

experiments on wrought steels and are not applicable to other ductile

materials like aluminum.

Cast iron is generally not used for machine components under fluctuating

loads; but if needed ka may be used as 1 because even the mirror finished.

Cast-iron specimen will have graphite flakes and other discontinuities.

Ka = 1 for cast iron (5.13)

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

The diameter of a rotating-beam specimen is only 7.5 mm; machine

part having larger diameters are likely to have lower endurance

strength than Se because larger the part, greater the possibility of a

flaw in the part. Therefore the chances of fatigue failure originating

from any one of those flows are more. Thus, the endurance limit of

machine member is reduced by the size factor Kb as shown in the table

(Load type: bending or torsional)

Diameter d (mm) Kb

d 7.5 1.00

7.5 <d 50 0.85

d > 50 0.75

For axial loading 1.00

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Reliability Factor Kc

The published fatigue strength data has a scatter, and the SN curve is plotted

through the mean of the scatter points. It means that the endurance limit has

a reliability of 50%, i.e., 50-percent components may fail earlier than the one

million stress cyber. The standard deviation of the data points for steels is

limited to 8% of the mean value. Using this value of standard deviation,

reliability factor Kc for a desired reliably is calculated below:

Table 5.2 Values of Reliability Factor

Reliability R (%) Kc

50 1.000

90 0.897

95 0.868

99 0.814

99.9 0.753

99.99 0.702

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Example 5.1

A 20-mm bar is made of 45C8 steel (Su = 630, Sy = 380 MPa) is subjected to a completely

reversed bending stress.

Estimate the following:

(a) Endurance Limit of 45C8 steel

(b) Endurance strength of polished 20-mm bar

(c) Endurance Strength of machined 45C8 steel bar of 20-mm dia with 99% reliability

(d) Fatigue strength of machined 45C8 steel 20-mm dia bar with 99% reliability for a life of

80,000 cycles

Solution

Given 20-mm bar of 45C8, Su = 630 MPa and Sy = 380 MPa

Loaded by completely reversed bending stress

Assumptions

- Actual fatigue data not known for the material

- Endurance limit to be estimated

- S-N curve to be constructed

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Analysis

Estimated endurance limit Se = 0.5 Sut from Equation 5.5 for steels

Size factor Kb = 0.85 (Table 5.1)

(a) Se = 315 MPa for polished 7.5 mm bar

(b) Se = Ka Kb Kc Kd Ke Se for Polished 20-mm bar:

Se = (1) (0.85) (1) (1) (1) (315) = 267.8 MPa

(c) Se for machined, 99% rel., 20-mm

Ka = Surface finish factor = 0.77

Kc = 0.814 (99% Rel)

Se = (0.77) (0.85) (0.814) (1) (1) (315) = 167.8 MPa

(d) Fatigue strength for 80,000 cycles: for the given bar, Se = 167.8 MPa (Point B)

log10 (Se) = log10 (167.8) = 2.225, Point B is (6, 2.225)

Fatigue st. at. 103 cycles, A

log10 (0.9 x 630) = 2.754, Point A is (3, 2.754)

log10 80,000 = 4.903

2.754 2.225

tan = = 0.1763, AC = (CD) (tan ) = (4.903 3) (0.1767) = 0.3355

3

log DE = 2.7540 0.3355 = 2.4185, DE = 262 MPa

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Fatigue strength of machined 45C8 bar of 20-mm dia for 80,000 cycles at 99% reliability is 262

Mpa.

Comment: If the design of bar is critical, an experiment should be conducted, because the

calculated fatigue strength is an estimate only.

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Example 5.2

A 20-mm bar is made of 45C8 steel (Su = 630, Sy = 380 MPa) is subjected to a

completely reversed tensile stress.

Estimate the following:

(a) Endurance Limit of 45C8 steel in tension

(b) Endurance strength of polished 20-mm bar

(c) Endurance Strength of machined 45C8 steel bar of 20-mm dia with 99%

reliability

(d) Fatigue strength of machined 45C8 steel 20-mm dia bar with 99% reliability

for a life of 80,000 cycles

Ans.

(a) (Se) axial = 0.8 Se = 252 MPa (Eq. 5.11)

(b) Kb = 1; Se = (1) (252) MPa = 252 MPa (Table 5.1)

(c) Ka = 0.77, Kb = 1, Kc = 0.814

Se = 157.9 MPa

(d) 252 MPa

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

It was discussed earlier that any discontinuity (or notch) in a machine

element in the form of holes, grooves, change in diameter, etc. raises stress

near the boundary of the discontinuity. To estimate the quantum of increase,

a static or theoretical-stress concentration factor Kt used:

Kt = (5.14)

books and other published literature.

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Fig. 5.10

Fig. 5.9

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Fig. 5.11

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

It has been observed that the actual stress concentration in

fatigue, Kf, is less than the theoretical stress concentration Kt.

The difference between the actual increase in stress and the

theoretical increase in stress is related by notch sensitivity factor

q as follows:

1 (5.15)

q=

1

Kf = 1 + q (Kt -1) and modifying factor Kd = 1 / Kf (5.16)

notches and Kf = 1.

When the material is fully sensitive to notches, q = 1 and Kf = Kt

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There are other factors such as temperature, chemical and stress

corrosion, also influence the fatigue strength, but the same will

included when a specifically needed. As such, the miscellaneous

factor will be taken as unity in common cases.

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Fig. 5.14

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Fig. 5.15

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Fig. 5.16

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Fig. 5.17

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Fig. 5.18

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

In pulsating and fluctuating stresses, magnitude of mean stress

(m) influences the failure of a component significantly. In stress

amplitude (a) has been plotted on the ordinate and mean stress

component (m) plotted on the abscissa. The figure shows the

failure points under several combinations of m and a. It is clear

from the figure that failure occurs at a < Se and m < Syt or Sut.

Fig. 5.19

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

limits of combination of m and a that define the failure

criterion.

Several failure criterions have been suggested, out of

them, the following criterion will be discussed:

1. Soderberg line

2. Goodman line

3. Modified Goodman diagram

4. Gerber curve

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

stresses)

Soderberg line: a straight line joining Se on the ordinate and Syt

on the abscissa defines the soderberg line. Points falling on the

line or above the line indicate failure.

Equation for failure line may be written as

(5.17)

+ =1

Equation for design line is

(5.18)

1

+ =

Fig. 5.20

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

on abscissa is called the Goodman line, Points falling on or above

the line indicate failure as per this criteria.

Equation for Goodman line

+ =1 (5.19)

1

+ = (5.20)

Fig. 5.21

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Modified Goodman line: Also shows the yield line for a ductile material.

It is drawn joining the Syt points on both axes. It is also called the limit of first

cycle stress, because if a part yields, it has failed and there would be no

safety in fatigue. Modified Goodman diagram is defined by two straight lines-

Goodman line from Se to the point of intersection with the yield line, there

after it follows the yield line

Fig. 5.22

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

design lines for Modified Goodman criteria may be written as

follows:

Failure Lines: (5.21)

+ =1 (A to C)

(5.22)

+ =1 (C to D)

Design Equation:

(5.23)

1

+ = (A to C)

Fig. 5.22

(5.24)

1

+ = (C to D)

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Soderberg and Goodman design criterion are based on linear

relations. There are some non-linear theories based on parabolic

or elliptic curves for predicting failure under fluctuating stresses.

Gerber theory is a popular non-linear theory based on a

parabolic curve as follows:

2

Gerber failure curve: ( ) + =1 (5.25)

2

Gerber design curve: ( ) + =1 (5.26)

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Gerber failure curve is shown in Fig. 5.23, along with the

Soderberg and Goodman failure lines. Design curves and lines

are obtained by using a suitable value for factor of safety (fs). It

may be recalled these criterion are recommended for designing

against fluctuating bending or axial stresses.

Gerber failure curve:

2

( ) + =1

Gerber design curve:

2

( ) + =1

Fig. 5.23

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Maximum shear stress theory predicts strength in shear as

Ss = 0.50 Sy.

predicts strength in shear as Ss = 0.577 Sy

Interestingly, experimental results available in published

literature indicate that the endurance limit of polished test

pieces in shear is related to endurance limit in bending as

follows:

Sse = 0.577 Se

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Let us consider a case in which the torsional shear stress has a mean torsional

shear stress and a torsional stress amplitude . A torsional fatigue

diagram using torsional shear strengths Ssy and Sse is drawn in Fig.5.24

Experimental results indicate that upto a point B on yield line torsional mean

shear stress has no effect on torsional endurance limit as shown in Fig.

5.24 by points A and B. Thereafter, the failure line follows the yield line in

torsional shear. Thus

Fatigue failure when

= Sse (5.27)

Static failure when

= + (5.28)

Design stresses

Sse/ fs, and (5.29)

Ssy/ fs (5.30) Fig. 5.24

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

So far we have considered design under fluctuating stresses due to an axial

load, a bending moment or a torsional moment. However, in practice it is

common that a machine element is subjected to more than one fluctuating

load, i.e., a moment and a torque, both having mean and reversed

components.

We shall use the general equation of the distortion energy theory which is as

follows:

1

2 = [( )2 + ( )2 + ( )2 + 6 (xy2 + yz2 + zx2)] (a)

2

stresses in their respective planes, and is a stress which is equivalent to

three-dimensional stresses.

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

If we use principal stresses in place of normal and shear stresses in (a), then

1

2 = 2 [(1 2 )2 + (2 3 )2 + (2 3 )2 ] (b)

= [1 2 - 1 2 +2 2 ].5 (c)

assume that

= [1m2 - 1 2 + 2m2]1/2 (5.31)

Goodman diagrams maybe used with equation (5.31) and (5.32) for design

purpose.

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Constant Torque and Stationary Bending Load

Torsional stress on an element on the surface of rotating shaft

is constant in magnitude and direction. But the same element

will have a normal stress varying from tension to

compression, and back again as the shaft rotates.

1

2 = [2x2 +6 2 ] or

2

= [x2 +3 2 ].5 (5.33)

Fig. 5.25

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

components, equation can be written as

= [xm2 + 3m2 ].5 (5.34)

(5.35)

= [ xa2 + 3a2 ].5

Soderberg or Goodman diagrams may now be used for design of

shafts in such cases.

Fig. 5.25

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Example 5.3

A 25-mm shaft is made of 30C8, Su = 500 MPa steel and is subjected to reversed

bending. There is a step in the shaft and the theoretical stress concentration at

the step is 2.1. The notch sensitivity factor is 0.84. Determine the endurance limit

of the shaft for a 50 percent reliability if the shaft is forged.

Solutions

Assumptions

As actual fatigue data is not known, Se of the material to be estimated

Se = 0.5, Sut = 0.5 (500) = 250 MPa

Analysis

Se = Ka Kb Kc Kd Ke Se

Ka = surface finish factor

Kb = size factor

Kc = reliability factor

Kd = 1 / stress conc. factor = 1 /Kf

Ke = Misc. factors

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Kb = 0.85 (Table 5.1)

Kc = 1.0 (Table 5.2)

Kt = 2.1, q = 0.84 (Given)

Kf = 1 + q (Kt 1) = 1.0 + 0.84 (2.1 1) = 1.924

Ke = 1 assumed

Hence, Se = (0.5) (0.85) (1.0) (1 / 1.924) (1) (250) MPa = 55.2 MPa

Comment:

Calculated fatigue strength is an estimate since the surface is as forged, the

part is perhaps not so critical.

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Example 5.4

A circular rod made of ductile material has endurance strength of 280 N/mm2 and ultimate

strength of 350 N/mm2. The member is subjected to a variable axial load varying from + 70

kN (tensile) to 300 kN (Compressive). Take fatigue stress concentration factor as 1.8 and

factor of safety as 2.0. Find a suitable diameter of the rod. (UPTU/2005-06)

Solutions

Given: Rod of ductile material Se = 280 MPa, Sut = 350 MPa, Axial Load varying + 70 kN to

300 ka, fs = 2.0, Kf = 1.8

Assumption:

- Equation for Goodman line will be used because Se and Sut are given

- Ka = Surface finish factor = 0.85 assumed

for Su = 350, machines

To find dia d.

Analysis:

1

+ =

Se = 280 MPa, Kf = 1.8, fs = 2.0

Su = 350 MPa

Se = Ka Kb Kc Kd Ke Se

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Kc = 1 assumed 50% Reliability

Kd = 1/Kf = 1/1.8, Ke =1

Se = (0.85) (1) (1) (1/1.8) (1) (280) = 132.2 MPa

Mean Stress and stress amplitude: Let A = area of cross-section

1 1 115

= + = 70 300 = /2

2 2

1 185

= = /2

2

1

+ =

+ =

(350) (132.2) 2

115 185

= 2000 + = 3456 2

350 132.2

d = 66.3 mm

Comment: Ductile material as such Sue was assumed to be equal to Sut.

Dia d = 68 mm is suggested.

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UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Example 5.5

A bar of steel has an ultimate tensile strength of 700 MPa, a yield point stress

of 400 MPa and fully corrected endurance limit (Se) of 220 MPa. The bar is

subjected to a mean bending stress of 60 MPa and a stress amplitude of 80

MPa. Superimposed on it is a mean torsional stress and torsional stress

amplitude of 70 and 35 MPa respectively. Find the factor of safety.

Solutions

Given Data:

Sut = 700 MPa

Syt = 400 MPa

(Se)rod = 220 MPa Torsional stress

= 60

= 80

= 70

= 35

Bending stress

8/18/2015 RKGIT/BKG/MD-1 54

NME-501, Machine Design-1 Design for Fluctuating Loads

UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Assumptions:

The stress cycles have the same frequency and are in phase.

The design is fatigue under fluctuating combined two dimensional stress

system.

Using Distortion energy theory.

Analysis:

2

1

= ( )2 + ( )2 + ( )2 6( + + )

2

, = 0, = = , , = 0

1

2 = 2 2 + 6 2

2

= 2 + 3 2

8/18/2015 RKGIT/BKG/MD-1 55

NME-501, Machine Design-1 Design for Fluctuating Loads

UNIT-2: Chapter-5

1 1

2 2 2

= [ + 3 ] ; = [2 +3 2 2

]

1 135.2 100

= + = +

() 700 220

fs = 1.54

1

= + = = 1.26

()

indicated. In either case, the factor of safety is low

8/18/2015 RKGIT/BKG/MD-1 56

NME-501, Machine Design-1 Design for Fluctuating Loads

UNIT-2: Chapter-5

Example 5.6

A rotating shaft of 38-mm is made of forged 40C8 steel (Sut = 550 MPa, Syt = 400

MPa). The shaft is stepped down to 32-mm, diameter and is subjected to a

bending moment (maximum 150 N-m, minimum 50 N-m) at the step. Determine

factor of safety for 99% reliability and machined surface finish. Fillet radius at the

step = 2 mm.

Solutions

Given: Material

40C8

Sut = 550 MPa

Syt = 400 MPa

Mmax = 150 N.m

MMin = 50 N.m

Assumptions: the frequency of variation of moment is equal to the speed of shaft

Analysis:

150 + 50

= = 100 1000 .

2

8/18/2015 RKGIT/BKG/MD-1 57

NME-501, Machine Design-1 Design for Fluctuating Loads

UNIT-2: Chapter-5

150 50

= = 50 1000 .

2

3

D/d = 38 /32 = 1.19 = = 3217 3

32

r/d = 2 /32 = 0.0625

q = 0.75 (Fig. 5.13)

Kt = 1.9 (Fig. 510)

Kf = 1 + q (Kt 1) = 1.675

Surface finish factor Ka = 0.78 (Fig. 5.8, Sut = 550, machined

Size factor Kb = 0.85(Table 5.1)

Reliability factor Kc = 0.814 (Table 5.2)

Modifying factor Kd = 1/Kf = 1/1.675 = 0.597

Misc. factor Ke = 1

Se = Ka Kb Kc Kd Se

= (0.78) (0.85) (0.814) (0.597) (550/2)

= 88.6 N/mm2

8/18/2015 RKGIT/BKG/MD-1 58

NME-501, Machine Design-1 Design for Fluctuating Loads

UNIT-2: Chapter-5

100 103

= = = 31.08 /2

3217

50 103

= = = 15.54

3217

Using Soderberg

1 31.08 15.54

= +

400 88.6

fs = 3.95

Comment:

Se has been estimated as Sut /2. However, a factor of safety of the order of 4

is quite acceptable.

8/18/2015 RKGIT/BKG/MD-1 59

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