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Laurie Bocca Dr.

Giouroukakis
EDU 329-01 20 April 2017
Grade: 9 Topic: Imagery English

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVE(S) (Lesson Objective(s)*)

After reading the poem, "The Road Not Taken," by Robert Frost, students will identify three

examples of imagery and draw three separate pictures that illustrate each of those examples

(citing quotes from the text), and they will write a sentence describing the importance of each

image along with one short paragraph explaining the significance of Robert Frost's use of

imagery (as a whole) with a score of 80% out of 100% based on a teacher-created rubric.

NYS-CCLS / +NYS STANDARDS AND INDICATORS

Reading; Craft and Structure (RL.9-10.4)

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative

and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning

and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or

informal tone).

Indicator: This will be evident when students analyze word choice to identify how it

contributes to the meaning of the poem through a better understanding of imagery.

INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES

Teacher-created rubric, media player, handout of The Road Not Taken (two versions), handout

for paragraph prompt (three versions), colored pencils/crayons (varying shapes for learners who

have difficulty grasping implements), plain paper, https://www.youtube.com/watch?

v=ie2Mspukx14, handout of Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening (two versions), and a

handout of images for direct teacher intervention.

MOTIVATION (Engaging the learner(s)*)

Students will listen to Robert Frost reading an excerpt from The Road Not Taken. They will be

asked to write predictions as to what they expect to happen in the rest of the poem along with
answering some questions to guide their listening such as, Have you heard this before? If so,

where? Does this poem call any specific thoughts or images to mind? and What do you think

the remainder of the poem will describe? Students will then pair up and discuss their answers to

these questions before moving on to the whole class lesson.

DEVELOPMENTAL PROCEDURES
(including Key Questions)

1. Students will listen to a recording of Robert Frost reading an excerpt from The Road

Not Taken, and answer questions as they listen. (Have you heard this before? If so,

where? Does this poem call any specific thoughts or images to mind? Can you predict

what will come next in the poem?) [2 minutes]


2. Students will pair up and share their answers to these questions. (Did you and your

partner have similar answers? Were anybodys answers very different from one another?

To what conclusions can you and your partner come based upon your answers?) [5

minutes]
3. The teacher will introduce the main topic for the lesson: she will ask students if they

know about imagery and discuss the technique. (Does anyone know about imagery? Can

anyone make a prediction about what it might be based on the name?) [5 minutes]
4. Students will hear the remainder of the poem after being given a handout with the poem

on it (The Road Not Taken handout). They will underline three specific examples of

imagery in the poem as they listen and read along. (Which lines call a specific image to

mind?) [2 minutes]
5. Teacher will instruct students to use those three lines to draw the image that the quotes

create. (How does Frost describe these images?) [15 minutes]


6. Students will be instructed to write a sentence describing the importance of each picture

along with citing the particular lines from the poem. (Why does Frost make these

images? How does your drawing help you understand the poem? Why are these images
important to those parts of the poem?) [3 minutes]
7. Students will then be instructed to write a short paragraph describing the importance of

Frosts use of imagery on the whole using the Robert Frosts Imagery: Paragraph

Prompt handout. (Why do you think Frost writes these images into his poem? How does

imagery affect the way you understand the work? What does imagery allow us to do with

a text that we might not be able to do if imagery was not employed?) [15 minutes]
8. To close the lesson, the teacher will review the definition of imagery by asking for a

volunteer to describe it in his or her own words. The teacher will provide students with

the instructions and handouts for their homework assignment (Stopping by Woods on a

Snowy Evening handout and Robert Frosts Imagery: Paragraph Prompt handout). [3

minutes]

INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES (Learning Strategies*)

Cooperative Learning (engaging groups of students in working together on a structured

activity)

Indicator: This will be evident when students pair up and discuss their responses to the

specific questions given after the listening activity.

Scaffolding (providing support and moving students toward greater independence)

Indicator: This will be evident when the teacher introduces a key vocabulary term before

the students read and listen to the remainder of the piece.

Discussion (engaging in meaningful discussions about the content)

Indicator: This will be evident when teacher and students discuss the meaning of imagery.

ADAPTATIONS (Exceptionality*)

For English Language Learners the handouts will include bolded and underlined words

with definitions. The teacher will give examples of those key words throughout by
miming or identifying other visual examples. Teacher will also explain complicated

sentence structure.
The student who has difficulty working in groups will be allowed to choose his or her

own partner (along with the rest of the class), and if that student is unable to find a

partner, the teacher will help organize groups that make the maximum number of students

comfortable.
The student who struggles to focus and attend will be told that he or she is going to be

called on soon to answer a question so he or she is attentive to the content being

presented.
The student who profiles with grapho-motor challenges will be given pencils and drawing

implements that have easier to grasp shapes, such as triangular pencils and larger crayons.
The student who has medical needs and may require the use of a bathroom facilities

frequently will be allowed to sit near the door and leave to use the bathroom after using a

designated non-verbal cue (such as a specified hand signal).


The student who impulsively calls out during class discussions will be monitored and the

teacher will communicate with the school psychologist about the issue.
The gifted student will use a prompt to construct a paragraph about Robert Frosts use of

imagery, and he or she will write a second paragraph critiquing Frosts use of imagery. He

or she will discuss whether or not the employment of imagery was effective; if it was, he

or she will provide evidence, and if not, he or she will suggest ways in which it could

have been more effective.

DIFFERENTIATION OF INSTRUCTION

The visual learner will benefit by creating an image that correlates to the poem. The auditory

learner will benefit by hearing the poem as well as reading it. The learner with interpersonal

intelligence will benefit by discussing reactions with a partner. The learner with verbal-linguistic

intelligence will benefit by writing sentences and a paragraph.


Lower Level

Students use bullet points and sentence starters, in addition to a prompt, to aid in their

construction of the paragraph about Robert Frosts use of imagery.

Average

Students use bullet points and a prompt to construct a paragraph about Robert Frosts use of

imagery.

Higher Level

Students use a prompt to construct a paragraph about Robert Frosts use of imagery, and they

will write a second paragraph critiquing Frosts use of imagery. They will discuss whether or not

the employment of imagery was effective; if it was, they will provide evidence, and if not, they

will suggest ways in which it could have been more effective.

ASSESSMENT (artifacts* and assessment [formal & informal]*)

Students will identify three specific examples of imagery and draw three separate pictures that

illustrate each of those examples citing quotes from the text. Students will write a sentence

describing the importance of each image and one short paragraph explaining the significance of

Robert Frost's use of imagery scoring an 80% out of 100% on a teacher-created rubric.

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

Following the lesson on imagery, students will read Robert Frosts Stopping by Woods on a

Snowy Evening. They will choose three examples of imagery and draw three separate pictures

that illustrate each of those examples citing lines from the poem. They will also write a sentence

describing the importance of each image and one short paragraph describing the significance of

Robert Frosts use of imagery on the whole.


FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES: DIRECT TEACHER INTERVENTION AND ACADEMIC

ENRICHMENT

Direct Teacher Intervention

The teacher and student will reread both The Road Not Taken, and Stopping by Woods on a

Snowy Evening, during a specified tutorial session. The teacher will provide a variety of

images, and the student (with help from the teacher) will match the images to the appropriate

lines in the poems.

Academic Enrichment

The student will write his or her own poem including at least two examples of imagery, and the

student will illustrate those examples.

Imagery Paragraph Rubric


Categories: 1 2 3 4
Sentence Student frequently Student Student always Student always
Structure writes sentence occasionally writes in complete uses complete
fragments. writes in sentences. sentences.
Sentences are incomplete Sentences are Sentences are
written in passive sentences. written mostly in written in active
voice for the Sentences are active voice. voice. Student
majority of the written using Student frequently varies diction.
paragraph. active and passive varies diction but
Students writing voice. Student has some repeated
is repetitive and rarely varies words.
lacks effort. diction.
Spelling and Paragraph has Paragraph has Paragraph has Paragraph has no
Grammar frequent spelling frequent spelling very few spelling spelling or
and grammatical and grammatical or grammatical grammatical
errors, greater errors, about half errors. Errors errors.
than half of which of which distract present do not
distract from from overall distract from
overall meaning. meaning. overall meaning.
Paragraph Paragraph does Paragraph has Paragraph has an Paragraph has an
Structure not have an either an opening opening and opening and
opening or closing or closing closing sentence. closing sentence.
sentence. Student sentence but not Student Student uses
never uses both. Student sometimes uses transition words
transition words rarely uses transition words between ideas.
between ideas. transition words between ideas. Student includes
Student does not between ideas. Student includes an engaging
include any of the Student does not the title, author, hook, along
following: title, include one or and genre. with the title,
author, or genre. more of the author, and genre
following: title, of the piece.
author, or genre.
Content Student does not Student answers Student answers Student answers
answer any parts some parts of the each part of the each part of the
of the prompt prompt fully but prompt fully and prompt fully and
fully and fails to does not address thoughtfully. thoughtfully
address parts as all parts Student incorporating his
well. Student does completely. incorporates his or or her own writing
not incorporate Student does not her own writing style.
his or her own incorporate his or style sporadically
writing style. her own writing throughout.
style.

Name Higher Level


Prompt
Date

Robert Frosts Imagery: Paragraph Prompt

Write a short paragraph (5-8 sentences) describing the importance of

Frosts use of imagery as a whole.


Write another paragraph discussing whether or not the employment of

imagery was effective. If you think it was effective, provide evidence to

prove your claim. If you do not think it was effective, suggest ways it

could have been used more successfully.

Name Average
Prompt
Date

Robert Frosts Imagery: Paragraph Prompt


Write a short paragraph (5-8 sentences) describing the importance of Frosts

use of imagery as a whole. Use the questions below to guide your response.

Why do you think Frost writes these images into his poem?
How does imagery affect the way you understand the work?
What does imagery allow us to do with a text that we might not be able to

do if imagery was not employed?

Name Lower Level


Prompt
Date

Robert Frosts Imagery: Paragraph Prompt


Write a short paragraph (5-8 sentences) describing the importance of Frosts

use of imagery as a whole. Use the questions below to guide your response.

Why do you think Frost writes these images into his poem?
How does imagery affect the way you understand the work?
What does imagery allow us to do with a text that we might not be able to

do if imagery was not employed?

Imagery is

Robert Frost uses these images because

He uses them to also

Imagery affects the way we understand the poem by

The use of imagery allows us to

which we might not be able to do had it not been used.

The Road Not Taken Unedited The


Road Not Taken
By Robert Frost

Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,


And sorry I could not travel both
And be one traveler, long I stood
And looked down one as far as I could
To where it bent in the undergrowth;

Then took the other, as just as fair,


And having perhaps the better claim,
Because it was grassy and wanted wear;
Though as for that the passing there
Had worn them really about the same,

And both that morning equally lay


In leaves no step had trodden black.
Oh, I kept the first for another day!
Yet knowing how way leads on to way,
I doubted if I should ever come back.

I shall be telling this with a sigh


Somewhere ages and ages hence:
Two roads diverged in a wood, and I
I took the one less traveled by,
And that has made all the difference.

The Road Not Taken Adapted The


Road Not Taken
By Robert Frost handout
Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,
And sorry I could not travel both
And be one traveler, long I stood
And looked down one as far as I could
To where it bent in the undergrowth;

Then took the other, as just as fair,


And having perhaps the better claim,
Because it was grassy and wanted wear;
Though as for that the passing there
Had worn them really about the same,

Definitions:
And both that morning equally lay Diverged- separated from another
In leaves no step had trodden black. road and going in different
directions
Oh, I kept the first for another day!
Wood- forest; area with many trees
Yet knowing how way leads on to way,
Undergrowth- a dense growth of
I doubted if I should ever come back. shrubs and other plants, especially
under trees in woodland.

I shall be telling this with a sigh Wear- damage caused by


continuous use
Somewhere ages and ages hence:
Trodden- pressed down into the
Two roads diverged in a wood, and I ground or another surface with the
I took the one less traveled by, feet

And that has made all the difference. Hence- in the future

Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening Unedited


Stopping by
By Robert Frost Woods on a
Snowy Evening
handout

Whose woods these are I think I know.


His house is in the village though;
He will not see me stopping here
To watch his woods fill up with snow.

My little horse must think it queer


To stop without a farmhouse near
Between the woods and frozen lake
The darkest evening of the year.

He gives his harness bells a shake


To ask if there is some mistake.
The only other sounds the sweep
Of easy wind and downy flake.

The woods are lovely, dark and deep.


But I have promises to keep,
And miles to go before I sleep,
And miles to go before I sleep.

Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening Adapted


Stopping by
By Robert Frost Woods on a
Snowy Evening
handout

Whose woods these are I think I know.


His house is in the village though;
He will not see me stopping here
To watch his woods fill up with snow.

My little horse must think it queer


To stop without a farmhouse near
Between the woods and frozen lake
The darkest evening of the year.

He gives his harness bells a shake


To ask if there is some mistake.
The only other sounds the sweep
Of easy wind and downy flake.
Definitions:
Woods- forest; area with many
The woods are lovely, trees dark and deep.
But I have promises to Village- a group of houses and keep,
And miles to go before I buildings, smaller than a town, in a sleep,
rural area
And miles to go before I sleep.
Queer- strange; odd
Evening- night
Harness- straps put on a horse (or
other animal) to attach it to a cart
which the driver can control
Downy- soft and fluffy
Flake- a small, flat, thin piece of
something; short for snowflake.
Direct
Teacher
Picture Bank:
Interventi
on images

The Road Not Taken


Picture Bank: Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
References
Diverge. (2017). In New Oxford American Dictionary. Retrieved from

https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/diverge

Downy. (2017). In New Oxford American Dictionary. Retrieved from

https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/downy

Flake. (2017). In New Oxford American Dictionary. Retrieved from

https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/flake

Frost, Robert. (1952). Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening. In Oscar Williams (Ed.),

Immortal Poems of the English Language (pp. 503-504). New York, NY: Simon &

Schuster.

Harness. (2017). In New Oxford American Dictionary. Retrieved from

https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/harness

Hence. (2017). In New Oxford American Dictionary. Retrieved from

https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/hence

New York State Education Department. (2011). New York State P-12 Common Core Learning

Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy. Retrieved from

http://www.p12.nysed.gov/ciai/common_core_standards/pdfdocs/p12_common_core_lea

rning_standards_ela.pdf

Poetry Foundation. (2017). The Road Not Taken. Retrieved from

https://www.poetryfoundation.org/resources/learning/core-poems/detail/44272

Queer. (2017). In New Oxford American Dictionary. Retrieved from

https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/queer

Robert Frost reads The Road Not Taken [Video file]. Retrieved from

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ie2Mspukx14
Trodden. (2017). In New Oxford American Dictionary. Retrieved from

https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/trodden

Undergrowth. (2017). In New Oxford American Dictionary. Retrieved from

https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/undergrowth

Village. (2017). In New Oxford American Dictionary. Retrieved from

https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/village

Wear. (2017). In New Oxford American Dictionary. Retrieved from

https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/wear