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Systems of linear equations

Algebra
9
Chapter 9 Systems of Linear Equations

9.1 Introduction and Existence and Uniqueness of Solution

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Systems of linear equations

Consider three equations in three unknowns, i.e.

a11 x1 a12 x 2 a13 x3 b1

a 21 x1 a 22 x 2 a 23 x 3 b2
a x a 32 x 2 a 33 x3 b3
31 1
i.e In Matrix From.
a11 a12 a13 x1 b1

a 21 a 22 a 23 x 2 b2
a a 32 a 33 x3 b3
31
The system of three linear equations may be rewritten as
AX B

If B 0 , the system is called a non-homogeneous system of linear equations.

For A 0 , A 1 exist.
The system becomes AX B
X A 1 B
Three linear equations will have a unique solution. In this case, three linear equations are said to be
linearly independent.

Theorem 9-1 Let A be a square matrix. If A is a non-singular matrix, i.e. det A 0 , then the system of
linear equations AX B has a unique solution given by X A 1 B .

Example 1 Use the method of inverse matrix to solve the system of equations
3x 2 y 4

x y 3

Example 2
Solve the system of equations
2x y z 4

4x 7 y z 11
4x y 7z 3

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Systems of linear equations

2x y z 4 0

Example 3 Solve 4 x 7y z 11 0
4x y 7z 3 0

Example 4 Discuss the number of solutions to the following systems of linear equations:
x 2y 3 x 2y 3
(a) (b)
2x 4y 4 2x 4y 6

Theorem 9.2 Let A be a n n matrix. If det A 0 , then the linear system Ax b has no solution
or infinitely many solutions.

Example 5 Consider the following system of linear equations:

(a 1) x y z 1

x (a 1) y z a
x y (a 1) z a2

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Systems of linear equations
Determine the condition that the system has a unique solution.

Theorem 9-3 Cramer's Rule

If A 0, then
b1 a12 a13 a11 b1 a13 a11 a12 b1
b2 a 22 a 23 a 21 b2 a 23 a 21 a 22 b2
b3 a 32 a33 a31 b3 a33 a31 a32 b3
x1 x2 x3
A A A

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Systems of linear equations
4x y 2z 15

Example 6 Solve x 2y 3z 9
2x y z 0

5x 2y 13
Example 7 Solve
2x 3y 9

2x 5y 4z 2

Example 8 Show that the system x 9y 7z 5 has a unique solution if k 8 .
kx 3y 2z 2k

Hence, solve the system by the Cramer's rule.

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Systems of linear equations

9.3 Gaussian Elimination

Elementary Transformation
The elementary operations ( or elementary transformations ) in the process of elimination are:
(1) Interchange of two equations;
(2) Multiplication of an equation by a non-zero scalar;
(3) Addition of a scalar multiple of any equation to another equation.

If the system of equations is written in matrix form, we have the following corresponding elementary row
operations for the matrices:

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Systems of linear equations
(1) Interchange of any rows;
(2) Multiplication of any row by a non-zero scalar;
(3) Addition of a scalar multiple of any row to another row.

4x y 2z 15

x 2y 3z 9
2x y z 0

Example 10 By using Gaussian elimination, solve the system of linear equations

4y z 5

2x y 3z 13
x 2y 2z 3

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Systems of linear equations

9.4 Solution of systems of linear Equations

Definition An inconsistent system of equation is one for which the solution set is the empty set
x 0
x 2y 1
Example and y 0
x 2y 5 x
6

Definition A consistent system of equations is one for which there exists a non-empty solution set.

5x 4y 2
Example
x 2y 1.7

x 2y 1
Example has infinite many solutions
2x 4y 2

Definition If the solution set of a consistent system of equations contains one and only one element, the
system is said to have unique solution.

Definition If the solution set of a consistent system of equations contains more than one element, the
system is said to have non-unique solution set ( infinitely many solution )

4x 6y z 2

Example 11 Solve 2 x y 4z 3
3x 2y 5z 8

Determine whether the system is consistent.
If the system is consistent, solve it.

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Systems of linear equations

1 1 3 x 9

Example 12 Let A 1 3 11 , X y and B 7 .
1 13 21 z 53

(a) Find A . What conclusion can you make for the system AX B .
(b) Solve it.

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Systems of linear equations

x y z 5

Example 13 Solve 4 x 3y z 2
5x 3y z 11

x 2y 4z 1

Example 14 Solve 2 x 4y 8z 2
3x 6y 12 z 3

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Systems of linear equations
x 2y 3z 2
2x 3y 2z 5

Example 15 Solve
4x y z 2
4 x y 4z 1

x y 3z k

Example 16 Given the system 6 x 7y 5z 2 has infinitely many solutions .
4x 5y hz 1

Find h, k and the solution of the system.

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Systems of linear equations

px y z 6

Example 17 3x y 11z 6
2x y 4z q

(a) Find the condition of
(i) a unique solution
(ii) no solution
(iii) infinitely many solutions
x y z 6
3x y 11z 6

(b) Hence solve
2x y 4z 9
xz 6 0

9.5 Solution of a Homogeneous System of Equations

From Theorem 9.1 and Theorem 9.2, the solution of non-homogeneous system of n linear equations in n
unknowns.
AX B
has 3 possibilities:
(1) If det A 0 , the system has a unique solution.
(2) If det A 0 , has no solution or infinitely many solutions.

On the other hand, the homogenous system

AX 0
always has zero solution( trivial solution). Hence, there are only two possible cases for the solution of a
system of homogeneous equations:
(1) If det A 0 , the system has only zero solution (trivial solution).
(2) If det A 0 , the system has non-zero solutions (non-trivial solution), i.e. it has infinitely many
solutions.

For AX 0

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Systems of linear equations
a 11 x 1 a 12 x 2 a 13 x 3 0

a 21 x 1 a 22 x 2 a 23 x 3 0
a 31 x 1 a 32 x 2 a 33 x 3 0

x 1 x 2 x 3 0 is the solution of system.

x 1 x 2 x 3 0 is Trivial Solution

(1) det A 0 A 1 exist

AX 0
X A 1 0
X 0
the system has trivial solution.
(2) det A 0 the system has non-trivial solution.

x y z 0

Example 18 3x y 2z 0
2x 2y z 0

x y z 0
Example 19 Find the non-trivial solution for
3x 2y z 0

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Systems of linear equations

x ky 3z 0

Example 20 If 3 x 2y 2z 0,
2x 3y kz 0

find the values of k such that the system has

(a) trivial solution
(b) non-trivial solution and the solution set.

Example 21 Consider the system of linear equations

2x y 2z 0

(*) x (k 1) z 0
kx y 4z 0

Suppose (*) has infinitely many solutions.
(a) Find k .

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Systems of linear equations
(b) Solve (*).

Example 22 Consider the following system of linear equations:

3x y z 1

(*) 2 x 4y 5z 1,
4x 2y 7z c

where c R .
Suppose (*) is consistent. Find c and solve (*).

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Systems of linear equations

Example 23 Consider the system of linear equations

x y z k

( S ) : x y z 1 where , k R .
3x y 2z 1

(a) Show tat (S ) has a unique solution if and only if 0 and 2 .

(b) For each of the following cases, determine the value(s) of k for which (S ) is
consistent. Solve (S ) in each case.
(i) 0 and 2 ,
(ii) 0,
(iii) 2.
x z 0

(c) If some solution ( x, y, z ) of y z 1
3x y 2z 1

satisfies ( x p) 2 y 2 z 2 1 , find the range of values of p .

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