You are on page 1of 16

Systems of linear equations

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Algebra
9
Chapter 9 Systems of Linear Equations

9.1 Introduction and Existence and Uniqueness of Solution 2

9.3 Gaussian Elimination 7

9.4 Solutions of Systems of Linear Equations 8

9.5 Solution of a Homogeneous System of Equations 13

9.1 Introduction and Existence and Uniqueness of Solution

Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 1
Systems of linear equations
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Consider three equations in three unknowns, i.e.


a11 x1 a12 x 2 a13 x3 b1

a 21 x1 a 22 x 2 a 23 x 3 b2
a x a 32 x 2 a 33 x3 b3
31 1
i.e In Matrix From.
a11 a12 a13 x1 b1

a 21 a 22 a 23 x 2 b2
a a 32 a 33 x3 b3
31
The system of three linear equations may be rewritten as
AX B

If B 0 , the system is called a non-homogeneous system of linear equations.


For A 0 , A 1 exist.
The system becomes AX B
X A 1 B
Three linear equations will have a unique solution. In this case, three linear equations are said to be
linearly independent.

Theorem 9-1 Let A be a square matrix. If A is a non-singular matrix, i.e. det A 0 , then the system of
linear equations AX B has a unique solution given by X A 1 B .

Example 1 Use the method of inverse matrix to solve the system of equations
3x 2 y 4

x y 3

Example 2
Solve the system of equations
2x y z 4

4x 7 y z 11
4x y 7z 3

Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 2
Systems of linear equations
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

2x y z 4 0

Example 3 Solve 4 x 7y z 11 0
4x y 7z 3 0

Example 4 Discuss the number of solutions to the following systems of linear equations:
x 2y 3 x 2y 3
(a) (b)
2x 4y 4 2x 4y 6

Theorem 9.2 Let A be a n n matrix. If det A 0 , then the linear system Ax b has no solution
or infinitely many solutions.

Example 5 Consider the following system of linear equations:


(a 1) x y z 1

x (a 1) y z a
x y (a 1) z a2

Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 3
Systems of linear equations
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Determine the condition that the system has a unique solution.

Theorem 9-3 Cramer's Rule

If A 0, then
b1 a12 a13 a11 b1 a13 a11 a12 b1
b2 a 22 a 23 a 21 b2 a 23 a 21 a 22 b2
b3 a 32 a33 a31 b3 a33 a31 a32 b3
x1 x2 x3
A A A

Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 4
Systems of linear equations
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
4x y 2z 15

Example 6 Solve x 2y 3z 9
2x y z 0

5x 2y 13
Example 7 Solve
2x 3y 9

2x 5y 4z 2

Example 8 Show that the system x 9y 7z 5 has a unique solution if k 8 .
kx 3y 2z 2k

Hence, solve the system by the Cramer's rule.

Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 5
Systems of linear equations
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

9.3 Gaussian Elimination

Elementary Transformation
The elementary operations ( or elementary transformations ) in the process of elimination are:
(1) Interchange of two equations;
(2) Multiplication of an equation by a non-zero scalar;
(3) Addition of a scalar multiple of any equation to another equation.

If the system of equations is written in matrix form, we have the following corresponding elementary row
operations for the matrices:

Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 6
Systems of linear equations
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
(1) Interchange of any rows;
(2) Multiplication of any row by a non-zero scalar;
(3) Addition of a scalar multiple of any row to another row.

Example 9 By using Gaussian elimination, solve the system of linear equations


4x y 2z 15

x 2y 3z 9
2x y z 0

Example 10 By using Gaussian elimination, solve the system of linear equations


4y z 5

2x y 3z 13
x 2y 2z 3

Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 7
Systems of linear equations
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

9.4 Solution of systems of linear Equations

Definition An inconsistent system of equation is one for which the solution set is the empty set
x 0
x 2y 1
Example and y 0
x 2y 5 x
6

Definition A consistent system of equations is one for which there exists a non-empty solution set.

5x 4y 2
Example
x 2y 1.7

x 2y 1
Example has infinite many solutions
2x 4y 2

Definition If the solution set of a consistent system of equations contains one and only one element, the
system is said to have unique solution.

Definition If the solution set of a consistent system of equations contains more than one element, the
system is said to have non-unique solution set ( infinitely many solution )

4x 6y z 2

Example 11 Solve 2 x y 4z 3
3x 2y 5z 8

Determine whether the system is consistent.
If the system is consistent, solve it.

Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 8
Systems of linear equations
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

1 1 3 x 9

Example 12 Let A 1 3 11 , X y and B 7 .
1 13 21 z 53

(a) Find A . What conclusion can you make for the system AX B .
(b) Solve it.

Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 9
Systems of linear equations
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

x y z 5

Example 13 Solve 4 x 3y z 2
5x 3y z 11

x 2y 4z 1

Example 14 Solve 2 x 4y 8z 2
3x 6y 12 z 3

Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 10
Systems of linear equations
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
x 2y 3z 2
2x 3y 2z 5

Example 15 Solve
4x y z 2
4 x y 4z 1

x y 3z k

Example 16 Given the system 6 x 7y 5z 2 has infinitely many solutions .
4x 5y hz 1

Find h, k and the solution of the system.

Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 11
Systems of linear equations
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

px y z 6

Example 17 3x y 11z 6
2x y 4z q

(a) Find the condition of
(i) a unique solution
(ii) no solution
(iii) infinitely many solutions
x y z 6
3x y 11z 6

(b) Hence solve
2x y 4z 9
xz 6 0

9.5 Solution of a Homogeneous System of Equations

From Theorem 9.1 and Theorem 9.2, the solution of non-homogeneous system of n linear equations in n
unknowns.
AX B
has 3 possibilities:
(1) If det A 0 , the system has a unique solution.
(2) If det A 0 , has no solution or infinitely many solutions.

On the other hand, the homogenous system


AX 0
always has zero solution( trivial solution). Hence, there are only two possible cases for the solution of a
system of homogeneous equations:
(1) If det A 0 , the system has only zero solution (trivial solution).
(2) If det A 0 , the system has non-zero solutions (non-trivial solution), i.e. it has infinitely many
solutions.

For AX 0

Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 12
Systems of linear equations
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
a 11 x 1 a 12 x 2 a 13 x 3 0

a 21 x 1 a 22 x 2 a 23 x 3 0
a 31 x 1 a 32 x 2 a 33 x 3 0

x 1 x 2 x 3 0 is the solution of system.

x 1 x 2 x 3 0 is Trivial Solution

(1) det A 0 A 1 exist


AX 0
X A 1 0
X 0
the system has trivial solution.
(2) det A 0 the system has non-trivial solution.

x y z 0

Example 18 3x y 2z 0
2x 2y z 0

x y z 0
Example 19 Find the non-trivial solution for
3x 2y z 0

Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 13
Systems of linear equations
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

x ky 3z 0

Example 20 If 3 x 2y 2z 0,
2x 3y kz 0

find the values of k such that the system has


(a) trivial solution
(b) non-trivial solution and the solution set.

Example 21 Consider the system of linear equations


2x y 2z 0

(*) x (k 1) z 0
kx y 4z 0

Suppose (*) has infinitely many solutions.
(a) Find k .

Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 14
Systems of linear equations
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
(b) Solve (*).

Example 22 Consider the following system of linear equations:


3x y z 1

(*) 2 x 4y 5z 1,
4x 2y 7z c

where c R .
Suppose (*) is consistent. Find c and solve (*).

Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 15
Systems of linear equations
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Example 23 Consider the system of linear equations


x y z k

( S ) : x y z 1 where , k R .
3x y 2z 1

(a) Show tat (S ) has a unique solution if and only if 0 and 2 .


(b) For each of the following cases, determine the value(s) of k for which (S ) is
consistent. Solve (S ) in each case.
(i) 0 and 2 ,
(ii) 0,
(iii) 2.
x z 0

(c) If some solution ( x, y, z ) of y z 1
3x y 2z 1

satisfies ( x p) 2 y 2 z 2 1 , find the range of values of p .

Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 16