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You are on page 1of 16

Algebra

9

Chapter 9 Systems of Linear Equations

Prepared by K. F. Ngai

Page 1

Systems of linear equations

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

a11 x1 a12 x 2 a13 x3 b1

a 21 x1 a 22 x 2 a 23 x 3 b2

a x a 32 x 2 a 33 x3 b3

31 1

i.e In Matrix From.

a11 a12 a13 x1 b1

a 21 a 22 a 23 x 2 b2

a a 32 a 33 x3 b3

31

The system of three linear equations may be rewritten as

AX B

For A 0 , A 1 exist.

The system becomes AX B

X A 1 B

Three linear equations will have a unique solution. In this case, three linear equations are said to be

linearly independent.

Theorem 9-1 Let A be a square matrix. If A is a non-singular matrix, i.e. det A 0 , then the system of

linear equations AX B has a unique solution given by X A 1 B .

Example 1 Use the method of inverse matrix to solve the system of equations

3x 2 y 4

x y 3

Example 2

Solve the system of equations

2x y z 4

4x 7 y z 11

4x y 7z 3

Prepared by K. F. Ngai

Page 2

Systems of linear equations

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

2x y z 4 0

Example 3 Solve 4 x 7y z 11 0

4x y 7z 3 0

Example 4 Discuss the number of solutions to the following systems of linear equations:

x 2y 3 x 2y 3

(a) (b)

2x 4y 4 2x 4y 6

Theorem 9.2 Let A be a n n matrix. If det A 0 , then the linear system Ax b has no solution

or infinitely many solutions.

(a 1) x y z 1

x (a 1) y z a

x y (a 1) z a2

Prepared by K. F. Ngai

Page 3

Systems of linear equations

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Determine the condition that the system has a unique solution.

If A 0, then

b1 a12 a13 a11 b1 a13 a11 a12 b1

b2 a 22 a 23 a 21 b2 a 23 a 21 a 22 b2

b3 a 32 a33 a31 b3 a33 a31 a32 b3

x1 x2 x3

A A A

Prepared by K. F. Ngai

Page 4

Systems of linear equations

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

4x y 2z 15

Example 6 Solve x 2y 3z 9

2x y z 0

5x 2y 13

Example 7 Solve

2x 3y 9

2x 5y 4z 2

Example 8 Show that the system x 9y 7z 5 has a unique solution if k 8 .

kx 3y 2z 2k

Hence, solve the system by the Cramer's rule.

Prepared by K. F. Ngai

Page 5

Systems of linear equations

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Elementary Transformation

The elementary operations ( or elementary transformations ) in the process of elimination are:

(1) Interchange of two equations;

(2) Multiplication of an equation by a non-zero scalar;

(3) Addition of a scalar multiple of any equation to another equation.

If the system of equations is written in matrix form, we have the following corresponding elementary row

operations for the matrices:

Prepared by K. F. Ngai

Page 6

Systems of linear equations

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

(1) Interchange of any rows;

(2) Multiplication of any row by a non-zero scalar;

(3) Addition of a scalar multiple of any row to another row.

4x y 2z 15

x 2y 3z 9

2x y z 0

4y z 5

2x y 3z 13

x 2y 2z 3

Prepared by K. F. Ngai

Page 7

Systems of linear equations

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Definition An inconsistent system of equation is one for which the solution set is the empty set

x 0

x 2y 1

Example and y 0

x 2y 5 x

6

Definition A consistent system of equations is one for which there exists a non-empty solution set.

5x 4y 2

Example

x 2y 1.7

x 2y 1

Example has infinite many solutions

2x 4y 2

Definition If the solution set of a consistent system of equations contains one and only one element, the

system is said to have unique solution.

Definition If the solution set of a consistent system of equations contains more than one element, the

system is said to have non-unique solution set ( infinitely many solution )

4x 6y z 2

Example 11 Solve 2 x y 4z 3

3x 2y 5z 8

Determine whether the system is consistent.

If the system is consistent, solve it.

Prepared by K. F. Ngai

Page 8

Systems of linear equations

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

1 1 3 x 9

Example 12 Let A 1 3 11 , X y and B 7 .

1 13 21 z 53

(a) Find A . What conclusion can you make for the system AX B .

(b) Solve it.

Prepared by K. F. Ngai

Page 9

Systems of linear equations

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

x y z 5

Example 13 Solve 4 x 3y z 2

5x 3y z 11

x 2y 4z 1

Example 14 Solve 2 x 4y 8z 2

3x 6y 12 z 3

Prepared by K. F. Ngai

Page 10

Systems of linear equations

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

x 2y 3z 2

2x 3y 2z 5

Example 15 Solve

4x y z 2

4 x y 4z 1

x y 3z k

Example 16 Given the system 6 x 7y 5z 2 has infinitely many solutions .

4x 5y hz 1

Find h, k and the solution of the system.

Prepared by K. F. Ngai

Page 11

Systems of linear equations

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

px y z 6

Example 17 3x y 11z 6

2x y 4z q

(a) Find the condition of

(i) a unique solution

(ii) no solution

(iii) infinitely many solutions

x y z 6

3x y 11z 6

(b) Hence solve

2x y 4z 9

xz 6 0

From Theorem 9.1 and Theorem 9.2, the solution of non-homogeneous system of n linear equations in n

unknowns.

AX B

has 3 possibilities:

(1) If det A 0 , the system has a unique solution.

(2) If det A 0 , has no solution or infinitely many solutions.

AX 0

always has zero solution( trivial solution). Hence, there are only two possible cases for the solution of a

system of homogeneous equations:

(1) If det A 0 , the system has only zero solution (trivial solution).

(2) If det A 0 , the system has non-zero solutions (non-trivial solution), i.e. it has infinitely many

solutions.

For AX 0

Prepared by K. F. Ngai

Page 12

Systems of linear equations

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

a 11 x 1 a 12 x 2 a 13 x 3 0

a 21 x 1 a 22 x 2 a 23 x 3 0

a 31 x 1 a 32 x 2 a 33 x 3 0

x 1 x 2 x 3 0 is the solution of system.

x 1 x 2 x 3 0 is Trivial Solution

AX 0

X A 1 0

X 0

the system has trivial solution.

(2) det A 0 the system has non-trivial solution.

x y z 0

Example 18 3x y 2z 0

2x 2y z 0

x y z 0

Example 19 Find the non-trivial solution for

3x 2y z 0

Prepared by K. F. Ngai

Page 13

Systems of linear equations

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

x ky 3z 0

Example 20 If 3 x 2y 2z 0,

2x 3y kz 0

(a) trivial solution

(b) non-trivial solution and the solution set.

2x y 2z 0

(*) x (k 1) z 0

kx y 4z 0

Suppose (*) has infinitely many solutions.

(a) Find k .

Prepared by K. F. Ngai

Page 14

Systems of linear equations

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

(b) Solve (*).

3x y z 1

(*) 2 x 4y 5z 1,

4x 2y 7z c

where c R .

Suppose (*) is consistent. Find c and solve (*).

Prepared by K. F. Ngai

Page 15

Systems of linear equations

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

x y z k

( S ) : x y z 1 where , k R .

3x y 2z 1

(b) For each of the following cases, determine the value(s) of k for which (S ) is

consistent. Solve (S ) in each case.

(i) 0 and 2 ,

(ii) 0,

(iii) 2.

x z 0

(c) If some solution ( x, y, z ) of y z 1

3x y 2z 1

Prepared by K. F. Ngai

Page 16

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