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Module 14

Bahrain Airpot? St.~.\.icrs


Engineering Training Centre
EASA IR PART 147 Approval No. EASA .147.0002

EASA PART 66 License Training Program


AUTHORITY

It is IMPORTANT to note that the information in this book is for study


Itraining purposes only.

When carrying out a procedure Iwork on aircraft Iaircraft equipment


you MUST always refer to the relevant aircraft maintenance manual
or equipment manufacturer's handbook.

You should follow the requirements of your national regulatory


authority and laid down company policy as regards local procedures,
recording, report writing, documentation.. etc.

For health and safety in the workplace you should follow the
regulationslguidelines as specified by the equipment manufacturer,
your company, national safety authorities and national governments.

NOTE

It is a policy to review our study material in light of changing


technology and syllabus requirements. This means that books are re-
written and / or updated on a regular basis.

BAS Engineering Training Centre


Kingdom of Bahrain
Tel: 00973 17 321877
Fax: 00973 17 339019
Email: rnbaloshi@bas.corn.bh
CONTENTS

Page

Jet engine principles 1


J e t engine working cycle 2
Combustion systems 6
Fuel systems 6
Lubrication systems 8
Engine indicating parameters 9
J e t engine configuration 14
Engine rpm indication 20
Tacho generator system 21
Servo operated tacho generator system 23
Tacho probe system 25
Exhaust gas temperature indication systems 34
Engine pressure ratio indication 49
Pressure indicating systems 57
Temperature indicating systems 66
PRINCIPLES OF THE JET ENGINE

The jet engine relies on the principle of taking in a mass of air and
accelerating it rearwards. This means that according to Newton Laws of
Motion a forward reaction will be produced. The two important laws for a
jet engine are:

Newton's 2nd Law: This states that the force produced is proportional
to the mass times the acceleration and can be
written as:

F K ma (K means "is proportional to")

Using SI units it can be written

Where F = force in Newton's


m = mass in kgs
a = acceleration in m/s2

Newton's 3rd Law: To every action there is a n equal and opposite


reaction.

Now how do these laws help u s with the jet engine - or a propeller for that
matter?

The jet engine causes the air in front of it to be drawn into the intake and
accelerated rearwards via the exhaust. Thus we have "a" in Newton's
second law.

Air has mass (1.2kg for each cubic metre at sea level ISA) so we also have
"m" in the equation F = ma. Thus we have force - BUT it is in the "wrong"
direction - BACKWARDS.

Newton's 3 r d Law states that for every action (the backwards force) there is
a n equal and opposite reaction (a forwards force acting on the engine). So
we have forward thrust.

For a pure jet engine a relatively small mass of air is given a high
acceleration. For a propeller, a large mass of air is accelerated backwards
relatively slowly. A fan engine lies somewhere in between.

To increase the thrust of a jet engine the fuel flow is increased which
increases the engine's rpm. This also applies to a fured pitch propeller
(though these are not usually fitted to turbo-prop engines). For a Variable
Pitch (VP)propeller the thrust can be increased by altering the pitch of the
blades to make the pitch coarser (take a deeper "cut" into the air) - but to
keep the rpm constant the power setting to the engine must be increased -
also increasing fuel burn.
JET ENGINE

INTAKE AIRFLOW
VELOCITY = v rn1s.c
MASS =M kgiml AIRFLOW ACCELERATION = A MASS =M kgiml

REACTION ACTION = F = MA

Fig. 1 THRUST

THE WORKING CYCLE OF A GAS TURBINE

By reference to figure 2, it can be seen that air is drawn from the


atmosphere (ambient air) into a compressor. The compressor raises the
pressure of the air (A to B) on the as shown on the Pressure Volume graph.
As the pressure of the air is increased the volume is decreased.

The air passes to the combustion chamber and heat is added by burning
fuel with a proportion of the air. From the graph (B to C) it can be seen
that combustion takes place at constant pressure so the gas turbine
working cycle is known as a Constant Pressure cycle, or Brayton cycle.

In the combustion chamber the air expands rearwards and the volume of
the gas increases and the gas kinetic energy increases. The gas flow
passes to the turbine section to drive the turbine(s), energy is extracted to
drive the compressor/fan/propeller and the pressure and velocity
decreases.

The gas passes via an exhaust unit to the propelling nozzle, which forms a
convergent duct. The velocity of the gas increases. The reaction to the
high velocity jet produces thrust (C to D). On a turbo-prop engine most of
the thrust energy produced by the gas generator is extracted by the turbine
to drive the propeller.

You should study figure 2 and be able to recall the approximate pressure
and temperature variations from inlet to exhaust.

The inputs to the engine include:


* Air - its main working medium.
A
Fuel - in general the control of the fuel is the main thrust
control of the engine.
x Pilot - The pilot controls the thrust levers etc.
* Auto control -This may be selectable to produce automatic
control of the engine within certain parameters.
x Electrical power - For operation of transducers, selection
valves, starter motors etc. From aircraft batteries/electrical
system.
i
;
Pneumatic power for engine starting.

B COMBUSTION -heat energy added

GRAPH

3
"I
"I
W
(L
LL

COMPRESSION

\
I \
\ \
I \ COMBUSTION

+tom + mt 2 E m - Z J 8 m -sa3 +a -132.3


THRUST DISTRIBUTION - EFFECTIVE FORWARD THRUST = 7533 lbl

Fig. 2 WORKING CYCLE OF THE GAS TURBINE ENGINE


FUEL INPUT

ELECTRICAL INPUT 1 ,-C] PILOTINPUT

PNEUMATIC INPUT
AUTO CONTROL INPUT
OIL. COOLANT 8
MAINTENANCE T A S K S - ' . . . . ~
PNEUMATIC CONTROL

THRUST

GINE PARAMETERS
TRANSDUCERS

PNEUMATIC 1
ELECTRICAL
FEED BACK TO PILOT AND
HYDRAULIC
AUTO-CONTROL SYSTEMS
OUTPUTS

Fig. 3 ENGINE INPUTS/OUTPUTS

The outputs include:


* Thrust - the main purpose of the engine.
* Heat.
* Pneumatic supplies for cabin air-conditioning and
pressurisation - also for pneumatically operated components.
* Hydraulic power to operate flaps, landing gear etc.
A
Electrical power - ac and/or dc depending on aircraft.
* Engine operating parameters - data sent to flight deck
instruments for pilot monitoring and sent to auto-control
equipment.

The Working Cycle

The air goes through the following stages:

1. Induction through the intake. At speeds above about 450kts


this is assisted by "ram effect", and at any speed must be kept
well below the speed of sound (Mach 1) for it to be accepted by
the compressor. The design of the intake is critical to the
performance of the engine and is normally a divergent duct.

2. Compression. This is adiabatic (without the addition of


external heat) and it gets hot. Compression ratios range from
4: 1 for the early centrifugal compressors to 8: 1 for a single 17
stage axial flow compressor. Combinations of compressors/
multi spool arrangements will give higher values than this.
3. Combustion. Usually carried out using kerosene type fuels,
although almost any fuel will work. The fuel burns best at a
air:fuel ratio of about 15:1 so the total amount of air used for
the actual combustion is a small proportion of the total air
entering the engine. Approximately 20% is used in the
combustion process with the remaining air being used for
cooling.

Combustion is carried out in lined combustion chambers with


the heated air leaving at high temperature (up to 1000C) and
high speed (up to 1500 ftlsec).

4. Expansion. After leaving the combustion chamber the hot air is


made to do work on the turbine. Here, pressure and
temperature drop as the energy of the gas is converted into
mechanical energy of the turbine. Enough energy has to be
taken out to drive the compressor, any engine driven
accessories (generators, pumps etc), and allow for provision of
air bleeds for cabin air conditioning, anti-icing etc. The
remaining energy left in the gas stream flow is then allowed to
exit the jet pipe to be used to provide thrust. For turbo-prop
engines most of the energy is extracted to drive the propeller
with only about 10% of the propulsive thrust coming from the
jet efflux (residual energy).

5. Exhaust. With a pure jet engine the efflux gases should have a
high mass and high velocity. The gases exit the system via a
jet-pipe which may be fitted with a propelling nozzle (a
narrowing of jet pipe a s it gets to the end).

Fig. 4 TYPICAL COMBUSTION CHAMBER

-5-
Combustion Systems

Combustion is normally arranged to be in a combustion chamber with fuel


supplied to a burner. On start-up ignition is provided by a high energy
igniter, but once combustion is established it is self sustaining - only used
again for re-start or put on continuously in emergencies (when there is a
possibility of a flame-out).

The combustion chamber is double lined with a n inner flame tube and may
be fitted to the engine in one of several arrangements.

Flame Coring Flome Caring Combustion Coring

Multiple Cannulor Annular

Fig. 5 COMBUSTION CHAMBER ARRANGEMENTS

The chambers may be arranged equally around the engine or may be of


cannular configuration where the flame tubes are separate with the
chamber casing being continuous concentric inner and outer casings.

In a n Annular system the flame tube and casing are both concentric
continuous structures making up one continuous combustion chamber.

The Fuel System

The fuel is pumped from the aircraft fuel tanks (bag type or integral with
the wing structure) by electrically (ac 3 phase, but can be dc) operated fuel
pumps (sometimes called boost pumps). These supply fuel via filters and
shut-off/by-pass valves to the engine driven fuel pump. This pumps fuel to
the fuel control valve which is controlled directly by the flightdeck throttle
lever position or electrical commands from an Engine Electronic Control
(EEC) system or Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC).

The electronic systems get their inputs from the throttle levers of from
auto-throttle computers set by the pilot.

Note. The engine fuel control valve/control system is complex to include


servo valves, governors etc.
Fig. 6 WET SUMP LUBRICATION SYSTEM - BASIC PRINCIPLE
-
,..-<;
L->
1
;
:
%

I l l
',!
I
I
5
ENGINE
,,,.----------------------
PRESSURE*
2 ' _--- -- -
TANK
t'. L PUMP

---
I-_
,-----_____

\
SCAVENGE PUMP

Fig. 7 DRY SUMP LUBRICATION SYSTEM - BASIC PRINCIPLE

Fuel coming from the tank is normally referred to a s low pressure fuel (Ip)
and fuel supplied to the fuel scheduling system from the engine driven
pump called high pressure (hp).

The pumps fitted in the fuel tank are called fuel supply, lp, or in some
cases booster pumps and their purpose is to provide a positive air free
supply to the hp system well above the maximum possible demand for
maximum thrust. This will also prevent flame out of the engine that occurs
when air is allowed to enter the hp system. Additionally, if the engine fuel
scheduling system relied on the engine driven pump to suck fuel from the
tanks it would suffer from severe cavitation, which would lead to excessive
wear of the moving parts. For the same reason, the engine is always shut
down by cutting the fuel supply off near the burners, never by switching off
or isolating the lp system.

These pumps can be dc or ac powered and are normally impeller type


pumps operating at relatively low pressures in the region of 10psig - 30
psig. Pumps fitted into tanks that do not directly feed an engine but feed
another tank are called transfer pumps and are normally the same types a s
the fuel supply pumps.

The engine driven pumps operate at much higher pressures certainly in the
high hundreds and in some instances in the thousands psig and can be of
the positive displacement, variable swashplate multi-plunger type or, on
the bigger gas turbines, spur gear type pumps. On some fuel scheduling
hp systems there is an additional pump usually referred to as a backing
pump and these can be of the centrifugal or impeller type.

Lubrication System (Figure 8)

A lubrication system is required to provide a lubricant film of oil to reduce


bearing contact, wear and heat. The system will have components such as:

A tank - to contain the lubricant and allow for topping-up and


fluid level check purposes.
Air or fuel cooled oil coolers.
Pumps - engine driven spur gear types - usually.
Filters/strainers.
De-aerators.
Pressure relief valves.
Oil pressure transducers - usually of the pressure differential
type.
Low oil pressure/low oil level warnings.

In general the pump will draw oil from the tank through strainers. This
pressure oil then goes to all bearings requiring lubrication passing the
differential oil pressure switch and low pressure warning switch on the
way.

After lubricating the consumer services it is returned via oil coolers, filters
and de-aerators to the tank.

SCAVENGE

OIL COOLER
PRESSURE FILTER

-C--

Fig. 8 TYPICAL OIL SYSTEM SCHEMATIC

-8-
Oil systems may be of the following types:
x
Wet Sump System -where the oil is kept in the sump of the
engine.
* Dry Sump System - where the oil is kept in a tank - typical for
most jet engines.
* Pressure Relief Valve System. This system controls the
pressure to the bearings by the use of a spring controlled
pressure relief valve - when operated allows oil directly back to
the tank. The oil supply pressure is not affected unduly by
engine rpm.
%
Full Flow System. For engines where bearing chamber
pressures can be high and the oil pressure has equally to be
high (normally about 40psi or higher). This system dispenses
with the pressure relief valve and allows pressure pump
delivery to supply the consumer services (bearings)directly
allowing increasing pressure with increasing rpm. Fitted to
turbo fan engines. As the oil pressure increases with engine
speed it has to be compared with the air pressure used to seal
the bearing chamber to give the correct readings, hence the
requirement to use a differential pressure sensor.
x
Total Loss System. Sometimes called a n expendable system
and used on engines that run for short periods of time. It is
lighter a s the system requires no return lines, no oil cooler, no
scavenge pumps or filters. After use the oil is ejected into the
gas stream and dumped overboard.

A s the oil pressure increases with engine rpm its pressure has to be
compared with the air pressure used to seal the bearing chambers to give
the correct readings, hence the requirement to use a differential pressure
sensor.

Engine Parameters Monitored (Figures 9 to 14)

Pressure may be sensed at various stages in the engine depending on type,


eg P I , P2, P4, P7 refer in particular to Figure 13. Used for engine condition
monitoring, Engine Electronic Control (EEC)/FADEC and also for
calculating EPR (Engine Pressure Ratio) - the ratio of pressure, say,
between P1 and P7 - check the AMM. EPR is a n indication of the thrust of
the engine.

RPM (Revolutions Per Minute). The rotational speed of the engine is picked
up by sensors and fed back to cockpit indicators and engine monitoring
equipment (EECIFADEC) (N1 for a single spool engine, N1 and N2 for a
twin spool and N1, N2 and N 3 for a three spool engine). On triple spool
engines pulse probes are used as the transducers.
ENGINE P R W U TACHOMEIER
TEMPEUTURE

ACCELEROMPIERS

T4.95 THERMDCOUPLE SPEEDPROBE


PROBE REMOTE CHARGE CONVERTER

Ph.95 PROBE

AVM SIGNAL
N l S P E W SIGNAL CONDITIONER UNIT
IPMAI

Fig. 9 ENGINE PARAMETER TRANSDUCERS


PW4000 FITTED TO THE B 7 7 7

On triple spool engines pulse probes are used. Thrust is indicated by RPM
(Nl)/EPR.

Helicopter engines will usually have Ng for the engine as it is considered a


gas generator, and some propeller driven aircraft will have propeller rpm
indication.

EGT (Exhaust Gas Temperature). Again this data is used for pilot
information and feedback to engine monitoring systems (EECIFADEC).

AVB (Airborne Vibration Monitoring). Vibration monitors fitted to the


engine casing to send vibration data to flight deck instruments and
monitoring systems (EECIFADEC).

Torque Transducers. For propeller driven aircraft and for helicopters, these
provide the only true indication of engine output power. For phase
displacement type systems the transducer is fitted a t the power shaft to the
propeller/rotor shaft. For helical gear type transducers they are fitted on
the helical gear in the gear box for helicopters and the reduction gear for
turbo-props.
Pressure. Flow. Quantity. Temperature. Position. These additional
monitoring systems may be found on the engine fitted to equipment such
as:
* Engine oil systems.
* Hydraulic systems.
* Pneumatic systems.
* Fuel systems.
* Thmst reverses.
* VP propeller position
* Motorised valves - position.

Figure 9 shows the sensors as fitted to PW4000 series engines, and figure
10 shows the locations.

REMOTE CHARGE CONVERTER


ACCELEROMETER /
PllP2 PROBE

ACCELEROMETER

TRANSDUCER

Fig. 10 TRANSDUCER LOCATION - PW4000


EPR TRANSMITTER
DEDICATED CABLE
GENERATOR ULE

OIL COOLER PROBES

RIGHT AVM ACCELEROMETE

FUEL FLOW GOVERNOR

TRANSMITTER

Fig. 11 COMPONENT LOCATION - RB211


OCFLECTOR M O R

-
Fig. 12 J T 9 D INSTRUMENTATION

TEMPERATURE T2 T3 T l 15 T6 T7

NZ

PRESSURE P1 PZ P3 P4 P5 P6 P7

4 4 4
L.P. H.P. COMBUSTION 4
COHPRESSOR COMPRESSOR' CHAMBERS JET PlPE
4
H.P. T U R B I N E A1

Fig. 13 N, P , & T - EXAMPLE LOCATIONS - TWIN SPOOL ENGINE

Figure 11 shows the equipment as fitted to an RB2 11 whilst figure 12


shows the instrumentation of the twin spool JT9D. Figure 13 shows a
general arrangement of the locations of N, P and T.
Figure 14 shows the instrumentation layout of the Turbomecca engine with
the following indications:

1. Ng - gas generator rpm.


2. NTL - free turbine rpm.
3. T4 - gas temperature.
4. Oil pressure.
5. Oil temperature.
6. Low oil pressure warning light.
7. General warning panel.

Fig. 14 TURBOMECCA ENGINE INSTRUMENTATION

When the engine is fitted to a helicopter additional parameters are included


such as:
* Torque indication.
* Power loss warning.
* Cycle calculator.
* Preventative maintenance calculator.

JET ENGINE CONFIGURATION

The jet engine can vary considerably in design although they all use the
same basic principle of taking air in via a compressor, mixing it with fuel
and after combustion expelling the products rearwards.

Figure 15 shows the earliest type of jet engine. It used a centrifugal


compressor driven by a single turbine. It has a double air entry intake
supplying air to a double entry centrifugal compressor. The auxiliary
gearbox is fitted to the front of the engine.
COMBUSTION
E

COMPRESSOR

4 AIR OUT

Fig. 15 J E T ENGINE WITH A CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR

Air is fed through grills into the eye of the compressor then thrown out by
centrifugal force into the combustion chambers. On combustion it
accelerates r e w a r d s to give some of its energy u p to the turbine to drive
the compressor.

In the quest for higher specific fuel consumption figures with increased
power outputs the axial flow compressor was developed (figure 16).This
compressor produces a higher compression ratio with increased efficiency.

The engine in figure 16 has a single stage turbine and an 1 1-stage


compressor (each stage consists of a rotor and a stator), although the
actual number of stages depends on the manufacturer.

HlGH PRESSURE
RATIO AXIAL FLOW
COMPRESSOR STATORS BURNERS

BUSTION SYSiEM

r
HlGH VELOCITY
JET EFFLUX

BEVEL GEAR \
ACCESSORY DRIVE SINGLE STAGE TURBINE
DRIVING COMPRESSOR

Fig. 16 SINGLE SPOOL J E T ENGINE WITH AN AXIAL


FLOW COMPRESSOR
Figure 17 shows a twin spool engine. The compressor of the twin spool
engine is divided into two, each driven by its own set of turbines. This
allows them to operate at their own optimum speed giving greater
flexibility, higher pressure ratios and greater power outputs.

LP COMPRESSOR DRIVEN BY TWO


STAGE TURBINE
I \
HP COMPRESSOR DRIVEN
BY SINGLE STAGE TURBINE \

\ /
TWO CONNECTING SHAFTS

Fig. 17 TWIN SPOOL J E T ENGINE

To provide sufficient power to drive the lp compressor some engines have


more then one turbine wheel fitted to the lp shaft (figure 17).Large fan-jets
have a triple stage turbine driving the fan (figure 19) while smaller units
may only have a single stage turbine.

To improve the specific fuel consumption and propulsion efficiency still


further high by-pass engines were developed. Figure 18 shows a low by-
pass ratio, twin spool engine where some of the compressed air from the
low pressure (lp) compressor by-passes the main combustion section of the
engine.

Figure 19 shows a high by-pass ratio, three-spool engine similar to the


Rolls Royce RB2 11. The fan of this type of engine can be considered a s a
multi-bladed propeller within a duct - it is not of course, but the engine
does give a high specific fuel consumption (accelerating a large mass of air
relatively slowly r e w a r d s ) .

The three spools allow each to operate at the most efficient speed - it does,
of course, increase manufacturing costs. The fan is driven by the lp turbine
with the ip (intermediate pressure) compressor being driven by the ip
turbine. Speeds (Nl, N2 and N 3 ) are usually picked off by the use of tacho-
probes (pulse type rpm probes).

Some engines have a reduction gearing between the turbine and the fan to
allow the fan to rotate at its optimum speed (figure 20).
LP COMPRESSOR XP COMPRESSOR BYPASS
BEARINGS TURBINE
BEARINGS AIR BEARINGS

/
/ I - .

Fig. 18 LOW BY-PASS RATIO J E T ENGINE

lP COMPRESSOR IP TURBINE LP TURBINE

HP COMPRESSOR

HP TURBINE
(LP COMPRESSOR) CASING FAN CASING
SUPPORTS

Fig. 19 THREE SPOOL HIGH BY-PASS RATIO J E T ENGINE


TWO STAGE
SUPERCWGER g y PASS AIR

NG A 7 STAGE M I A L
D 1 CENTRIFUGAL

ACCESSORYGEA

Fig. 20 ALLIED SIGNAL FAN ENGINE WITH MIXED CENTRIFUGAL


& AXIAL COMPRESSORS & REDUCTION GEARING TO FAN

For turbo prop and helicopter engines a different layout is used. Figure 2 1
shows a direct drive turbo prop configuration. The (in this case) two-stage
turbine drives the compressor and the propeller. Because the engine rpm
would be too high for the propeller it is driven via a reduction gearbox.

In some cases the propeller, or the main rotor drive shaft of a helicopter
(which also drives the tail rotor through bevel gearing), is driven by a
separate set of turbines (a free power turbine). This extracts most of the
energy from the gas stream flow converting it into shaft power (Shaft Horse
Power - SHP). Again a reduction gearbox is used (figure 22).

PROPELLER
/ REDUCTION GEARING
APPROX 10%

-
RESIDUAL
THRUST

Fig. 21 DIRECT DRIVE TURBO PROP ENGINE

The turbine that drives the propeller/rotor head is sometimes called the
Power Turbine and the other turbine/compressor spool is called the Gas
Generator. For best efficiency the majority of the power should be used
across the Power Turbine (free turbine).
PROPELLER DRIVEN BY A FREE TURBINE

COMPRESSOR
DRIVEN BY
TURBINE- \

Fig. 22 FREE TURBINE TURBO PROP ENGINE

Figure 23 shows an arrangement used on some helicopters. It consists of a


three-stage turbine driving a single sided centrifugal compressor and a
reduction gearbox. The output from the reduction gearbox is to the rotor
head gearbox to drive the rotor head and tail rotor. The fuel is injected into
the annular combustion chamber by a rotating slinger ring (which is
unusual), this improves atomisation and gives more even flame
propagation.

GEARBOX AlvO S.hGLE S D t D CENTY.FJGA-


3R.VE TO ROTOR RE~LCT,ON COMPRESSOR D H I V E ~BY A
GEAR~PIG TnREE STAGE T-RB.hE
/

\
FUEL INJECTOR ROTATING
SLINGER RING

Fig. 23 DIRECT DRIVE TURBO SHAFT ENGINE

Most engines are now constructed on the modular concept which means
that major components such as the fan, fan casing, compressor
assemblies, turbines etc can be changed a s complete units - in may cases
whilst the engine is "on the wing".
ENGINE SPEED MEASUREMENT

The measurement and indication of engine rpm gives the pilot information
relating to the performance of the engine and a guide as to its power output -
propjet or jet.

Several rpm indication systems are available with the three most common
methods described below. These are:

(i) Direct driven indication.


(ii) Tachogenerator and indicator.
(iii) Pulse probe and indicator.

DIRECT DRIVE INDICATOR

Figure 24 shows a basic tachometer indicator. The unit is mechanically driven


and similar to a vehicle speedometer. A flexible drive from the engine rotates a
magnet inside a drag cup manufactured from non-magnetic material (copper or
aluminium). The rotation of the magnet induces eddy currents into the drag cup.
These eddy currents create a magnetic field which causes the drag cup to be
attracted to the rotating permanent magnet field.

R E T U R N HAIR S P R I N G
( O n e end attached to instrument case
the other attached to pointer shaft)
\

1ROTATING M A G N E T

FLEXIBLE DRIVE
FROM ENGINE
POINTER R E A D I N G A G A I N S T
A S C A L E C A L I B R A T E D IN

\ 1 COPPERDRAGCUP

\
POINTER S H A F 1

Fig. 24 DIRECT DRIVE SPEED INDICATION

A hairspring coupled to the drag c u p prevents it from producing a continuous


rotation of the pointer and provides a controlling force. The final position of the
pointer (indicated rpm) is determined by the speed of rotation of the magnet and
the strength of the hairspring.
This type of tachometer is impracticable for the majority of aircraft because the of
the length of the flexible drive required and the fact that flexible drives require
frequent servicing, have a limited life and become erratic when long drive lengths
are used. However, it may be found on light aircraft where a piston engine is
situated directly in front of the cockpit.

TACHOGENERATOR & INDICATOR (TACHOMETER)SYSTEM

The tachogenerator is basically a rotating field a c generator usually driven off the
compressor rotor via a reduction gearing. The low pressure compressor rpm speed
is known a s NI and high pressure compressor as Nz.The indicator indicates in
percentage rpm. This system is also used for reciprocating engines where the
speed of the crankshaft is measured and indication is in rpm.

The generator's rotating field cuts the stator windings a n d the frequency of the
generator output is proportional to engine compressor or crankshaft rpm.

This signal is passed to the indicator and this is applied to the motor in the
indicator, which is basically a n induction motor with synchronous characteristics.
The signal from the tachogenerator creates a rotating magnetic field in the stator
of the indicator motor. This field therefore rotates a t a speed dependent on
generator frequency and t h u s engine speed.

A s the field rotates it cuts the rotor of the indicator and t h e currents induced
produce a field which interacts with the rotating field, which causes the rotor to
turn.

The rotor h a s a weak permanent magnet and once the rotor i s turning it will lock
on' to the rotating field and behaves a s a synchronous motor. The speed of the
motor is now running a t a speed proportional to the output frequency of the
tachogenerator and therefore engine speed.

The motor in the indicator drives a magnet, which rotates inside a copper drag
cup. The magnet field cuts the copper cup inducing eddy currents into it and
producing a magnetic field, the field from the copper cup interacts with the
magnet field, causing the c u p to rotate in the same direction as the magnet.

The cup turns against the tension of the hairspring until the two forces balance.
The movement of the cup also drives through gearing to position the pointers to
indicate the engine percentage rpm or just rprn in the case of a reciprocating
engine.
Fig. 25 TACH0 GENERATOR & ENGINE SPEED INDICATOR

-Nl TACHOMETER N1 TACHOMETER


GENERATOR

N2 TACHOMETER
GENERATOR
CENTER INSTRUMENT PANEL
- TRIM TEST
RECEPTACLE
CONTROL CABIN
OTHER
N2 TACHS "E : 8
RIGHT SiDE

,,jj ;
L?

Fig. 26 ENGINE SPEED INDICATION TACHOGENERATOR


AND INDICATOR SYSTEM
Maintenance Checks

The following checks are a guide as to the maintenance to be carried out.


Remember, always consult the AMM and the maintenance schedule of the aircraft
concerned.

1. Visually check the generator for damage, security of attachment and


freedom of shaft rotation.
2. Visually check the cable and connectors for signs of damage,
corrosion, ingress of moisture and signs of burning.
3. Resistance checks between phases A, B, C should be within
approximately one ohm of one another and within figures and
tolerances given in the AMM.
4. Insulation test between casing of generator and terminals commoned
together. Resistance should not be less than 20 MQ.
5. On some aircraft there is provision to use a test point or even
disconnect a tachogenerator lead and connect into it an inject
frequency signal to test the accuracy of the indicator.
6. Carry out engine m n to check full accuracy of the system.

SERVO OPERATED TACHOMETER INDICATING SYSTEM

The principle of a servo operated indicator using a n input from a tachogenerator


is shown in the next diagram.

The tachogenerator output is fed to the amplifier in the indicator. Also fed into
the amplifier is a signal from a potentiometer, which is connected to the main
pointer. Thus the two inputs to the amplifier are (1)engine speed and (2) main
pointer position.

If the instrument is indicating the speed correctly then these two signals will be
the same, (the input to the amplifier being the difference between the two signals)
there is no difference therefore and no signal input to the amplifier.

If however, engine speed changes then the input signal from the tacho is not the
same as the feedback pot signal from the main pointer position. This error signal
(difference signal) is fed into the servo amplifier where the increased output is fed
to a motor. The motor drives the indicator and also the digital readout, and as
the indicator is driven the potentiometer output will change and when it equals
the input signal from the tachogenerator, there is no error signal and amplifier
output ceases, the motor stops and indicator shows the new engine speed.
I
.---...---- J
MAIN POWER
C& PAN1

5rlC FEW
ma%runt PMRN

I !

I 4. F R W RESET SWiTCH

Fig. 27 SERVO OPERATED TACHOMETER


INDICATING SYSTEM

The output from the servo amplifier is also fed to a null monitor, the purpose of
which is to detect any failure of the servo circuit to back off the error signal.

In the event that the error signal is not being backed off this de-energises a
warning flag, which drops across the digital counter display. Note that normally
this flag would be energised OFF.

Also on the indicator is an overspeed pointer. This normally sits at the required
position on the indicator. Should an overspeed occur then the main pointer moves
to the position of the overspeed pointer and then a s it exceeds the overspeed
position, it carries the overspeed pointer with it. When the speed is reduced the
main pointer moves downscale but the overspeed pointer remains at the
overspeed position. Reset of the overspeed pointer is achieved by operating a
reset button, which energises a reset solenoid within the indicator.
Maintenance

This is similar to the previous tachogenerator and indicator system, except that a s
a servo indicator is used additional checks would include:

1. Checking operation of failure flag.

2. Applying a signal generator signal to produce a frequency to move the


main pointer to the overspeed position, ensuring that when the signal
is reduced, overspeed pointer stays and only resets when the reset
switch is operated.

TACHO PROBE/PULSE PROBE & INDICATOR

There are various types of these probes, but all work on the same basic principle,
ie a variable reluctance circuit causing a varying magnetic field to induce an emf
in a coil, the frequency of the induced emf being proportional to engine speed.

Figure 28 shows two types of probes that use this principle.

POLE PIECES

Fig. 28 TACHO PROBES


PHONIC WHEEL
LP SHAFT
PHONIC WHEEL

PHONIC

POLE PIECE
OUTER POLE PIECE LASS BOBBIN
EPOXY RESIN
ENCAPSULATION

FIBRE GLASS BAND


ELECTRICAL
PERMANENT CONNECTIONS
MAGNETS
FIXING PA0 & ELECTRICAL
CONNECTION COMBINED

Fig. 29 PHONIC WHEEL ARRANGEMENT

Consider the operation of the probe shown in figure 29.

The probe is located around the circumference of the compressor shaft aligned
with a phonic wheel (integral part of compressor shaft).

When the teeth of the phonic wheel are in line with the pole pieces of the pulse
probe, a path of low reluctance is provided for the magnet's field and a strong field
is created through the coil. However, no emfwill be induced in the coil a s the flux
is steady.

When the wheel moves so the teeth lie between the pole pieces then the reluctance
of the magneticpath h a s increased, therefore the flux h a s decreased but more
importantly changed from a high value to a lower value. A s there is aflwc change
a n emf will be induced into the coil.

As the next set of teeth align with the pole pieces of the probe, then once again
there h a s been a change in reluctance to a lower value and therefore a change of
Jux from a lower value to a higher value so a n emf will be induced into the coil.
The frequency of the induced emf in the coil is proportional to the rate at which
the teeth pass the pole pieces and is therefore directly proportional to the speed of
rotation of the compressor shaft.

The following diagrams show the engine tachometer system of a three-spool


engine. It measures the speed of the low pressure (LP) ( N l ) , intermediate pressure
(IP) (N2)and high-pressure (HP)(N3)compressor shafts. The speeds are
measured by pulse probes for N1 and N2 and by a tachometer for N3. The output
frequency of each being sent to the EICAS (Engine Indicating and Crew Alerting
System) and then displayed on the EICAS display units (CRT's).

Study the drawings and ensure you understand how the systems work.

Fig. 30 N1 TACHOMETER SYSTEM

blank
Fig. 31 NI CRT DISPLAY

DLKAlED W
1UICTlWl BOX

Fig. 32 Nz TACHOMETER SYSTEM


W L ACTUAL PARMETER
Y E U O U 8U1D RED L I N E EE*DW R E I D W T (C)
LlRXl
\
LIlfIT
\
<u, 7, R >
I I

Fig. 33 NZ CRT DISPLAY

Fig. 34 N3 TACHOMETER SYSTEM


YELLMI RED LIP NJ ACTUAL
;; LIMIT READOUT
I (W, Y, R)

ROWD
DIAL (Y). -CllOSSdLEfD
llESSAGE
READWT (I)

2 5 1 W,
(MI THE 6 R a U D )

PAWETER
READOUT (C)

R
w
- RED
- WHITE
UAXIRU* RED L I N E
EXCEEDANCE READOLIT
( T H I S AREA) (W)

Fig. 35 N3 DISPLAY

If the EICAS should fail then N 1 and N 3 are fed to a Standby Engine Indicator.
This displays the engine parameters on a seven segment LED display, with engine
limits shown to the side of each display. Figure 36 shows the standby indicators
for two and three spool engines.

Fig. 36 STANDBY RPM INDICATORS


Figure 37 shows the upper CRT display of an ECAM (Electronic Centralised
Aircraft Monitor) system as used on Airbus aircraft.

It displays N1 and N2 %. The N1 actual (green needle) and transient (blue arc)
during autothrust phase. N1 corresponding to lever position (white bullet) and N1
max for the thrust rating obtained if lever is in max take-off position (amber
index).

Figure 38 shows the presentation of N1 and N2 using an electro-optic (LED)


counter and a dc servo driven pointer moving over a circular scale.

- D(CIIC W r n O L rCAwms
- N E LW U T m IlfORYAnOY

s FLIT
- -UTS rcrrnw
92,-y-925

I
SEAT B a f S O R l% FEEDC
YO SUOKlY6

Fig. 37 ECAM UPPER DISPLAY

Fig. 38 LED & ANALOGUE DISPLAYS


SECDNDARI ENGINE DISPLLI

Fig. 39 ENGINE RPM INDICATING SYSTEM

Figure 39 shows the engine speed indicating system for the Boeing 777-200
aircraft. The N1 and N2 speed sensors each send three analogue signals. Two
signals from each sensor go to the Engine Electronic Controller (EEC) where it is
changed into ARINC 429 data. The Engine Data Interface Unit (EDIU) sends
ARINC 629 data to the Aircraft Information Management System (AIMS). The N1
and N2 signals are also sent to AIMS, which uses these analogue signals when
there is no digital engine data. Note, as with most modem systems N1 and N2
signals are sent to the Airborne Vibration Monitor (AVM) signal conditioner. The
engine speed data is shown on the EICAS displays.

The N1 speed sensor is a pulse probe, it is about 2 feet (600mm) long and is
positioned a s shown in figure 40.

The N2 sensor is also a pulse probe but is much shorter.


Fig. 41 N2 SPEED SENSOR - B777
IIAXIUUII N l
(AMBER)

THRUST REFERENCE
UODE (GREEN1

N l REFERENCE
(GREEN1

ACTUAL N1
IWHtTLI ACTUAL NZ
IYHITEI

NZ REDLINE

LCTUAL NZ
(WHITE I

SEEONDART ENGINE Q l S P L A I

Fig. 42 ENGINE INDICATING - ENGINE


TACHOMETER INDICATIONS

Figure 42 shows t h e EICAS display. If N1 or N 2 goes above t h e red line the


display turns red.

Maintenance Checks

1. Check for security of attachment of probe.


2. Inspect probe for damage - limits will be given in Chapter 77 of the AMM.
3. Inspect cable for contamination, signs of burning, security of attachment
and correct clearance from other parts of the engine. Check for correct and
secure connection, and damage and corrosion of pins.
4. Some systems have a test generator. Disconnect connections a t
the probe a n d inject signals at set frequencies to test accuracy of the
indicator - this also tests any overspeed warning systems.

EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE (EGT) MEASURING SYSTEMS

The ideal location for temperature measurement of a n engine and t h u s gain


maximum accuracy in relation to engine performance is a t the turbine blades
themselves, however, this is not practical and therefore thermocouple probes are
fitted to measure exhaust gas temperature. This temperature can be related to
actual turbine blade temperature.
The principle of the thermocouple is that when two dissimilar metals are joined
together at each end and one end is heated (Hot Junction) this generates a n emf
and drives a current around the circuit. It is important to note that the emf
generated is proportional to the dfference in temperature between the hot junction
and cold junction. The Cold Junction is the junction a t the other end of the circuit
to the hot junction.

In early systems a millivoltmeter calibrated in degrees centigrade was inserted in


the cold junction end and therefore the emf generated could be read on the meter
a s a temperature measurement.

METAL A

METAL B

HOT JUNCTION
1
-
------+

Fig. 43 THERMOCOUPLE PFUNCIPLE


COLD JUNCTION
MILLIVOLTMETER

The basic types of thermocouple are either of the STAGNATION or WPID


RESPONSE type. These are arranged radially within the jet pipe to obtain a good
average temperature reading. The thermocouples are connected in parallel.

The STAGNATION TYPE thermocouple h a s a large gas entry hole and a small gas
exhaust hole, therefore the gas is slowed down or STAGNATED to allow the
thermocouple to sense the temperature. These types would be used i n pure jet
engine systems (high gas velocity).
HOUSiNG

INSULATOR

GAS OUT

THERMOCOUPLE
d
GAS IN

Fig. 44 STAGNATION TYPE THERMOCOUPLE

- 35 -
Fig. 45 RAPID RESPONSE TYPE THERMOCOUPLE

THREE
THERMOCOUPLES

Fig. 46 THREE-ELEMENT THERMOCOUPLE

The RAPID RESPONSE TYPE h a s gas exit a n d entry holes of equal size and are
opposite each other, this type is used on lower exhaust gas velocity engines, eg
turbo-prop engines.

Actual types of thermocouple vary so check the aircraft you are currently working
on. It should also be realised that the probe may contain one, two or three
elements to feed EGT to other systems, eg top temperature control.

The thermocouple materials are usually CHROMEL (+ve)and ALUMEL (-ve). In


piston engine cylinder head temperature measuring systems the materials will be
COPPER (+ve)and CONSTANTAN (-ve),the thermocouple being in the shape of a
washer and clamped on the cylinder head or under a spark plug (figure 47).
Figure 48 shows a simplified system for measuring EGT on a gas turbine engine.
Fig. 47 CYLINDER HEAD THERMOCOUPLE

_.--._

Fig. 48 SIMPLIFIED EGT SYSTEM

The thermocouples and their leads are in a harness assembly around the engne
and the number of probes depend on the engine. The leads going from the
junction box to the indicator will be Alumel and Chrome1 (although this may not
always be the case). The indicator is a moving coil millivoltmeter calibrated in
degrees centigrade.

Some systems may include a trimmer resistor. One such type is made up of a wire
wound on a spool or bobbin connected in the leads to the indicator. Its purpose is
to allow adjustment of the overall circuit resistance. Measurement is taken from
the indicator terminals (disconnected)back through the system. Typical values for
earlier systems would be 8R or 25R. If incorrect then the correct amount of wire
on the bobbin would have to be cut off to bring the resistance value to within the
specified values.
,N,ZRWErnTE ,",,C,,ON
sox ,"~nt"oco"~Lz

Fig. 49 TYPICAL THERMOCOUPLE HARNESS

In addition, on some aircraft a ballast resistor is fitted, a s shown, across the


thermocouple output. This is required because on certain types of engine, due to
temperature scatter at the exhaust, even though the average temperature is fine,
hot spots will tend to increase the output of some thermocouples giving an
incorrect reading.

The resistor is across the thermocouple output to load' the output and divert the
excessive current to enable the indicator to read accurately. The value of the
resistor will vary from engine to engine and is usually recorded on the engine data
plate and also in the engine log book. The resistor, if fitted, must be removed with
the engine.

If the leads from the engine to the indicator are made of the same material as the
thermocouples, these are known as EXTENSION LEADS.

On some aircraft the leads from the engine to the indicator are not made of the
same material as the thermocouples, eg Chromel/Alumel thermocouples might
have Copper/Constantan leads to the indicator, these leads are known as
COMPENSATING LEADS.
It might be considered that the compensating leads may not work as effectively as
they create another thermocouple at the connections. However, the two
combinations are compatible and it works well.

Cold Junction Temperature Compensation

The various combinations of thermocouple materials specified for use in aircraft


conform to standard temperaturefemf relationships and the indicators are
calibrated accordingly. These emfs correspond to standard cold junction
temperatures.

If we assume that the cold junction is maintained at OC and the hot junction is
500C then as the temperature difference between hot and cold junctions is 500C
the indicator will read 500C (20.64 mV generated).

Now consider a change of temperature at the cold junction, say it increases to


2OoC, the temperature difference is now 480C, the indicator will now read 480C.
This is because the emf generated at cold junction opposes the emf generated by
the thermocouples in this case 20.64 mV is opposed by 0.79 mV, therefore the
indicator receives 19.85mV and reads 480C which is not the true EGT - the
indicator is in error. Therefore any change of temperature at the cold junction will
cause the indicator to read incorrectly.

Therefore a method needs to be found to compensate for changes of cold junction


temperature and keep the indicator reading the correct EGT.

One method employed is to use a bimetallic strip within the moving coil indicator.

0C (20C) 500C (500C)

Fig. 50 EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE CHANGE


ON THE COLD JUNCTION
A flat spiral bimetallic spring within the indicator is anchored to a bracket, which
forms part of the moving element support, the other end is connected by an
anchor tag to the outer end of one of the controlling hairsprings.

POINTER %

SPRING~AB-
WASHER

COIL IAll I
COIL AlTACHMENl
LOWER SUPPORT TAG (LOWER)
BRACKET
IlPPFR
. .
HAIRSPRING
TAB WASHER
_ CONTACT TAG
INSULATING BUSH /
A n
JE\NEL BEARING
INSULATING WASHER LOCK NUT

Fig. 5 1 TEMPERATURE INDICATOR DETAILS

Assume now that the situation was a s before, ie cold junction temperature
increased by 20C. Previously the indication would have gone down scale, but
now the bimetallic spring (figure 51) will unwind to oppose the movement
downscale. The spring causes the hairspring to move and maintain the pointer at
the upscale position, the indicator therefore reads the true hot junction
temperature of 500C.

Compensation for Moving Coil Resistance Changes

A s the temperature changes at the indicator this will also effect the resistance of
the moving coil itself. If the temperature goes up, its resistance goes up and the
current through it falls and therefore the indication will fall. One method of
overcoming this problem is to connect a thermistor in series with the indicator
coil. A thermistor has a negative temperature coefficient, ie its resistance
decreases with an increase in temperature. If the temperature of the indicator
increases then the coil increases its resistance, the thermistor resistance
decreases, so the overall resistance of the coil circuit remains the same. Therefore
current and indication will remain the same.
l
a --.--

EUREKA
SHUNT

INDICATOR

i i
Fig. 52 COMPENSATION FOR COIL RESISTANCE
CHANGE USING A THERIMISTOR

Servo Operated Indication System

The thermocouple output is fed to a measuring system where cold junction


compensation is effected and then on to an amplifier.

The input to the amplifier is the thermocouple signal and an indicator position
feedback signal, any difference between these two signals creates an error signal
which is amplified and fed to a servomotor. This drives the indicator pointer and
counter via the gear train.

The gear train also drives the balance potentiometer to provide a feedback signal
to the amplifier and servomotor until the input signals are equal and motor stops
to indicate the new EGT.

If EGT exceeds the operating limit the amber overtemp light illuminates - this is
operated by a snap action cam actuated switch. In addition the engine over
temperature condition is indicated by the maximum indication pointer. If the
EGT exceeds the limit the main pointer will carry the maximum indication pointer
to a higher value on the scale and when the EGT lowers the maximum indication
pointer remains at the over temperature reading. This pointer is reset by a reset
switch.

If a circuit malfunction occurs the Integral Integrity Monitor (IIM) causes the
failure flag circuit to de-energise and the failure flag will fall in front of the
numerals. Pointer and counter remain at the last value before failure occurred
The instrument dial is illuminated using 5 volts ac.

Figure 53 shows a typical EGT system and figure 54 shows the layout of the
thermocouple system on a Boeing 737-400 series aircraft.
Fig. 54 THERMOCOUPLE HARNESS ON A BOEING 737-400

GASEXHAUST

CHROME~ALUMEL
THERMOCOUPLE TIP

4I
GAS INLET

Fig. 55 TYPICAL EGT PROBE

Figure 54 shows a 9-probe system, with a typical probe being shown in figure 55.

The signal from the thermocouples is fed into the display unit. The input signal is
amplified and cold junction compensation is carried out and then fed to a voltage
to frequency conversion module, which produces an output frequency
proportional to the dc input signal. The frequency is digitised, formatted and
stored in a RAM in readiness for transmission to the display driver and then to
the LED display.
Fig. 56 EGT INDICATING SYSTEM

Fig. 57 EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE INDICATING SYSTEM

- 44 -
Figure 57 shows the general layout of a seventeen probe system on a large
aircraft and figure 58 shows the CRT display. Study the drawings and make sure
you understand the general operation of the system.

Fig. 58 EGT CRT DISPLAY

Some probes may contain more than one junction. Figure 59 shows a probe with
two junctions, referred to as a 'short reach' and long reach' probe from the extent
to which they reach into the gas stream.

HARNESS
CONNECTION

u
OUNTING
ANGE

Fig. 59 A DOUBLE PROBE JUNCTION


Terminal studs of junction boxes are also made of chrome1 and alumel, the
diameters of the studs being different with alumel being the larger.

Figure 60 shows an EGT display, which has a dc servo driven pointer and also an
LED display.

Fig. 60 COMBINED ANALOGUE & DIGITAL DISPLAY

RADIATION PYROMETER SYSTEM

The exhaust gas temperature system provides a good indication of the


temperature at the turbine. However, errors can arise due to ageing of
thermocouples and the varying efficiency of compressor/turbine assemblies,
which means the engine could run more efficiently at a lower turbine
temperature. It therefore became necessary to sense turbine blade temperature
directly.

Fitted to some aircraft, the system uses a radiation pyrometer. The basic system
is shown in figure 6 1.

Fig. 6 1 BASIC RADIATION PYROMETER SYSTEM


The system depends on the fact that radiation emitted by a body at any
wavelength is a function of the temperature of the body and its emissitivity. The
temperature of the turbine blades can therefore be determined, knowing the value
of its emissivity. This system provides a more rapid response to turbine
temperature change than a thermocouple system.

With reference to figure 6 1. The pyrometer sensing head is mounted so that the
line of sight of the lens is on the turbine blades. The detected radiation is sensed
via a sapphire or silica lens to focus the energy onto the end of the fibre optic
assembly. The fibre optic link transmits the radiated signal a s a n optical signal,
which is sensed by a silicon photocell within the detector, amplified and fed to the
indicator or control box of the system.

The Boeing 777-200 uses a combination of thermocouple probes (two)and a


pyrometer to measure EGT. The thermocouples measures EGT during engine
start and at idle. The pyrometer measures EGT at higher engine speeds.

Fig. 62 EGT INDICATION SYSTEM - B 7 7 7

The two thermocouples send analogue signals to the Engine Electronic Control
(EEC). The EEC sends digital signals to the AIMS (via EDIU and ARINC 629
buses) for display and monitoring. The pyrometer sensor signal is sent via the
fibre optic cable to a n electronics module, the EEC again sends signals to the
AIMS for display and monitoring functions. The EGT indication is shown on the
EICAS display.
Maintenance Procedures

It is important that you study the appropriate AMM for the aircraft you are
currently working on. Use the following notes a s guidelines only.

Visual Checks

1. Check the thermocouple probes for damage, security of attachment,


and blockage of air passages.

2. Check the engine harness for moisture contamination, carbon


deposits, general condition of cables, correct clearance from structure
etc and security of attachment. Check terminal connections for correct
torque loading, security and cleanliness.

System Tests

1. Insulation Tests - may include disconnecting leads a t engine the


junction box and using a low voltage meggar checking between each
lead and ground, between each terminal stud a n d ground and
between each cable outer covering a n d inner conductor.

2. Short circuit and open circuit tests.

3. Resistance checks - this is normally carried out by talung a resistance


reading with leads of the test meter connected one way, then a reading
is taken with the leads reversed a n d the two noted. Resistance
readings are added together and divided by two.

4. Accuracy Test - involves injecting millivolt inputs into the system to


check the indicator is within limits as laid down i n the AMM. Also
check over temperature indications by injecting a millivolt input to the
over temperature level and checking t h a t indication comes on and
goes off within the required values.

Note. It is important that you know whether the test set you are using
h a s automatic ambient temperature compensation or not, if not then
allowance must be made for the ambient temperature.

5. Failure Flag - tripping and resetting the circuit breaker to ensure flag
appears and disappears correctly.

6. Resistance of Ballast Resistance.


ENGINE PRESSURE RATIO INDICATING SYSTEM

The thrust produced by a jet engine does not vary in direct proportion to turbine
rpm. The thrust ratings are calculated in such a way that they must be corrected
for variations in temperature and pressure at the compressor intake. Since
compressor intake pressure is related to the outlet pressure at the turbine, then
the thrust is more accurately determined by measuring the ratio between these
two pressures. The Engine Pressure Ratio system is therefore a thrust indication
system for these types of engine. The ratio provided by this system is therefore:

exhaust pressure - outlet pressure


air intake pressure inlet pressure

The basic components of the system are an inlet pressure sensing probe, exhaust
pressure sensing probes, EPR transmitter and EPR gauge. There are variations
between aircraft in design, operation and location of components, particularly the
operation of the EPR transmitter. We shall look at one typical system.

Inlet Sensing Probe

The engine inlet pressure is sensed by a probe similar to a Pitot probe and is
located at or near the front of the engine, in the intake or in the intake cone. It
will sense Pitot pressure (P2)and transmit this to the EPR transducer.

Engine Exhaust Probes

The engine exhaust pressure (P7)is sensed by a number of probes located within
the exhaust pipe. In the system described there are six disposed radially in the
turbine exhaust case.

EPR Transmitter

These vary in operation. However, their basic function is to convert the ratio of
outletlinlet pressure to an electrical signal for transmission to the indicator.

EPR Indicator

This provides a pointer and digital readout of the ratio. It is a servo-operated


system. The dial is graduated from 0.80 to 1.80 EPR, and a failure flag drops in
front of the digital display due to (i)no power, (ii)low power and (iii) sustained
mechanical malfunction. The indicator has integral lighting.
Fig. 63 INLET SENSING PROBE

Fig. 64 EXHAUST PROBES - LOCATION


INDEX
SET KNOB

INOiCdTOR

/-_--
ENGINE CHANCE CISCONNECT

ICE DETECTION

T CONNECTIONS

Fig. 65 TRANSMITTER CONNECTIONS

I 11.8V 400Hz
L----
OUTPUT

Fig. 66 EPR TRANSDUCER CIRCUIT


ENG I EPR INDICATOR ENG I EPR TRANSMITTER

Fig. 67 EPR INDICATING SYSTEM

System Operation

The inlet pressure (PT?)is fed to two of the bellows in the transmitter/transducer,
and exhaust pressure (PT~) is fed to one of the other bellows with the fourth bellow
evacuated and sealed (Pv).

With constant EPR the transducer is in a state of force balance and no movement
occurs. When there is a change in EPR, out of balance forces result in movement
of the bellows system and the LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer).
This gives a n electrical output to a n amplifier whose output signals a servomotor
control winding: The servomotor moves and drives the bellows system which
nulls the output of the LVDT. It also drives the control transmitter rotor (CX).
The output from the CX is transmitted to the CT in the indicator. The output from
the CT rotor is amplified and fed to a motor. The motor drives (through a gear box)
the EPR pointer and digital counter and the CT rotor to the null position. At this
position the system will be in equilibrium and the EPR indicator now shows the
new reading.
Maintenance Checks

The instrument should be reading 1.OO on the ground with engine not running.

Probes. Inspect for security of attachment, cracks, corrosion, damage, correct


alignment and blockage.

Transmitter. Check for security of attachment, electrical and pressure


connections for security and contamination - including the bonding lead.

Indicator. Check for security, damage and legibility of markings. Check the
function of the lighting and power failure flag operation. Check pointer position
and check operation of reference setting knob together with reference indication.

System Checks

These usually consists of (i) a leak check and (ii)an accuracy test.

Leak Test Connect up EPR test set, apply inlet and exhaust
pressures as stated in the AMM. Maximum permissible
drop is 0.25 in Hg in 5 minutes.

Accuracy Test Connect up test equipment (AMM), apply pressure to


figures a s shown in the manual for inlet (PT~)
and exhaust
(Pn) and check indicator reads correctly within tolerances
quoted in the manual.

EPR Biasing

On some systems the electrical signals generated by the EPR transmitter are
biased by a control differential transformer synchro (CDX)fitted between the
control transmitter synchro in the transmitter and the control transformer
synchro in the indicator (figure 68).

This is to accommodate variations in the actual thrust values obtained between


individual engines when operating at the same EPR readings. During the testing
of engines after manufacture/overhaul the actual EPR required to produce a given
thrust is determined for each engine. '

The amount of bias required from the CDX is calculated and entered on the
engine data plate and in the engine log book and engine test records.

When the engine is fitted to the airframe the correct CDX with the correct bias is
fitted into the system iaw the AMM and the engine data plate.
I
j15VAC
I BUS N O 1
P6 MAIN POWER
CIRCUIT BREAKER
-I
PANEL

Fig. 68 EPR SYSTEM WITH CDX BIAS

Integrated Engine Pressure Ratio (IEPR)System

Used on multi spool engines the Integrated Engine Pressure Ratio system uses the
ratio of integrated engine exhaust pressure to air intake pressure to provide an
indication of engine thrust on the flight deck (figures 69 and 70).

The integrated engine exhaust pressure uses signals from both the hot and cold
thrust streams and also the engine intake pressure. These are fed to a transmitter
from which electrical signals are passed to the flight deck indicator and displayed
as units of EPR. Components of an IEPR system include:
* One inlet pressure probe (PI)located in the engine nose cowl on wing
mounted engines, and in the centre of the intake on the rear engine.
* Three anti-iced low-pressure (LP)fan pressure rakes (PF),one located in
the splitter leading edge and one located on each of the A-frame structures.
* Five high-pressure (P8)rakes located in 4 of the 18-rotor tail bearing
supports.
x
One integrating multiple connector for PF and P8 pressures.
* One pressure ratio transmitter, similar in construction and operation to that
previously described.
* One Trimmer Unit.
* One EPR indicator mounted in the flight deck.

LP TURBlNE BEARING

TRANSMITTER

Fig. 69 PROBE DISTRIBUTION

A signal of air intake pressure (PI),tapped from the sensing probe supply, is fed
to the IEPR transmitter. Signals of LP compressor exhaust pressure (PF) and gas
generator exhaust pressure (Pa),sensed by the rakes, are fed to the multiple
connector where they are integrated and the resultant pressure (P-INT)passed to
the transmitter., The transmitter converts the pressure signals to an electrical
signal, which is fed to a trimmer unit and then to the indicator. The function of
the trimmer unit is to reduce scatter in the relationship between indicated EPR
and engine thrust so that it is unique for all engines.

Finally, the electrical signal, together with a fured dc reference voltage, is fed to
and processed by the EPR indicator to provide both a n analogue and digital
display in units of EPR.
PF RAKES

Fig. 70 IEPR SYSTEM SCHEMATIC

Figure 71 shows an EPR system using a digital transmitter and CRT display.

The engine inlet pressures (Pl)and Pf (fan exhaust pressure) are transduced by
two vibrating cylinder pressure transducers, which produce frequencies
proportional to the air pressures. These signals are fed to a microprocessor which
converts them into the ratio PI/Pl and digitises them for transmission to the
EICAS computers and then to the CRT display.
l----l
DATA ACPU1SITION

Fig. 71 DIGITAL EPR SYSTEM

PRESSURE INDICATING SYSTEMS

I n earlier systems, hydraulic, fuel, oil and pneumatic pressures were fed directly
to a Bourdon tube type gauge on the flight deck. This meant long pressure lines to
the flight deck with a consequent weight penalty, increased leak probability and
(for pneumatic pressures) a safety issue.

INSTRUMENT CASE

PRESSURE
CONNECTION

7
-
R :
&LINK

:
- :
TO QUADRANT

QUADRANT GEAR 8.

DwvE si+An

Fig. 72 DIRECT READING GAUGE

- 57 -
The Bourdon Tube Pressure Gauge

The bourdon tube is a metal tube with an elliptical cross-section shaped in the
form of a C. The tube material may be phosphor bronze, beryllium bronze or
beryllium copper. One end of the tube is sealed and the other is open to accept
the pressure.

PRESSURE

Fig. 73 BOURDON TUBE PRINCIPLE

There is usually a choke or restrictor fitted to the inlet union to prevent surge
pressures affecting the gauge. The principle of operation is such that when
pressure is applied to the interior of the tube there is a tendency for the cross
sectional area of the tube to attempt to change its shape to a more circular cross-
section, the tube tries to straighten its arc, causing the sealed end to move
outwards and move the gear and thus the indicator needle.

To prevent total fluid loss from the main system should the supply line to the
flight deck fail some fluid lines had a pressure transfer valve fitted which transfers
pressure but not flow. It consisted of a small cylinder in which slid a piston with
the system connected to one end of the cylinder and the pressure transfer pipe to
the flight deck fitted to the other. As the system pressure changed so the piston
would move and transfer the pressure to the flight deck supply line. If this line
leaked then the piston would move to the limit of its travel (2 or 3 cms) with no
fluid loss from the system. The pressure indication would go to zero.

A more modem alternative to the pressure transfer valve system is the


transmitter-indicator system. These vary but the one described here uses a
bourdon tube as a transducer with the resultant electrical signal sent to the flight
deck (figure 74).
-- slgnal caused by
pressure changes.
Induceu voltage
slgnal.
Ampllfled voltage etior
-s"""%

400Hz
PLY

PRESSURE

GWRBOX
FLIGHT DECK GAUGE
2 PH&E MOTOR

Fig. 74 BOURDON TUBE TRANSDUCER SYSTEM

The transmitter consists of a bourdon tube, gearing and CX (Control Transmitter).


This is mounted directly on the engine and is connected to the pressure source.
The indicator consists of CT (Control Transformer), amplifier and a servomotor.

Pressure causes the bourdon tube to move and the CX rotor to turn. This causes
a change of field across the CT rotor, inducing an error voltage. This voltage is
amplified and sensed for direction and then fed to a 2-phase servomotor, which
drives the indicator and also the CT rotor. When the rotor reaches its NULL
position, ie field cutting it at 90, there is no error signal induced and the motor
stops. The gauge now showing the system pressure.

Synchro Type Oil Pressure Indicating System (figure 75)

The components of the system are an oil pressure transmitter and indicator. The
transmitter has a diaphragm, one side of which is connected to engine oil
pressure and the other side is connected to ambient pressure. The pressure
difference positions the diaphragm and therefore the rotor of the TX (Torque
Transmitter). In the indicator is a TX synchro and in the transmitter is a TR
(Torque Receiver) synchro. This means that the normal torque synchro action will
take place and the TR rotor in the indicator will move to the same position as the
TX rotor and drive the pointer of the pressure indicator.
ING NO. 2
1BV AE
IUI NO. I
(EN0 NO. I
Y8VAC

Fig. 75 OIL PRESSURE INDICATION SYSTEM

Maintenance Checks

Visual Checks These are similar to the checks carried out on previous
systems.

System Test Comprises disconnecting the oil pressure line to the


transmitter and connecting an air pressure source. For
example, in the system described an air pressure of 80psi
is applied and the indicator must read 80 (3.3)psi. This
pressure is held for 3 minutes to check for leakage. The
air pressure is reduced to 45psi, indicator should read 45
(+3)psi. Reduce pressure to zero, ensure gauge reads zero.

Disconnect air source, reconnect oil pipelines. Bleed.


Carry out engine run and check for correct operation and
no leaks.

But check your own AMM.


AC Ratiometer Oil Pressure Indicating System

Another system used for measurement and indication of oil pressure is a system
which uses the ac ratiometer principle. The system consists of a n INDUCTOR
PRESSURE TRANSMITTER and an ac RATIOMETER INDICATOR.

The pressure transmitter (figure 76) receives the oil pressure through the oil inlet
in the base of the transmitter into the bellows. The bellows expand and causes
the armature spindle to move, this causes the two soft iron armature cores to
move in relation to the stationery stator windings. A s these windings are fed with
ac, the inductance of the windings will change. The cores are displaced such that
as one core is moving into a winding the other core is moving out of its winding.

The inductor (indicator) consists of a single shaft on which there are three discs,
two snail or cam shaped and one circular. When the shaft rotates all the discs
rotate in the same direction. The two cam shaped discs each rotate between the
poles of their respective Shaded Pole Motor. An important point to note is that the
discs have their cams handed from one another, ie as one disc presents a smaller
area in between its motor's pole pieces the other disc presents a larger area
between its motors pole pieces. The circular disc at the end of the shaft rotates
between the poles of a magnet to provide damping.

OVERLOAD STOP

SPRING ADJUSTER

ARMATURE

SPINDLE GUIDE

INLET

Fig. 76 INDUCTOR PRESSURE TRANSMITTER

- 61 -
LAMINATION & BOBBIN
ASSEMBLIES

CAM SHAPED

SHADING
RINGS

Fig. 77 AC RATIOMETER INDICATOR

Operation

Figure 78 shows a simplified system whilst figure 79 shows a more realistic


system. You should read through the following explanation taking care to follow it
through using both drawings.

Assume a steady pressure in the transmitter and the indicator is stationary.

The cores in the transmitter wili be at certain positions with regards to the stator
windings. Coil 'A' supplies motor 'A', coil 'B'supplies motor 73' and the current
supplied to these motors depends on the inductance of the stator windings
(position of core relative to stator winding). The input supply is 26v 400 Hz single
phase.

The current supplied to each motor produces alternating fluxes across the pole
pieces, the presence of the shading ring around each pole piece causes a flux lag
between the shaded and unshaded portion of the pole pieces and therefore two
out of phase fluxes across the gap between the pole pieces. These fluxes cut the
disc and produce eddy currents. The field produced by the induced eddy currents
interacts with the field between the pole pieces causing the disc to turn.

The effect of motor 'A' is to drive its disc clockwise and in motor 'B' to drive its disc
anti-clockwise.
PRESSURE

INDUCTOR COILS

/
Wound around the
soft iron cores
,
DIRECTION OF
BELLOWS RESTRAiNING MOTOR DRIVE A
SPRING
DAMPING DISC
REMOVED FOR
CLARITY
TRANSDUCER INDICATOR

Fig. 78 SIMPLIFIED AC RATIOMETER SYSTEM

Therefore when the pressure is steady the torque on disc 'A' is exactly balanced by
the torque on disc 73' (ratiometer principle).

Assume now a n increase in pressure. Coil 'B' inductance will increase (core moves
into winding and increases the flux density) and coil 'A' inductance will decrease
(core moves out of winding). The current to motor 'A'will increase and the current
to motor 73' will decrease. The torque on the discs is no longer equal and motor
'A' torque will increase and motor 'B' will decrease.

The shaft and all the discs will now rotate clockwise and as it rotates the disc area
presented between the poles of motor 'A' will decrease (with torque decreasing, as
the area presented between the poles must have an effect on torque produced)
while the area of the disc presented between poles of motor 'B' will increase. It is
being dragged Backwards' (torque increasing).

At some point the torques will balance and the shaft, discs and pointer will
become stationary at the new pressure reading.

The hairspring brings the pointer 'off scale' in the event of power failure.

Later systems feed the transmitter signals to an LED indicator. Indication is in


psi.

The transmitter signals may be sent direct to computers, such as the EICAS
computers and then fed to the CRT display (figure 81).
Fig. 79 A MORE REALISTIC AC RATIOMETER SYSTEM

Fig. 80 PRESSURE INDICATION CRT -


On later technology aircraft pressure transmitters are of the piezoresistive type, ie
elements that change their electrical resistance in proportion to applied
mechanical stress (pressure). These elements are typically solid-state silicon
resistors.

In figure 82 the oil pressure sensor is a piezoresistive device that contains two
sensing elements. Each EEC channel supplies a n excitation signal to one sensing
element. Each element sends an oil pressure signal to its EEC channel and then
via the EDIU to AIMS for display as shown in psi.
SECOHDARY ENGINE PAGE

TERPERATURE BULBS
O I L PRESSURE TRANS
OIL P U A ~ T I T YTRANSIIITTERS CWPUTERS

PRESSURE FILTER SYITCHES


SCAVENGE FILTER SUITCHES

Fig. 81 BOEING OIL INDICATING SYSTEM

CHANNEL 1
CHANNEL 8 ,

SECONDARY ENGINE DlSPLlT PERIORPIANCE nlllNlENllNCE PAGE

PCI PIAINTENANCE PAGE 212

Fig. 82 OIL PRESSURE INDICATING SYSTEM


TEMPERATURE MEASURING SYSTEMS

Remote temperature indicating systems are used for pneumatics, engine oil,
hydraulics, fuel etc. The example used here involves the use of resistance bulbs
as the sensor and a ratiometer type indicator.

The resistance bulb has resistance wire of nickel or platinum wound on an


insulated former and sealed in a brass or stainless steel tube, which may be filled
with a n inert gas to assist heat transfer to the element. Whether nickel or
platinum is used depends on the temperatures to be measured. Nickel can be
used up to 300" C and platinum up to 600' C.

PLUG FORMER
RECEPTACLE
\
UNION NUT
/' / BULB

CONTACTING ELEMENT
"IN /
SOCKET STRIPS
CALIBRATION OR
BALANCING COIL

Fig. 83 TEMPERATURE BULB

The ratiometer indicator is used to give a high accuracy of indication. One of its
coils is connected directly across the supply and the other is connected in series
with the temperature bulb.

With reference to figure 84. Assume the temperature of the bulb is constant, then
the torques provided by the two coiIs are equal and opposite (coils wound to
oppose) and the system is stationary. It should be noted that the currents are not
necessarily the same. Remember the torque on a coil is proportional to current and
Pm.
Assume now that the temperature at the bulb increases, its resistance will
increase (positive temperature coefficient). The current through coil B will
decrease and its torque will decrease. Remember the current through coil A will
not change a s the coil is across the supply. There is now a n imbalance of the
torques, coil A torque is greater than coil B torque and the armature will move
clockwise carrying with it the pointer.
You should note that as coil B moves it moves closer to the magnet and into a
stronger flux area, so its torque is increasing and coil A is moving further away
from the magnet and into a weaker flux area so its torque is decreasing (T a I x 0).
At some point the torques balance and the pointer now indicates the new higher
temperature reading.

Fig. 84 TEMPERATURE MEASURING SYSTEM


USING RATIOMETER INDICATOR

In practical indicators there is usually some form of no power sweep off


mechanism to ensure positive movement to zero or below zero in the event of no
power being available to the instrument. This can be a small hairspring which
plays little or no part in the nonnal operation of the instrument.

Figure 85 shows a practical indication system. Note the position of the earth for
the system, it is always close to the bulb.

blank
1rz 28V AC BUS 7.

FUELTEMP
INDICATION

CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL I

Fig. 85 FUEL TEMPERATURE INDICATION SYSTEM

LIMITING RESISTOR

Fig. 86 BRIDGE LAYOUTS

Consider figure 86 showing a ratiometer instrument wiring layout. (b) shows that
the leads interconnecting the indicator and bulb have a small inherent resistance,
and this resistance changes with temperature change. Wired a s shown the lead
resistance's are both in series with the bulb and one coil of the indicator.
Therefore errors could be introduced.
This problem is overcome by connecting the earth of the dc power supply close to
the bulb as shown in figure 85c. The resistance of one of the connecting leads is
now in series with one coil while the other connecting lead resistance is in series
with the other coil in the indicator. Therefore any change in resistance of these
connecting leads effects both coils equally and a s they oppose one another there
will be no effect on the indication.

The effect on the indication of a short-circuited or open-circuited temperature


bulb must be understood. A short-circuited coil will move the indication down
scale - usually below zero. (Coil B predominates totally over coil A).

An open-circuited coil will move the indication to a full-scale position (coil A


predominates totally over coil B).

Maintenance Checks

Check your AMM for specific details but in general the follow applies.

Inspection of bulb. Visually check for damage, corrosion and security. Check
electrical connections for security signs of burning and contamination. Carry out
resistance and insulation checks.

Indicator. Check for security, legibility of markings and damage. Check that
power failure check indication moves below scale.

System Checks. This will vary from aircraft to aircraft. Some manuals state that
the temperature of oil should be measured using a thermometer and the reading
compared with the gauge. Others state disconnect the bulb and substitute a set
value of resistance and indicator should read a certain value. Some have a test
box which can simulate temperature bulb resistance's to check calibrate the
indicator.

On more modem systems the temperature bulb signals are fed to computers and
then transferred to the EICAS display (Boeing) or ECAM display (Airbus).

Figure 87 shows the oil temperature indicating system for the 777-200. The
temperature bulb has two platinum elements, the signals from these elements are
fed to the two channels in the EEC and then via the EDIU to the AIMS for display.
EPCS MAINTENAN< PAGE 212

Fig. 87 OIL TEMPERATURE INDICATING SYSTEM - B777


CONTENTS

Page

Fuel flow indication systems


Rotating vane type transducer
Motor driven type
Motorless type
Electronic engine control
S u p e ~ s o r ysystems
FADEC
Engine vibration monitoring systems
Manifold pressure indication
Torque measuring systems
Hydraulic system
Phase displacement systems
Propeller speed measurement
Propeller synchronising
FUEL FLOW INDICATING SYSTEMS

We shall consider three types of fuel flowmeter systems:

a) The rotating vane type.


b) The motor drive type.
c) The motorless type.

ROTATING VANE TYPE

The transmitter consists of two sections combined in one unit; a flow- measuring
chamber and a data transducer section. The flow section is completely sealed
from the data transducer section.

BYPASSVALVE

SPRING /
MOVING VANE
Fig. 1 FLOW MEASURING CHAMBER

The flow measuring chamber consists of a measuring vane, which is moved by the
flow of fuel in a specially shaped convoluted flow chamber. As the vane moves
around the chamber so the gap between it and the chamber side gets wider -
allowing more fuel to pass. The moving vane is spring tensioned against the fuel
flow by a specially calibrated control spring. The vane will take up a position so
that spring tension and rate of fuel flow are in equilibrium. The chamber is
specially shaped to provide a linear vane movement per flow rate increase.

Inlet guide vanes remove any turbulence of the fuel entering the chamber. Should
the vane jam it is necessary (by regulations) to provide a bypass for the fuel. The
bypass valve is of the simple spring-loaded type adjusted to open when a
differential pressure (pressure on inlet side to pressure on outlet side) exceeds a
certain value to allow fuel to bypass.
Some transmitters also have a viscosity valve, this is a small plate cut within the
bypass valve, the position of the plate being controlled by a bi-metal spring. As
the temperature of the fuel falls this valve will start to open (at approximately
10C) to divert some of the fuel to compensate for the change in viscosity of the
fuel.

CALIBRATED

INDICATOR
MAGNETIC POINTER
COUPLING

IN OUT
FUEL 26 VAC
I
TRANSMITTER INDICATOR

Fig. 2 FUEL FLOW INDICATING SYSTEM - 1

The fuel entering the chamber positions the vane against the tension of the
spring. This movement of the vane has to be transmitted to the data transducer
section.

This is done by a drive magnet attached to the vane, which drives another magnet
on the data transducer section through the sealed chamber. The magnet on the
data transducer side drives the rotor of a torque transmitter synchro (TX).

The torque transmitter synchro transmits the movement to the torque receiver
(TR) in the flow rate indicator (normal torque synchro system action) to indicate
flow rate in lb/min or kg/hr.

MOTOR DRIVEN TYPE

Many systems have one instrument in the flight deck, which gives fuel flow rate as
well as total fuel consumed (fuel flow rate with respect to time). The basic system
consists of three components: the transmitter; the computer and the indicator.
AWMlNlUM ALLOY
FLUID BODY
PbSSAOEWAYS /

ROT,
TURBINE
I / 3mFT

TRI\,NING
ING

-
FUEL FLOW

CML
TO TRANSISTORIZE0
PICK-OFF BISTAsLESWITCH
COIL

Fig. 3 MOTOR DRIVEN FUEL FLOW TRANSMITTER

The transmitter consists of two cylindrical drums, the outside drum (outer drum)
is driven by a synchronous motor at a constant speed (100 rpm). Inside the outer
drum is an inner drum called the impeller, which has fluid passages cut into it to
impart angular velocity to the fuel. The outer drum is attached to the impeller by
a linear spring. Attached to the impeller and outer drum are magnets. Below
each magnet is a pulse pick-off which is a coil.

The signals from the coils are passed to individual pulse amplifiers and then to a
bi-stable transistorised switch - all this contained within the transmitter. The
principle used in this system is that fuel passing through the impeller section will
have kinetic encrgy imparted on it as it is rotated, this kinetic energy is
proportional to its mass. It is important to measure mass as the energy released is
determined by the mass of fuel burned per unit time (Ibs per hour).

Operation

If there is no fuel flow through the transmitter then the outer drum and impeller
will rotate at the same speed with no relative angular displacement, which means
the two magnets will be passing their coils at the same time.

One of the magnets (outer drum) induces an emf in the coil which will switch on
the transistor, the other magnet (impeller)induces an emf to switch off the
transistor. A s they are rotating together then the transistor is switched on and off
simultaneously. In practice there is a slight angular difference. When fuel enters
the transmitter it first passes through straightening vanes around the motor to
remove any angular velocity the fuel may possess.
The fuel then passes into the impeller section where a constant angular velocity is
imparted to the fuel. (Remember the outer drum is driven at constant speed and
is attached to the impeller by a linear spring). This causes the impeller to lag on
the outer drum, the angular displacement being proportional to fuel flow rate.

The angular difference between the two drums means that the transistor will be
switched on by the outer drum magnet pulse and switched off by the impeller
magnet pulse when it comes round. This means the bistable switch will be
producing a series of pulses, the width of these pulses is proportional tofuelfiow
rate.

A % TWO PlCKOFF CDLLI


(OWE BEHINDTHE OTHER>
B = DRUM MIIOWET
C = IMPEUER MADNET
D - 610P ( C M S l TO 5 64)
DEFLECTION1

ROTATION

ZERO FLOW SiGNAi

ROTATION

C A U S E FLOW SiGNiiL (13.487 LEIMIN)


MMIMUM FLOW SIGNAL
(27L572 LBIMIN)

Fig. 4 OPERATION OF PULSE PICK-OFFS

Operation
* Low fuel flow rate - small angular displacement of outer drum and impeller
- transistor switched on for short time - small pulse width.
* High fuel flow rate - large angular displacement of outer drum and impeller
- transistor switched on longer time - larger pulse width.

Thus the transmitter is producing a series of pulses which are fed to the
computer.

The flow rate section of the computer consists of a signal comparator (SC), a
modulator (MOD) and an amplifier.
SUPPLY 10 I R A N S M I I I E R

--
SYNCHRONOUSMOTOR

-
PICK-OFF SIGNALS
TRliNSMiiTER

,--------------------- FLOW R A T S

REFERENCE
WINDING
S,GN".&S
e
9
'------...-------..--
COMPUTER

FLOW RATE
SIGNALS

TiML BASE
StCiiON

INDICATOR

Fig. 5 FUEL FLOWMETER SYSTEM

The indicator in the flow rate section is driven by a 2-phase servomotor. The
indicator pointer is attached to a potentiometer, which controls a signal to a time
base section. The signal from the time base section is effectively a feedback signal
to the signal comparator in the computer. The fuel flow transmitter signals are
fed to the signal comparator. If there is any difference between feedback and
transmitter signals a signal is sent to the motor (via modulator and amplifier) to
reduce the error to zero and correct the indicated fuel flow.

The fuel consumed section of the computer consists of an inhibitor, gate and
divider. The inhibitor blocks any low fuel flow signal (typically below 300 kg/hr or
less) so that n o signal reaches the indicator a t no fuel flow conditions. The
indicator is a solenoid actuated 5 drum digital counter and pulse amplifier.

A reset button is provided for resetting to zero. The transmitter signals are passed
through the inhibitor to the gate, the gate is 'opened' by the transmitter signals,
a n oscillator injects signals into the transmitter signal, the number of pulses from
the oscillator that can be put into the transmitter pulse is a measure of fuel
consumed, ie each pulse represents a quantity of fuel.

This number of pulses then h a s to be divided to represent 1 kg of fuel (in fact


1920 cycles represents 1 kg of fuel). The output is then fed to a pulse amplifier
and the pulse counter indicator to register fuel consumed in kg.

The fuel flow transmitter is a motorless design. It includes a swirl generator,


rotor, turbine, two electromagnetic coils and a main housing. It also incorporates
a flow director of double spring fingers. These fingers allow accurate flow rate
measurement at low fuel flow rates and 'open u p ' to prevent restriction of fuel flow
a t high flow rates. The Fuel Flow Transmitter is powered by the kinetic energy of
the fuel flowing through it.
Pb MAIN POWER
CB PANEL
ENC I
XMlTTER
LXG, 'I',' ' . E

*or01
FUEL FlOW 'olc'
INDIUTMI c
w mi
ELECTRONICS MODULE

FUEL USED

SWITCH
wmn rr, rutr uyb
IIDiClTOLI

Fig. 6 FUEL FLOW INDICATING SYSTEM - 2

Operation

The fuel flow transmitter generates electromagnetic pulses a s a function of fuel


m a s s flow rate.

The swirl generator establishes a vortex i n the fuel flow which causes the rotor to
spin. Two permanent magnets on the rotor induce pulses in a 'start coil' and a
'stop coil'. The start pulse is induced a s the first magnet passes a coil whose axis
is perpendicular to the fuel flow direction.

The stop pulse is generated as the second magnet passes the signal blade, which
is attached to the turbine.

The deflection of the turbine increases with increasing fuel flow rates, increasing
the time between the start pulse and stop pulse. The time difference is t h u s
proportional to fuel flow rate. The start and stop pulses are transmitted to the
EICAS (a Boeing system - Engine Indicating & Crew Alerting System) for
conversion and flight deck indication of fuel flow rates.

Figure 7 shows a simplified system and figures 8 to 11 show details of both EICAS
and ECAM systems. ECAM - Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitor - Airbus.
Study the drawings and relate the details to the text.
OW DIRECTOR
CIRCWFERENTIAL GENERATOR (POVBLE SPRING
10 RICH PRESSURE f INGERS)
COIL (STOP)

Fig. 7 FUEL FLOW INDICATING SYSTEM - 3

ENGINE OIL
PARAMETERS

SECONDARY ENGINE
PI\RAHETERS

ENGINE
VIBRATION
i
Fig. 8 LOWER EICAS DISPLAY

Fig. 9 SERVO DRIVEN & LED DISPLAY


Fig. 10 ECAM - UPPER DISPLAY

&R LEG ELnwm SWFT

TAT + tC
U T t U-c

Fig. 11 ECAM - LOWER DISPLAY

Transmitter Maintenance

This will involve the visual checking and inspection of electrical connections for
security, contamination, signs of burning etc. Checking the bonding and that the
unit is fitted securely the right way round in the system (though it should be
"Murphy Proofed"). Check for any signs of leaks.

Always transport the transmitter full of fuel.

Indicator Testing

This will vary from aircraft to aircraft, small aircraft may just inject various
current values into the indicator, ie each particular current value is equal to a
fuel flow reading plus or minus a tolerance.
Other aircraft may use an audio oscillator to simulate fuel flow by injecting
various frequencies, each frequency represents a fuel flow figure.

Larger aircraft may have full test facilities available on the front of the computer -
checking for shorts on the transmitter motor circuit and faults in the computer
and indicator a n d functionally checking the indicator for accuracy.

Transmitter Testing

This can only be done satisfactory by an engine r u n with a known serviceable


indicator. Check the fuel system is bled of air and the fuel line to the transmitter
has fuel.

Engine Run

Again this will vary, but in general will consist of running the engine at idle and
checking for leaks and noting the fuel flow figure. Running the engine to
maximum rpm, recording the fuel flow figure and checking that it is within limits
as laid down in the AMM. Compare fuel flow rates between engines on the same
aircraft. These should all be within the stated tolerances. Checking for leaks.

On many aircraft the barometric pressure and outside temperature will have to be
recorded, and used to convert the fuel flow figures a t idle and maximum to a final
figure taking into account these parameters. This conversion table is given in t h e
AMM. The final figure is again compared with laid down values and tolerances.

Before any maintenance is carried out, of course, the AMM must be consulted.

blank
ELECTRONIC ENGINE CONTROL

For many years the control of the jet engine h a s been by the u s e of Hydro
Mechanical Control systems (HMC)- consisting of a manually operated thrust
lever on the flight deck moving a fuel control device on the engine via push/pull
rods and/or steel cables. To reduce fuel consumption, increase the engine
operating life and reduce pilot workload, electronic engine control was introduced.

Initially the HMC systems only had electronic supervision a n d further


development led to Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC). So we shall be
looking a t typical systems (taken from actual aircraft) to include:

1. Supervisory Systems.
2. FADEC.

SUPERVISORY SYSTEMS

This involves fitting an electronic control system, which, within a limited degree of
authority undertakes the 'fine-tuning' of the hydro-mechanical control by an
Electronic Engine Control (EEC) unit and a torque motor. With failure of the
Electronic Control Unit the engine can continue to be operated by the
conventional HMC. We shall look at two supervisory systems, one where on a n
aircraft without EPR Ni is the command value for thrust a n d the other on an
aircraft with EPR, and this is used a s the command value for thrust.

Supervisory System 1

The Power Management Control System integrates the engine computers, sensors
and controls with the aircraft computers. The sensors and controls are to
facilitate thrust settings and protect t h e engine. The system interfaces four
different computers; the Main Engine Control (MEC),the Power Management
Control (PMC), the Thrust Management Computer (TMC) a n d t h e Digital Air Data
Computer (DADC). The term Power Management Control (PMC) is used
interchangeably with the term Electronic Engine Control (EEC).

The primary purpose of the PMC system is to reduce pilot workload by computing,
displaying and maintaining the selected engine settings a s a function of external
parameters and. selected flight modes.

Main Elements

The two main elements of the Power Management Control System are the EEC
and the MEC.
Fig. 12 POWER MANAGEMENT CONTROL SYSTEM

Fuel metering and limiting is accomplished by the MEC, a s a function of power


requirements. The EEC is an engine fan case mounted microprocessor computer
that h a s downtrim authority of the MEC to allow automatic adjustment for
varying external parameters: to facilitate t h r u s t setting, reduce N1 and EGT
overshoot and reduce throttle stagger and crew workload.

MEC Inputs

The core engine speed (N2) (twin spool engine) is available through the accessory
case drive of the MEC.

Power Lever Angle (PLA) is provided by a mechanical linkage from the night
compartment.

Compressor Inlet Temperature (CIT) is provided by a CIT sensor as an airflow


control parameter.

Fan air inlet temperature (T2) is provided by a hydro-mechanical T2 sensor on the


fan case for MEC N2 corrections.

Static pressure (Po) is routed to a port on the MEC.


Compressor Discharge Pressure (CDP)is sensed to provide pressure limiting and
airflow control.

Mechanical linkages provide variable stator vane and variable bleed valve position
feedback.

The fuel control switch on the flight compartment quadrant stand controls the
fuel condition actuator motor to provide fuel on-off control at the MEC.

EEC Inputs

A sensor on the fan case provides the f a n rotor speed (Nl).

An electrical Ti2 sensor mounted on the f a n case provides the f a n air inlet
temperature (T12).

The control alternator is driven by the accessory gearbox to provide power for the
EEC and also provides a n N2 signal for flight compartment indication.

The engine pneumatic system air bleed condition signals are analogue inputs
from the EEC discretes card to the EEC, to determine the amount of bleed air
being extracted for aircraft use.

The DADC inputs digital signals for Mach Number (Mn),Total Air Temperature
(TAT) a n d total pressure (Pt).

The Thrust Lever Angle (TLA) is a n analogue input from a resolver in the control
stand on the power lever assembly on the flight deck.

An ON-OFF switch-light on the control stand can disable the downtrim authority
of the PMC.

Fan inlet temperature (T12) and Static Pressure (Po) are also input from dedicated
sensors to back u p the DADC inputs.

Electronic Engine Control

The EEC computes the N1 command value based on the TLA a n d existing
environmental conditions. The EEC also receives a n actual N1 speed signal from
the engine mounted sensor and this speed signal is compared to the computed N1
command signal.

If a difference is noted, a torque motor drive signal from the EEC will adjust the
MEC downtrim mechanism to make the actual speed agree with the computed N1
command.
This action will eliminate overshoot when adjusting the thrust levers. The MEC
senses only N2,but power is set using Nl. The EEC will adjust the downtrim as
necessary on the MEC to maintain a constant NIrating with varying conditions of
speed, altitude, temperature, bleed demand, etc allowing a 'hands-off power
control.

EEC Power

The EEC is automatically powered by the control alternator on the accessory


gearbox whenever the engine speed is greater than 40% Nz. The EEC is
independent of aircraft power except that when on the ground, the ground
handling bus may be used for ground testing the EEC system when the engine is
not operating.

EEC De-activation

The PMC downtrim authority may be voluntarily deactivated by the switch-light


on the flight deck. Other PMC functions, such a s NIcommand, will be
unaffected.

The faillfured feature, if activated, will release allowing downtrim to return to zero.
It may be necessary to adjust the power levers in the retard direction slightly to
set the desired N1 speed.

EEC Monitor

The EEC contains a volatile fault memory that will clear on engine shutdown. The
EEC monitor is an airframe microprocessor that will store PMC faults on
touchdown, to allow recall after engine shutdown.

The EEC receives inputs of pressure and temperature from three different
sources. A disagreement between two of the three sets of data will cause the EEC
to reject the discrepant data and base its computations on the remaining data.
The EEC will alert maintenance of the discrepancy through the EEC monitor
interface. If the comparison between data shows a substantial disagreement or
sensor input failure, the EEC will activate the faillfixed mode.

Loss of DADC Inputs

The DADC's provide digital inputs of Mn, Pt and TAT to the EEC. The EEC also
has independent Poc and Ti2 sensors that allow the necessary computations to be
performed should the DADC inputs be unavailable. The computations are not as
accurate, but are satisfactory to allow full functioning of the EEC.
SUPERVISORY SYSTEM - 2

This is a system similar to the above but fitted to another engine type (figure 13).
Note the similarities/differences.

Electronic Engine Control (EEC) ensures that the actual thrust level is
consistently controlled to match the exact thrust level requirement. Utilising
numerous inputs, the EEC maintains the selected rating by transmitting a trim
signal to activate a torque motor in the fuel flow governor to adjust fuel flow. It
also provides EGT and shaft speed limitingjknction to safeguard the engine during
f u l l throttle operation.

Fig. 13 ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM

The EEC consists of two electrically separate parts; a supervisory and a limiter
section, each having its own power supply a n d its own ON/OFF/INOP alternate
action switch control.

Power

The power for EEC operation is from the dedicated generator system, however,
aircraft power is available for switching (ON/OFF) and also through a test switch
for testing the system with the engine shut down.

A switch adjacent to the EEC will activate a self-test and a two-digt LED which
displays stored fault codes.
DEDICAED EEC SUPERVISORY! Lp FUEL
GEHEMIOR LlAIiTER PRESSURE
/ SWIICH
TRANSIENT

FUELCODLED

FAN STREAM
TEMPERATURE

FUELDRAINS
TANK EJECTOR

DEDICATED
CENERliTOR lANK

Fig. 14 EEC COMPONENT POSITIONS ON ENGINE

FAULT CODE
WINDOW.

SUPERVISORY

Fig. 15 EEC FAULT DISPLAY WINDOW & TEST SWITCH

Supervisory Section Operation

The supervisory computes two EPRs, a commanded EPR and a maximum


allowable EPR.

Commanded EPR is computed as a function of thrust lever position and is shown


on the EICAS EPR display as the leading edge of the command sector.

Maximum allowable EPR is computed taking into consideration altitude,


temperature, speed and service bleeds. Maximum allowable EPR will not exceed
take-off thrust rating up to 15,000 ft and maximum continuous thereafter. In
addition to displaying this EPR on the EICAS the EEC will prevent the
commanded EPR from exceeding the maximum EPR by more than 3% thrust.
This feature provides automatic rating protection by ensuring the maximum
rating cannot be exceeded by moving the thrust levers to the firewall.
If actual EPR exceeds commanded EPR, the error is amplified by the EEC to
produce a current in the torque motor to downtrim the FFG (Fuel Flow Governor).
The engine ultimately stabilises at command EPR as the downtrim of the FFG will
drive the difference between commanded and actual EPR to zero.

The s u p e ~ s o r y
h a s BITE capability and provides validity checks on all signals

If a failure is detected in the supervisory section, this information is passed to the


limiter which freezes the trim current a t its existing value and a discrete is sent to
the EEC INOP light, and the EICAS computers, to indicate failure.

If the s u p e ~ s o r is
y now inhibited by de-selection of the flight compartment EEC
switch, the limiter unfreezes the torque motor current and continues normal
'limiter only' operation.

LIMITER SECTION

The limiter monitors EGT and N1 rpm and prevents these variables from
exceeding the stored limit values by down trimming the FFG.

The limiter is a real-time digital processor with multiple inputs and a n output to
the torque motor on the FFG that downtrims the hydro-mechanical control.
The limiter may also be used in conjunction with the optional supervisory control
and both may be combined into a single EEC unit.

Control

A n alternate action switch for each EEC limiter function is located on the pilot's
overhead panel (PS). (Alternate location P-10 quadrant). This switch also
contains an 'INOP' light. With the switch in the normal 'ON' position power from
the DGCU (Dedicated Generator Control Unit) No 1 will activate the internal power
supply i n t h e EEC and energise the circuit, which in the event of a fault will
energise the Fail Fixed Solenoid and freeze the trim motor. In the 'OFF' position a
ground is provided for the INOP light and to the EICAS to display a level C 'L/R
ENG Limiter' message.

Operation

The limiter receives inputs of N I and EGT from engine sensors and compares
them against stored maximum limit values. If a limit is exceeded the limiter
generates a trim current to the torque motor large enough to reduce the engine
operating level to the N I or EGT limit. This trim current is compared to the trim
current input to the limiter by the supervisory, if installed. The higher of the two
trim currents is sent by the EEC to t h e fuel flow governor.
If a failure is detected in the limiter, the fail ftved solenoid is activated, which
locks the torque motor in its existing position and a discrete is sent to the limiter
INOP light, a n d the EICAS computers, to indicate failure.

If the limiter is inhibited by de-selection of the flight deck limiter switch, the fail
fixed locking solenoid is de-activated and the supervisory transmits the trim
current directly to the torque motor without passing through the limiter.

Auxiliary Backup

If both supervisory and the limiter are inhibited, the trim current resets to zero
and the fuel flow regulator is under complete hydro-mechanical control.

FULL AUTHORITY DIGITAL ENGINE CONTROL (FADEC)

This system, as the name implies, assumes full responsibility for everything to do
with control and protection of the engine. Transmission of throttle (thrust lever)
position is usually performed by digital electronic means and there are no
mechanical connections as in the supervisory system.

The capability and flexibility of advanced micro-electronics components permit


extensive optimisation and extension of engine functions.

The advantages of FADEC are:

Thrust setting characteristics similar to those of a supervisory system


b u t with superior precision and reliability and without restrictions on
itsficnctional authority.
Easy, hysteresis free (without lag) movement of throttle levers.
Automatic starting procedure.
Protection against exceeding permitted limits, temperature, pressure
a n d speed, in all operating ranges.
Optimum acceleration and deceleration characteristics.
Constant idle speed even with varying loads (bleed air and generator
loads).
Automatic modulation of reverse thrust.
Regulation of bleed air supply according to demand.
Optimise setting of variable compressor stators for stationary and
non-stationary operating conditions (high performance or high
stability schedules).
10. Metering of the air used for controlling the temperature of the engine
casing for active control of compressor and turbine blade clearances.

These features also offer great improvements in the auto-thrust system, reducing
throttle activity during automatic operation, thus limiting wear and reducing fuel
consumption.

There are variants of the FADEC system but the ones covered here will cover most
of the main components and parameters of a typical FADEC System.

The FADEC System

The FADEC system consists of:


* A dual ECU (Electronic Control Unit) channel with an active channel
and a channel in standby.
* Throttle movement servo motors.

And the following peripherals:


A
An HMU (Hydro-mechanical Fuel Unit).
x An ignition and starting system.
* A thrust reverser system.
* A fuel re-circulation system.
* Engine sensors.

Functions

The FADEC system performs the following functions:


* Gas generation control.
Fuel flow control.
Acceleration and deceleration schedules.
Variable bleed valve and variable stator vane schedules.
- Turbine clearance control.
- Idle setting.
* Engine limit protection.

Engine overspeed protection for N I and Nz


EGT monitoring during engine start.
* Power management.
Automatic control of engine thrust rating.
Computation of thrust parameter limits.
Manual management of power a s a function of throttle lever
position.
Automatic management of power (ATS demand).
* Automatic engine starting sequence.
- Control of: The start valve (ONIOFF).
The HP fuel valve.
Fuel flow.
The ignition (ONIOFF).
- Monitoring of NI, Nz, FF and EGT
- Abort and recycle capability on the ground.
* Manual engine starting sequence.
Passive engine monitoring.
Control of: The start valve.
- The HP fuel valve.
- Ignition.
following the actions of the pilot,
* Thrust reverser control including:
The actuation of the blocker doors.
The engine setting during the reverser operation.
* Control of fuel re-circulation valve according to the engine oil
temperature, the fuel system configuration a n d the flight phase.
2
Transmission of engine parameters and engine monitoring for cockpit
indication.
- Primary engine parameters.
Starting system status.
- Thrust reverser system status.
- FADEC system status.

* ECU cooling system.

* Detection, isolation and memorisation of failures.

The FADEC system is powered by the aircraft electrical supply system below 15%
N2 and is self-powered above 15% Nz. Figure 16 shows t h e inputs and outputs to
the ECU and figure 17 shows the basic layout of the system a n d its components.
CONTROL SIGNALS

ALTERNATOR

MITORING SIGNALS

STARTER AIR
VALVEISTARTER

Fig. 16 INPUTS & OUTPUTS TO ECU

Each FADEC unit requires inputs of total pressure, total temperature and
pressure altitude to function normally.

In addition to the ADIRU (Air Data and Inertial Reference Unit -Airbus) inputs it
receives its own independent measurements of inlet pressure, inlet total
temperature and ambient pressure from:
h
A dual element temperature probe (one per channel).
* A dedicated total pressure probe (plumbed to the FADEC unit
sensor, which is hardwired to each channel).
* Dedicated ambient pressure ports (plumbed to the FADEC unit
sensor, which is hardwired to each channel.

ADIRU data are the preferred inputs to be used, when validated by engine data,
over FADEC airdata sensors and are used whenever possible for rating
calculations.

So for failure of Air Data inputs, ie no Air Data signals to both channels, these
hardwired sensor signals would be used. Failure of Air Data input would be
indicated on the Flight Deck.
Electronic Control Unit (ECU)

This is the 'brain' of the FADEC system and consists of a dual channel digital
electronic control with cross-talk (if failure of a sensor signal to a controlling
channel it will use the signal from the standby channel) and failure detection. The
best working channel always being in control.

The ECU receives inputs from the Air Data and Inertial Reference System (ADIRS)
and operational commands from the Engine Interface Unit (EIU) also inputs from
the various dedicated engine sensors and throttle lever angle (TLA). With this
infonnation it computes the necessary fuel flow, Variable Stator Vanes (VSV)
position, Variable Bleed Valves (VBV)position, High Pressure Turbine (HPT)
clearance control, Low Pressure Turbine Clearance (LPT) clearance control and
Rotor Active Clearance Control (RACC)valve positions, and provides the necessary
current to the torque motors in the HMU.

The ECU also performs ON/OFF control of the Ignition relays, Starter Air Valve
Solenoid, the Aircraft Thrust Reverser Directional Valve and the Thrust Reverser
Pressuring Valve.
The ECU provides digital output in ARINC 429 format for display of engine
parameters on ECAM, FMS and the aircraft maintenance data system.

The ECU is powered by a three-phase alternator above 15% N2, aircraft power
being used u p to this point. The unit is a vibration isolated single unit mounted
on the fan case and is force air-cooled.

Electrical Connections

Channel A Channel B
Connector Connector Function
- (ODD) (EVEN)
Jl 12 Airciafi Power (28") &Igniter Power (1 15")
J3 14 Aiiciaff InoutiOutout & TLA

1 17
19
Jli
18
JIO
J12
Solenoids, Torque Motors, Resolvers, N2
Alternator, SAV, NI & TI2
LVDT's, RVDT's, T25, BSV position switch
J14 Engine Identification plug
113 Shared WP Metcr, Thcmocouples
Ji5 Shared Test Interface & Ground Power

Fig. 18 TYPICAL ECU

Electrical Connectors

Fifteen threaded electrical connectors are located on the lower panel of the ECU.
Each h a s a unique key pattern, which accepts only the correct corresponding
cable (Murphy Proof). Connector identification numbers from J 1 to 515 are
marked on the panel.

All engine control input and command output signals are double and routed to
and from channels A and B through separate cables and connectors. Signals
which are shared or which go to only one channel a m v e through a single
connector.
Engine Identification Plug

The engine identification plug acts as an 'electronic nameplate' for the ECU. It is
bolted onto the fan case at the 4:30 o'clock location and attaches to the 514
connector. The ECU reads the following information about the engine from an
electronic memory circuit in the plug:

Engine Model
Engine Serial Number
Engine Nominal Rating
Engine Bump/Overboost Rating

Pressure Inputs

Five pneumatic pressure signals are supplied to pressure sub-systems A and B of


the ECU. These are converted into electric signals by pressure transducers inside
the sub-systems. The three pressures used for engine control (PO, PS12 and P3)
are supplied to both channels. The two optional monitoring pressures are
supplied to a single channel (PS13 to Channel A, P25 to Channel B).

The pressure sub-system shear plate serves as the interface between the
pneumatic lines and the ECU. The three control pressures are divided into
Channel A and Channel B signals by passages inside the shear plate.

The shear plate is bolted onto the ECU chassis. A metal gasket with integral O-
rings is installed between the plate and ECU. An alignment pin on the chassis
and the gasket assures correct orientation of the assembly. During ECU removal,
only the shear plate is removed, eliminating the need to disconnect individual
pressure lines.

Short lengths of flexible cable between the rigid pressure lines allows the shear
plate to be moved out of the way during ECU change-out. Pressure relief valves on
Channels A and B protect against overpressure of the pressure sub-systems.

ECU Cooling System

The ECU is air-cooled. This airflow maintains FADEC ECU internal temperatures
within maximum limits. A flushed air scoop located on the inlet outer barrel
supplies air through a duct to the ECU. The cooling air is boosted by an eductor
if necessary and is discharged in the outlet of the engine air intake cowl anti-icing
system (outer barrel of engine of intake cowl).

The air entering the ECU flows across the cooling fins of the heat sink. For
normal operation (ambient temperature less than 100F (38C)or Mach number
greater than 0.4) this cooling system is adequate.
When the above flow requirement is not achieved (corresponding to deg arnb >
100F and Mach < 0.4) a n eductor located in the cooling air discharge duct boosts
the cooling airflow.

An ECU controlled valve opens, thus supplying air from the starter duct to the
eductor.

Fig. 19 ECU COOLING SYSTEM

ECU Power Supply

A continuous and uninterrupted power supply is necessary for the ECU to assure
control of engine systems.

The ECU is provided with redundant power sources to assure a n uninterrupted


and fail-safe power supply. A logic circuit in the ECU will automatically select the
correct power source for all phases of operation a n d switch sources in the event of
a failure of one or more sources.

The power sources available to the ECU are:

Aircraft Busses : 28 volts dc

Two separate aircraft power sources are connected to the ECU. They are
used when engine speed is below 10- 15% N2, or when a control alternator
channel failure h a s occurred.

The Normal Aircraft Bus source is hardwired to Channel B of the ECU.

The Emergency Aircraft Bus source is hardwired to Channel A of the ECU.


Control Alternator : 14-300 volts a c

The control alternator provides two separate power sources from two
independent stators. One is hardwired to Channel A of the ECU and the
other is hardwired to Channel B of the ECU. The alternator is capable of
supplying necessary power above engine speeds of 10- 15% Nz.

Ground Support Equipment : 28 volts dc

The Ground Support Equipment (GSE) source is used to power the ECU on
the ground when aircraft power is not available. Supplied to the ECU
through a connector which is normally capped-off in service. An automatic
temperature switch will disconnect this circuit if ECU internal temperature
reaches 120C.

ECU Power-Up

At ECU power-up, the aircraft busses supply the necessary power for all
initialisation and self-test functions of the ECU. For ground maintenance, the
GSE source can be connected if aircraft power is not available.

E n g n e Starting

During engine start the aircraft busses will supply 28 volts dc until NZ reaches
approximately 10-15%. The ECU will automatically switch to the control
alternator a s soon a s it is able to provide the necessary power.

Alternator Failure

If the alternator power supply to one channel should fail, the ECU will switch
engine control to the opposite channel. If both channels lose alternator power
supply, the ECU will switch to the aircraft b u s source.

In both cases, a fault warning will be displayed on the ECAM i n the flight deck

ECU Internal Power Conversions

The Control Alternator current is converted to dc by the rectifier. At lower speeds


the voltage will also be stepped u p by the Boost Converter.

Aircraft and GSE power always pass through tie Boost Converter. The dc Power
Converter changes the supply voltage into internal working voltages of 5V and
25V.
Note: With engines not running the ECU is powered for the first five minutes after
aircraft power has been applied via A/C PWR UP switch or EngineIMaster
Control Switch i n the OFF position, to allow the ECU to carry out self-test
routines.

r SUPPLIED
FOR 5 MIN FADEC

Fig. 20 ECU POWER SUPPLIES

Engine Interface Unit (EIU)

The EIU is a n interface between the aircraft and the corresponding ECU (one ECU
per engine). The following aircraft data for engine management is transmitted to
the ECU:
* Flight Control Unit (FCU)- provides ECU with Flight Control
configuration (manual or autothrust).
* Environmental Control System (ECS) - provides ECU with bleed air
demand.
* Centralised Fault Display Unit (CFDU)- deals with the ECU through
the EIU to allow the use of the Centralised Fault Display System
(CFDS) during maintenance actions. The CFDU gives access to the
ECU Non-Volatile Memory (NVM) through the EIU. Information is
displayed on CRT displays on the flight deck.

The EIU provides the aircraft electrical supplies to the ECU, 2 x 28v dc and 2 x
115v ac.

Electronic Control Unit Alternator

The Control Alternator provides a dedicated power source to the ECU. It is the
primary power supply to the ECU a t engine speeds of greater than 10-15%N2.

The Control Alternator is a high-speed, bearingless, permanent magnet alternator,


which is mounted on the forward side of the accessory gearbox. It consists of a
separately interchangeable rotor and stator.

The rotor contains permanent magnets and is fitted on the accessory shaft.

( CHANNELASTATOR I
I CONTROL
ALTERNATOR
1 I ENG
FADEC GND PWR
F==-al

I CHANNEL B STATOR

ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT (ECU)

CHANNEL A CHANNEL B

J15 PLUG

SUPPORT
EQUIPMENT

Fig. 21 POWER SUPPLIES


The stator has two independent 3-phase windings and is bolted to the accessory
pad. One stator provides power to channel A of the ECU. The other provides
power to channel B. An O-ring provides sealing.

The forward case of the housing contains 2 electrical quick disconnect plugs for
attachment of the electrical harnesses.

Control Alternator Characteristics:

Maximum Power Output: 136 Watts


Mitiimum Voltage: 14 VAC @ 10.15% N2
Maximum Voltage: 300 VAC @ 130% N2

Hydro-Mechanical Unit (HMU)

This is installed on the aft side of the accessory gearbox on the far left hand pad.
It receives electrical signals from the ECU and converts these inputs through
torque motor/servo valves into engine fuel flow and hydraulic signals to various
external systems. Engine fuel is the hydraulic medium.

Thrust Control:
* Commands the engines to provide the power best suited to each flight
phase.
* Automatically provides all the associated protection required.
* Either in manual (TLA).
* Or in automatic (autothrust).

Engine thrust control is provided by the FADEC 1 and 2, controlling engines I


and 2 respectively.

Thrust selection is achieved by means of the thrust levers when in manual mode
or the Flight Management Guidance System (FMGS) when in automatic mode.

Thrust rating limit is provided by the FADEC according to the thrust lever
position both for manual and automatic thrust control.

The thrust levers can only be moved manually. They move over a sector which is
divided into 4 operating segments.

There are 6 positions defined by detents or stops.


Llmiting thrust parameter (Nl for CFMSB. EPR (or VZSOO) computed by FADEC.
Selection of thrust limit mode obtained dlrestiy by throttle porltioo in detenL

THRUST
4
.- .
. .
. MODE SELECTIONS
-\
.- - --N'- -LIMIT
----TOIGA
- - ......-- 1
N1 LIMIT FLX TOIMAX CONT
1

Y
2 8 m %
X
<
I S
2 z
- - .-.
... IDLE
ROTTLELEVER I 0 0
ANGLE

Fig. 22 THROTTLE LEVER DEFINITIONS

Thrust lever position is transmitted to the FADEC, which computes the


corresponding:
* Thrust rating limit.
* Nl when in manual mode.

When in automatic mode, the computed NI also defines the upper limit, which
can be achieved by the Autothrust System (ATS) (independently of ATS target N1).

Operation in Manual Mode

The engines are in the manual mode provided the Autothrust (A/THR) function is:
* Not engaged or
* Engaged and not active (thrust lever not in the ATS operating
range).

In these conditions, each engine is controlled by the position of the corresponding


thrust lever.

Thrust modulation is performed by the pilot moving the throttle lever from IDLE
to TO/GA position. Each position of the throttle lever within these limits
corresponds to a Ni .

When the throttle lever is positioned in a detent, the corresponding N1 is equal to


the N1 rating limit computed by the associated FADEC.
The environmental conditions of the aircraft and engine are fed to the ECU, eg
airbleed status, air data and engine parameters are also fed to the ECU a s is the
throttle lever angle position. The ECU computes a n N1 rating limit, which is fed to
the ECAM on the flight deck. This signal is then checked, if it is not above a
certain limit level then it is fed to a module which computes N I command signals,
as a function of throttle lever position and existing environmental conditions.
This COMMAND signal is compared with ACTUAL N I and the difference signal
aFF/aNl is fed to the HMU to modify fuel flow to meet the required speed (see
figure 23).

Fig. 23 MANUAL MODE

Autothrust Function

The purpose of the A/THR function is to automatically control the engines in


order to maintain a given reference parameter.

The source of this parameter can be the Flight Control Unit (FCU),mounted on
the glareshield, the ECU (Engine Control Unit) or the FMGC itself. In this
purpose, the FMGCs (A/THR 1 and A/THR 2 functions) calculate a thrust target
sent to the FCU.

The FCU chooses, according to AP/FD engagement status, the FMGC used a s a
unique source for the 2 engines.
The thrust target is sent through the Engine Interface Units to the Engine Control
Units, which control the engines according to this thrust target.

The FMGCs get useful information for the A/THR functions from various sensors
of the aircraft.

Engagement

The A/THR function is engaged:


* By pressing the A/THR pb located on the FCU, if it was off before,
* Automatically at the engagement of take-off or go-around AP/FD
modes,
* Automatically when there is an a floor (high incidence) detection.

REFERENCE 4
1 PRRQWTER

Fig. 24 AUTOTHRUST OVERVIEW

With reference to figure 25, the Flight Management Guidance Computer (FMGC)
provides automatic computation of the thrust level to be set, in order to achieve
the desired aircraft flight path. This once again, in the ECU is computed with
throttle lever angle and existing environmental conditions to produce a command
signal which is compared to actual N I and produces a difference signal to modify
fuel flow to provide the required thrust level.

Flight Use

During a normal flight, the use of the thrust levers is straight forward. Let's
suppose that the aircraft is on ground before take-off. A/THR is not engaged; the
engines are controlled by the thrust levers.
Fig. 25 AUTOTHRUST MODE

For take-off, the pilot p u t s the thrust levers on to the TO/GA gate. This engages
A/THR (not active).

Note: To make a flexible take-off, the pilot would have to enter the flexible take-off
temperature on a Multi-purpose Control & Display Unit (MCDU) and put
the thrust levers on to the FLX/MCT gate.

At thrust reduction altitude, which is in the FMGCs memory, a message on the


Primary Flying Displays (PFDs) indicates to the pilot that h e / s h e h a s to put the
thrust levers on to the CL gate. When this is done, A/THR is active. Then, until
almost the end of the flight, the thrust levers remain in this position.

During automatic landing, before touch down, a n audio message, 'IDLE', indicates
to the pilot that'he/she h a s to put the throttles on to 0 gate. When this is done
A/THR disengages. Then, on the ground, the pilot will put the thrust levers in the
reverse position.
Engine Starting

The ECU is able to control starting (manual and automatic), cranking and ignition
using the aircraft control Engine Interface Unit (EIU).For this purpose each
channel of the ECU is able to command the opening and closing of the Starter Air
Valve (SAV),the opening of the Fuel Metering Valve (FMV)and the energising of
the igniters. Figure 26 shows the Engine Starting Functional Diagram.

Fig. 26 ENGINE STARTING FUNCTIONAL DIAGRAM

The ECU receives start information from the EIU via a n ARINC 429 bus, which
provides the following information:

ENGIMASTER Control switch position.


ENG MODE Selector switch position.
MANUAL (MAN) START Pushbutton switches position.
ENG/ANTICE Pushbutton switch selection.
Flightlground status information.
Manual Start Sequence

In this mode, engine-starting control is under limited authority of the FADEC.


Starter Valve, Fuel Metering Valve and Igniter Control are controlled by the crew
using a conventional procedure with only limited FADEC interaction. The next
diagram shows the procedure.

I
w N N Z I S ~ X I Z
0 mEFMH:SsEMCOHTROCS
a Born i w i m AND
DPEHM M:lHE RN 6 WSOV
EHGN*SSWFRSWSTTOW (HP SHUT-OFF VALVE)

B W M O ~ S a s w EM%usmICnSW SThRiPiBSW o mEF*DECSYSTEM COKTROUi


M A R T W CN CCOSHGffIMSAv*HO
DE-FIBIMNGOFiKm
I AT *PPROXIwmy50* ((z

Fig. 27 NORMAL MANUAL START SEQUENCE

Autostart

In the ground automatic start, engine-starting control of the igniters, fuel and
starter air valve are under the full authority of the FADEC. The ECU is entirely
responsible for the engine starting sequence. It provides protection of the EGT
limit, starter engagement time limit and any abnormal start functioning. In the
air the ECU initiates the automatic sequence to command the Starter Air Valve
(opening and closing), both igniters, opening of the Fuel Metering Valve and HP
Shut Off Valve (HPSOV). Figure 28 shows the ground automatic start sequence.
-
DlCyUMXSBSW
I
NTLU-TILW
OFTHECOU(RTrovrwu
ENO/UISTWCRSW ~ ~ 7 * A T P i s s w
c% OFF
0

0
WOMS NOT RUNNING
EcvHOTPOIWIU)(EYCEPTaYUNQ
THE FIRST 5 MINUTES LITW AIC POWER

I PWUODE s n sw, SST m BIOST*RT I 0 ECUPMltSIUP


EwwkxSELSW MaULSiERCRSWDXilUNST~
KiNmART ar OFF

o ECU C Z X l M E S mm T K :
S T M SEWENCE
0 OHCE IDLE IS RE*MW. Klf
SWfG+3lUEWQINERUMHGUME

Fig. 28 GROUND AUTOSTART SEQUENCE

Engine Limits Protection

The FADEC:

a) Provides inadvertent overboosting of the expected rating (NILimit or


N i target) during power setting.

b) Provides engine speed protection for N i (Low Rotor Speed and N2


(High Rotor Speed) in order to prevent the engine exceeding certified
limits.

c) EGT limit protection during starting sequences

Thrust Reverser Control

The FADEC System controls the engine thrust rating during reverser operation.
Engine power is set automatically by the FADEC to the level required for correct
deploy and stow operations in all ambient conditions.

Actuation Logic

The thrust reverser system is controlled independently for each engine by the
associated FADEC.
. -,
1,- ECU CHANNEL A

ECU CHANNEL B

&\i--+.j
Fig. 29 REVERSE THRUST

The thrust reverser system includes, per engine:


* A Hydraulic Control Unit (HCU)which:
W Y l t

rrm
HYI

"rmYl

as
HCU
THRUST
"LLVES

- Pressurises the thrust reverse hydraulic system.


. Regulates the blocker doors speed.
. Supplies actuators (jacks) with hydraulic power.
* 4 actuators.
* 4 latches

* Door position switches.

Each pivoting door moves independently from the others. (There is no


synchronisation). Total actuation time is less than 2 seconds.

Deployment requires both ECU channels to be operating, both TLA reverse signals
for each engine and both ground/configuration signals operating.

Engine Parameters Transmission for Flightdeck Display

The FADEC provides the necessary engine parameters for flightdeck display
through the ARINC 429 buses output onto the upper and lower ECAM (Electronic
Centralised Aircraft Monitor) displays. These displays are central between the two
pilots on the main instrument panels.
CTR TX F E W

I
SEAT BELTS
10 SUOXLHC

Fig. 30 ECAM UPPER DISPLAY

1. LP Rotor Speed (Nl). With reference to figure 3 1:

A Actual N1 - Actual N1 normally green, Amber if N I LIM < NI < 104,1%,


Red if N1 > 104,1%.

B N i Command - Ni corresponding to the ATS demand

C Transient N i (Blue Arc) - Symbolise the N I ATS demand - actual Ni.

D N1 Throttle Lever (White Circle) - Ni corresponding to the lever


position (predict NI).

E MAX N1 - Amber index a t the value corresponding to the full forward


position of the throttle.

b
-
Fig. 3 1 LP ROTOR SPEED INDICATION
F Max Permissible N I (Red Strip) - If 101.4% is exceeded, a red mark
appears and remains a t the maximum value achieved. It will
disappear after a new take-off or after maintenance action through
MCDU.

G REV Indication - The REV indication appears i n amber when one


reverser cowl is unstowed or unlocked. (In flight the indication first
flashes for 9 seconds and then remains steady). It changes to green
when the doors are fully deployed.

2. Thrust Limit Mode

TO, GA, FLX, CL, MCT mode selected by the thrust lever is displayed in
green. If FLX limit is selected, the flexible take-off temperature selected
through the MCDU's is displayed in blue.

3. N 1 Rating Limit

Corresponding to the throttle lever position is displayed in blue.

Note. On ground with engines running the displayed N1 rate limit


corresponds to the TO/GA thrust limit whatever the throttle lever position.

4. EGT Indicator (figure 32)

1. Actual EGT, normally green. Amber when 870C iEGT < 906C. Red
when EGT z 906" C.

2. Max EGT (amber) : 725C a t engine start then 895C.


3. Max permissible EGT (red strip). If 905C is exceeded a red mark
appears a t the max value achieved.

(, 51s

Fig. 32 EGT INDICATION

5. HP Rotor Speed N2 - digital indication normally green. Red when N2 >


105%.

6. Fuel Flow - green indication.


ECAM Lower Display

With reference to figure 33:

1. Oil Pressure indication

Indication is green.
* Advisory if oil pressure < 16 psi (pressure decreasing) or 20 psi
(pressure increasing).
* Advisory if oil pressure > 90 psi (pressure increasing) or 85 psi
(pressure decreasing).
Becomes red associated with ECAM warning if oil pressure .: 13 psi.

2. Oil Temperature Indication

Indication is green.
* Advisory if oil temperature z 160" C (temperature increasing) or > 155"
C (temperature decreasing).
Becomes amber associated with ECAM warning if oil temperature > 175" C.

3. Oil Filter Clog

Indication appears amber associated with ECAM caution when the pressure
loss across the main scavenge oil filter is excessive.

4. Fuel Filter Clog

Indication appears amber associated with ECAM caution when the pressure
loss across t h e fuel filter is excessive.

5. IGN or NAC Indications

- IGN indications appear when ENG 1 or 2 start sequence (auto or


manual) is in progress.
- NAC indications are displayed when eng start sequence is achieved
and engine mode selector is moved o u t of IGN position.

6. IGN Indication

The selected igniters 'A' or B' or 'A.B' is displayed.

7. Start Valve Position Indication

- In line green when the start valve is not closed.


- Cross line green when the valve i s closed.
1 5 3 0 4 K C -1560
"1C

@ i%05/.C +- 90

AFTER STARTCONFIGURATION

START
CONFIGURATION

Fig. 33 ECAM LOWER DISPLAY

8. Eng Bleed Pressure

Bleed pressure upstream the pre-cooler is displayed.


* Green when above 21 psi.
* Amber a t or below 2 1 psi.

9. NAC Temperature Indication


x Indication is green.
Advisory when the difference between the nacelle temperature and the TAT
exceeds 185" C (temperature increasing) or 165" (temperature decreasing).

10. Fuel Used Indication

Fuel used is displayed in green from eng start to electrical power supply
cut-off.

11. Oil Quantity Indication

-
Indication is meen.
Advisory below 4 qt (qty decreasing) or 6 qt (quantity increasing).
( l q t = 1.1361)

12. Vibrations Indications

Indication is green
Advisory a t (TBD).
FADEC System Faults Diagnostics

This is achieved by intensive BITE allowing efficient fault detection. The results
are contained in status and maintenance words to ARINC 429 specification and
stored in a n NVM (Non Volatile Memory) and when requested available on the
aircraft Centralised Maintenance Display Unit.

Ground tests of electrical and electronic parts is possible from the flight deck with
engines not running through the Centralised Fault Display System.

Other Systems

Figure 34 shows the layout of another FADEC system using a Fuel Metering Unit
(FMU)instead of a Hydro-mechanical Unit (HMU).

Fig. 34 FADEC SYSTEM - 2

The system consists of dual channel EEC with FMU, dedicated alternator (Nz),
actuation systems for stator vanes, engine bleeds, Active Clearance Control (AAC),
1 0 t h stage cooling air, engine and Integrated Drive Generator (IDG) heat
management control and sensors.

This system works in a similar manner to that previously described. This


particular system, however, uses Engine Pressure Ratio (EPR) as its thrust
parameter.
Command EPR is calculated as a function of Throttle Lever Angle and existing
environmental conditions (ambient temp, Mach, altitude etc) and this is compared
to actual EPR and fuel flow is modulated until the error between the two is
eliminated. If the control is unable to sense EPR or calculate EPR command, a
transition to a n N1 reversionary control will take place.

ENGINE VIBRATION MONITORING SYSTEMS

Abnormal engine vibration, either sudden or progressive, is an indication of


engine malfunction or pending failure. Abnormal vibration can be caused by
compressor or turbine blade damage, bearing distress, compressor or turbine
rotor imbalance, improperly functioning accessory drive gears, failure of a rotating
part in one of the engine mounted accessories, or other problems.

Early warning of engine malfunction permits corrective action before damage


occurs or possible in-flight failure results.

The two types of system in use are:

(i) Velocity pick-up system


(ii) Accelerometer system.

Velocity Pick-up System

The sensor is a permanent magnet suspended on springs mounted in the centre


of a coil. The relative motion between the magnet and the coil induces a voltage
proportional to the velocity of the magnet relative to the coil. Typical sensitivity of
the sensor is 60 mV/in.sec. This signal is fed to an amplifier/ filter unit.

Fig. 35 ENGINE VIBRATION SYSTEM


VELOCITY PICK-UP TYPE
The signal is passed through a highpassfilter, which eliminates large amplitude,
low frequency signals which may be a characteristic of the particular engine. If
these signals were allowed to pass they would produce unwanted high vibration
readings, which would obscure the compressor/ turbine rotor frequency signals
that are of primary interest.

The signal is then amplified, integrated and passed to a rectifier and then to a
micro-ammeter calibrated in relative amplitude, ie a measurement of
displacement. On some indicators the display may be in inches/second. Should
the vibration exceed a set level a warning light will come on. A test switch on the
indicator, will (a) continuity test the sensor coil and (b)inject a test signal to the
indicator, which gives a standard reading on the indicator.

Note that some engines with dual compressors, two filters may be used. There is
normally a selector switch to select either high or low frequency filters in order to
separate the vibration indications caused by the HP compressor/
turbine assembly from those caused by the LP compressor/turbine assembly.

Accelerometer System

The accelerometers used in this system are usually of the piezoelectric type. A
piece of piezoelectric material is either bonded or mechanically attached to a
mass. A piezoelectric material is one which generates an electrical charge when
subjected to mechanical strain (change in length which is extremely small). If the
crystal and mass are subjected to vibration, the inertial force of the mass acting
on the crystal produces strain and an electrical charge proportional to the applied
acceleration is produced. This may be single or double integrated to give a signal
proportional to velocity or displacement respectively. Accelerometers are rated in
pC/g (pico-coulomb/g).

In accelerometer systems the filter normally used is a band passfilter, this only
permits a selected band of frequencies to be passed to the indicator. It filters out
the high frequency signals produced by blade passage and the low frequency
signals not related to rotor imbalance.

The system shown in figure 36 is typical and based on the Boeing aircraft.

The system uses two sensors, one mounted on the fan for N1 rotor vibration and
the other mounted on the compressor to sense NI and Nz rotor vibration. Each
sensor is of the accelerometer type and as vibration occurs the electrical charge
produced is collected by the metallic collectors and transmitted to the vibration
monitor unit.

Each unit receives inputs from all vibration sensors and N I and Nz speed sensors
from each engine and sends both broadband (average)and tracking filtered data
to the EICAS computers via a databus.
Tracking filters sense the amplitude of vibration that matches the rotor speed.
The filters 'track' the rotor speed and filter out any unmatched frequencies that
may occur from outside sources.

f l U SEUSOR

S l R I L A R IUPUI

Fig. 36 TYPICAL ENGINE VIBRATION


MONITORING SYSTEM

Q
FORWARDNi SENSOR

e PtaoELEcTRlc METnLUc

'
L -,' VIBRI\IION SENSOR DtTAiLS
AFT SENSOR

Fig. 37 VIBRATION SENSOR


(\4-P
LOWER E l C A S D I S P L A I
Jl
Fig. 38 AIRBORNE VIBRATION
MONITORING SYSTEM

The multiplexer sends broadband and tracking filter signals to the EICAS
computer and also samples each tracking filter. Software then compares the
sensor signals and determines which tracked signal i s to be input to the EICAS
computer as a function of 'worst case' to be displayed. Therefore the engine may
show a broadband vibration, NIor N2.

Vibration amplitude is indicated in units on the lower EICAS by a vertical scale


and also a digital readout. The scale represents 0-5 units, a triangular pointer
indicating the vibration value. The rotor being displayed is identified above each
digital readout box.

If one of the sensors fails, the indication reverts to a broadband (BB) indication. If
vibration exceeds 2.5 units for more than 8 seconds a n ALERT warning will
appear.

A BITE on the vibration monitor unit tests the system a n d produces a fault code
to identify the problem.
Fig. 39 LOWER EICAS DISPLAY UNIT

MANIFOLD PRESSURE

Manifold pressure is the pressure in the intake manifold of a piston engine. It is in


the CAA syllabus so is included in this book. Supercharging is the process of
increasing manifold pressure by using a supercharger to a level above 30 in HG to
provide high power for take-off and to sustain maximum power at high altitudes.

The manifold pressure gauge is a n absolute pressure gauge and therefore reads
atmospheric pressure when the engine is not running. The gauge consists of two
bellows, one connected to the intake manifold of the engine and the other sealed,
evacuated and fitted internally with a controlling spring.

EVACUATED AND HAIR SPRING


SEALED BELLOWS

/
SHAFT PNOT

Fig. 40 MANIFOLD PRESSURE GAUGE


When pressure is fed to the open bellows it expands to cause the pointer to move
over the scale (calibrated in inches of mercury). With increasing altitude it will
tend to expand too far because the atmospheric pressure around it is decreasing
and an incorrect reading will result. However, the sealed bellows, which is
sensing the change in atmospheric pressure, will expand in opposition to the open
bellows movement. The two forces will eventually balance and pointer movement
is taken from between the two bellows to give the reading on the gauge. Thus the
sealed bellows cancels out any changes in atmospheric pressure around the open
bellows, ie gauge reads absolute pressure (atmospheric + pressure in the
induction manifold).

Fig. 4 1 MANIFOLD PRESSURE GAUGE FOR A TWIN


ENGINED AIRCRAFT

TORQUE MEASURING SYSTEMS

EPR gives a good indication of the real power (thrust) from a pure jet engine. On
some jet engines only rpm is available. If a n engine is driving a propeller or a
rotor (as in a helicopter) then the torque of the output shaft best indicates the real
power (Shaft Horse Power - SHP) output of the engine. Fitted to engines driving
propellers and helicopter rotor systems.

Torque is basically a twisting action. ALL shafts twist to some degree when
subjected to torque. It is calculated as the perpendicular force times the distance
to the centre of the fulcrum or shaft (F x d). Torque will only be produced if the
shaft being driven is resisted by something - with aircraft this is a propeller or
rotor assembly. Torque is independent of shaft rpm and is measured in ft lb in
the imperial system and Newton metres (Nm)in the SI system.
Typical methods of transducing torque are:
* Strain gauges. These are small devices, which are bonded to the
shaft in question, and when mechanical strain is applied the resulting
change in resistance (due to change in length of the silicon resistor) is
a measure of the strain applied. The strain gauges are usually
connected in a bridge circuit, which is temperature compensated, to
provide an accurate electrical output of the strain measured. Slip
rings provide for power supplies and pick-off readings.
* Hydraulic system. This is fitted, usually within a gearbox
arrangement, and is driven by the engine output shaft. The gears
incorporate two or more helically c u t gear wheels which, when torque
is applied, move in an axial direction. This axial movement causes a
pressure signal to be generated using a piston/s and cylinder/s
arrangement.

Some engines use a single set of gear wheels while others use a
planet gear arrangement.
* Phase displacement system. This measures the displacement
between the torqued shaft and a false or un-torqued shaft. Fitted on
the power output shaft between the engine and the propeller/ rotor
drive system. The displacement can be measured using magnetic
pick-offs or light.

Hydraulic System

With reference to figure 42. This system u s e s a single pair of meshing helical
gears with the power being applied through the input gear and the output gear
driving a propeller or rotorshaft.

When a torque is put through the helical gears so the inclined planes of the teeth
mean that there is a tendency for the gears to move in a n axial direction, while
they are rotating. The output shaft is constrained in bearings so it cannot move
(it rotates of course), but the helical driving gear carrying the torque meter piston
h a s axial freedom to move.

As the torque is increased so the helical driving gears will move axially to the left
(in figure 42). This movement moves the torque meter piston to the left increasing
hydraulic pressure to the pressure transducer.

The torque meter piston is prevented from rotating by the use of a guide pin

A spur gear pump supplies oil a t 150 psi (1GPa). The bleed hole allows a small
continuous flow of oil through the system to prevent 'oil stagnation'.
Fig. 42 HYDRAULIC TORQUE MEASURING SYSTEM

The electrical signal from the transducer may be dc to a moving coil gauge in the
flight deck or it could be a ratiometer system.

The next diagram shows the principle of a torque indicating system using
synchros.

SIGNAL DUE TOPRESSURE CHhNGEJ


Dt BNOUCED SIGNALVOLTAGE
.-P MPLIFIED ERROR SIONAL VOLTAGE

MCK PIN10

TOROUEMETER
PRESSURE

2 PHASE
MOTOR

Fig. 43 TORQUE SYSTEM USING SYNCHROS


This system is powered by 115v ac and is used to transduce the pressure created
by the torque to an electrical signal on the flight deck.

The transmitter consists of, the bourdon tube, gearing and CX (Control
Transmitter). This is mounted directly on the engine and is connected to the
pressure source. The indicator consists of a CT (Control Transformer), amplifier
and servomotor.

Fig. 44 DUEL TORQUE INDICATING SYSTEM - BELL 412


HELICOPTER
When there is pressure in the system the bourdon tube tends to straighten causes
the CX rotor to turn. This causes a change of field across the CT rotor, inducing
an error voltage. This voltage is amplified and sensed for direction and then fed to
a 2-phase servomotor, which drives the indicator and also the CT rotor. When the
rotor reaches its NULL position, ie field cutting it at 90, there is no error signal
induced and the motor stops, the gauge now showing the system pressure.

Figure 44 shows a practical system using synchros on a twin engined Bell 412
helicopter. Study the drawing and check you understand how the system works.

Figure 45 shows an arrangement using planet gears. When torque is applied the
gears move forward onto a pressure plate, which in turn moves a piston in a
cylinder to produce hydraulic pressure.

lCAL PLANET GEARS


ve bnvard when toque

Fig. 45 HYDRAULIC TORQUE MEASURING SYSTEM


(PLANET GEARS)

Phase Displacement System

This usually involves a load shaft mounted within a hollow 'false' shaft. The load
shaft takes all the torque being produced by the engine and the fdse shaft is
unloaded.

When torque is applied the load shaft will twist and the false shaft will not. The
amount of twist (angular displacement) can be measured.

With reference to figure 46. The torque meter unit consists of two toothed wheels,
one mounted on the propeller shaft and the other on the forward end of a false
shaft, the rear end of which is welded to the outer surface of the propeller shaft.

As each tooth on the wheels passes the pick-up stator, so it will increase the flux
density of the permanent magnet, as each gap (between the teeth) passes, so the
flux density wiIl be reduced. This varying flux field will induce an alternating
current into the coil the frequency of which is dependent only on the speed of
rotation of the toothed wheel.
Signals from both wheels will be sent to the electronic unit where conditioning of
the signal will result in the sine waves being transformed to square waves.

The two waves are compared and the difference sent a s a dc signal to a flight deck
gauge indicating torque in Nm.

A temperature sensor mounted on the torque transducer supplies a signal to the


comparator to enable the variations in shaft twist due to local temperature
changes to be compensated for.

With no torque in the system (but with the shafts rotating) the load shaft is not
twisted and the teeth on its wheel pass the transducer coils a t the same time a s
the teeth on the false shaft. The resulting signals are in-phase and zero torque is
indicated.

When torque is applied (by increasing the pitch of the VP propeller or increasing
the collective pitch of the main rotor blades of a helicopter) the load shaft will
twist. Because the false shaft is only connected at one end it will not experience
any twist.

Now the two wheels will be out of phase with each other - with the teeth of one
being slightly in front of the teeth of the other. Thus the pick-up stator will send
two out of phase signals and the amount they are o u t of phase will be directly
proportional to the amount of torque being p u t through the load shaft.

Another way of organising the phase displacement method i s to have a drive shaft
and two false shafts (figure 48).

RESISTANCE MODULE

-TORQUE INDICATOR

FALSE SHAFT

VIEW ON ARROW

Fig. 46 PHASE DISPLACEMENT TORQUE


TRANSDUCER SYSTEM - 1
POWER FAILURE
SELECTOR -WARNING OR
?OR112 DEFECT WARNING

Fig. 47 TORQUE INDICATOR

Each false shaft is attached to the respective end of the drive shaft but not
attached at the 'wheel' end. False shaft 1 carries a notched wheel a n d false shaft
2 carries a spigot wheel.

When torque is put through the power shaft it will twist and cause the notched
wheel and spigot wheel to move circumferentially relative to each other.

As the assembly rotates so the notches a n d spigots in the two wheels pass a
transducer coil. As they are made of a ferro-magnetic material this will produce
a n alternating flux field across the transducer coil and a n output which will
indicate the relative positions of notches and spigots.

COIL'
POWER

Fig. 48 PHASE DISPLACEMENT TORQUE


TRANSDUCER SYSTEM - 2

* SIGNAL LENGTH

Fig. 49 LOW TORQUE

- 53 -
Figure 49 shows the relative position of spigot and notch at a low torque setting
with the output signal from the transducer showing equal lengths for G1 and G2
gaps. Figure 50 shows the position at a higher torque setting with unequal G1
and G2 gaps.

Fig. 50 HIGH TORQUE

On some aircraft the above system is used with a light emitting transducer. The
two false shafts are not too unlike those described but are designed in such a way
a s to allow light to shine through the notched and spigot wheels.

The light source is on one side of the wheels. The light pulses are picked up by a
light sensitive transducer on the other side of the wheels and converted to
electrical pulses to be converted yet again to an electrical signal suitable for a
cockpit instrument.

PROPELLER SPEED

Typically the speed indicating system consists of a speed sensor (Np)and an rpm
indicator.

The speed sensor is of the magnetic pick-up (pulse probe) type and is mounted on
the engine reduction gearbox.

The signal from the sensor is fed to the indicator, which has a moving pointer
against a fxed dial and also has a digtal display. In the example shown the
sensor signal is 0-5volts peak-to-peak equivalent to 0-1200rpm propeller speed.

Circuits in each indicator compute the ac signal from its sensor and provide an
equivalent indication of propeller rpm (Np)by a moving pointer against a fixed dial
and a n equivalent digital display.

The indicator dial is marked PROP RPM x 100 and the scale is graduated in major
graduations of 10 RPM from 0 to 1500 RPM, with minor graduations in
increments of 5 RPM. Range markings are yellow arc 500 to 780 RPM, a green
arc 780 to 1200 RPM and a red radial at 1200 RPM.
NP PROBE HYD PUMP GEAR

PROPELLER
SHAFT

AC
TORQUE
.- SENSOR

BULL GEAR

BRAKE

PINION GEARS HELICAL INPUT DRIVE

TORQUE SHAFT
TORQUE SENSOR FIRST STAGE HELICAL GEAR

Fig. 51 PROPELLER SPEED TRANSDUCER

PRESS-T(;-TEST

Fig. 52 FLIGHT DECK INDICATION

The digital display is a four digit, liquid crystal display (LCD). A press-to-test
pushbutton can be used to verify the correct operation of the indicator, when
pressed the indicator aligns with a blue dot a t 1050 rpm with a n equivalent digital
display, when released both indications show zero.

In the event of indicator electrical power failure, the indicator moves off scale
below zero and the digital display is blanked.
PROPELLER SYNCHRONISING

With propeller driven aircraft (either piston or jet engined) vibration is produced
by the propellers. This has an adverse effect on structures, components, crew
fatigue, passenger comfort etc. On multi-engined aircraft the problem is
compounded by the interaction of all the propeller vibrations with each other.
This adverse interaction can be reduced (and hence the vibration and noise can
be reduced) by synchronising/synchrophasingthe propellers.

Synchronising is adjusting the enginels so that all engines run at the same rprn -
though the propellers might be at any angle relative to each other at any one point
in time (phase angle).

Synchrophasing is ensuring that all propellers run at the same rprn (as in
synchronising) but at a slight relative difference in phase angle -which is fured
(see later notes).

I I \ / I I
I
SAME ANGLE -VIBRATION DIFFERENT ANGLES - LESS VIBRATION
Fig. 53 SYNCHROPHASING

Synchronisation Systems

The propeller synchronisation system is used to set all governors at exactly the
saiie rpm, thereby reducing noise and vibration. A synchronisation system may
be used with mechanical or electrical governors.

The synchronisation system is normally used for all flight operations except take-
off and landing. A master engine is used to establish the rpm to which all other
engines (slave engines) will adjust.

The simplest method of maintaining synchronisation between engines is for the


pilot to manually adjust the throttles of each engine in turn whilst monitoring the
rprn indicators.

This is not very practical because the individual instruments can have different
permissible indication errors and when made to read the same operating speeds,
the engines may in fact be running at speeds differing by an amount equal to the
indication errors. In addition, the synchronising of engines by a direct
comparison of rpm indicator readings is made more difficult by the sensitivity of
the instruments causing the pilot to overshoot or undershoot an on-speed
condition by having to 'chase the pointers'.
In order to allow manual adjustment of rpm a n additional instrument known a s
synchroscope is used. It provides a qualitative indication of the dqferences in
speeds between two or more engines and by using the technique of setting up the
required on-speed conditions on a selected master engine, the instrument also
provides a clear and unmistakable indication of whether a slave engine is running
faster or slower than the master.

The instrument is designed for operation from frequency, generated by the


tachometer system.

Figure 54 shows the instruments for a twin-engined (left hand) and a four-engined
(right hand) aircraft. Note that in each case there is one less pointer than there
are engines. The master engine does not have a pointer - only the slaves.

When a slave engine is running faster or slower than the master, its pointer will
rotate in the appropriate direction - the greater the speed the greater the
difference between slave and master engine rpms.

Fig. 54 SYNCHROSCOPES

The pilot will nudge the appropriate throttle lever forward or back to get the
pointer to slow and eventually stop.

The operation is based on the principle of the induction motor, which, in this
case, consists of a three-phase star-wound stator and a three-phase star-wound
rotor pivoted within the stator. The stator phases are connected to the tacho-
generator of the slave engine while the rotor phases are connected to the master
engine tacho-generator via slip rings and brushes. A disc at the end of the rotor
shaft provides for balancing of the rotor.

The pointer, which is double-ended to syrnbolise a propeller, is attached to the


front end of the rotor shaft and can be rotated over a dial marked INCREASE and
DECREASE or FAST and SLOW. Synchroscopes designed for use in four-engined
aircraft employ three separate induction motors, the rotor of each being connected
to the master engine tacho-generator while each stator is connected to one of the
three other engine tacho-generators.
Operation

Consider the installation of a typical twin-engined aircraft tachometer system the


circuit of which is shown in Figure 55. Assume that the master engine, which is
usually No 1, has been adjusted to the required 'on-speed' condition and that the
slave engine has been brought into synchronisation with it.

Both tacho-generators produce a three-phase alternating current, which is fed to


the synchroscope, (generator 1 feeding the rotor and 2 the stator). Thus, a
magnetic field is set u p in the rotor and stator, each field rotating at a frequency
proportional to its corresponding generator frequency and for the phase rotation
of the system, rotating in the same direction.

Because generator frequencies are proportional to speed, the frequency of the


synchroscope stator field is the same as that of the rotor field. This means that
both fields reach their maximum strength at the same instant; the torques due to
these fields are in balance and the attraction between opposite poles keeps the
rotor locked' in some stationary position, thus indicting synchronisation between
the two engine speeds (pointer stationary).

NO 1 ENGINE TACH0 SYNCHROSCOPE NO 2 ENGINE TACH0

DiRECTiON OF ROTOR
DIRECTION OF ROTOR ROTATiON DUE TO
ROTATION DUE TO STATOR TORQUE
REACTIVE TOROUE

RESULTUITOFSTATOR
FlEW UGGING
RESUCIANT OF
STATOR F l E W
RESULTPNl OF LEADING RESULTANT OF
ROTOR FIELD ROTOR FIELD

Fig. 55 OPERATION OF SYNCHROSCOPE SYSTEM


If the slave engine slows, the frequency of the slave engine generator will be lower
than the master engine generator and the stator field will be lagging the rotor
field. In other words, reaching its maximum strength at a later instant, at say,
point a-a (figure 55),the rotor (being magnetised faster than the stator) tries to
rotate the stator and bring the stator field into alignment, but the stator is fured,
so a reactive torque is set up by the interaction of the greater rotor torque with the
stator.

This torque causes the rotor to turn in a direction opposite to that of its field so
that it is forced to continuously try to realign itself with the lagging stator field.
The continuous rotation of the rotor drives the pointer round to indicate that the
slave engine is running SLOW and that an INCREASE of speed is required to
bring it into synchronisation with the master engine.

If the slave engine should run faster than the master then the synchroscope
stator field would lead the rotor field, reaching maximum strength at, say, point
b-b (figure 55). The stator field would then produce the greater torque, which
would drive the rotor to realign itself with the leading stator field, the pointer
indicating that the slave engine is running FAST and that a DECREASE of speed
is required for synchronisation.

BRUSH BLOCK
ASSEUB LY
/

__ B R M BLOCK
ELECTRICAL
CONNECT08

CWTROLLED

VIEW LWKING AFT GENERATOR


ONPRWELLERWLKHEAD

Fig. 56 SYNCHROPHASER PULSE GENERATOR DETAILS

- 59 -
Synchrophasing

The propeller synchrophasing control circuits provide for automatic and phase
angle synchronising for the propeller system.

On a two-engined aircraft, No 1 propeller is the master and No 2 propeller is the


slave. System components consist of a synchrophase control unit, a torque motor
(contained in the Propeller Control Unit (PCU) of engine No 2 and two pulse
generators.

The synchrophasing mode in the example shown is manually selectable and must
remain switched off during take-off and landing or when operating the propeller
outside the cruise range.

ENGINE HARNESS
REAR Dt9U)NHECT

Fig. 57 PROPELLER SYNCHROPHASING SYSTEM


ELECTRICAL SCHEMATIC
In this system power supply is controlled by a SYNCHROPHASE/OFF toggle
switch, there is a synchrophase advisory light on the flight-deck glareshield.

The pulse generators are aligned axially with sensor actuators located on the rear
face of the propeller bulkhead and slip ring assembly of each engine.

With SYNCHROPHASE selected (advisory light 'ON') the signals from the pulse
generators are processed by the synchrophase control box. Circuits using the
signal from No 1 propeller pulse generator a s the master signal relays a correction
signal a s required to the torque motor of engine No 2 PCU. The torque motor
operates through the PCU to synchronise the propellers.