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LTE Counters and KPI [RL50]

[RL50] RA4133-50A
Paging and RRC Connection

Module 4 RA41334EN50GLA1 2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
Nokia Solutions and Networks Academy

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Course Objectives

Paging and RRC Connection

After completing this learning element, the participant will be able to:

Explain idle and connected states within LTE


Describe the phases, counters and related KPIs defined for the RRC connection setup procedure.

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Paging and RRC Connection

Idle and Connected States within LTE


Paging and Idle Mode DRX
TTI Bundling
RRC Setup Procedure
Radio Admission Control

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RRC States in LTE
E-UTRA RRC Connected Mode In LTE one distinguishes just between
RRC connected
UE has E-UTRAN RRC connection
UE has context in E-UTRAN RRC idle
E-UTRAN knows UEs cell
There are no sub-states for RRC
UE identified by C-RNTI
UE Network data exchange possible
connected mode
Handover mobility
Neighbour cell measurements
UE reports CQI to eNB
eNB controlled DRX/DTX period

RRC connection
establishment /
release

Idle Mode
No RRC context stored in the eNB
UE specific DRX configured by NAS
Cell re-selection mobility
Broadcast of system information
Paging
UE identified by ID which is unique in a tracking area
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NAS States in LTE - EMM
Definition of main EPS Mobility Management states

EMM-DEREGISTERED
The UE is not reachable by a MME
UE context can still be stored in the UE and MME
EMM-REGISTERED
UE enters to EMM-Registered with Attach or Tracking Area Update (TAU) procedure
The UE location is known with accuracy of the tracking area list
UE has at least one active PDN connection
After Detach procedure the state is changed to EMM-DEREGISTERED

EMM states in UE EMM states in MME


Detach Detach
Attach reject Attach reject
TAU Reject TAU Reject
All Bearer Deactivated All Bearer Deactivated

EMM-DEREGISTERED EMM-REGISTERED EMM-DEREGISTERED EMM-REGISTERED

Attach accept Attach accept


TAU Accept
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NAS States in LTE - ECM
Definition of EPS Connection Management states
ECM-IDLE
UE is in ECM-IDLE state when no NAS signaling connection between UE and network exists
In the EMM-REGISTERED and ECM-IDLE state, the UE shall perform
Tracking Area Update
Periodic Tracking Area Update
Service Request
Answer to paging from MME with Service Request
UE and MME enter the ECM-CONNECTED state when signaling connection is established.
ECM-CONNECTED
UE location is known in the MME with an accuracy of a serving eNodeB.
For a UE in the ECM-CONNECTED state, there exists a signaling connection between the UE and the MME
The S1 release procedure changes the state at both UE and MME from ECM-CONNECTED to ECM-IDLE

ECM states in UE ECM states in MME


RRC Released S1 Released

ECM-IDLE ECM-CONNECTED ECM-IDLE ECM-CONNECTED

RRC Established S1 Established

8 ECM Connected = RRC Connected +


RA41334EN50GLA1 S1Nokia
2014 Connection
Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
Summary of LTE States

EMM state ECM state RRC state UE Location Mobility

EMM_
ECM_IDLE RRC_IDLE Unknown PLMN Selection
Deregistered

EMM_
ECM_IDLE RRC_IDLE Tracking Area Cell Reselection
Registered

EMM_ ECM_ RRC_


Cell Handover
Registered Connected Connected

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Paging and RRC Connection

Idle and Connected States within LTE


Paging and Idle Mode DRX
TTI Bundling
RRC Setup Procedure
Radio Admission Control

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DTX and DRX for LTE
DTX/DRX means that the UE transceiver is switched off for some predefined time
periods

E-UTRA RRC
Air interface is
switched off Connected Mode DRX
for time
periods

eNodeB
Idle Mode DRX
This saves power on one side but might UE specific DRX
have the following consequences configured by NAS
Longer call setup time
Lower user throughput achievable

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DTX and DRX for LTE
DRX options according 3GPP
- In Idle mode for Paging
This means that the UE is listening to page messages in predefined time opportunities
only and sleeping all other time

E-UTRA RRC
Connected Mode DRX
- In connected mode DRX configured by RRC

UE is switched off for predefined time interval


Discontinuous monitoring of DL control channel (PDCCH)
Allocations of resources done at specific times

Idle Mode
UE specific DRX
configured by NAS

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DRX for Paging

The UE may use DRX in idle mode in order to reduce power consumption
One Paging Occasion (PO) is a sub-frame where P-RNTI may be transmitted on the
PDCCH addressing the page message
One Paging Frame (PF) is a radio frame, which may contain one or several Paging
Occasions
When DRX is used the UE needs to monitor just one PO per DRX cycle

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Paging Related Parameters
Default paging cycle defPagCyg (LNCEL, 32rf/64rf/128rf/256rf, 128rf)
Defines the cell specific paging DRX cycle duration
Value 32rf corresponds to 32 radio frames, 64rf corresponds to 64 radio
frames and so on
One radio frame corresponds to 10ms in time
Increasing the parameter value saves battery capacity in idle mode as
listening to paging is less frequent. But the call setup time is getting longer
due to longer average paging time
Optionally an UE specific paging cycle length might be signaled by the core
network. In this case the UE follows the shorter of the two cycles

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Paging Related Parameters
Number of paging occasions pagingNb (LNCEL,
oneT/halfT/quarterT/oneEighthT/oneSixteenthT/oneThirtySecondT,
quarterT)
Defines the number of possible paging occasions per radio frame, i.e. the
density of paging occasions
Used to calculate the number of paging occasions within one paging DRX
cycle, which in turn is used to calculate the paging occasions
Example: quarterT means that there is one page occasion every x paging
cycle

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Page Counters
M8008C1
- Number of RRC paging requests
M8008C2
- Number of discarded paging requests
- Updated when the maximum number of paging records is S1
reached for the next paging occasion that corresponds to M 8008 C1C3 paging messages
the paging request
- RRC allows up to 16 paging records per paging occasion S1

M8008C3
- Number of transmitted RRC paging messages
M8008C2
cell
cell
cell
M8008C1 M8008C3

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Page KPIs
LTE_5031b E-UTRAN RRC Paging Discard Ratio
Describes the paging request discard ratio on RRC level

Summarization
Logical formula formula (PI ID) Summarization formula (Abbreviation)
Paging DCR = 100% * sum([M8008C2]) 100% * sum([DISC_RRC_PAGING]) / sum
(discarded RRC paging / sum([M8008C1]) ([RRC_PAGING_MES])
records / transmitted
RRC paging records) *
100%

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Page KPIs 7,00,000
100.00

6,00,000

80.00

5,00,000

60.00
4,00,000

3,00,000
40.00

2,00,000

20.00
1,00,000

0.00 0
23.05.2011

25.05.2011

27.05.2011

29.05.2011

31.05.2011

02.06.2011

04.06.2011

06.06.2011

09.06.2011

11.06.2011

13.06.2011

15.06.2011

17.06.2011

19.06.2011

21.06.2011
LTE_5122a Paging Messages (#) LTE_5031aPaging Discard Ratio (%)

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PRACH Counters
M8001C6
Number of RACH setup attempts for small size messages
Update when eNodeB receives group A preamble
M8001C7
Number of RACH setup attempts for large size messages
Updated when eNodeB receives group B preamble
M8001C8
Number of RACH setup completions
Updated when eNodeB sends preamble response

M8001C6 Only successful RACH setup


completions counted, failures
will be equal to number
M8001C8 attempted - completions
M8001C7

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RACH KPIs
RACH Setup Completion Success Ratio
Describes the ratio of RA preamble responses to total number of RA
preambles.

Summarization
Logical formula formula (PI ID) Summarization formula (Abbreviation)
RACH Stp Comp Succ 100* sum 100* sum([RACH_STP_COMPLETIONS])/
rate =(RA Preamble ([M8001C8])/sum([M8001 sum([RACH_STP_ATT_SMALL_MSG] +
Responses / RA C6] + [M8001C7] + [RACH_STP_ATT_LARGE_MSG] +
Preambles)*100% [M8001C286]) [RACH_STP_ATT_DEDICATED])

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DRX in RRC Connected Mode

M8021C18 Number of Handover attempts for UEs running in DRX mode


M8021C19 Number of Handover completions for UEs running in DRX mode
M8013C24 Subframes of DRX Active UE
M8013C25 Subframes of DRX Sleep UE

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DRX in RRC Connected Mode
RL30

With extended DRX settings a UE may go Out of alignment due to the TAT expiring.
After the STIT expires the eNB no longer schedules the UE with TA info hence the TAT expires,
to move a UE back to in sync the UE is forced to TX via a PDCCH order

DRX active DRX Sleep UE out Data PDCCH


of sync arrives order

STIT
TAT

M8001C421 Number of PDCCH order attempts


M8001C422 Number of initial PDCCH order attempts
M8001C423 Number of successful PDCCH orders
M8001C427 Number of UE state transitions from UL-In-Sync to UL-Out-Of-Sync

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DRX in RRC Connected Mode
RL50
With SMART DRX (LTE585) UEes will use the short DRX cycle with at 16 (def) repititions (good
for TA) of the cycle, instead of the STIT. This gives the UE greater opportunity for battery savings
whilst maintain timing.

Data
arrives

DRX inactivity timer


Expires

DRX active UE out Data PDCCH


Start drxShortCycle
of sync arrives order
DRX active
Due to inactivity timer

Start drxLongCycle DRX Sleep

TAT

No new counters or KPIs

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Paging and RRC Connection

Idle and Connected States within LTE


Paging and Idle Mode DRX
TTI Bundling
RRC Setup Procedure
Radio Admission Control

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LTE907 TTI bundling
RL50
LTE907 -UEs with poor radio condition can be switched to TTI Bundling mode
in which the same transport block is transmitted in 4 consecutive UL subframes
- dB gain for delay constrained services, e.g. voice

HARQ RTT is longer in comparison to


Bundle size is fixed to 4 TTIs. non-TTI Bundling mode. The next
In each TTI different retransmission occurs 16ms after the
Redundancy Versions (RV) of previous one
the same transport block are
transmitted

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LTE907 TTI bundling
RL50

Increased energy per transmitted bit, improved UL coverage


One UL grant per bundle reduced PDCCH load
RLC SDU is not segmented in TTI Bundling reduced overhead (compared to RLC
Segmentation)
2 3 dB gain for delay constrained services, e.g. voice

M8011C63 Number of UL grants for TTI Bundling


M8011C62 Average number of UEs configured for TTI Bundling mode
M8011C66 Long UE retention time in TTI Bundling mode
M8011C65 Medium UE retention time in TTI Bundling mode
M8011C64 Short UE retention time in TTI Bundling mode

t1 t2

0,25s

5s
t1(=0,25s) and t2(=5s)
SHOR MEDIU LONG Internal parameter
T M

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Paging and RRC Connection

Idle and Connected States within LTE


Paging and Idle Mode DRX
TTI Bundling
RRC Setup Procedure
Radio Admission Control

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Call Setup Overview
Core/IMS
UE
Physical Random Access Channel S1

PRACH preamble E-Node B MME


Idle to active
RRC phase

TA, scheduling, ID
RRC connection request
First KPI (like for WCDMA)
RRC connection setup
RRC setup success
RRC connection setup complete

NAS service request encapsulated in


connection service
Call & service setup

RRC connection setup complete


request
Connection setup
NAS phase

Security check/command encapsulated in


RRC connection reconfiguration
RRC connection
Reconfiguration complete
SIP invite
SIP session


process Terminating
SIP OK / ringing UE

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RRC Connection Setup Overview (Positive)
UE
S1
E-Node B
Idle to active RRC phase

MME

M8013C17:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_S
M8013C18:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MT
RRCConnectionRequest M8013C19:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_D
1 M8013C20:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_OTHERS
M8013C21:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_EMG

M8007C7: SRB1 setup attempts


2 RRCConnectionSetup

3 RRCConnectionSetupComplete M8007C8: SRB1 setup completions

(with encapsulated M8013C5: Signaling connection


NAS phase

NAS message) establishment completions

M8007 Radio Bearer Measurements


M8013 UE State Measurements

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RRC Connection Setup Overview (Positive)
UE
S1
E-Node B
Idle to active RRC phase

MME

M8013C17:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_S
M8013C18:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MT
RRCConnectionRequest M8013C19:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_D
1 M8013C20:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_OTHERS
M8013C21:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_EMG

M8007C7: SRB1 setup attempts


2 RRCConnectionSetup

3 RRCConnectionSetupComplete

(with encapsulated
NAS phase

NAS message)

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RRC Connection Request (Negative)

UE
S1
E-Node B MME

RRCConnectionRequest
1
RAC accepts or
rejects RRC M8013C8
Connection Request
Signaling connection establishment
2 RRCConnectionReject
failures due to rejection by RRM RAC
UE stays in Idle Mode

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RRC Connection Setup (Negative)

UE eNB MME

1 RRCConnectionRequest

2 RRCConnectionSetup

M8013C6
3 Missing RRCConnectionSetupComplete Signaling connection establishment
failures due RRC setup completions
missing
Does NOT trigger M8007C9/C12 !!
UE stays in Idle Mode

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RRC Connection Setup (Negative)

UE eNB MME

1 RRCConnectionRequest

2 RRCConnectionSetup

M8013C7
3 Erreneous or Incomplete Signaling connection establishment
RRCConnectionSetupComplete
failures due RRC setup completions
error
Triggers also M8007C9/C12
SRB1/2 setup failures
UE stays in Idle Mode

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RRC Connection Setup Counter Summary

M8013C8

M8013C6 RRC Setup completions missing

M8007C9/C12 SRB1 /2 setup failures


M8013C7 RRC Setup completions error

SRB1 /2 setup completions


M8007C8/C11
M8007C7/C10 M8013C5 RRC Setup completions

At least:
from all attempts
minus rejects =

Rejections by RRM Missing/wrong


RAC completions
Setup attempts Successful setups

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RRC Connection Setup KPIs
LTE_5218c E-UTRAN RRC Connection Setup Success Ratio
Shows the setup success ratio for the elementary procedure "RRC connection
establishment" used to set up a radio connection from UE to eNB

Summarization
Logical formula formula (PI ID) Summarization formula (Abbreviation)
RCC Con SSR = (RRC 100*sum([M8013C5]) / 100*sum([SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_COMP]) / sum
connection setup sum ([M8013C17]+ ([SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_S]+
completions / RRC [M8013C18]+ [SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MT]+
connection requests) * [M8013C19]+ [SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_D]+
100% [M8013C20] + [SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_OTHERS] +
[M8013C21]) [SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_EMG])

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RRC Connection Setup KPIs
100.00 25,000

80.00 20,000

60.00 15,000

40.00 10,000

20.00 5,000

0.00 0
23.05.2011

25.05.2011

27.05.2011

29.05.2011

31.05.2011

02.06.2011

04.06.2011

06.06.2011

09.06.2011

11.06.2011

13.06.2011

17.06.2011

19.06.2011

21.06.2011
15.06.2011
LTE_5232a RRC Connection Establishment attempts due to MO-Signalling (#)
LTE_5233a RRC Connection Establishment attempts due to MT-Access (#)
LTE_5234a RRC Connection Establishment attempts due to MO-Data( #)
LTE_5235a RRC Connection Establishment attempts due to Others (#)
LTE_5220a RRC Success Ratio (%)
LTE_5218a RRC Connection Setup Success Ratio (%)

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RRC Connection Setup KPIs
LTE_5229b, LTE_5230b, LTE_5231b
E-UTRAN RRC Connection Establishment Failure Ratio per Cause
Describes the ratio of a specific RRC connection setup failure cause related to
all RRC connection requests

Summarization
Logical formula formula (PI ID) Summarization formula (Abbreviation)
S1 SFR = (RRC Connection "RRC timer expiry" failure RRC timer expiry failure failure (RRCCOMPL_MISSING) cause
Setup failure_x / (RRCCOMPL_MISSING) 100*sum([SIGN_EST_F_RRCCOMPL_MISSING]) /
RRC Connection requests) * cause sum([SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_S]+
100% 100*sum([M8013C6]) / [SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MT]+
[SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_D]+
sum([M8013C17 ]+ [SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_OTHERS]+
[M8013C18] + [M8013C19]+ [SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_EMG])
[M8013C20] + [M8013C21])

Formula related to missing RRC setup completion


Other causes are;
RRC protocol error (wrong RRC setup completion)
Radio access control failure (rejection by RRM RAC)

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Paging and RRC Connection

Idle and Connected States within LTE


Paging and Idle Mode DRX
TTI Bundling
RRC Setup Procedure
Radio Admission Control

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Paging and RRC Connection

Overview of RAC within RRM


- RAC admits or rejects requests for establishment of Radio Bearers per cell based on:
Number of RRC connections per cell
Number of active users per cell RAC acts on:
Paging
Non QoS aware supported by RL30 Call establishment
RL40 Smart Admin Control QoS Supported request
Handover request

RAC algorithms controls


Signaling radio bearer
Data radio bearer

RAC RAC interacts


activities with Packet Packet Radio Admission control
Scheduler Scheduler

active
users configuration of
RLC layer
PDCP layer

eNodeB
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Paging and RRC Connection

RAC load/data measurements


RAC
cell load
activities
measurements by UE

active active users &


# UE keeping and & users RRC connections
buffered DL/UL
measurements
eNodeB

M8001C223 average
M8001C224 maximum
measurements of
UE's with data buffered (DL/UL) active users cell
M8001C147/150 average cell
M8001C148/151 maximum cell
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Paging and RRC Connection
Objective

- Operator configures both maximum number of established RRC


connections and maximum number of active users per cell by
O&M threshold
RRC connection is established when the SRBs have been admitted and
successfully configured
UE is considered as active when Radio Bearer is established
Upper bound for maximum number of supported connections depends
on the BB configuration of eNB

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Paging and RRC Connection
Controlled Services

- RAC acts on the basis of events like:


Paging
Call establishment request
Handover request
- RAC algorithms controls establishment of
Signaling radio bearer
Data radio bearer
RAC applies different criteria for call establishment and mobility
(HO)
Offset in terms of the number of RRC connections or active users
used
Aim is to keep the already established sessions active and support
user mobility
QoS requirements of DRBs (data radio bearers)
Resource consumption in a cell
- ARP Based Admission control for E-RABs
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Interaction with other RRM Entities

RAC interacts with other RRM entities


Mobility management
Radio Bearer Management
UE State Management
- RAC interacts with Packet Scheduler
- RAC supports configuration of
RLC layer
PDCP layer

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RAC Parameters
- Maximum number of RRC connections maxNumRrc (LNCEL, 0..1200)
1.3MHz default 20
3 MHz default 80
5 MHz default 300
10 MHz default 300
15 MHz default 600
20 MHz default 600
- Maximum number of active UEs maxNumActUe (LNCEL, 0..1200)
1.3MHz default 20
3 MHz default 80
5 MHz 0600, default 300
10 MHz 0600, default 300
15 MHz 0720, default 600
20 MHz 0840, default 600
- Maximum amount of users per TTI on UL/DL maxNumUeUL/DL (LNCEL, 1..20)
1.3MHz default 7
3 MHz default 7
5 MHz default 7
10 MHz default 14
15 MHz default 17
20 MHz default 20
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RAC Counters
- Number of UEs monitored by cell load measurements
- Number of active UE per cell
M8001C223 average
M8001C224 maximum
- Number of UE with data buffered on DL
M8001C147 average
M8001C148 maximum
- Number of UE with data buffered on UL
M8001C150 average
M8001C151 maximum
- Number of UE with data buffered QCI1..4
- M8001C227..230
- Number of UE with data buffered non-GBR
- M8001C235

LTE 800 24 hour report


On cell level
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RRC Connection re -establishment

Motivation:
In a number of failure cases
Radio link failure
Handover failure
RLC unrecoverable error
Integrity check failure
RRC connection reconfiguration failure
the UE may initiate the RRC connection re-establishment procedure to continue the
RRC connection without going to RRC Idle mode.

Benefit:
Improve user experience despite of exceptional radio conditions

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RRC Connection re-establishment

UE Source Target MME SGW


eNB eNB
Measurement report Packet data

HO decision
HO request
Admin control and
HO request ACK resource allocation
RRC: ConnectionReconfiguration

Deliver buffered and in transit


Detach from old cell packets to Target eNB

Fails to access target Cell SM status Transfer


Cell selection to Source Cell
Data Forwarding
Buffer packets from
source eNB
RRC: ConnectionRe-Establishment
request
Accept RRC Restablish
Stop data forwarding

HO cancel
RRC: ConnectionRe-establishment

RRC: ConnectionRe-establishment
complete
Re-establish SRB and DRB

RRC: ConnectionrReconfiguration

RRC: Connectionreconfiguration
complete Packet data
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RRC Connection Re-Establishment Counter Summary

M8008C0
Rejected RRC
Connection re- RRC Connection Re-establishment Success Ratio
establishments
100*sum([M8008C5]) / sum([M8008C4])
Success due to HO
M8008C5 M8008C7/C9
Success due to other

Successful Re-
Re-Establishment RRC Connection Re-establishment Failure Ratio
Establishment
procedures success per cause 100*sum([M8008C4]- [M8008C5] - [M8008C0]) /
sum([M8008C4])

M8008C6/C8 Attempts due to HO failure


M8008C4
Attempts due to other
Re-Establishment Re-Establishment
attempts Attempts per cause

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Thank You !

RA41334EN50GLA1 2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.