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PID controller

Some applications may require using only one or two actions to provide the appropriate system control. This is achieved by setting the other parameters to zero. A PID controller will be called a PI, PD, P or I controller in the absence of the respective control actions. PI controllers are fairly common, since derivative action is sensitive to measurement noise. Defining u(t) as the controller output or control input to plant, the final form of the PID algorithm is: • : Error SP=Setpoint value PV= Plant value  • : Variable of integration; takes on values from time 0 to the present  .

Proportional term The proportional term is given by: integral in a PID controller is the sum of the instantaneous error over time and gives the accumulated offset that should have been corrected previously. The accumulated error is then multiplied by the integral gain ( ) and added to the controller output. The integral term is given by: The integral term accelerates the movement of the process towards setpoint and eliminates the residual steady-state error that occurs with a pure proportional controller . Derivative term The job of derivative control is to react to changes in the system. A constant error will be dealt with by proportional and integral control The derivative of the process error is calculated by determining the slope of the error over time and multiplying this rate of change by the derivative gain Kd. The magnitude of the contribution of the derivative term to the overall control action is termed the derivative gain, Kd. " id="pdf-obj-2-6" src="pdf-obj-2-6.jpg">

The contribution from the integral term is proportional to both the magnitude of the error and the duration of the error. The integral in a PID controller is the sum of the instantaneous error over time and gives the accumulated offset that should have been corrected previously. The accumulated error is then multiplied by the integral in a PID controller is the sum of the instantaneous error over time and gives the accumulated offset that should have been corrected previously. The accumulated error is then multiplied by the integral gain ( ) and added to the controller output. The integral term is given by: The integral term accelerates the movement of the process towards setpoint and eliminates the residual steady-state error that occurs with a pure proportional controller . Derivative term The job of derivative control is to react to changes in the system. A constant error will be dealt with by proportional and integral control The derivative of the process error is calculated by determining the slope of the error over time and multiplying this rate of change by the derivative gain Kd. The magnitude of the contribution of the derivative term to the overall control action is termed the derivative gain, Kd. " id="pdf-obj-2-16" src="pdf-obj-2-16.jpg">

The integral term is given by: integral in a PID controller is the sum of the instantaneous error over time and gives the accumulated offset that should have been corrected previously. The accumulated error is then multiplied by the integral gain ( ) and added to the controller output. The integral term is given by: The integral term accelerates the movement of the process towards setpoint and eliminates the residual steady-state error that occurs with a pure proportional controller . Derivative term The job of derivative control is to react to changes in the system. A constant error will be dealt with by proportional and integral control The derivative of the process error is calculated by determining the slope of the error over time and multiplying this rate of change by the derivative gain Kd. The magnitude of the contribution of the derivative term to the overall control action is termed the derivative gain, Kd. " id="pdf-obj-2-22" src="pdf-obj-2-22.jpg">

The derivative term is given by: diverges, with or without oscillation, and is limited only by saturation. Instability is caused by excess gain. Generally, stabilization of response is required and the process must not oscillate for any combination of process conditions and set-points, though sometimes marginal stability (bounded oscillation) is acceptable or desired. Tuning method: Method Advantages Disadvantages Requires Manual No math required; online. experienced tuning personnel Process upset, some Ziegler – Proven method; online. Nichols trial-and-error, very aggressive tuning. Consistent tuning; online or offline - can Software employ computer-automated control system Some cost or tools design (CAutoD) techniques; may include valve and sensor analysis; allows simulation before training involved downloading; can support non-steady-state " id="pdf-obj-3-4" src="pdf-obj-3-4.jpg">

Method

Manual tuning: If
the
system
must
remain
online,
one
tuning
method
is
to first
set
and
values
to
zero.
Increase
the
until
the
output
of
the loop
oscillates, then the should be set to approximately half of that value for a
"quarter amplitude decay" type response. Then increase until any offset is
corrected in sufficient time for the process. However, too much will cause
instability. Finally, increase , if required, until the loop is acceptably quick to
reach its reference after a load disturbance. However, too much will cause
excessive response and overshoot. A fast PID loop tuning usually overshoots
slightly to reach the setpoint more quickly; however, some systems cannot accept
overshoot, in which case an over-damped closed-loop system is required, which will require a
setting significantly less than half that of the
setting that was
causing oscillation.
Effects of increasing a parameter independently
Overshoot Settling time
Stability
Parameter
Rise time
error
Small
Decrease
Increase
Decrease
change
Decrease
Increase
Increase
Eliminate

Improve if the Ziegler–Nichols method, introduced by John G. Ziegler and Nathaniel B. Ziegler Nichols method, introduced by John G. Ziegler and Nathaniel B. Nichols in the 1940s. As in the method above, the and gains are first set to zero. The proportional gain is increased until it reaches the ultimate gain, , at which the output of the loop starts to oscillate. and the oscillation period are used to set the gains as shown: Ziegler – Nichols method Control Type P - - PI - PID These gains apply to the ideal, parallel form of the PID controller. When applied to the standard PID form, the integral and derivative time parameters and are only dependent on the oscillation period . " id="pdf-obj-5-58" src="pdf-obj-5-58.jpg"> Ziegler Nichols method, introduced by John G. Ziegler and Nathaniel B. Nichols in the 1940s. As in the method above, the and gains are first set to zero. The proportional gain is increased until it reaches the ultimate gain, , at which the output of the loop starts to oscillate. and the oscillation period are used to set the gains as shown: Ziegler – Nichols method Control Type P - - PI - PID These gains apply to the ideal, parallel form of the PID controller. When applied to the standard PID form, the integral and derivative time parameters and are only dependent on the oscillation period . " id="pdf-obj-5-60" src="pdf-obj-5-60.jpg">

zero. The proportional gain is increased until it reaches the ultimate gain, oscillate. period Ziegler Nichols method, introduced by John G. Ziegler and Nathaniel B. Nichols in the 1940s. As in the method above, the and gains are first set to zero. The proportional gain is increased until it reaches the ultimate gain, , at which the output of the loop starts to oscillate. and the oscillation period are used to set the gains as shown: Ziegler – Nichols method Control Type P - - PI - PID These gains apply to the ideal, parallel form of the PID controller. When applied to the standard PID form, the integral and derivative time parameters and are only dependent on the oscillation period . " id="pdf-obj-5-108" src="pdf-obj-5-108.jpg">

Control Type   P PI  PID   parameters and are only dependent on the oscillation period . Now we consider the following unity feedback system: domain is as follows: The error signal ( ) will be sent to the PID controller, and the controller computes The control signal ( ) is sent to the plant, and the new output ( ) is obtained. The  new output ( ) is then fed back and compared to the reference to find the new error signal ( ). The controller takes this new error signal and computes its of Eq. (1). = Proportional gain
= Integral gain

The Characteristics of P, I, and D Controllers will reduce but never eliminate the steady-state error. An integral control ( ) will but it may make the transient response slower. A derivative control ( ) will have improving the transient response. The effects of each of controller parameters , and on a closed-loop system are summarized in the table below. CL RESPONSE
RISE TIME
OVERSHOOT
SETTLING TIME
S-S ERROR
Kp
Decrease
Increase
Small Change
Decrease
Ki
Decrease
Increase
Increase
Eliminate
Kd
Small Change
Decrease
Decrease
No Change

Note that these correlations may not be exactly accurate, because ,
,

and as a reference when you are determining the values for ,

and .

shown below to obtain a desired response.

• 1. Obtain an open-loop response and determine what needs to be improved

• 2. Add a proportional control to improve the rise time

• 3. Add a derivative control to improve the overshoot

• 5. Adjust each of Kp, Ki, and Kd until you obtain a desired overall response.

example, if a PI controller gives a good enough response, then you don't need to implement a derivative controller on the system. Keep the controller as simple as possible.

Example Problem The modeling equation of this system is Taking the Laplace transform of the modeling equation, we get The transfer function between the displacement and the input becomes k = 20 N/m F = 1 N Plug these values into the above transfer function The goal of this problem is to show you how each of obtain Fast rise time Minimum overshoot No steady-state error ,

and s = tf('s'); P = 1/(s^2 + 10*s + 20); step(P) rise time, reduce the settling time, and eliminate the steady-state error. controller is: Let the proportional gain ( Continuous-time transfer function. The closed-loop transfer function of the given system with a PD controller is: Let before and let Continuous-time transfer function. Before going into a PID control, let's take a look at a PI control. From the table, we see that an integral controller (Ki) decreases the rise time, increases both the overshoot and the settling time, and eliminates the steady-state error. For the given system, the closed-loop transfer function with a PI control is:

X(s)/F(s) = (K p +K i /s)/ (s 2 +10s+20+K p +K i /s) Let's reduce the to 30, and let s^3 + 10 s^2 + 50 s + 70 Continuous-time transfer function. Proportional-Integral-Derivative Control After several trial and error runs, the gains = 350, = 300, and Kp + Ki * --- + Kd * s s with Kp = 350, Ki = 300, Kd = 50 Continuous-time PID controller in parallel form. Electronic Controllers:        Home Assignment           